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The Stability of

Underground Opening
Lufi Rachmad

Review from Last Week


Insitu Stress (gravitational, tectonic, residual
stresses)
An underground opening changes the stress
condition Induced Stress
Induced Stress could triger unstability
Understanding stresses is an important part
in designing underground opening
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Review from Last Week


Empirical equation to estimate insitu stresses
e.g. Shoerey

1
k = 0.25 + 7 Eh (0.001 + )
z

Review from Last Week

Stress distribution around various opening


shapes (circle, horseshoe, square, ellipse)
Underground opening design methodology

Case Study A
An orebody XYZ has been defined as a block
caving deposit. What we should design first?

Surface
A

7 km
Plan View

1.4 km

Orebody
XYZ

Orebody
XYZ

Section A-A

Case Study A

ACCESS
Surface
decline

shaft

Orebody
XYZ

adit

Case Study A
The access for the orebody are decided to be
twin adits, 6.8 m wide and 6.0 m high.
The opening size considers the following
factors:
Biggest dimension
Effective size after
ground support
Drainage pipe &
trench
Intake airways

Case Study A
For the design purpose, how far apart should
these two adits be?
Orebody
XYZ

Surface

The farther
the more
ineffective
A

Access
Adits
(A-A)

Access Adits

Plan View
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Case Study A
Assuming the simplest condition, the
axisymmetric stress distribution could be used.
r = 5R, the pre-mining
stress would not be
significantly different
from the virgin stress
field.

Tegangan Induksi/Tegangan Awal

2.00
Tegangan radial
Tegangan tangensial

1.50

1.00

r = 17 meter as an
early indication.

0.50

0.00
0

Jarak dari batas terowongan, r/R

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Might be further
analyzed using pillar
stability calc and
numerical modeling
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Insitu Stress
During preliminary design, the empirical
stress equation can be used to obtain a first
rough estimate of the vertical and average
horizontal stress in the vicinity of the tunnel
For a depth of 1,400 m, the equation
gives the vertical stress v = 38 MPa , the
ratio k = 0.5 (for Eh = 25 GPa) and hence
the average horizontal stress h= 19 MPa

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Stress Distribution around


Horse-Shoe Tunnel
v

h = v

A
B

h = 0.5 v

A = 2.2 v
B = 1.3 v
A = 0.6 v
B = 1.8 v

h = 0.33 v

A = 0.1 v
B = 1.9 v

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Insitu Stress
Given the rock mass strength is around 7080 MPa, a preliminary analysis of the
stresses induced around the proposed
tunnel shows that these induced stresses
are likely to exceed the strength of the rock
and that the question of stress
measurement must be considered in more
detail

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Insitu Stress Measurement


The most common set of procedures is
based on the determination of strains in
the wall of a borehole, induced by
overcoring that part of the hole containing
the measurement device.
Various ways to measure insitu stress
Overcoring - Triaxial Strain Cell
Hydraulic Fracturing
Flatjack Measurement
Borehole Breakout
Acoustic Emission

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Overcoring (CSIRO Cell)

The CSIRO cell, referred to as a hollow inclusion


cell. It consists of a thin epoxy tube, with three
strain gage rosettes, embedded within the
epoxy.
Epoxy

Strain
Gages

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Overcoring (CSIRO Cell)

Overcoring methods are measuring in situ stress


based on the stress relief around the borehole.
The relief of external forces by overcoring
causes the changes in strain on the borehole
wall.
If the elastic properties of the rock are known,
the changes in borehole diameter or strains can
be converted to in situ stress in the rock.
The field procedures consist of drilling a
concentric EX-size borehole, installation of the
deformation gage, and overcoring a stress relief
borehole.
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The CSIRO cell is designed to measure diametral


deformations of an EX-size (1.5" in diameter)
borehole during overcoring a concentric
borehole (6" in diameter). The diametral
deformations are measured in three directions
(60 degree apart) in the same diametral plane.

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Overcoring (CSIRO Cell)

Need Youngs modulus and Poissons inputs


Limited to within 10-30 meters of existing
opening
Overcoring Cost CSIRO Cells (2 sites)
US$ 61K
NIRM
US$ 44K approx. 20K per site
ES&S
Price does not include drilling which will be
around US$ 120K / m
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Hydraulic Fracturing

Typically hydraulic fracturing is conducted in


vertical boreholes. A short segment of the hole
is sealed off using an straddle packer. This is
followed by the pressurization of the fracturefree segment of the hole by pumping in water.

