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FOOD SAFETY IN MALAYSIA

- an overview

Dr. Abdul Rahim bin Mohamad


Food Safety and Quality Division
Department Of Public Health
Ministry Of Health Malaysia

Malaysias Food Safety System


The Malaysia food safety system is
characterized by its complexity and
diversity; with different authority
entrusted with the task of ensuring food
safety at different stages of the food
chain

FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN


Supply of A gricult ural Input s
e .g Fertilizer s, pest icid es,animal f eeding st uff s,
vet erinary dr ugs

Upstream

M idstream

Downstream

MOH /MOA

Primary Production
e.g. f armer s, f ishe rman, f ish f armer s

MOA

Primary Food Processing


e .g on f arm, dairi es, abbat oir s, gr ain mi ll s

MO H/ MO A/JAKI M
Loc al Governme nt

Sec ondary Food Processing


e.g. canning, free zing, dr ying, brewing

MO H/JAKI M
Loc al Governme nt

Food D istribution
e.g. nati onal/int ernat ional, im port /expor t

MO H/ MITI /M OD T/
Cus toms/Local Govt.

Food Retail ing/ Food C atering


e.g. r estaur ants, s treet foods, hospit als, s chool s
su perm arket s, shops

MOH /MO DT/JAKI M


Loc al Governme nt

Domest ic Food
Production

MOH /
Loc al Governme nt

Food Import

The importation of food from foreign


countries is overseen by the

Ministry of Health( Food Inspectors at entry


points)
Department of Veterinary Services (DVS) for
meat
Fishery Department for life fish and fish

Food Export

Certification (Health Cert., Free Sale etc) for exported


food including fish & fish products are issued by
Ministry of Health( Food Safety & Quality) based on
requirements by importing countries or by the exporters
for the purpose of getting letter of credit (LC).

Certification for live fish is by Fishery Department; meat


by DVS and plants/vegetables by DOA respectively.

In 2002, Malaysia food export amounted to about RM7.4


billion. (Euro 1.5billion)

Overview of the Food Safety Program in MOH


>200,000 food
premises

RM16.8 billion (local)


RM12 billion (import)

35% income
used for food

Food Safety and Quality Control

Legislation

Human Resource

Food Act 1983


Food Regulations 1985
New Regulations

Public Health Specialist


Food Technologist
Nutritionist
Asst. Food Technologist
Asst. Env. Health Officer

Laboratory
10 FQCL
4 PHL
Other agencies

Policy & Planning


Food Safety & Quality Division(MOH)
Implementation and Supervision
14 states, 136 district, 34 entry points

LEGAL MANDATE
Food Act 1983
gazetted on 10 March 1983
Food Regulations 1985
gazetted on 26 September 1985
Enforced together on
1st October 1985

FOOD SAFETY & QUALITY CONTROL


(1) GENERAL OBJECTIVE

To Protect The Public Against Food


Related Hazards & Fraud As Well As
To Motivate And Promote The
Preparation, Handling, Distribution,
Sale And Consumption Of Safe And
Quality Food.

FOOD SAFETY & QUALITY CONTROL


(1) STRATEGIES
Establish, Review, & Update Food Legislation To
Ensure Safe Food Supply Domestically And
Internationally.
Continuous Strengthening of Food Safety
Infrastructures Including Food Inspection
Capabalities, Sampling And Laboratory Facilities
& IT To Ensure Food Safety.

FOOD SAFETY & QUALITY CONTROL


(2) STRATEGIES
Enhance Effective Collaboration With Relevant
Government Agencies, Food Industry, Consumer
Groups, Professional Bodies, Academia And
International Organisations.
Develop Adequate & Skilled Human Resources
To Ensure Effective Implementation Of The
Programme.

FOOD SAFETY & QUALITY CONTROL


(3) STRATEGIES

To Increase Consumers Knowledge &


Awareness Through Continuous
Consumer Education

ACTIVITIES:
LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT
Legislative Support, Codes of Practice and
Guidelines
Continuous development and updating of
food legislation
Vetting of new food products to ensure
regulatory compliance
Technical advisory services on Food
Regulations 1985.
Development of guidelines & codes of
practice

ISSUES:
LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT
Legislative Support, Codes of Practice and
Guidelines
Continuous development and updating of
food legislation
Vetting of new food products to ensure
regulatory compliance
Technical advisory services on Food
Regulations 1985.
Development of guidelines & codes of
practice

ACTIVITIES:
ENFORCEMENT
Plan and monitor the implementation of
enforcement activities;
Domestic food
Imported food
Food crisis
Food poisoning outbreaks
Licensing of
natural mineral water and drinking water,
the importation, sale, manufacture, purchase
and use of saccharin
Inter-agencies collaboration and coordination on
enforcement.
Assurance of effective prosecution through Core
Prosecution Team (CPT).
Establishment of Crisis Alert Team (CAT).

