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Original Title: Modal Analysis of a Simply Supported Sandwich Beam

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Tukaram Zore1, Saurabh Singh2, Sunil Gaonkar3, Neena Panandikar4

1

B.E Mechanical Department, Padre Conceicao College of Engineering College, Goa, India

B.E, Mechanical Department, Padre Conceicao College of Engineering College, Goa, India

3

B.E, Mechanical Department, Padre Conceicao College of Engineering College, Goa, India

4

Associate Professor, Mechanical Department, Padre Conceicao College of Engineering College, Goa, India

2

Abstract

Every mechanical structure exhibits natural modes of vibration. Beams with variable cross section and material properties are

frequently used in aeronautical, mechanical and civil engineering. Given the elastic and inertia characteristics of the structures,

modes of vibration can be computed, the study being known as modal analysis. This paper presents modal analysis of simply

supported beam using different materials. Comparison of natural frequency of the beam considering various materials is done

analytically and also using ANSYS APDL. Effect of change of length and cross sectional area on natural frequency is also studied.

Comparative study on natural frequency of sandwich beam using various materials is done analytically and also using ANSYS

APDL.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------***------------------------------------------------------------------1. INTRODUCTION

Vibration is mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations

occur about the equilibrium point. The oscillations may be

periodic such as the motion of pendulum or random such as

the motion of tire on gravel road. Every structure which is

designed is subjected to some amount of vibrations.

Unwanted vibrations may cause loosening of parts and cause

accidents or heavy loss.[1] Mostly all materials exhibit some

amount of internal structural damping. Most of the time it is

not substantially effective to minimize the vibration around

resonant frequencies.[3].Due to faulty design and poor

manufacturing there is unbalanced and unpleasant stresses

developed and creating unwanted noise. Careful designing

usually minimize unwanted vibrations. Hence keeping in

view all useful and devastating effects of the vibrations the

study of the vibration is of immense importance. [1].

2. THEORITICAL ASPECTS

and p(x) represents the loading per unit length of the beam.

The equation for the lateral vibration of the beam reduces to

)) -

(EI (

=0

the preceding equation can be written as :

)-

EI (

=0

On substituting

4=

/EI

(3) to be

=

Fig-1: Forces and moments acting on beam element

To determine the differential equation for the lateral

vibrations of beams, consider the forces and moments acting

on an element of the beam shown in figure 1

=(

of the problem.

l)2

depends on the boundary conditions

Considering general equation

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 05 Issue: 06 | Jun-2016, Available @ http://ijret.esatjournals.org

120

0= B2sinhl - D 2sinl

Y=A

+ Ccosx + Dsinx

+B

+ B

=A

- Csinx +

0= Bsinhl Dsinl

---------------------------------(7)

Bsinhl=Dsinl=0

Dcosx

= A2

+ B2

- C 2sinx - D

2cosx

D0 therefore l=0

Therefore =0,

Therefore

=Asinhx + Bcoshx - Csinx + Dcosx --------- (2)

=A2coshx + B2sinhx - C 2sinx - D2cosx------ (3)

Boundary conditions for simply supported beam

Y=0

x=0

X=l

y=0

Hence y= Bsinhx and the solutions to sin l=0 gives the

natural frequency

They are,

=0,

,.

Therefore

The n values are calculated and shown in Table 1

X=l

=0

Simply

supported

9.87

39.5

88.9

Cantilever

3.52

22.0

61.7

Free -Free

22.4

61.7

121.0

ClampedClamped

22.4

61.7

121.0

Clamped Hinged

15.4

50.0

104.0

Hinged Free

15.4

50.0

x=0

Substitute in 1

We get 0=A+C

Now,

X=0

=0

0=A-C

A=C=0

3. MATERIAL DETAILS

Substitute this in 1

Y=Bsinhx + Dsinx

---------------------------------(4)

= B2sinhx - D 2cosx

Now at x=l

We get

(3l)

Third

mode

Beam

configuration

Now

Y=0

Table 1: n values

(2l)2

(1l)2

Second

Fundamental

mode

y=0

and

------------------------(5)

Name of

material

=0

0= Bsinhl + Dsinl

And substitute in

as steel aluminium and carbon FRP. The material

properties are shown in Table 2 below.

--------------------(6)

Young modulus

Density

(GPa)

(Kg/m3)

STEEL

200

7850

ALLUMINIUM

70

2700

CARBON FRP

150

1800

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 05 Issue: 06 | Jun-2016, Available @ http://ijret.esatjournals.org

121

The various cross sections of the beam considered are 10mm

X 10mm, 20mmX 20mm, 30X30mm and 40mmX40mm for

vaious length varying from 1m to 2m. Considering the cross

section constant the natural frequencies are found for

varying length theoretically and then compared with Ansys

APDL The values for first and second mode shapes for the

different materials used considering cross section as

10mmX10mm are shown in Table 3,Table 4 and Table 5

respectively.

