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Ohms Law, Kirchhoff's Laws

Circuit Theorems

Methods of Network Analysis

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

BSC01

Circuit Theorems

Methods of Network Analysis

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

BSC01

Electric Charges

which matter consists, measured in coulombs (C).

magnitude to 1.602 10-19 C which is called as

electronic charge. The charges that occur in nature are

integral multiples of the electronic charge.

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

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Michael E.Auer

be derived as 1 A = 1C/s.

A direct current (dc) is a current that remains

constant with time.

An alternating current (ac) is a current that

varies sinusoidally with time.

01.11.2011

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The direction of current flow:

Negative ions

Positive ions

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Example 1

How many electrons pass a fixed point on the conductor in

one minute?

Solution

5 A = (5 C/s)(60 s/min) = 300 C/min

Michael E.Auer

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Electric Voltage

a unit charge through an element, measured in volts (V).

Mathematically,

(volt)

between two points in a circuit.

vab > 0 means the potential of a is higher than potential of b.

vab < 0 means the potential of a is lower than potential of b.

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measured in watts (W).

Mathematical expression:

p=

dw dw dq

=

= v i

dt dq dt

i

+

P = +vi

absorbing power

Michael E.Auer

p = vi

supplying power

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p=0

Energy is the capacity to do work, measured in joules (J).

Mathematical expression

Michael E.Auer

t0

t0

w = pdt = vidt

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Active Elements

Passive Elements

the source quantity is controlled by another

voltage or current.

Independent

sources

Michael E.Auer

Dependant

sources

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VCCS, CCCS. Keep in minds the signs of

dependent sources.

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Example

Obtain the voltage v in

the branch shown below

for i2 = 1A.

Solution

current-dependent voltage source vx.

Note that the factor 15 multiplying the

control current carries the units .

Therefore,

v = 10 + vx = 10 + 15(1) = 25 V

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

BSC01

Circuit Theorems

Methods of Network Analysis

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

BSC01

directly proportional to the current I flowing through

the resistor.

Mathematical expression for Ohms Law is as

follows:

R = Resistance

v = iR

Two extreme possible values of R:

0 (zero) and (infinite)

are related with two basic circuit concepts:

short circuit and open circuit.

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current; it is the reciprocal of resistance R and is measured in

siemens. (sometimes mhos)

1 i

G= =

R v

2

v

2

p = v i = i R =

R

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

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or a resistor.

A node is the point of connection between two or more

branches.

A loop is any closed path in a circuit.

A network with b branches, n nodes, and l independent loops

will satisfy the fundamental theorem of network topology:

b = l + n 1

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Example 1

Original circuit

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Example 2

branch or two branches?

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of currents entering a node (or a closed boundary) is zero.

Mathematically,

i

n =1

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

=0

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below.

I + 4 - (-3) -2 = 0

I = -5A

actual current for I is

flowing in the opposite

direction.

enclosed area as one node.

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01.11.2011

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of all voltages around a closed path (or loop) is zero.

Mathematically,

v

m =1

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01.11.2011

=0

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Example

Applying the KVL equation for the circuit of the figure below.

va - v 1 - v b- v 2 - v 3 = 0

V1 = I R1 ; v2 = I R2 ; v3 = I R3

va-vb = I (R1 + R2 + R3)

va vb

I=

R1 + R2 + R3

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or connected sequentially and consequently carry the same

current.

The equivalent resistance of any number of resistors connected

in a series is the sum of the individual resistances.

N

Req = R1 + R2 + + R N = Rn

n =1

vn =

Michael E.Auer

Rn

v

R1 + R2 + + R N

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Example

series.

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connected to the same two nodes and consequently have the

same voltage across them.

parallel is:

1

1

1

1

=

+

+ +

Req R1 R2

RN

proportion to their resistances. The current divider can be

expressed as:

v i Req

in =

=

Rn

Rn

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Example

2, 3 and 2A

are in parallel

Michael E.Auer

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Ohms Law, Kirchhoff's Laws,

Circuit Theorems

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

BSC01

It is the property of an element describing a linear relationship

between cause and effect.

A linear circuit is one whose output is linearly related (or

directly proportional) to its input.

Homogeneity (scaling) property

v=iR

kv=kiR

Additive property

v1 = i1 R and v2 = i2 R

Michael E.Auer

v = (i1 + i2) R = v1 + v2

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Example

By assume Io = 1 A for IS = 5 A, use linearity to find the

actual value of Io in the circuit shown below.

Answer: Io = 3A

28

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It states that the voltage across (or current through) an

element in a linear circuit is the algebraic sum of the

voltage across (or currents through) that element due to

EACH independent source acting alone.

circuit with more than one independent source by

calculating the contribution of each independent source

separately.

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We consider the effects of the 8A and 20V

sources one by one, then add the two

effects together for final vo.

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Steps to apply superposition principle

1. Turn off all independent sources except one

source. Find the output (voltage or current)

due to that active source using nodal or

mesh analysis.

