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Experiment 1

American International University- Bangladesh
Faculty of Engineering (EEE)
Electrical Machines 1 Laboratory

Title: Study of Separately- Excited DC Shunt Generator
Abstract:
The purpose of this experiment is to be able to study the properties of the separately-excited
dc shunt generator under no-load and full-load conditions and then obtain the saturation/
O.C.C curve and the armature voltage versus armature current load curve of the generator.
Introduction:
A DC Motor/Generator can run either as a motor or as a generator. A motor converts
electrical power into mechanical power while a generator converts mechanical power into
electrical power. A generator must, therefore, be mechanically driven in order to produce
electricity.
Since the field winding is an electromagnet, current must flow through it to produce a
magnetic field. This current is called the excitation current, and can be supplied to the field
winding in one of two ways- it can come from a separate, external dc source, in which case
the generator is called a separately-excited generator or it can come from the generator’s own
output, in which case the generator is called a self-excited generator.
Theory and Methodology:
A d.c. generator whose field magnet winding is supplied from an independent external d.c.
source (e.g., a battery etc.) is called a separately excited generator. Fig.1 shows the
connections of a separately excited generator. The voltage output depends upon the speed of
rotation of armature and the field current (Eg =PΦ ZN/60 A). The greater the speed and field
current, greater is the generated e.m.f.
Although separate excitation requires a separate dc power source, it is useful in cases where a
generator must respond quickly and precisely to an external control source, or when the
output voltage must be varied over a wide range. It may be noted that separately excited d.c.
generators are rarely used in practice. The d.c. generators are normally of self-excited type.
Fig. 2 shows how the exciter and main circuit in a separately excited d.c generator could be
practically arranged.

Fig.1: Separately Excited D.C Generator
generator

Fig.2 Separate excitation of an electric

the Synchronous Motor/Generator will be used to mechanically drive the DC Motor/Generator. Terminals 1. Using your Power Supply. connect the circuit shown in Figure 3 1 415 V 3 Phase 0-1. Terminals 8 and N on the Power Supply provide fixed dc power for the rotor winding. 3 2.5 A AC A (3) 1 I1 S 4 R 500  2 A 2 I2 5 3 A 3 I3 6 7 8 8 240 V DC N Fig. 2 and 3 on the Power Supply provide fixed three-phase power for the three stator windings. (Three-phase power will be covered in later Laboratory Experiments). Page . AC Ammeter and Synchronous Motor. Apparatus: Description Model DC Motor/Generator Synchronous Motor/Generator Variable Resistance DC Voltmeter/Ammeter AC Ammeter Power Supply Connection Leads Timing Belt 8211 8241 8311 8412 8425 8821 8941 8942 Precaution: High voltages are present in this Laboratory Experiment! Do not make any connections with the power on! The power should be turned off after completing each individual measurement! Experimental Procedure: 1.2 . Because of its constant running speed.Pre-Lab Homework: Students will be provided the upcoming lab sheets and they will be asked to take preparation about the theoretical (operations /working principle) information of the particular topic from the reference book.

Note the effect on the output of the Generator output (armature voltage) E A as indicated by the 400V dc meter. 4.mA dc 1 5 0240 V dc 0-400 V dc V EA+ SHUNT FIELD 6 N 2 Fig. Procedure 6) 3. (e) Make sure the brushes are in their neutral position. (a) Using your DC Motor/Generator. Warning: The switch in the excitation circuit of the Synchronous Motor should be closed (down position) only when the motor is running. connect the circuit shown in Figure 4. while connecting the 300mA meter in series with the position lead. Close switch S. 4 (b) Connect the shunt field of the DC Motor/Generator. (c) Measure and record in Table 1 the armature voltage E A for each of the listed field currents. terminals 5 and 6.Set the rheostat control knob to its proper position for normal excitation (Laboratory Experiment 1. I 7 F+ 0-300 A . Page .3 . (b) Vary the shunt field current IF by rotating the voltage control knob on the Power Supply. The Synchronous Motor should start running. to the variable dc output of the Power Supply: terminals 7 and N. (a) Turn on the Power Supply. (d) Couple the Synchronous Motor and the DC Generator with the Timing Belt. (c) Connect the 400 V DC Voltmeter/Ammeter across the Generator output (Armature terminals 1 and 2). DC Voltmeter/Ammeter.

