CUKUROVA UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

THE BALANCE OF POWER IN EUROPE
BY ERAY ARIK

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DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

TABLE OF CONTENT Table of Content............................................................................................................................. .........2 Part I) The World War...................................................................................................... ........................ 3 1. The Process of Starting the WWI....................................................................................... .................. 3 2. The Reasons of the WWI.................................... ................................................................................ .3 3. The Descriptions of Balance of Power..................................................... ........................................... .3 Part II) From The Universality to the Stability......................................................... ................................4 Part III) The Role of France in the Balance of Power................................................ ............................... 5 Armand Jean Du Plessis de Richelieu and Raison d état Part IV) The Role of England in the Balance of Power Part V) The Role of Austro-Hungary in the Balance of Power 5 7 8

Metternich System............................................................................................................................. .....8 Part VI) The Role of Prussia in the Balance of Power Otto von Bismarck and His Political Strategy: Realpolitic Part VII) Conclusion: The Transformation of the Realpolitic to Weltpolitic and the WWI. 9 9 11

Bibliography................................................................................................................. ......................... .12

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DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

PART I) THE WORLD WAR I 1) THE PROCESS OF STARTING THE WWI Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was visiting to Sarajevo with her wife, Princess Sophie von Hohenberg. The date is on June 28, 1914 (on the twentieth of June in 1914). On Sunday and at approximately 01.15 p.m. Franz Ferdinand and his wife were killed by Gavrilo Princip. At the result of this assassination a big war which will last throughout four years started. And three state; Tsarist Russia, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires collapsed. Besides, nine million soldiers and six million civilian died. At the total fifteen people died in this the war. What was real reason of this war? Was Archduke Franz Ferdinand killed by Gavrilo Princip? Or what else were there reasons? 2) y y y y y y y THE REASONS OF THE WWI Industrialization, Searching raw material and new markets, Political and economic competition, Arms race, Unified Germany and Unified Italy, Nationalism, The states in Europe formed two different blocs.

All of these are a reason of this horrible war. Are these real reasons of the World War I, according to you? Real and general reason of this war was that the balance of power in Europe collapsed. The balance of power lasted throughout about 400 years and it prevented that big wars happened. Of course, wars happened in Europe like the Wars of the Roses, Thirty Years War, Seven Years War, and Napoleonic Wars. But these wars weren t as terrible as the WW1 and during these wars, the leaders in Europe succeeded to protect the stability and the flexibility of diplomacy in Europe. Ok, what is the balance of power? How and when did it exist in Europe? How and why did it collapse? In fact, to be able to understand this, we must study approximately four hundred years old history of Europe. But because of having limited time, I ll try to tell you this history briefly. 3) THE DESCRIPTIONS OF BALANCE OF POWER We can make different descriptions of the balance of power. 1. A situation in which political or military strength is shared evenly. (the description of Longman Dictionary) 2. A phrase in international law for such a "just equilibrium" between the members of the family of nations as should prevent any one of them from becoming sufficiently strong to enforce its will upon the rest. (the Britannica Encyclopaedia, 11th edition) 3. In international relations, a balance of power exists when there is parity or stability between competing forces. As a term in international law for a 'just equilibrium' between the 3