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Hydraulic Fracturing
The pressure is raised until
the rock surrounding the
hole fails in tension at a
critical pressure.
Following breakdown, the
shut-in pressure, the
lowest test-interval
pressure at which the
hydrofrac closes
completely under the
action of the stress acting
normal to the
hydrofracture

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Hydraulic Fracturing

Limited to drill/pump equipment and ground


conditions Max range 300m 1000m
Qualitative
Assumptions
S1 Maximum Principle Stress is Vertical or
aligned with hole
Hydofracing
NIRM US$ 87K
Golder US$ 188K
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Borehole Breakout

Extensive field evidence and laboratory


experiments suggest that borehole breakouts,
defined as borehole cross-section elongations
resulting from preferential rock failure, is a
direct consequence of the in situ stress in the
rock.

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Borehole Breakout

One of the early observations of breakouts was


in the quartzite and conglomerates of the
Witwatersrand gold mine in South Africa
(Leeman, 1964). The spalling was observed to
occur at diametrically opposed points on the
borehole wall perpendicular to the direction of
the maximum principal stress.

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Borehole Breakout

The most publicized


observation of breakouts
was in the 3 m diameter
drift at 420 m level in the
Underground Research
Laboratory (URL), Canada.
Two diametrically opposed
breakouts were
approximately aligned with
the vertical stress, which is
the overall least principal
stress at URL.
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Case Study A
From insitu stress measurement, the bearing
of the major principal stress is around 38-40
degree. What is the preferable panel/undercut
drift orientation?
Panel/Drill Drift
Orebody
XYZ

Orebody
XYZ

Plan View

Plan View
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Case Study A
Ideally, the panel/undercut drift and the
direction of cave advance are aligned with the
principal horizontal in situ stresses.
If the direction of advance
is perpendicular, the levels
of stress in the abutment
ahead of the undercut will
be high and will increase
as the undercut advances
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Orebody
XYZ

Undercut
Advance
Direction
Plan View
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Stress Induced in the


Extraction and Undercut Level
High abutment stresses induced in the
vicinity of an advancing undercut front is
resulted from undercutting activity.

Cave Advance

Abutment
stress
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Stress Induced in the


Extraction and Undercut Level
The magnitude of abutment stresses in the
cave vicinity could reach up 2 to 3 times
the insitu stress magnitude.
For XYZ Mine, the vertical stress v = 38
Mpa. The abutment stress = 76 - 114
MPa
This abutment stress could devastate
development drifts if does not maintain
properly
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Failure of yielding arch support


El Salvador Mine, Chile

Photo: M. L. Van Sint Jan


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Rockburst at Extraction Level,


DOZ Mine, Indonesia

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Collapse of an extraction level drift,


El Teniente Mine, Chile, 1989

1.5 m

CONCRETE
DAMAGE

CONCRETE
DAMAGE

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Panel 15, 28 June 2003

Panel 15, 7 August 2003

Panel 15, 23 August 2003


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Stress Induced in the


Extraction and Undercut Level
Several factors have the potential to
influence the levels of stress induced in the
extraction level excavation:
In situ Stress regime
Undercut direction
The timing of undercut relative to the
extraction level development
Undercut face shape
Cave Hydraulic Radius
Distance between Undercut and Extraction
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Case Study A
The timing of undercut relative to the
extraction level development relates to the
selected undercutting method.
In general, there are three main undercutting
strategies:
1.Post Undercutting
2.Pre Undercutting
3.Advanced Undercutting
For XYZ BC Mine, an undercutting method
should be selected.
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Terminology
Drill Drift - Undercut
Fan Drilling
Draw Bell
Minor Apex

Major Apex
Panel Drift Extraction
Orepass

Draw Bell Drift

Draw Point
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Conventional Panel Caving


Undercutting and drilling takes place after
development of the underlying extraction
level has been completed.
Drawbells and DB drifts are prepared ahead
of the undercut and are ready to receive the
ore blasted from the undercut level

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Advance Undercut Panel Caving


Undercutting and drilling takes place above a
partially developed extraction level.
The partial development on the extraction level
can consist of either extraction drift only or
extraction drift and drawpoint drift

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Advance Undercut Panel Caving


Drawbells are always prepared in the destressed zone behind the undercut,
usually adhering to the 45 degree rule.