ENFORCEMENT PLANNING
Food Sampling
National Work Plan (NWP)
2 sample/1000 population/year
used to set food sampling priorities
according to food problem, groups of food
commodities and targets.
Food Premises Inspection
premises are rated based on a std. format
unhygienic premises are closed based on
provision in the Food Act 1983

ENFORCEMENT PLANNING

Food Sampling (2004)

Micro
40%
Chemical
55%

Micro
Physical
Chemical

Physical
5%

ENFORCEMENT PLANNING
Import Control
Inspection based on
document
Physical inspection
Sampling
Priority are set based
past violation (black listed items)
food entering for the first time
Approach undertaken include
Hold-test-release
Undertaking letter

ACTIVITIES:
LABORATORY SERVICES
Develop, strengthen and modernize
laboratory services
Ensure optimal utilization of all existing food
laboratories in the country (within & outside
MOH)
Ensure the implementation of the laboratory
quality system (ISO 17025)

FQCL PERLIS*
(Kangar)

FOOD LABORATORIES UNDER MINISTRY OF HEALTH MALAYSIA

FQCL LAKA TEMIN


( Bukit Kayu Hitam)

FQCL KELANTAN
(Kota Bahru)

PHL SABAH
(Kota Kinabalu)

FQCL TERENGGANU
(Kuala Terengganu)

FQCL PENANG
(Butterworth)
PHL IPOH

FQCL PAHANG
(Mentakab)
FQCL
SANDAKAN
( Sandakan )

NATIONAL PHL*
(Sg. Buloh)
FQCL SELANGOR
(Kelang)

FQCL Miri
FQCL SARAWAK*
(Kuching)

PHL JOHORE*
(Johor Bahru)

Note :
FQCL : Food Quality Control Laboratory
PHL

: Public Health Laboratory

ACTIVITIES:
INDUSTRY
Provide advisory services; SMI
Facilitate export; Health Cert., Free Sale Cert.,
Heat Process Meat Cert. Etc.
Promote quality management system for food
safety assurance including HACCP/GHP etc to
the food sectors
EU recognised Competent Authority for HACCP
Certification(Fish & fish products)

Malaysian Certification Scheme Guidelines

HACCP LOGO

ACTIVITIES:
MONITORING & RESEARCH

Develop smart partnership in priority


collaborative research program on food safety
especially with academia & professional bodies
& associations.
Promote Risk Analysis
Risk assessment
Risk management
Risk communication

ACTIVITIES:
CONSUMER EDUCATION

Disseminate information on health issues and


food safety through information technology and
risk communication.
Ensure smart partnership with mass media.

ACTIVITIES:
INFORMATION SYSTEM (HMIS)
Maximization of IT utilization in FQC
programme:
Online HMIS with state, district, entry point &
labs
HMIS - SMK interface at major entry point
Homepage

MAIN PAGE

http://fsis.moh.gov.my/fqc/

ACTIVITIES:
TRAINING
Training of food handlers:
To increase the awareness of food handlers on
food hygiene and sanitation in a more
structured and systematic manner, through
Accreditation Food Handlers Training
Institutions 1996
Training of Trainers - 1998

ACTIVITIES:
TRAINING (CONT.)
Training of personnel:
Continuous education on food safety & its
implications in the era of globalisation
Hands on training including attachment to
state, district, entry point offices, labs &
industries.

ACTIVITIES:
CODEX & INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS
Codex Contact Point for Malaysia (since 1996)
Chairman & Secretariat of National Codex
Committee
SPS Enquiry Point on Food Safety
Reference Center to deal with international food
standard, WTO including TBT, APEC, ASEAN,
etc.