(c) Did the armature voltage reverse its polarity? Page . (c) Did the armature voltage reverse its polarity? Yes No (d) Return the voltage to zero and turn off the Power Supply. except for reversed polarity? (e) Return the voltage to zero and turn off the Power Supply.4 . (b) Turn on the Power Supply and adjust for a field current I F of 200mA dc. (b) Turn on the Power Supply and adjust for a field current IF of 200mA dc. (b) Turn on the Power Supply and adjust for a field current I F of 200mA dc. (e) Can you explain why there is an armature voltage even when the field current is zero? 4. 5. EA=__________ V dc (d) Is the armature voltage approximately the same as in Procedure 4 (at an I F of 200mA).Table 1 (d) Return the voltage to zero and turn off the Power Supply. (a) Reverse the polarity of the shunt field by interchanging the leads to terminals 5 and on the DC Motor/Generator. (a) Interchange the leads to the 400 V DC Voltmeter/Ammeter. 6. (a) Reverse the rotation of the driving motor by interchanging any two of the stator lead connections (terminals 1. 2 or 3) to the Synchronous Motor. (c) Measure and record the armature voltage.

(a) Interchange the leads to the 400 V DC Voltmeter/Ammeter.5 . IF = ________ mA Page . connect the circuit shown in Figure 5. Using the Variable Resistance.5 A A -A dc 5 0-240 V dc EA + V SHUNT FIELD 0-400 RL 6 N 2 Fig. (b) Adjust the shunt field current IF until the DC Generator is delivering an output voltage of 240 V dc.5 (c) Record the shunt-field current IF. The synchronous Motor should start running. IF 7 + 0-300 A mA dc IA 1 - + 0-1.5 A dc. 7. Place the resistance switches so that the total load resistance is 480 Ω.Yes No (e) Return the voltage to zero and turn off the Power Supply. Load Characteristics: 8. The DC Ammeter IA should indicate 0. (c) Measure and record the armature voltage. 9. (b) Turn on the Power Supply and adjust for a field current I F of 200 mA dc. (Refer to Appendix A at the end of this manual). EA=________ V dc (d) Is the armature voltage approximately the same as in Procedure 4 (at an IF of 200mA dc) except for reverse polarity? Yes No (e) Return the voltage to zero and turn off the Power Supply. (a) Turn on the Power Supply.

75 A.6 .5 A = 120 W) of the DC Generator.This is the nominal IF at the rated power output (240 V × 0. (b) Measure and record EA and IA for each of the resistance values listed in the Table. 10. turn the nominal field current IF on and off by removing the connecting lead from terminal 6 of the DC Motor/Generator. 11. (a) Adjust the load resistance to obtain each of the values listed in Table 2 while maintaining the nominal IF value found in procedure 10. Table 2 13. (a) Place a short circuit across the armature (terminals 1 and 2). Page . (b) Make sure that the Power Supply voltage control knob is turned down for zero field current. (c) Turn on the Power Supply. (b) Do you notice that the driving motor is obviously working harder when the generator is delivering power to the load? Yes No (c) Return the voltage to zero and turn off the Power Supply. 12. Calculate and record the power for each of the values listed in Table 2. (a) With the load resistance adjusted for an output current IA of 0.

.uettaxila. Measurement: 1. Discussion: 1. Results/Finding(s) : Describe in words what the data that you plotted means.. Mehta. what is the minimum mechanical power (in watts) needed to drive the generator (Assume 80% efficiency)? 3.edu/gleb/.pdf List the references that you have used to answer the “Discussion” section. Objective Electrical Technology By V.ee.lamar. this produces a strong braking effect sufficient to stall the driving motor... State two ways by which the output polarity of a separately-excited dc shunt generator can be changed 2. Calculate the regulation from no-load to full-load (0. Warning: Do not leave the motor in the stalled condition for more than a couple of seconds. Rohit Mehta Hawkins Electrical Guide by Nehemiah Hawkins www. Did your results match the expected ones? If not. (e) What value of shunt-field current IF is needed to stall the motor? IF = _________ mA Note: With a short circuit across the armature.K. Use the data from Table 1.(d) Gradually increase the field current IF until the motor stalls (tend to stop)./notes%5CDC%20Generator%20x-tics.pdf web. Plot the EA vs IF curve for your separately-excited dc shunt generator on the graph. Plot the EA vs IA regulation curve on the graph. 4.edu. 3.5 A dc) Reference(s): 1. (f) Turn off the Power Supply.7 . its current becomes very large. Page . 2.pk/CMS/. explain why./Lab%2008%20-%20DC%20generators. Use the data from Table 2. If a dc generator delivers 180 W to a load. 2.