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Comparing Abutment Stress Impact


Measuring abutment stress changes could
be done indirectly by monitoring its impact.
The stress impact reflects in displacement /
deformation occurred in the underground
opening.
There are many different methods for
monitoring displacement. The simplest and
most common among them is a
convergence gage
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Comparing Abutment Stress Impact


A convergence gage usually consists of a
tape, wire, rod, or tub in series with a
deformation indicator.
Precision is typically around 0.005 in (0.13
mm)

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3-Point Convergence

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Case Study A
Near XYZ BC Mine, there is an active BC mine,
called KLM Mine, where the trial between Post
Undercut and Advanced Undercut will take
place.
Orebody
XYZ

Plan View

4 km
KLM
Mine

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Undercut Trial at KLM Mine

Panel 15

Panel 16

Post
Undercut

Advanced
Undercut
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Undercut Trial at KLM Mine

UC
Lvl

Cave
Cave Advance
Abutment

Extr
Lvl
Convergence
Station

18 m

Last
Blasting
Row

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Result of KLM Mine Trial


Advanced Undercut vs Post Undercut
Stable after
Cave Front
Passing

Cave Advance

Post Undercut

Anomaly

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Result of KLM Mine Trial


Advanced Undercut vs Post Undercut
Stable after
Cave Front
Passing

Cave Advance

Anomaly

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Anomaly
The anomaly from KLM Mine Trial could be
explained as the result of remnant undercut
pillar or stump.
Stump is created when the undercut
blasting fails to break the rock completely.
Cave
Advance

Remnant
Pillar

Abutment Stress

Cave
Last Blasting Row

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Examples of Remnant Pillars / Stump

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Case Study A
The KLM Mine trial shows that the
advanced undercut has the advantage to
reduce the stress induced impact to
undercut and extraction level.
Considering the KLM Mine trial result, XYZ
BC Mine will implement the advanced
undercutting method.
A note has been made that XYZ BC should
establish undercut blasting control such
that a remnant pillar will be avoided.
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Stress Induced in the


Extraction and Undercut Level
Several factors have the potential to
influence the levels of stress induced in the
extraction level excavation:
In situ Stress regime
Undercut direction
The timing of undercut relative to the
extraction level development
Undercut face shape
Cave Hydraulic Radius
Distance between Undercut and Extraction
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Case Study A
The undercut face shape is controlled by the
undercut opening sequence and the lead and
lag among drill drift cave front

Irregularities of cave front could create


unfavorable conditions in term of stress
concentration in the production level

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Undercutting Sequence

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Lead and Lag


Cave
Front

Lead and Lag: the


distance between the
caving front on adjacent
panels

Lead
and
Lag

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Undercutting Sequence
Since trial with different undercut sequence is
quite impossible, a numerical modeling will be
used to evaluate the most preferable sequence
for XYZ BC Mine.

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Undercutting Sequence
When comparing the results of the undercut
sequence models, the main useful criteria to
examine have proven to be:
1.Peak stress levels (in the stronger ground)
induced on the production level elevation.
2. Average and maximum values of strain
(as a measure of the severity of damage
and deformation) induced on the production
level elevation.
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Undercutting Sequence
3. Areas of damage on the production level
elevation, measured in terms of areas where
shear strains exceed a set limit of 2 x 10-3 (2
millistrains). This value was chosen because it
includes damage in the stronger ground and
not just the weaker ground areas, which are
known to become extensively damaged,
whatever undercut sequence is chosen.

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Undercut Opening Sequence


From modeling result, a wedge type sequence
appears preferable. Mining in weak ground
should be over a short front, and bordered by
panels that are mining in stronger ground, which
bears load and limits rock mass deformation in
the weak ground area.

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Undercut Opening Sequence


The undercut wedge apex should advance into
the weaker ground, close to the boundary with
stronger ground, with the apex angle broad
rather than narrow.

