You are on page 1of 73

# The Stability of

Underground Opening

## Review from Last Week

Insitu Stress (gravitational, tectonic, residual
stresses)
An underground opening changes the stress
condition Induced Stress
Induced Stress could triger unstability
Understanding stresses is an important part
in designing underground opening
2

## Review from Last Week

Empirical equation to estimate insitu stresses
e.g. Shoerey

1
k = 0.25 + 7 Eh (0.001 + )
z

## Stress distribution around various opening

shapes (circle, horseshoe, square, ellipse)
Underground opening design methodology

Case Study A
An orebody XYZ has been defined as a block
caving deposit. What we should design first?

Surface
A

7 km
Plan View

1.4 km

Orebody
XYZ

Orebody
XYZ

Section A-A

Case Study A

ACCESS
Surface
decline

shaft

Orebody
XYZ

Case Study A
The access for the orebody are decided to be
twin adits, 6.8 m wide and 6.0 m high.
The opening size considers the following
factors:
Biggest dimension
Effective size after
ground support
Drainage pipe &
trench
Intake airways

Case Study A
For the design purpose, how far apart should
Orebody
XYZ

Surface

The farther
the more
ineffective
A

Access
(A-A)

Plan View
8

Case Study A
Assuming the simplest condition, the
axisymmetric stress distribution could be used.
r = 5R, the pre-mining
stress would not be
significantly different
from the virgin stress
field.

## Tegangan Induksi/Tegangan Awal

2.00
Tegangan tangensial

1.50

1.00

r = 17 meter as an
early indication.

0.50

0.00
0

## Jarak dari batas terowongan, r/R

10

Might be further
analyzed using pillar
stability calc and
numerical modeling
9

Insitu Stress
During preliminary design, the empirical
stress equation can be used to obtain a first
rough estimate of the vertical and average
horizontal stress in the vicinity of the tunnel
For a depth of 1,400 m, the equation
gives the vertical stress v = 38 MPa , the
ratio k = 0.5 (for Eh = 25 GPa) and hence
the average horizontal stress h= 19 MPa

10

## Stress Distribution around

Horse-Shoe Tunnel
v

h = v

A
B

h = 0.5 v

A = 2.2 v
B = 1.3 v
A = 0.6 v
B = 1.8 v

h = 0.33 v

A = 0.1 v
B = 1.9 v

11

Insitu Stress
Given the rock mass strength is around 7080 MPa, a preliminary analysis of the
stresses induced around the proposed
tunnel shows that these induced stresses
are likely to exceed the strength of the rock
and that the question of stress
measurement must be considered in more
detail

12

## Insitu Stress Measurement

The most common set of procedures is
based on the determination of strains in
the wall of a borehole, induced by
overcoring that part of the hole containing
the measurement device.
Various ways to measure insitu stress
Overcoring - Triaxial Strain Cell
Hydraulic Fracturing
Flatjack Measurement
Borehole Breakout
Acoustic Emission

13

## The CSIRO cell, referred to as a hollow inclusion

cell. It consists of a thin epoxy tube, with three
strain gage rosettes, embedded within the
epoxy.
Epoxy

Strain
Gages

14

## Overcoring methods are measuring in situ stress

based on the stress relief around the borehole.
The relief of external forces by overcoring
causes the changes in strain on the borehole
wall.
If the elastic properties of the rock are known,
the changes in borehole diameter or strains can
be converted to in situ stress in the rock.
The field procedures consist of drilling a
concentric EX-size borehole, installation of the
deformation gage, and overcoring a stress relief
borehole.
15

## The CSIRO cell is designed to measure diametral

deformations of an EX-size (1.5" in diameter)
borehole during overcoring a concentric
borehole (6" in diameter). The diametral
deformations are measured in three directions
(60 degree apart) in the same diametral plane.