Table 3. Frequency values

1 M LENGTH

1.2 M LENGTH

mode1 mode 2 Mode1 Mode 2

STEEL

22.88

91.584

15.89

63.6

ALLUMINIUM 23.08

92.386

16.01

64.157

CARBON FRP 41.3

165.6

28.74

115.023

material

1.5 M LENGTH

2 M LENGTH

mode1 mode 2 Mode1 Mode 2

STEEL

10.17

40.704

5.7221 22.89

ALLUMINIUM 10.256 41.06

5.771

23.094

CARBON FRP 18.394 73.648

10.346 41.4084

material

as shown in Table 5 and Table 6

Table 5. Frequency values for steel

1 M LENGTH

1.2 M LENGTH

ANSYS

THEO

ANSYS

THEO

Mode 1

22.885

22.88

15.893

15.891

Mode 2

91.512

91.58

63.563

63.60

Material(Steel)

1.5 M LENGTH

2 M LENGTH

ANSYS

THEO

ANSYS

THEO

Mode 1

10.172

10.17

5.722

5.721

Mode 2

40.687

40.704

22.889

22.890

Material(Steel)

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 05 Issue: 06 | Jun-2016, Available @ http://ijret.esatjournals.org

122

1 M LENGTH

1.2 M LENGTH

Material

ANSYS THEO

ANSYS THEO

(Aluminium)

Mode 1

23.086

23.084

16.0328 16.031

Mode 2

92.313

92.386

64.1200

64.157

1.5 M LENGTH

2 M LENGTH

Material

ANSYS THEO

ANSYS THEO

(Aluminium)

Mode 1

10.261

10.256

5.7720

5.7712

Mode 2

41.043

41.060

23.090

23.094

1 M LENGTH

1.2 M LENGTH

Material

ANSYS THEO

(carbon FRP) ANSYS THEO

Mode 1

41.3905 41.3870 28.7446 28.7410

material

Material

Frequecy

mode1

mode 2

steel-FRP-steel

28.77244365

115.075

steel-Al-steel

22.946

91.789

FRP-steel-FRP

26.0966

104.3881

FRP-Al-FRP

29.925

119.70361

Al-steel-Al

22.915

91.665

Al-FRP-Al

33.4225

134

It is seen that among various combinations, Aluminiumcarbon FRP-Aluminium gives the highest frequency of

33.425 Hz followed by carbon FRP-Aluminium-carbon FRP

with frequency of 29.925 Hz.

6. CONCLUSIONS

1.5 M LENGTH

2 M LENGTH

Material

(Carbon FRP)

ANSYS

THEO

ANSYS

THEO

Mode 1

18.3972

18.3944

10.3487

10.346

As cross section area of the beam increases the

frequency increases

The analytical value of frequency is in good agreement

with ANSYS APDL

Carbon FRP has a highest natural frequency as

compared to Aluminium and steel

Aluminium-carbon FRP-Aluminium has the highest

frequency of 33.425 Hz followed by carbon FRPAluminium-carbon FRP with frequency of 29.925 Hz.

Mode 2

73.5867

73.6148

41.3970

41.408

7. REFERENCES

Mode 2

165.519

165.633

114.963

115.023

20X20mm,

30mmmx30mmm

and

40mmx40mm

respectively for various materials considered. It was

observed that as cross section increases the frequency

increases whereas as length increases the frequency

decreases

Applications, 5th edition, PEARSON.

[2] Mechanical vibration by G.K groover, 8thedition,

Publisher Prem chand & Bros.

[3] Vibration analysis of viscoelastic sandwich beam using

finite element method, M.Tech Thesis by Tatapudi Naveen

kumar, NIT, Rourkela.

[4] Modal Analysis using FEM third CUSAT conference

on Rerecent

Advances in Civil Engineering, cochin

University of science and technology, Kerala,2008.

[5] Rahul E.Dhoble, Dr. R. B. Barjibhe ,Study on vibration

analysis of sandwich cantilever beam using finite element

ansys software, International Research Journal of

Engineering and Technology ,Volume: 03 Issue: 04 ,2016 .

[6] J.R.Banerjee, Free vibration of a three-layered

sandwich beam using the dynamic stiffness method and

experiment . International journal of solids and structures,

7543-7563, 2007.

Analysis of sandwich beam is done by considering 1m

length and for different combination of materials.

t =2mm

c =6mm

t =2mm

Volume: 05 Issue: 06 | Jun-2016, Available @ http://ijret.esatjournals.org

123

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