CHANGING FOOD SCENARIOS THAT HAVE


IMPOSITIONS ON FOOD SAFETY
Food Production

Consumer
requirements

Large-scale production
Intensified agricultural practices
Use of raw materials & products sourced from other countries
New Processing techniques
Convenience foods with minimum preparation
Quest for fresh, Natural & health foods
- less harsh processing & production regime
- greater care in production, distribution, storage &
preparation

Social

Consumption of food outside the home


frequency of international travel - tourism/business
increase in aged population - high risk group
employment of foreign worker with different cultural and
handling practices

Economic

Globalization - transnational challenge i.e. exposure to foodborne hazards from other countries
Trade Framework - WTO Agreement on SPS & TBT
- AFTA

Changing Pattern of Food Food-Borne


Illness
Traditional
usually local
high dose
organism readily isolated
normal food processing
will eliminate pathogen
low mortality/easily
treated with antibiotic
traditional food know to
be associated

New & Emerging


widespread, multi-state, international
low infective dose
risk undetected by normal method
may survive some processes
high mortality/resistant to many
antibiotic
food not previously associated with
food-borne illness

Key Food Safety Issues


Existing Issues Being addressed

Hygiene of eating establishment


Residue of veterinary drugs
Pesticides
Abuse and overuse of food additives
Mycotoxin
inorganic contaminants

Effort already taking place to reduce the contravention and risk to consumers.

New Issues beginning to be addressed


Migration of chemicals substances from packaging materials and other
materials in contact with food
Persistent Organic Environmental Pollutants (dioxin, PCBs, PAH)
Chemical substances formed during cooking/processing
Hypersensitivity, intolerance and allergic reactions
Antibiotic resistant microorganism

OTHER ISSUES
Legislation
Harmonization with international standards
Review of national standards based on risk assessment
incorporating available scientific evidence
Shifting from end-products to process-based regulatory
standards
Difference between public perception and scientific
assessment
Keeping-up with factors influencing
development/review of national standards
New technology e.g. new methods of processing and methods
of testing
Changing hazards

OTHER ISSUES
Industry
Exporters need to comply with importing
country and buyers requirements but: Importing countries have different standards and
regulatory approaches
Food regulations are constantly changing
Multiple level of regulations are encountered

Commitment to food safety is not fully a part


of the operating cultures of many food
establishment

FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN


Supply of A gricult ural Input s
e .g Fertilizer s, pest icid es,animal f eeding st uff s,
vet erinary dr ugs

Upstream

M idstream

Downstream

MOH /MOA

Primary Production
e.g. f armer s, f ishe rman, f ish f armer s

MOA

Primary Food Processing


e .g on f arm, dairi es, abbat oir s, gr ain mi ll s

MO H/ MO A/JAKI M
Loc al Governme nt

Sec ondary Food Processing


e.g. canning, free zing, dr ying, brewing

MO H/JAKI M
Loc al Governme nt

Food D istribution
e.g. nati onal/int ernat ional, im port /expor t

MO H/ MITI /M OD T/
Cus toms/Local Govt.

Food Retail ing/ Food C atering


e.g. r estaur ants, s treet foods, hospit als, s chool s
su perm arket s, shops

MOH /MO DT/JAKI M


Loc al Governme nt

Domest ic Food
Production

MOH /
Loc al Governme nt

MOH INITIATIVES
THE FOOD SAFETY & NUTRITION
COUNCIL
Approved by Malaysian Cabinet in March 2001 as
the highest advisory body to the government
Partnership and cooperation with stakeholders to
ensure national coherence in food safety
Members of the Council
22 agencies (government & NGOs)

2 Council meetings per year


The National Food Safety Policy and Plan of
Action
outcome from the 2nd. Council Meeting
approved by Cabinet on 19 January 2003

FOOD SAFETY & NUTRITION COUNCIL


THE
COUNCIL

FOOD
SAFETY
COMMITTEE

Nutrition
Committee

TECHNICAL COMMITTEES ON FOOD SAFETY

FOOD
REG.