16

## Need Youngs modulus and Poissons inputs

Limited to within 10-30 meters of existing
opening
Overcoring Cost CSIRO Cells (2 sites)
US\$ 61K
NIRM
US\$ 44K approx. 20K per site
ES&S
Price does not include drilling which will be
around US\$ 120K / m
17

Hydraulic Fracturing

## Typically hydraulic fracturing is conducted in

vertical boreholes. A short segment of the hole
is sealed off using an straddle packer. This is
followed by the pressurization of the fracturefree segment of the hole by pumping in water.

18

Hydraulic Fracturing
The pressure is raised until
the rock surrounding the
hole fails in tension at a
critical pressure.
Following breakdown, the
shut-in pressure, the
lowest test-interval
pressure at which the
hydrofrac closes
completely under the
action of the stress acting
normal to the
hydrofracture

19

Hydraulic Fracturing

## Limited to drill/pump equipment and ground

conditions Max range 300m 1000m
Qualitative
Assumptions
S1 Maximum Principle Stress is Vertical or
aligned with hole
Hydofracing
NIRM US\$ 87K
Golder US\$ 188K
20

Borehole Breakout

## Extensive field evidence and laboratory

experiments suggest that borehole breakouts,
defined as borehole cross-section elongations
resulting from preferential rock failure, is a
direct consequence of the in situ stress in the
rock.

21

Borehole Breakout

## One of the early observations of breakouts was

in the quartzite and conglomerates of the
Witwatersrand gold mine in South Africa
(Leeman, 1964). The spalling was observed to
occur at diametrically opposed points on the
borehole wall perpendicular to the direction of
the maximum principal stress.

22

Borehole Breakout

## The most publicized

observation of breakouts
was in the 3 m diameter
drift at 420 m level in the
Underground Research
Two diametrically opposed
breakouts were
approximately aligned with
the vertical stress, which is
the overall least principal
stress at URL.
23

Case Study A
From insitu stress measurement, the bearing
of the major principal stress is around 38-40
degree. What is the preferable panel/undercut
drift orientation?
Panel/Drill Drift
Orebody
XYZ

Orebody
XYZ

Plan View

Plan View
24

Case Study A
Ideally, the panel/undercut drift and the
direction of cave advance are aligned with the
principal horizontal in situ stresses.
is perpendicular, the levels
of stress in the abutment
be high and will increase
1

Orebody
XYZ

Undercut
Direction
Plan View
25

## Stress Induced in the

Extraction and Undercut Level
High abutment stresses induced in the
vicinity of an advancing undercut front is
resulted from undercutting activity.

Abutment
stress
26

## Stress Induced in the

Extraction and Undercut Level
The magnitude of abutment stresses in the
cave vicinity could reach up 2 to 3 times
the insitu stress magnitude.
For XYZ Mine, the vertical stress v = 38
Mpa. The abutment stress = 76 - 114
MPa
This abutment stress could devastate
development drifts if does not maintain
properly
27

28

## Rockburst at Extraction Level,

DOZ Mine, Indonesia

29

## Collapse of an extraction level drift,

El Teniente Mine, Chile, 1989

1.5 m

CONCRETE
DAMAGE

CONCRETE
DAMAGE

30

31

## Stress Induced in the

Extraction and Undercut Level
Several factors have the potential to
influence the levels of stress induced in the
extraction level excavation:
In situ Stress regime
Undercut direction
The timing of undercut relative to the
extraction level development
Undercut face shape
Distance between Undercut and Extraction
32

Case Study A
The timing of undercut relative to the
extraction level development relates to the
selected undercutting method.
In general, there are three main undercutting
strategies:
1.Post Undercutting
2.Pre Undercutting
For XYZ BC Mine, an undercutting method
should be selected.
33

Terminology
Drill Drift - Undercut
Fan Drilling
Draw Bell
Minor Apex

Major Apex
Panel Drift Extraction
Orepass

Draw Point
34

## Conventional Panel Caving

Undercutting and drilling takes place after
development of the underlying extraction
level has been completed.
Drawbells and DB drifts are prepared ahead
ore blasted from the undercut level

35

Undercutting and drilling takes place above a
partially developed extraction level.
The partial development on the extraction level
can consist of either extraction drift only or
extraction drift and drawpoint drift

36

Drawbells are always prepared in the destressed zone behind the undercut,
usually adhering to the 45 degree rule.