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members of the family of nations, it expresses the doctrine intended to prevent any one nation from becoming sufficiently strong so as to enable it to enforce its will upon the rest. (Balance of Power in International Relations, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) 4. A doctrine and an arrangement whereby the power of one state or group of states is checked by the countervailing power of other states. (Robert H. Jackson, The Evolution of International Society, page 36) PART II) FROM THE UNIVERSALITY TO THE STABILITY The system which is described by historians as Europe Power System existed in the XVII. Century after the universality of the middle Ages collapsed. This used to be accepted as the concept of a world order which combined the traditions of the Roman Empire and Roman Catholic Church. According these ideologies, the world is a reflection of the sky and an emperor must govern secular world and universal church like a god. Because only one God was ruling the Heaven. The feudal states in Italy and Germany were been governing by the Holly Roman Empire. This empire became as powerful as being going to govern all Europe. But Holly Roman Empire could never reach central control level to do this. The disagreements between Pope and emperor created constitutionalism and separation of power which is principles of democracy in the middle Europe. Feudal States get new rights for their managements by using these disagreements. In conclusion, this situation caused that Europe smashed. The rulers these feudal states were theoretically faithful to the emperor but they were doing something they wanted in practice. Different dynasties asserted that they have the rights to govern Holly Roman Empire and that s why, this situation disappeared central power of the emperor. Although the emperor didn t have such power to become the reality this, they couldn t give up their dreams regarding to old universal managements. Besides, even though France, Spain and Great Britannia were parts of Universal Church, they didn t recognize the authority of Holly Roman Empire. Holly Roman Empire couldn t transform its universal demands from claims into a politic system until Habsburg dynasty got the throne of Spain and wide lands XVI. century. In the first half of sixteenth century, the period emperor Charles I, the empire was including Germany, Austria, Northern Italy, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungry, East France, Belgium and Holland of today. The separation into groups like this had powerful enough to prevent that new formation can be appeared like power stability in Europe. While all of these were been living, Holly Roman Empire lost its hopes. Because XVI. Century Roman Catholic Church decreased its own power due to the Reformation. The emperors wanted that people recognized themselves as a representative of God in the Earth. But XVI. Century the emperors were accepted as combatants from Vienna on Protestant lands. The Reformation gave new rights to the princes like doing something they wanted in the religious and political areas. The meaning of this was that they interrupted connections with Holly Roman Empire and religious universality. The struggles of the princes with Habsburg Emperor also were proving that the loyalties of the princes against the emperor weren t a religious duty anymore.

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PART III) THE ROLE OF FRANCE IN THE BALANCE OF POWER ARMAND JEAN DU PLESSIS DE RICHEIEU AND RAISON D ETAT Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu was a politician and religious functionary. Besides, he was a prince Roman Catholic Church and the prime minister of France between 1624 and 1642 years. After the concept of unity collapsed in Europe, new states which were founded in Europe needed a new concept to show themselves the justice at their heresy and to order the relationships between each other. They found something in these concepts; Raison d état and balance of power . Raison d état refers to that a state has rights to do everything and use every ways if they make the state stronger. National interests were taking place of the universal ethics and universal monarchy was also taking place of balance of power. According to them, a state which was trying to reach its egoistic goals assists the security and development of other states. While Holly Roman Empire was trying to provide central authority, the first state which resisted to this became France. Because if Holly Roman Empire provided central authority and got stronger, this situation would seriously damage France. That s why; France started to use the competitions between other states after the Reformation. According to the rulers from France, if Holly Roman Empire loses power, even destroy, F rance will feel in more confidence, even may expand to the east. Richelieu who realized and was effective in his history was also the father of modern state system. He created the concept, Raison d état and he used it mercilessly against other states. Thanks to Richelieu Raison d état took place of the universal ethics values of the Middle Ages as a fundamental principle of French policies. When Richelieu became the Prime Minister of France in 1624, Ferdinand II of Habsburg Holly Roman Emperor was trying to revive Catholic Religion by destroying Protestantism and to provide authority on the princes in Middle Europe. This process caused Thirty Years Wars. In fact, Richelieu who was a prince of Catholic Church needed to support Ferdinand II. But the national interests of France were more important than every kind of religious purposes. According to Richelieu, this enterprise of Ferdinand II was a geopolitical threat and against France. This enterprise was also a strategy Austria did to provide authority in Middle Europe and to remove France to the second status. In fact, Richelieu s fears weren t without a reason. Looking at the map of Europe was enough to see that France was surrounded by Habsburg lands. There was Spain in the south of France, Northern Italy city-states which were governed by Habsburg. These city-states were in the southeast of France. Besides, there was Franche-Comté (the surroundings of Lyon and Savoy of today) which was governed by Habsburg. Some places which weren t able to be managed by Habsburg were controlled by Austria branch of Habsburg dynasty. If Habsburg got Northern Germany under the control, France would lose its own power dangerously.

