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TABLE OF CONTENT

CONTENT
Introduction
Design Review and Analysis
System Development
Cost Analysis
Discussion & Conclusion
Attachments

EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 1

PAGE
1
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1.0

INTRODUCTION
1.1

PROJECT BACKGROUND

Steering system can be considered as one of the most important components involved in
operation of the vehicle to direct vehicle, for safety reason and also give your vehicle a more
comfortable ride. The steering system is a group of parts that transmit the movement of the steering
wheel to the front, and sometimes the rear, wheels. When a vehicle is being driven straight ahead, the
steering system must keep it from wandering without requiring the driver to make constant corrections.
All steering systems contain several components such as steering wheel, steering shaft, rack and pinion,
universal joints, tie rod, ball socket, and steering arm.
In this project, our job is to fabricate and modify the steering system that we have designed last
semester. To make sure our steering systems are fast speed, reliable, efficient, safe and less energy used
to turn the steering wheels, the analysis and parameter of the steering system must be precise and
fabricated as exact as possible to the theoretical planning. The placing of rack and pinion in the chassis
also influenced the reliability and efficiency of the steering system.
During fabrication and modifying process, there are certain problems occurred. Some of the
problems are tire slips, placing of the rack and pinion, angle of shaft and many more. However it is our
scope of work to provide solutions to all the problems and to make sure that the steering system work
well with 100% control over acceleration, deceleration and positioning of the system. Moreover, all
process of fabricating and modifying must meet the design criteria. Some of the criteria is; only rack
and pinion are allowed, the steering system must affect at least two wheels and the top of steering
wheel must be no higher than the top surface of the front hoop. Therefore, this is our main goal in
designing and fabricating the steering system.

EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 2

1.2

OBJECTIVES

Objectives are basic tools that bring about all the planning and strategic activities. They serve as the
basis for creating policy and evaluating performance. The list below is the objectives and what we are
aiming for in designing our steering system.

To fabricate and modify the steering system for a single seated racing car
To make sure that our steering system is reliable, efficient, small in size, safe and less energy

used to turn the steering wheels


To solve any problems occurred when fabricating and modifying process takes place
To assure the analysis and parameter of each components of the steering system is precise and
fabricated as exact as possible to the the theoretical planning

EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 3

1.3

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

Design specifications are the main goals that a project must achieve in order to be successful.
The design and decision criteria determine the documents final recommendation for action taken.

Only rack and pinion type steering are allowed.


The steering system must affect at least two wheels.
The steering wheel must be mechanically connected to the front wheels.
The maximum turning radius is 3500mm.
Steer-by-wire systems are prohibited.
Allowable steering system free play is limited to seven degrees (7 )

steering wheel.
In any angular position, the top of the steering wheel must be no higher than the top-most

surface of the front hoop.


All necessary analysis and calculation (e.g. steering ratio, turning radius, required steering

total measured at the

wheel force, component strength analysis, material use analysis, joint method analysis
(bolt/welding/other joint method and etc.) must be performed and shown in the report.

1.4

PROJECT PLANNING

EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 4

1.5

JOB SCOPE

EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 5

Chief engineer

Designer

Lead, control and organize the activities of the

group
Report to the head of the project about the progress

activities
Discuss with other teams leader
Overseeing and leading the work of the group
Translate the idea from the groups members into
design parts that can be fabricated according to the

ergonomic
Stimulate and analyze the drawn design
Ensure that the design have high capability of
strength,

Secretary

Treasurer

endurance

and

can

maintain

high

performance for a long period


Responsible for all aspects of administration
Prepare all the paper works and minute of meeting
Keep track and jot down all the progress report
Photocopying and printing various documents
Responsible for all the aspects of finance
Prepare the financial report
Ensure that all materials and products are of good

quality but does not exceed the budget limit


Ensure the cash flow in and out for steering system
is up-to-date an written down
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 6

Technical

Gather and calculate important theories and analysis


such as Ackermann condition, forces, slip angle and

size of bearing needed


Choose the correct type of materials, joints and

product for the handling system


Make sure the handling system are running
smoothly and safely
Table 1.5 Job Scope

2.0

DESIGN REVIEW AND ANALYSIS

TOP VIEW
30
38

All measurements are in cm

10

215

50

40

10

40

10

35

72

10

20

WHEELBASE = 150

16
Figure 2.1 Dimensions of the car

EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 7

1) To find Centre of Gravity (C.O.G)


Table 2.1 Area of sections
Section

Area ( cm 2 )

(cm)

A ( cm3 )

1 480

131.50

19 4620

3.1

680

104.50

71 060

3.2

85

101.67

8 641.70

3.3

85

101.67

8 641.70

2 400

18 2400

5.1

600

48.5

29 100

5.2

75

46

3 450

5.3

75

46

3 450

1 200

23.5

28 200

96

288

TOTAL

6 776

682.334

52 9851.39

Sample Calculation
Section 2
i.

Area, A
A = Base x Height
A = 37 x 40
A = 1 480 cm 2

ii.

, distance from reference point


= Base/2 + Distance from reference point
=

37
2

+113
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 8

= 18.5 +113

iii.

Centre of Gravity (C.O.G)


C.O.G =
=

A
A
52 9851.39
6 776

= 78.195 cm
iv.

Centre of Rotation (C.O.R)

C.O.R = Wheelbase C.O.G


= 150 78.195
= 71.805 cm
v.

Ackerman Steering Condition


The Ackerman condition is needed when the speed of the vehicle is too small, and slip angles are

zero. There is no lateral force and no centrifugal force to balance each other.