MINERAL
H20

CODEX

FOOD
IRRADIATION

SUPER
GERMS

FOOD
ANALYSIS

HACCP

Education &
Research

Keys
elements
of the
National Food
Safety
Policy

ICT
To monitor and
evaluate

Integrated
Approach

Traceability

Science Based

Farm to table
partnership with
other agencies
international collaboration
Tracing of feed,
ingredients & food
Recall procedures or laws
Risk assessment (information
analysis & scientific advise)
Risk management (regulation,
control & precautionary
principle)
Risk communication

Transparency

Involvement of
stakeholders
notifications

Capacity
Building

Lab
Legislation
Enforcement

MOH INITIATIVES
Strengthening Food Legislation
Nutrition Labeling & Claims
Amendments to Schedule 16 of the Food Regulation
1985 on MRL for Pesticide Residue (gazetted)
Regulations on Genetically Modified Foods (to be
gazetted)
Food Hygiene Regulation (had dialogues with
stakeholders and in the final stage)
Food Import Regulations (to be finalized with legal
advisor)
Food Advertisement Regulations (to be finalized with
legal advisor)

MOH INITIATIVES
Strengthening Laboratory Services
upgrading of laboratorys infrastructure
technical cooperation with JICA 2001-2005 to improve
expertise in the areas pesticides, veterinary drugs, GMO
etc.
Development of reference laboratory
accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025
participation in national & international proficiency
tests such NATA (Australia) & FAPAS (UK)
optimal utilization of other laboratories
Department of Chemistry - 10 labs.
Veterinary & Pesticide Laboratory from MOA
outsource to USM, MU

MOH INITIATIVES
Research/Studies
collaborative research with Universities
MU - food packages (bisphenol A, phthalates in baby feeding bottles)
UPM - Risk Assessment of Vibrio parahaemolyticus
- antibiotic resistant microorganism
USM - Acrylamide in Foods
Food Consumption Pattern
Total Dietary Intake of Contaminants
Dioxin in Breast milk
Bacterial Survey of School Hostel Kitchen

Quality Assurance program


HACCP Certification Scheme
independent 3rd. Party auditing
integration of HACCP with other system including ISO 9000, Halal
etc.

development of guidelines
GHP

MOH INITIATIVES
International Collaborations
JICA Project to Strengthen Food Safety Programme in Malaysia
2001-2005
Strengthening of Food Safety Administration
Strengthening and Improvement of food analysis capability and food
inspection
Development and promotion of food safety information

EU-ASEAN Economic Cooperation Programme on Standards,


Quality and Conformity Assessment (Food Sector) 2003-2005
Consist of 4 components
Strengthening of Food Testing Laboratories Capacities
Strengthening of Food Inspection Capacities
Strengthening capacities in food standardization & food legislation
information
Promoting the Application of HACCP, GMP and GHP in Food SMEs

SELAMAT?

MOH INITIATIVES
International Fora
Codex & International
Hosting of the FAO/WHO Regional Conference on Food Safety for the Asia
& the Pacific (24-27 May 2004)
Hosting of the 13th. Session of CCASIA (17-20 Sept 2002)
Hosting of the upcoming CCFL (9-13 May 2005) in Sabah , West Malaysia

ASEAN
ASEAN Task Force on Codex - initiated by Malaysia
ASEAN Expert Group on Food Safety - development of ASEAN Food Safety
Improvement Plan (Malaysia as coordinator)

Bilateral
With Brunei, Indonesia, Thailand, China.
BIMST Border Health Meeting

http://www.aseanfoodsafetynetwork.net

Click to Enter ASEAN


Consultative Network

MOH Initiatives
Food Safety Information System of Malaysia (FoSIM)
for Import Control
development of a web-based system to link all 34 entry points to
control food import to ensure: speedier clearance, consistent scrutiny and greater transparency

launched in Aug 2003


to be integrated with Customs system

adapted from FAIINS (Food Automated Import Inspection Network


System ) of Japan with customization to FQC existing procedures.
In-built intelligent/knowledge databases
Automated examination levels, food codes,analytical parameter
codes,electronic references