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Richelieu, in 1629, the 11th year of the war, could utilize the opportunities Ferdinand II had better. Because Protestant Princes were ready to accept the authority of Habsburg if Ferdinand II allowed that the princes could choose the religion they wanted and protect the lands they won during the Reformation. But Ferdinand II couldn t throw religion to the second plan for political necessities. He preferred to command regarding to giving back lands which were taken from the church since 1555 instead of protect in his own authority by accepting such a suggestion which would have been a victory for himself. Richelieu decided that this war lasted more long while and for this, he worked. He gave new liberties to Protestants in France with the Donation of Alais. These were the liberties the emperor didn t want to give to German Princes. Therefore, Richelieu who protected your countries from the disorders in Middle Europe started to use Ferdinand s religious ideals against him. The emperor who couldn t understand their interests gave the opportunities to the president of France, Richelieu to support Protestant German Princes against the emperor. Richelieu began to give money to Protestants. Catholic King of France, Louis XIII was never able to come to his memory an idea regarding to undertaking to protect Protestant Princes against the emperor s aims of centralization. Richelieu who was a prince of Catholic Church was helping Protestant King of Sweden, Gustav Adolf and giving him money to war against Holly Roman Empire. This event left very important effects like French Revolutions. The aim of Richelieu was to rescue France which was surrounded with enemies and to prevent that new power appeared at the boundaries of France especially the boundaries France and Germany--. To make this aim reality, Richelieu made agreements with firstly Protestants and then the Muslim in Ottoman Empire. He was ready to lengthen the time of the war and to exhaust the states which made wars. He gave money to the enemies of the enemies, incited people against Holly Roman Empire, supported these revolts with money and used the best the conditions which consisted of the struggle of dynasty and legal conflicts. At last of these Richelieu was very successful and the war which started in 1618 lasted until a long while, 1648. I think that s why; the historians said to these wars Thirteen Years War . While Germany was destroying at these wars, France waited in a side. Richelieu wouldn t get anything if he had made an agreement before the King of France became as powerful as the emperor of Habsburg. Because of this, Richelieu, to reach his aims, persuaded the King of France regarding to entering to the war against Holly Roman Empire. So France sided with Protestants at these wars and it made this to show the power of France by considering that this was a great opportunity. If a state want to use Raison d état policy successfully, it must evaluate the relationships between powers correctly. Universal values evaluate according to the form of perceiving and it is not necessary to comment them continually. In fact, if these values comment continually and again, this situation could cause mistake comments. To determine boundaries of power is necessary that the composition of the experience and foresight adjusts according to the conditions. The balance of power must certainly be calculated theoretically. But while this is applied, it is difficult to do by depending on facts. It is more complicated to be able to provide the harmony between the balance of power and our calculations. This harmony is very important to protect the balance of power. The compromises which occur over the nature of the balance sometimes appear with conflicts.

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Richelieu who used Raison d état to reach his aims, to show his own rightfulness to people who criticized him, said that people are immortal; the salvations of them become reality on the Day of Judgment. But states are not immoral; the salvations of them are now or never! Shortly, if states do things which are true, the rewards will not be given to them. They will award when they become powerful to do things which are necessary. PART IV) THE ROLE OF THE ENGLAND N THE BALANCE OF POWER The balance over the continent strengthened with that a state appeared and in fact, it was directed by this state. The policies of England supported the states which were weak or were threatened by others to correct the balance. The engineer of these policies was the King of England, William III, William of Orange. Raison d état of England was that England was a country which didn t want to get the lands in Europe. According to the rulers in England, the interests of England depend on protecting the balance in Europe. It is not good to be governed by one state all of Europe. England could make every kind of coalitions to prevent to happen this. The balance of power was constituted with the coalitions which were established by England against France which wanted to govern all of Europe. The coalitions were constituted by England against the dominance of France which was set forth by Richelieu the first time against Habsburgs in Germany and tried to be made reality in the name of the Liberties of Europe and every wars which occurred in XVIII. century had this dynamics. The balance of power worked. Because the nations that resisted to the dominance of France were stronger than France. The effort of expansion that lasted throughout one and a half century exhausted the wealth of France. Raison d état of France was restrained by other states in Europe. France stayed as the most powerful state of Europe but it could not govern all of Europe. This is an example that shows how the balance works. The Role of Great Britannia as a balancer reflects geopolitical reality of life. If the resources of the continent were governed by one state, England which was relatively a small island in the open sea of Europe could threaten. Because, in the situation like this, England which didn t have resources and populations enough could take under the authority of the empire in the continent. That s why; England with William III started a war against the King of France, Louis XIV for the lands which its name is Belgium now and it has a lot of important castles and harbours near England. Because William III knew that if Louis XIV got these castles, Holland (the name of Belgium was Holland in the past) would lose its independence, the dominance of France would increase and this situation would directly threaten England. The war decision of William III against France for Belgium of today has the same aim with the war decision against Germany when they occupied Belgium in 1914, in the WWI. The end of 19th century the public opinion in England was supported the policy of loneliness like the public opinion in the USA the following two hundred century. According to them, if the threat shows itself and when it shows itself, they will have time enough to resist it. It is not necessary to conduct the policies based on the assumptions according to what some states will do in the future. 7