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Lead and Lag


Cave
Front

Displacement
(mm/day)

To evaluate the lead


and lag, convergence
information from
KLM mine is used.
Convergence data is
presented in velocity
(mm/day) contour
Displc. = Lt-L0
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Increasing of horizontal and vertical


velocity due to lead and lag (60 meter)
No Advanced
070501

140501

0.0
mm/day

horizontal

070501

-1.3
mm/day

140501

-0.2
mm/day

vertical

-1.12
mm/day

Decreasing of horizontal and vertical velocity


after reducing lead and lag distance (54 meter)
Advance 6 m
290501
140501

140501

-1.3
mm/day

horizontal

-0.74
mm/day

290501

-1.12
mm/day

vertical

-0.1
mm/day

Decreasing of horizontal and vertical velocity


after reducing lead and lag distance (45 meter)
Advance 9 m
290501

120601

-0.74
mm/day

horizontal

290501

-0.5
mm/day

120601

-0.1
mm/day

vertical

0.3
mm/day

Increasing of horizontal velocity due to no


advanced of lead and lag distance (45 meter)
No Advance
120601

260601

-0.5
mm/day

horizontal

120601

-0.65
mm/day

260601

0.3
mm/day

vertical

-0.2
mm/day

Decreasing of horizontal and vertical velocity


after reducing lead and lag distance
(30 meter)
Advance 15 m
130701
260601

260601

-0.65
mm/day

horizontal

-0.4
mm/day

130701

-0.2
mm/day

vertical

0.0
mm/day

Increasing of horizontal velocity due to no advanced


of lead and lag distance (30 meter)
No Advance
070801
130701

130701

-0.4
mm/day

horizontal

-0.8
mm/day

070801

0.0
mm/day

vertical

-0.1
mm/day

Decreasing of horizontal and vertical velocity


after reducing lead and lag distance (25 meter)
Advance 5 m
230801
070801

070801

-0.8
mm/day

horizontal

-0.1
mm/day

230801

-0.1
mm/day

vertical

0.0
mm/day

Increasing of horizontal and vertical velocity due to


no advanced of lead and lag distance (25 meter)
No Advance
150901
230801

230801

-0.1
mm/day

horizontal

-0.75
mm/day

150901

0.0
mm/day

vertical

-0.4
mm/day

Decreasing of horizontal and vertical velocity after


reduce lead and lag distance (8 meter)
Advance 17 m
260901
150901

150901

-0.75
mm/day

horizontal

-0.4
mm/day

260901

-0.4
mm/day

vertical

0.1
mm/day

Decreasing of horizontal and vertical velocity in the


same of lead and lag distance (8 meter)
No Advance
091001
260901

260901

-0.4
mm/day

horizontal

-0.1
mm/day

091001

0.1
mm/day

vertical

0.0
mm/day

Decreasing of horizontal and vertical velocity below 8


meter of lead and lag distance (5 meter)
Advance 3 m
261001
091001

091001

-0.1
mm/day

horizontal

0.0
mm/day

261001

0.0
mm/day

vertical

0.0
mm/day

Constant stable of horizontal and vertical velocity


below 8 meter of lead and lag distance (5 meter)
No Advance
071101
261001

261001

0.0
mm/day

horizontal

0.0
mm/day

071101

0.0
mm/day

vertical

0.0
mm/day

Lead & Lag Issue


Reading
Date

Lead
and Lag
Distance (m)

Cave
Advanced (m)

Horizontal
Displacement
Velocity (mm/day)

Vertical
Displacement
Velocity (mm/day)

07-May-01

0.0

0.2

14-May-01

Cave not
started
60

1.3 ()

1.12 ()

29-May-01

54

0.74 ()

0.1 ()

12-Jun-01

45

0.5 ()

-0.3 ()

26-Jun-01

45

0.65 ()

0.2 ()

13-Jul-01

30

15

0.4 ()

0.0 ()

07-Aug-01

30

0.8 ()

0.1 ()

23-Aug-01

25

0.1 ()

0.0 ()

15-Sept-01

25

0.75 ()

0.4 ()

26-Sept-01

17

0.4 ()

-0.1 ()

09-Oct-01

0.1 ()

0.0 ()

29-Oct-01

0.0 ()

0.0
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Lead & Lag Issue

From the convergence measurement, the ideal


lead and lag is between 5 to 8 meters, cave
front can be stopped without any significant
displacement
If the lead and lag is over the 12 m, the cave
face cannot be stopped for more than one week
because excessive damage will occur in the
panels

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Case Study A
XYZ Mine
Undercut
Sequence and
Direction

Extraction Drift
Orientation

Access
Adits

Plan View
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