37

## Comparing Abutment Stress Impact

Measuring abutment stress changes could
be done indirectly by monitoring its impact.
The stress impact reflects in displacement /
deformation occurred in the underground
opening.
There are many different methods for
monitoring displacement. The simplest and
most common among them is a
convergence gage
38

## Comparing Abutment Stress Impact

A convergence gage usually consists of a
tape, wire, rod, or tub in series with a
deformation indicator.
Precision is typically around 0.005 in (0.13
mm)

39

3-Point Convergence

40

Case Study A
Near XYZ BC Mine, there is an active BC mine,
called KLM Mine, where the trial between Post
Undercut and Advanced Undercut will take
place.
Orebody
XYZ

Plan View

4 km
KLM
Mine

41

Panel 15

Panel 16

Post
Undercut

Undercut
42

UC
Lvl

Cave
Abutment

Extr
Lvl
Convergence
Station

18 m

Last
Blasting
Row

43

Stable after
Cave Front
Passing

Post Undercut

Anomaly

44

## Result of KLM Mine Trial

Stable after
Cave Front
Passing

Anomaly

45

Anomaly
The anomaly from KLM Mine Trial could be
explained as the result of remnant undercut
pillar or stump.
Stump is created when the undercut
blasting fails to break the rock completely.
Cave

Remnant
Pillar

Abutment Stress

Cave
Last Blasting Row

46

## Examples of Remnant Pillars / Stump

47

Case Study A
The KLM Mine trial shows that the
reduce the stress induced impact to
undercut and extraction level.
Considering the KLM Mine trial result, XYZ
BC Mine will implement the advanced
undercutting method.
A note has been made that XYZ BC should
establish undercut blasting control such
that a remnant pillar will be avoided.
48

## Stress Induced in the

Extraction and Undercut Level
Several factors have the potential to
influence the levels of stress induced in the
extraction level excavation:
In situ Stress regime
Undercut direction
The timing of undercut relative to the
extraction level development
Undercut face shape
Distance between Undercut and Extraction
49

Case Study A
The undercut face shape is controlled by the
undercut opening sequence and the lead and
lag among drill drift cave front

## Irregularities of cave front could create

unfavorable conditions in term of stress
concentration in the production level

50

Undercutting Sequence

51

Cave
Front

distance between the
panels

and
Lag

52

Undercutting Sequence
Since trial with different undercut sequence is
quite impossible, a numerical modeling will be
used to evaluate the most preferable sequence
for XYZ BC Mine.

53

Undercutting Sequence
When comparing the results of the undercut
sequence models, the main useful criteria to
examine have proven to be:
1.Peak stress levels (in the stronger ground)
induced on the production level elevation.
2. Average and maximum values of strain
(as a measure of the severity of damage
and deformation) induced on the production
level elevation.
54

Undercutting Sequence
3. Areas of damage on the production level
elevation, measured in terms of areas where
shear strains exceed a set limit of 2 x 10-3 (2
millistrains). This value was chosen because it
includes damage in the stronger ground and
not just the weaker ground areas, which are
known to become extensively damaged,
whatever undercut sequence is chosen.

55

## Undercut Opening Sequence

From modeling result, a wedge type sequence
appears preferable. Mining in weak ground
should be over a short front, and bordered by
panels that are mining in stronger ground, which
bears load and limits rock mass deformation in
the weak ground area.

56

## Undercut Opening Sequence

The undercut wedge apex should advance into
the weaker ground, close to the boundary with
stronger ground, with the apex angle broad
rather than narrow.