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According to William III and some politicians in England and Theodore Roosevelt in the USA, the policy of loneliness was not a good policy. The security of England and the USA depended on joining the balance of power overseas. They tried to persuade the public opinion regardi g to this. n NOTE: England protected the wholeness of lands of Ottoman Empire against especially Tsarist Russia in the past. This is regarding to the balance of power. There are two reasons: 1. To support the states which were weak or were threatened by others, and 2. According to the politicians in England, if Ottoman Empire destroyed, new states will be established on the lands of it. They can break the balance of power in Europe by defying and attacking the states in Europe. Because they cannot understand howthe balance of power in Europe works. PART V) THE ROLE OF AUSTRO-HUNGARY EMPIRE IN THE BALANCE OF POWER METTERN CH SYSTEM The role of Austria n the balance of power shows the effect with Klemens Wenzel von Metternich. Metternich who was originally German provided that Austria got strong again. He was recognized by everyone after he became the ambassador in France in 1806. Metternich who worked as a chancellor from 1809 to 1848 became the Prime Minister of Austria and the president of German Confederation which was founded recently. He gathered a congress called Vienna Congress in Vienna in 1815. Metternich that was the presid ent of the congress was effective at the decision of the congress. These decisions were determined by England, Russia, Austria and Prussia. Klemens von Metternich was against the ideologies like nationalism, freedom, independence and especially republicanism which appeared with French Revolution and wanted that the status quo in Europe had to be protected. According to him, the states were consisting of the dynasties and if these destroyed, the anarchy would happen in Europe. That s why; he established Holy Alliance. The l liberal states like England and France didn t join this alliance, but they respected this agreement. Metternich System refers to the system which aimed at protecting the status quo in Europe. This system was suggested by Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia at Vienna Congress in 1815. The name of father of this system was the Prime Minister of Austria, Klemens Wenzel von Metternich. He wanted that this status quo had to be protected by force. According to him, the nationalism needed to be stopped mercilessly and national-states needed to be destroyed. This system depended on that the cooperation between Russia and Austria in the Balkans, Prussia balanced France and Russia and all of Europe could not be governed by one state. The aims of Metternich System were; 1. To found Europe again in the system of federation and 2. To occur the federative power that was located in the centre of Europe and was governed by Austria. The first reactions against Metternich System started with the revolutions in 1830 and 1848. 1830 Revolutions got stronger liberalism, the constitutional monarchy was established in France and the 8

