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Original Title: Alu

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Alu

alu and alluu hellu? or alu!

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perform arithmetic and logic operations. It represents the

fundamental building block of the central processing

unit (CPU) of a computer. Modern CPUs contain very

powerful and complex ALUs. In addition to ALUs,

modern CPUs contain a control unit (CU).

Most of the operations of a CPU are performed by one

or more ALUs, which load data from input registers.

A register is a small amount of storage available as part

of a CPU. The control unit tells the ALU what operation

to perform on that data and the ALU stores the result in

an output register. The control unit moves the data

between these registers, the ALU, and memory.

How an ALU Works

An ALU performs basic arithmetic and logic operations.

Examples of arithmetic operations are addition,

subtraction, multiplication, and division. Examples of

logic operations are comparisons of values such as

NOT, AND, and OR.

All information in a computer is stored and manipulated

in the form of binary numbers, i.e. 0 and

1. Transistor switches are used to manipulate binary

numbers since there are only two possible states of a

switch: open or closed. An open transistor, through

which there is no current, represents a 0. A closed

transistor, through which there is a current, represents a

1.

Operations can be accomplished by connecting multiple

transistors. One transistor can be used to control a

second one - in effect, turning the transistor switch on or

off depending on the state of the second transistor. This

is referred to as a gate because the arrangement can be

used to allow or stop a current.

The simplest type of operation is a NOT gate. This uses

only a single transistor. It uses a single input and

produces a single output, which is always the opposite of

the input. This figure shows the logic of the NOT gate.

Other gates consist of multiple transistors and use two

inputs. The OR gate results in a 1 if either the first or the

second input is a 1. The OR gate only results in a 0 if

both inputs are 0. This figure shows the logic of the OR

gate.

The AND gate results in a 1 only if both the first and

second input are 1s. This figure shows the logic of the

AND gate.

The various gates sound a little abstract, but remember

that a computer only processes binary data. When you

follow the binary logic of these operations, you are

starting to think like a computer.

Source: http://study.com/academy/lesson/arithmeticlogic-unit-alu-definition-design-function.html

an integrated circuitwithin a CPU or GPU that performs

arithmetic and logic operations. Arithmetic instructions

include addition, subtraction, and shifting operations,

while logic instructions include boolean comparisons,

such as AND, OR, XOR, and NOT operations.

ALUs are designed to perform integer calculations.

Therefore, besides adding and subtracting numbers,

ALUs often handle the multiplication of two integers,

since the result is also an integer. However, ALUs

typically do not perform division operations, since the

result may be a fraction, or a "floating point" number.

Instead, division operations are usually handled by the

floating-point unit (FPU), which also performs other noninteger calculations.

While the ALU is a fundamental component of

all processors, the design and function of an ALU may

vary between different processor models. For example,

some ALUs only perform integer calculations, while

others are designed to handle floating point operations

as well. Some processors contain a single ALU, while

others include several arithmetic logic units that work

together to perform calculations. Regardless of the way

an ALU is designed, its primary job is to handle integer

operations. Therefore, a computer's integer performance

is tied directly to the processing speed of the ALU.

Source: http://techterms.com/definition/alu

Techopedia explains Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

The arithmetic logic unit is that part of the CPU that

handles all the calculations the CPU may need. Most of

these operations are logical in nature. Depending on

how the ALU is designed, it can make the CPU more

powerful, but it also consumes more energy and creates

more heat. Therefore, there must be a balance between

how powerful and complex the ALU is and how

expensive the whole unit becomes. This is why faster

CPUs are more expensive, consume more power and

dissipate more heat.

The main functions of the ALU are to do arithmetic and

logic operations, including bit shifting operations. These

are essential processes that need to be done on almost

any data that is being processed by the CPU.

The XOR gate, also pronounced X-OR gate, results in a

0 if both the inputs are 0 or if both are 1. Otherwise, the

result is a 1. This figure shows the logic of the XOR gate.

NOT, XOR, NOR, NAND, etc.

Bit-Shifting Operations: This pertains to shifting

the positions of the bits by a certain number of

places to the right or left, which is considered a

multiplication operation.

and subtraction. Although multiplication and

division are sometimes used, these operations

are more expensive to make. Addition can be

subtraction for division.

Source:https://www.techopedia.com/definition/28

49/arithmetic-logic-unit-alu

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