57

Cave
Front

Displacement
(mm/day)

and lag, convergence
information from
KLM mine is used.
Convergence data is
presented in velocity
(mm/day) contour
Displc. = Lt-L0
58

## Increasing of horizontal and vertical

velocity due to lead and lag (60 meter)
070501

140501

0.0
mm/day

horizontal

070501

-1.3
mm/day

140501

-0.2
mm/day

vertical

-1.12
mm/day

## Decreasing of horizontal and vertical velocity

after reducing lead and lag distance (54 meter)
290501
140501

140501

-1.3
mm/day

horizontal

-0.74
mm/day

290501

-1.12
mm/day

vertical

-0.1
mm/day

## Decreasing of horizontal and vertical velocity

after reducing lead and lag distance (45 meter)
290501

120601

-0.74
mm/day

horizontal

290501

-0.5
mm/day

120601

-0.1
mm/day

vertical

0.3
mm/day

120601

260601

-0.5
mm/day

horizontal

120601

-0.65
mm/day

260601

0.3
mm/day

vertical

-0.2
mm/day

## Decreasing of horizontal and vertical velocity

after reducing lead and lag distance
(30 meter)
130701
260601

260601

-0.65
mm/day

horizontal

-0.4
mm/day

130701

-0.2
mm/day

vertical

0.0
mm/day

## Increasing of horizontal velocity due to no advanced

of lead and lag distance (30 meter)
070801
130701

130701

-0.4
mm/day

horizontal

-0.8
mm/day

070801

0.0
mm/day

vertical

-0.1
mm/day

## Decreasing of horizontal and vertical velocity

after reducing lead and lag distance (25 meter)
230801
070801

070801

-0.8
mm/day

horizontal

-0.1
mm/day

230801

-0.1
mm/day

vertical

0.0
mm/day

150901
230801

230801

-0.1
mm/day

horizontal

-0.75
mm/day

150901

0.0
mm/day

vertical

-0.4
mm/day

## Decreasing of horizontal and vertical velocity after

reduce lead and lag distance (8 meter)
260901
150901

150901

-0.75
mm/day

horizontal

-0.4
mm/day

260901

-0.4
mm/day

vertical

0.1
mm/day

## Decreasing of horizontal and vertical velocity in the

same of lead and lag distance (8 meter)
091001
260901

260901

-0.4
mm/day

horizontal

-0.1
mm/day

091001

0.1
mm/day

vertical

0.0
mm/day

## Decreasing of horizontal and vertical velocity below 8

meter of lead and lag distance (5 meter)
261001
091001

091001

-0.1
mm/day

horizontal

0.0
mm/day

261001

0.0
mm/day

vertical

0.0
mm/day

## Constant stable of horizontal and vertical velocity

below 8 meter of lead and lag distance (5 meter)
071101
261001

261001

0.0
mm/day

horizontal

0.0
mm/day

071101

0.0
mm/day

vertical

0.0
mm/day

Date

and Lag
Distance (m)

Cave

Horizontal
Displacement
Velocity (mm/day)

Vertical
Displacement
Velocity (mm/day)

07-May-01

0.0

0.2

14-May-01

Cave not
started
60

1.3 ()

1.12 ()

29-May-01

54

0.74 ()

0.1 ()

12-Jun-01

45

0.5 ()

-0.3 ()

26-Jun-01

45

0.65 ()

0.2 ()

13-Jul-01

30

15

0.4 ()

0.0 ()

07-Aug-01

30

0.8 ()

0.1 ()

23-Aug-01

25

0.1 ()

0.0 ()

15-Sept-01

25

0.75 ()

0.4 ()

26-Sept-01

17

0.4 ()

-0.1 ()

09-Oct-01

0.1 ()

0.0 ()

29-Oct-01

0.0 ()

0.0
71

## From the convergence measurement, the ideal

lead and lag is between 5 to 8 meters, cave
front can be stopped without any significant
displacement
If the lead and lag is over the 12 m, the cave
face cannot be stopped for more than one week
because excessive damage will occur in the
panels

72

Case Study A
XYZ Mine
Undercut
Sequence and
Direction

Extraction Drift
Orientation

Access