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rights and liberties of people increased. Besides, after the revolutions expanded, Belgium separated from Holland and it became an independence state. After that Sweden and Norway became independent kingdom in 1905. Half a century-old Metternich System collapsed at the result of 1848 Revolutions. Industrial Revolution happened in the first half of 19th century and the proletariat appeared. The King of France who took hard measures had to go from his country because of the revolutions which started in Paris. In France republic was declared. These revolution movements influenced a lot of country I Europe, -- particularly Austria--. Hungarians, Czechs, Croatians and Italians rebelled against Austria for their liberties. The liberals and the democrats came to the administrations in England and Switzerland. NOTICE: 1848 Revolutions are rebellion, revolution and liberties movements which occurred in a lot of countries of Europe. Especially Italy, Germany, Austria, Poland, Romania and Hungary were affected by these revolutions a lot in this period. Great powers of this period, Russia, the UK, Ottoman Empire and Holland were not relatively affected by these events. PART VI) THE ROLE OF PRUSSIA IN THE BALANCE OF POWER OTTO VON BISMACK AND HIS POLITICAL STRATEGY: REALPOLITIC Otto von Bismarck is important for the role of Prussia in the balance of power like Klemens Wenzel von Metternich for the role of Austria in the balance of power. Otto von Bismarck who provided to transform to a powerful empire from a confederation of Germany in 19th century was the first chancellor. Otto von Bismarck who has the Count of Schönhausen and the duke of Lauenburg tried to found New Germany with the blood and iron. That s why; he was given the iron chancellor. When Wilhelm I, who became the King of Prussia in January, 1861 wanted to increase the expenditure regarding to military, the liberals in the Prussia Parliament didn t allow him. So William I appoint Bismarck as the chancellor. Bismarck who started to work as the chancellor on September 22, 1862 said at the parliament that big problems will be solved with just the blood and iron. And he conducted the policies regarding to this. After this event, Bismarck dissolved the parliament and he said that he didn t recognise any power outside of the King. Bismarck who supported Tsarist Russia at the revolt in Poland tried to correct the relationships with this country. After that he signed a trade agreement with France. This agreement was also effective for other German Princes which were governed by Prussia. So Austria was expected from this agreement. Bismarck who wanted to found the Unified Germany started a war to Denmark with Austria in the name of German Confederation. Schleswig and Holstein which was German the majority of the population were taken from Denmark. Schleswig was annexed by Prussia and Holstein was annexed by Austria. The next year Bismarck occupied Holstein after he persuaded France and Tsarist Russia to be neutral. Then he declared that German Confederation ended and he entered to Bohemia with the armies of 9

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Prussia. In 1866 Austrian armies was beaten in Sadowa. However, Bismarck didn t go onto them with his armies. In fact, he has power enough to arrive at Vienna. But he knew that he could need Austria in the future. After the war, with a treaty Austria was expelled from the North German Confederation which the leader was Prussia. During these skirmishes, Bismarck went onto the princes who didn t want to recognise the authority of Prussia and he occupied the lands of them. In the result of these, the first stages were succeeded to be founded a Unified Germany by unifying the German Princes under a federation. After that a parliament called Reichstag which the members were elected by the community established. Besides Federal Council that members were appointed by every German Princes founded. Its name is Bundesrat. Bismarck wanted to occupy but he didn t a reason to war with France. In 1870 the King of France wanted to give up the rights regarding to the throne of Spain and to be appointed Leopold as the king of Spain from the King of Prussia, Wilhelm II. This was an opportunity for Bismarck. After he provided that Austria and Tsarist Russia was neutral with intelligent diplomacy, he started a war to France. The armies of King Napoleon III were defeated at the Battle of Sedan in 1870. France gave Alsace and Lorraine to Germany with the Treaty of Frankfurt in 1871. So France lost Alsace and Lorraine which was one of the reasons of the WWI. Besides, Bismarck had already succeeded to take the authority of Germany under Southern German Princes who didn t join the Unity of Germany. Therefore the Unity of Germany was completed in the result of the Sedan Victory. Bismarck who applied different diplomacy by making complicated agreements and alliance in the foreign policy became a reality his dream of Unified Germany. He used realpolitic to succeed this. Realpolitic refers to try to reach by depending on realities and facts instead of any ideals or theorems. This term is German and the name father of that is Otto von Bismarck. But now it passed to other languages as a term of foreign policy. Realpolitic was described differently. Another description is that politics or diplomacy based primarily on practical considerations, rather than ideological notions or moralistic premises. In this respect, it shares aspects of its philosophical approach with those of realism and pragmatism. The term realpolitic that is often used pejoratively to imply politics that are coercive, amoral, or Machiavellian is a theory of politics that focuses on considerations of power, not ideals, morals, or principles. Rodrigo Borja Cevallas was the president of Ecuador from 1988 to 1992.According to Rodrigo Borja, realpolitic defines as the principle on which nations act, in their foreign policies that are driven by their own interests instead of altruism, friendship, idealism or solidarity considerations and power has a decisive role in international relations. People who apply realpolitic protect the interests of their countries and they consider that other people will do the same thing. The person who has applied this policy the best is Otto von Bismarck. He used realpolitic mercilessly to found Unified Germany. Nowadays the USA has been using realpolitic the best. These are important points: if a state wants to use realpolitic, it must be powerful both of domestic and foreign policy. Because the states that aren t powerful at the Foreign Policy must be effective on 10