2. Repeat step 1 for each of the other independent

sources.

3. Find the total contribution by adding

algebraically all the contributions due to the

independent sources.

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Two things have to be keep in mind:

1. When we say turn off all other independent sources:

Independent voltage sources are replaced by 0 V

(short circuit) and

Independent current sources are replaced by 0 A

(open circuit).

2. Dependent sources are left intact because they are

controlled by circuit variables.

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Example

Use the superposition theorem to find v in the circuit

shown below.

3A is discarded by

open-circuit

6V is discarded

by short-circuit

Answer: v = 10V

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An equivalent circuit is one whose v-i

characteristics are identical with the original

circuit.

It is the process of replacing a voltage source vS

in series with a resistor R by a current source iS

in parallel with a resistor R, or vice versa.

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+

vs

R =

is

vs open circuit voltage

is short circuit current

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

Remarks:

source is directed toward the

positive terminal of the

voltage source.

is not possible when R = 0 for

voltage source and R = for

current source.

BSC01

Example

Find vo in the circuit shown below using source transformation.

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01.11.2011

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It states that a linear two-terminal

circuit (Fig. a) can be replaced by an

equivalent circuit (Fig. b) consisting

of a voltage source VTH in series with

a resistor RTH,

where

VTh is the open-circuit voltage at the

terminals.

RTh is the input or equivalent

resistance at the terminals when the

independent sources are turned off.

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Example

the equivalent circuit to the left

of the terminals in the circuit

shown below. Hence find i.

RTh

(a)

6

2A

2A

+

VT

h

(b)

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It states that a linear two-terminal circuit can be

replaced by an equivalent circuit of a current

source IN in parallel with a resistor RN,

Where

IN is the short circuit current through

the terminals.

RN is the input or equivalent resistance

at the terminals when the independent

sources are turned off.

The Thevenins and Norton equivalent circuits are related

by a source transformation.

Michael E.Auer

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2vx

Example

of the circuit shown below.

vx

ix

+

vx

1V

(a)

2vx

+

6

Answer: RN = 1, IN = 10A

Michael E.Auer

10 A

+

vx

Isc

(b)

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Ohms Law, Kirchhoff's Laws

Circuit Theorems

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

BSC01

Introduction

Things we need to know in solving any resistive circuit

with current and voltage sources only:

Number of equations

Ohms Law

n-1

b (n-1)

mesh = independend loop

branch voltages = 2b (variables)

Michael E.Auer

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1. Mesh analysis provides a general procedure for

analyzing circuits using mesh currents as the

circuit variables.

2. Mesh analysis applies KVL to find unknown

currents.

3. A mesh is a loop which does not contain any

other loops within it (independent loop).

Michael E.Auer

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Example circuit with independent voltage sources

Equations:

R2 i2 + R3 (i2 i1) = -V2

reordered:

(R1+ R3) i1 - i2 R3 = V1

- R3 i1 + (R2 + R3)i2 = -V2

Note:

i1 and i2 are mesh current (imaginative, not measurable directly)

I1, I2 and I3 are branch current (real, measurable directly)

I1 = i1; I2 = i2; I3 = i1 - i2

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

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Formalization: Network equations by inspection.

R3 i1 V1

( R1 + R3 )

( R2 + R3 ) i2 V2

R3

Impedance matrix

Erregung

Mesh currents

General rules:

1. Main diagonal: ring resistance of mesh n

2. Other elements: connection resistance between meshes n and m

Sign depends on direction of mesh currents!

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

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Example: By inspection, write the mesh-current equations in matrix

form for the circuit below.

Michael E.Auer

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It provides a general procedure for analyzing circuits using node

voltages as the circuit variables.

Example

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Steps to determine the node voltages:

1. Select a node as the reference node.

2. Assign voltages v1,v2,,vn-1 to the remaining

n-1 nodes. The voltages are referenced with

respect to the reference node.

3. Apply KCL to each of the n-1 non-reference

nodes. Use Ohms law to express the branch

currents in terms of node voltages.

4. Solve the resulting simultaneous equations

to obtain the unknown node voltages.

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

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Example

G2 v2 + G3 (v2 v1) = - 4A

Apply KCL at

node 1 and 2

v1

G1

v2

G3

reordered:

(G1+ G3) v1 - v2 G3 = 1A

- G3 v1 + (G2 + G3)v2 = - 4A

G2

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

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Formalization: Network equations by inspection.

G3 v1 1A

(G1 + G3 )

(G2 + G3 ) v2 2A

G3

Admittance matrix

Erregung

Node voltages

General rules:

1. Main diagonal: sum of connected admittances at node n

2. Other elements: connection admittances between nodes n and m

Sign: negative!

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

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Example: By inspection, write the node-voltage equations in matrix

form for the circuit below.

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

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Summary

Michael E.Auer

01.11.2011

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