MOH ITC

MOH FQCD

NETWORK SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

Tg. Lembung SeaPort


Kedah FQC Lab

Bukit Kayu
Hitam

Perlis
FQC Lab

Kuala Perlis
SeaPort

App

SVR

Kota Kinabalu
FQC Lab

CUSTOMS

Sandakan FQC Lab

47

46

LAN

SMK
Server

DB

Padang
Besar

33

Back-up
Server

FQC/SMK
Server

45

Kota Kinabalu AirPort

44

36

43

Bukit Kayu Hitam


Warehouse

Sabah
39

Sarawak

10

Pulau Pinang

Bayang Lepas AirPort

11

38

12

Kuching AirPort

37

36

MOH Virtual
Private Network

13

15

Pahang
Melaka

16

Johor

28

19
Kelang Admin Office

20

Johor PH
Lab

21
Tg. Puteri

27
22
2nd Link

26
23
24

Legend
Total Number of Entry points : 34

10

29

18

Melaka SeaPort

Road

30

17
KL International
AirPort

5
Air

FQC Office

Lab

11

Warehouse

Pasir Gudang
SeaPort

State

13

25

Tg. Pelepas
SeaPort

Tebedu

Rantau Panjang

31
9

Kuantan
SeaPort

Pahang
FQC Lab

Kelantan
FQC Lab

Terengganu
FQC Lab

Bintulu

Sarawak FQC Lab

32

10

Kelang South
SeaPort

33

Terengganu

N.Sembilan
Kelang North
SeaPort

34

11

14

Sarikei
SeaPort

35

Kelantan

Selangor

19

Sibu SeaPort

12

Perak

Grik

Sea

Miri SeaPort

Kuching SeaPort

Penang FQC Lab

Kelang West
SeaPort

Sandakan SeaPort

40
13

Kedah

Butterworth
SeaPort

Selangor
FQC Lab

41

Penang
SeaPort

Tawau SeaPort

Internet

Perlis
8

Labuan SeaPort

42

14

Langkawi
AirPort

Kota Kinabalu SeaPort

Pengkalan Kubu

Bukit Bunga

FOOD SAFETY INFORMATION SYSTEM OF MALAYSIA FOOD IMPORTATION PROCESS


1. Registration

2. P
reIm
5. G
ene port N
rat
e Im otific
at
po
rt N ion (O
10.
oti
fica ption
IMPORTERS / FORWARDING AGENTS
Fin
al)
tio
al D
n
eci
s io
n

tion
ica
otif
N
o rt
Imp
n
s
s
atio
oce
rm
r
o
f
P
In
6.
ple
am
n
S
.
7
isio
Dec
l
a
Fin
10.

Ministry of Health

ENTRY POINT

Food Safety Information System of Malaysia

9.
An
al y
s

3. Import Declaration (K1)

l
na
.Fi
10

ion
cis
De

K
SM
4.

CUSTOMS INFORMATION SYSTEM (SMK)

LEVEL 1
AUTO
CLEARANCE

LEVEL 2
DOCUMENT
EXAMINATION

Recommends
Examination Level

e
ac
erf
t
n
I

Transaction
Database

Knowledge
Database

7.
S

am

is

pl
e

Re
su
lts

INSPECTION / SAMPLING
8. Sample for Analysis

In
fo
rm

at
io
n

Master
Database

LABORATORY

Automated Examination Level

LEVEL 3
MONITORING
EXAMINATION

LEVEL 4
SURVEILLANCE
EXAMINATION

Inspection Action

LEVEL 5
HOLD TEST &
RELEASE

LEVEL 6
AUTO
REJECTION

EXAMINATION LEVELS
LEVEL 1 - AUTOMATIC CLEARANCE
LEVEL 2 DOCUMENT EXAMINATION
- VERIFY NOTIFICATION INFORMATION
- MAY REQUEST FOR FURTHER INFORMATION
- PHYSICAL INSPECTION/EXAMINTATION IF
NECESSARY BEFORE RELEASE
LEVEL 3 MONITORING EXAMINATION
- INSPECTION AND SAMPLING TO BE CARRIED
OUT ACCORDING TO SET TARGET.
(EG. 20% OF VEGETABLE PRODUCTS FROM
THAILAND NEED TO BE SAMPLED FOR
PESTICIDE)
LEVEL 4 SURVEILLACNE EXAMINATION
- INSPECTION AND SAMPLING TO BE CARRIED
OUT ON PRODUCTS WHERE TARGET NOT SET
LEVEL 5 HOLD TEST AND RELEASE
- DETAIN AND SAMPLE
LEVEL 6 AUTO REJECTION

CONCLUSION
The challenges of food safety is immense and in this
time of increasing food safety concerns and
shrinking resources, there are both the opportunities
and the need to work together between the
government, food industry and consumers.
The leadership provided by the Ministry of Health
towards this end and the continuous improvement of
the food safety program will inevitably create better
strides towards the establishment of an effective and
efficient food safety program in the era of
globalisation.

Thank you
for
your attention
SAFE FOOD FOR ALL CAN BE ACHIEVED
THROUGH SHARED RESPONSIBILITY AND
ACCOUNTABILITY