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other states. Besides, the pressures of public opinion prevent that only the aim of the state is the interests of it. PART VII) CONCLUSION: THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE REALPOLITIC TO WELTPOLITIC AND THE WWI Friedrich III became the emperor when Wilhelm I died in March 1888. After Friedrich III died, Wilhelm II became the emperor. Wilhelm II and the rulers who were appointed as the chancellor after Otto von Bismarck commented realpolitic mistakenly and Realpolitic transformed to weltpolitic. According to them, the security of Germany depends on that Germany must become powerful. Germany which got stronger at the military field started to become a threat in Middle Europe for other states of Europe. The desires of Germany about becoming strong in the sea and getting colonialism damaged the relationships of Germany and the UK. Because of Alsace-Lorraine that was taken by Germany from France with Sedan War, the relationships between Germany and France harmed. Lastly, Russia wasn t pleased that Germany supported Austria in the Balkans. When Germany and Italy completed their political unity, the Balance of Power had already collapsed. Then, Europe Powerful Germany in Middle reminded Holly Roman Empire and Napoleon Bonaparte that wanted to govern all of Europe to European States. The European States which was afraid of this began to take up arms against Germany and tried to increase their military power. Founding the alliances between states completely destroyed the balance of power. The alliances in Middle Ages were more flexible. A state could join any alliance by separating from another when that state wanted and so the balance was been protecting. When the activities of mobilization of states for a general war left diplomacy to a side, the states needed only one reason for starting of this general war. Archduke Ferdinand gave this reason to European States. The assassination of him in Sarajevo became the fire which started the war. Together with industrialization, increasing raw materials and markets and nationalism, the collapse of a four-hundred-year-old the balance was more effective on starting the WWI. Unified Germany and Unified Italy sped up this process. Real reason of WWII which occurred in 1939, in fact, is the balance of power. Because after the WWI, this balance could not be established again. The Treaty of Versailles sped up this process. John Maynard Keynes had already realized the importance of the balance. In Versailles Congress he said to the participants that he said to European politicians that if we wanted to protect Europe as a whole, we need Germany. He was right. Some years later, in 1929, Great Depression happened. After that the WWII occurred in 1939. The Balance of Power could be established again after the Cold War. Was the Balance of Power really established again after the Cold War?

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy, Tükiye 195-212. Bankas Kültür Edition, page 95-130 ; 130-162 ; 162-195 and

Oral Sander, Political History, Until 1918 from Ancient Times, page 220-225 ; 245-247 ; 251-254. http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bismarck http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_von_Bismarck http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gen%C3%A7_William_Pitt http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sedan_Sava%C5%9F%C4%B1 http://www.turkcebilgi.com/alman_milli_birli%C4%9Fi%27nin_kurulu%C5%9Fu/ansiklopedi http://www.bibilgi.com/ansiklopedi/Alman-Milli-Birli%C4%9Fi%27nin-Kurulu%C5%9Fu http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metternich_sistemi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Pitt_the_Younger http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Pitt,_1st_Earl_of_Chatham http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/PRpitt.htm http://www.britannia.com/gov/primes/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Realpolitik http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Realpolitik http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%9C%C3%A7_%C4%B0mparator_Birli%C4%9Fi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/League_of_the_Three_Emperors http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kutsal_Roma_Germen_%C4%B0mparatorlu%C4%9Fu http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alman_Konfederasyonu http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuzey_Almanya_Konfederasyonu http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/1848_Devrimleri http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/I._D%C3%BCnya_Sava%C5%9F%C4%B1 http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/I._Wilhelm http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bundesrat http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reichstag http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schleswig-Holstein 12

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http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schleswig-Holstein_sorunu http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C4%B1r%C4%B1m_Sava%C5%9F%C4%B1 http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%B0talya_Krall%C4%B1%C4%9F%C4%B1 http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%B0talya%27n%C4%B1n_Birle%C5%9Fmesi http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panslavizm http://www.sozluk.net/index.php?word=pentarchy http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machiavelli http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machiavellianism http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makyavelizm http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Kongresi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Berlin_(1878) http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viyana_Kongresi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congress_of_Vienna

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