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# Time Response*, ME451

## Zeros and poles of a transfer function

Let G(s)=N(s)/D(s), then
Zeros of G(s) are the roots of N(s)=0
Poles of G(s) are the roots of D(s)=0

Im(s)

Re(s)

Theorems
Initial Value Theorem

## Final Value Theorem

If all poles of sX(s) are in the left half plane (LHP), then

1.4

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

## DC Gain of a stable transfer function

DC gain (static gain) : the ratio of the steady state output of a
system to its constant input, i.e., steady state of the unit step
response
Use final value theorem to compute the steady state of the unit
step response

Pure integrator

ODE :
Impulse response :
Step response :
If the initial condition is not zero, then :

## First order system

R
C

ODE :

Impulse response :

Step response :

## Physical meaning of the impulse response

Matlab Simulation
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0

Impulse Response

Amplitude

impulse(G)

step(G)

0.5

1
1.5
2
Time (sec)

2.5

2.5

Step Response

2.5

Amplitude

2
1.5

Time constant

0.5
0
0

0.5

1
1.5
2
Time (sec)

## First order system response

System transfer function :

## First order system response

System transfer function :
Impulse response :

## First order system response

System transfer function :
Impulse response :

## First order system response

System transfer function :
Impulse response :
Step response :
Step Response

100
90
80
Amplitude

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

100

200

300
400
Time (sec)

500

600