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Lance Sao Melendez-Heart

English 123
Professor Alzen
11 November 2016
Annotated Bibliography
Hinton, E.K. (2016). From the war on poverty to the war on crime: The
making of mass incarceration in America.
The main theme of this book is "How did the land of the free become
the loose of the worlds largest prison system?" The author challenges the
belief that this originated with the Reagan Administrations "war on drugs",
and traces the rise of mass incarceration to the social welfare programs of
Lyndon Johnson's great society that was at the height of the civil rights era.
The Law Enforcement Assistance Act of 1965 empowered the government to
take a direct role in militarizing local police. Anticipating future crime policy
makers urged states to build new prisons and introduced various law
enforcement measures to urban schools and public housing.
I will be able to use this source for the purposes of historical
background. Knowing where the prison system and incarceration began to
increase is helpful in knowing how we got to where we are today and some of
the actions we can take to change it. By the 1980s-crime control and
incarceration had a huge influx which was dominated by the national
response to poverty and inequality. Although the author argues that the
reason for mass incarceration is due to the Laws from the Johnson

Administration, I believe that the Reagan Administrations war on drugs is

also a very important factor.
Carl J.D., Looman M.D. (2015). Country called prison: Mass incarceration and
the making of a new nation, 1-259.
Carl and Looman propose a shift in the way Americans view the mass
incarceration. They incorporate sociological and psychological principles,
theories of political reform, and life stories form people who have experience
working in prison as well as with at risk-families. The authors build a
foundation to demonstrate that prison is more than a building of fences and
policies, they view it as a culture. Prison continues after leaving a
correctional facility. Felons are trapped in the isolation of poverty and explain
that "these legal aliens turn to illegal ways of providing for themselves and
are often imprisoned" America is facing an incarceration epidemic and
requires a new perspective to eradicate it.
This book is well rounded offering feasible, economic suggestions to
reform the prison system as well ways I. Which to reform the prison system
to help prisoners return to a productive lifestyle after incarceration. The reallife stories help the reader empathize with the men and woman who
understand the prison system and the struggles they face when released. I
will be able to use this source for not only purposes of identifying and
explaining policy, but using it as a source of life struggles. I would like to
introduce this to aid my argument that we need more programs to help

rehabilitate prisoners who are going to be released. When rehabilitation is

giving, the prisoners will developers kills to be productive members of
Javitze, R.D. (2009). Mass incarceration and offender re-entry in the United
States. New York: Nova Science Publishing, Inc.
This book brings up several questions about America's rise in
incarcerate. The author discusses the correlation between mass
imprisonment and crime rates; the impact of incarceration on minority
communities, women; the costs of the prison system; the criminal justice
policy; and transitioning ex-offenders back into the community. The
combined spending of local, state, and federal governments for correctional
personnel and law enforcement now totals over $200 billion. The
construction and operation of prisons have become a sought-after tool of
economic growth for rural communities. The authors explore possibilities to
spend less money yet enhance public safety, and create a fairer prison
system. While having a large prison, system has a significant employment
productivity, the economic output is usually lost by society while the inmates
are in prison. These negative loses usually continue after release.
This is a good source to use in my research to show the prison system
form an economic standpoint. While there are some benefits for jobs and
revenue for the economy, there are negatives as well. I will be able to argue
that the negatives in this case outweighs the positives. There is also an

overwhelming population of minorities in the prison system. I can bring up

similar question like "why are most inmate populations minorities?" or "How
has mass incarceration effected society economically?" Like many of the
other sources I have come across this one is similar in that from an economic
standpoint mass incarceration is costly. Not only from a financial perspective
but from a psychological one as well.
Leukefeld, C. G., Hiller, M. L., Webster, J. M., Tindall, M. S., Martin, S. S.,
Duvall, J., & ... Garrity, T. F. (2006). A prospective examination of highcost health services utilization among drug using prisoners reentering
the community. Journal Of Behavioral Health Services & Research,
33(1), 73-85
The author discusses the impact of healthcare services during
incarceration as well as after their return to their communities. Per the
author the costs are expected to increase over the next decade as inmates
begin to return to their communities. Leukefeld found that drug related
healthcare costs did not have a significant relationship with high cost related
to health treatment. This article focuses on the complications prisoners and
ex-prisoners face while incarcerated and upon release. Leukefeld discusses
the problems this causes for the inmate and public health as well.
This article will help me examine the cost that the public health
systems have on the prison system and society. This article gives the reader
an insight to the processes of public health policies and public safety within

the prison system. Healthcare is very important for society and inmates are I
titled to quality healthcare as well. This source will help me argue that proper
treatment in the prison sty stem is crucial for inmates when they integrate
back into society.
Pelissier, B., Jones, N., & Cadigan, T. (2007). Drug treatment aftercare in the
criminal justice system: A systematic review. Journal Of Substance
Abuse Treatment, 32(3), 311-320.
This article focuses on the treatment and aftercare treatment for
rehabilitation programs in the criminal justice. The authors emphasize issues
about aftercare so the reader is aware of the significant role it plays. After
care is just as important as care during the treatment process because when
aftercare is continued the likely hood of "fall back" is decreased significantly.
This article also touches on identifying the different types and most effective
This article made me think of the rehabilitation options available to
inmates and the importance of aftercare. I will be able to use this source as a
reference for statistic on how successful aftercare can help the inmates
transitioning back into their communities can thrive if given proper care and
opportunities for success.
Simpson, M., & Hergert, M. (2016). Substance-Abuse Treatment: Changing
the Correctional Culture. Corrections Today, 78(2), 42-45.

This article focuses on policy making and the need to understand

offenders of substance abuse and the treatment needed. The author wants
the prison system as well as the criminal justice system to understand and
recognize the importance of drug treatment and drug treatment incentives.
The author discusses the incentives that are currently in place and the role
that the Bureau of prison plays within those programs. Simpson questions
the prison facilities and whether incentives are effective.
I will be able to use this source I. Order to explain to my reader what
incentives are in place now and whether they are effective. Although the
audience of this article is intended for the policy makers and why they should
be more involved, this is a good source at explaining the importance of the
incentives and policies of drug rehabilitation on the prison system.
Sered, S., & Norton-Hawk, M. (2012). Criminalized Women and Twelve Step
Programs: Addressing Violations of the Law With a Spiritual Cure.
Implicit Religion, 15(1), 37-60.
This article examines the 12-step program within women's correctional
facilities, at the same time arguing that NA/AA should be a religious
movement. Inmates that have been charged with drug or alcohol offenses
are mandated to attend the AA/NA groups. The authors focus on categories
of culture, illness, crime, sin, law, medicine, and religion both in the U.S. and
within the prison.

What I find useful in this article is that it is written from a religious

perspective. The author argues that the power of religion, faith, and prayer
all contribute to the recovery of those inmates. NA/AA programs focus on a
higher power and giving yourself to that higher power. This source will help
me view this topic from a Christian perspective as well as helping me express
my faith and the power I know that God must my readers.
Hunt, E., Peters, R. H., & Kremling, J. (2015). Behavioral health treatment
history among persons in the justice system: Findings from the
Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring II Program. Psychiatric Rehabilitation
Journal, 38(1), 7-15.
This article discusses substance abuse disorders, meant, health
disorders, and co-occurring disorders among inmates. They also examine
data gathered from 2007-2010 regarding drug abuse monitoring programs.
This included 18,000 inmates in 10 different metropolitan jails. The authors
also examine the relationship between self-reported treatment history, social
demographic characteristics, and severity of that substance abuse.
This article will be helpful because it is has many statistical findings
which can help me give factual evidence when making my report. The
statistics they focus on are mostly demographic like age, race, and mental
health history. They found that inmates with higher substance abuse history
have a history of behavioral health history. I can also use this source to show
the correlation of substance abuse and behavioral health history. I will be

able to use the statistical evidence from this source to give my readers real
numbers on the growing problems of the prison system.