Figure 2.2 A front-wheel-steering vehicle and steer angles of the inner and outer wheels
General Data:
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 9

Wheelbase, l

= 150 cm

Track,

= 100 cm

C.O.G, a2

= 78.195 cm

Figure 2.3 The geometry of the outer wheel steer angle

1502+100 2

= 180.278 cm

tan

= 56.309

150
100

1) Steer angle of the outer wheel,

= 28.155

= 29

Therefore, to find the steer angle of the inner wheel, and R1;
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 10

tan

R 1+

tan i=

l
R 1

tan

R 1+

150
100
R 1+
2

tan 29 =

0.535 (R1 + 50) = 150


R1 = 230.374 cm
2) Steer angle of the inner wheel,
l

tan i=

R 1

2
150

tan i=

230.374

100
2

i=39.747
i=40

Since i

, thus the Ackerman steering condition is proven.

3) The Ackerman condition

cotcoti=

1
1 100
=
tan 29 40 150
1.8671.202=0.667
0.667 = 0.667 (proven)
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 11

4) Turning radius R,
cot=

cot 0 +coti
2

1
1.869+1.202
=
tan
2
1
=1.5355
tan
=33.074
Mass center of a steered vehicle will turn on a circle with radius, R
R= a 22+l 2 +cot 2
R= 78.1972 +1502 +1.53552
R=243.237 cm

Figure 2.4 Effect w/l on the Ackerman condition for front wheel steering vehicle
5) The space requirement of a vehicle during a turn, R

EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 12

The outer point of the front of the vehicle will run on the maximum radius Rmax, whereas a point on
the inner side of the vehicle at the location of the rear axle will run on the minimum radius, Rmin. The
front outer point has an overhang distance g from the front axle.

Figure 2.5 The required space for a turning two-axle vehicle


The minimum radius, Rmin
1
Rmin =R1
2
1
Rmin =230.374 (100)
2
Rmin =180.374 cm
The maximum radius, Rmax
R
2
2
( min+) +(l+ g)
Rmax =

Rmax =(180.374+ 100) +(150+ 51)


2

Rmax =344.979 cm
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 13

Therefore, the required space for turning is the ring with a width R , which is a function of the
vehicle geometry;
R =

Rmax Rmin

R = 344.979 180.374
R = 164.605 cm

6) Trapezoidal steering mechanism

Figure 2.6 A Trapezoidal steering mechanism

EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 14

x= 5.52+ 2.22
x = 5.04 cm
sin =

2.2
5.5

=23.58
Where, d is the arm length.
Thus, d = 5.5 cm

We assume that the width of the car is equal to the width of the track. However, the width of
the car is always greater than width of the track.

The functionality of a trapezoidal steering mechanism

Figure 2.7 Steered configuration of a trapezoidal steering mechanism

Trapezoidal steering mechanism has two characteristics parameters: angle

length d.
The relationship between the inner and outer steer angles of a trapezoidal steering mechanism is
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 15

and offset arm


x
2 sin
d

( + i)
cos ( 0 )cos

x
sin ( + i ) +sin ( o )= +
d
sin ( 23.58 + 40 )+ sin ( 23.58 29 ) =0.4+ 0.16+(0.9960.449)2
0.81=0.77

Therefore,
Percentage Error (%)

( )=

0.810.77
x 100
0.81

( )=4.94

7) Steering Ratio
Refer to the ratio between the turn of the steering wheel (in degrees) or handlebars and the turn of the
wheels (in degrees). The steering ratio, is the amount of degrees you have to turn the steering wheel, for
the wheels to turn an amount of degrees. In motorcycles and bicycles, the steering ratio is always 1:1,
because the steering wheel will always follow the wheel. x:y means that you have turn the steering
wheel x degree(s), for the wheel(s) to turn y degree(s). In most passenger cars, the ratio is between 12:1
and 20:1
Average angle from outer and inner angle of the wheel:
=
=

29+ 40
2
34.5

Steering ratio:
=

34.5
360
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 16

1:10

Therefore it meets the required car specification.


8) Centrifugal Force
1. The tendency of an object following a curved path to fly away from the center of curvature.
2. Centrifugal force is not a true force; it is a form of inertia (the tendency of objects that are
moving in a straight line to continue moving in a straight line).
3. This force is referred to as a force for conveniencebecause it balances centripetal force,
which is a true force.
2
wv
F=
r
Where :
w = weight of the object, N
v = velocity of the object , m/s
r = radius of the curvature, m
The velocity of the car is 90 km/h and converting it to m/s
90

km 1000 m
1h

h
1 km
3600 s

25 m/s

The weight of the car : 210 kg 9.81 m/s


: 2 060.1 N
The radius of curvature based on the maximum allowable radius which is 3.44979 m
F=
=

2060.1 625
3.44979
373.23 kN

Centrifugal force is important for the wheel because the Newton first law state that objects in
motion tend to stay in motion with the same speed and the same direction unless acted upon by an
unbalanced force. Therefore, every cornering of the car will give unbalanced force to the car and we
must know how to avoid an equilibrium condition that will lead to accident if excess cornering.

EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 17

9) Wheel Steering Force

Figure 2.8 Rack and pinion


The force required to steer a vehicle is often considerably larger than a driver can comfortably
exert. The steering mechanism is a machine that allows the driver of vehicle to operate the steering
without having to exert a large force at the steering wheel. The rack and pinion steering mechanism that
is widely used on light vehicles is a convenience example of such as machine.
Steering wheel radius, R

= 12 cm

The tangential force at the rim of the steering wheel = F


The number of the teeth on the pinion, Nt

= 18

The circular pitch of the pinion gear, p

= 1 cm

The force produced at the rack

=S

The movement ratio, MR

distance move by effort


distance moveby load

2 R
Nt . p

= 4.189
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 18

10) Selection on Pinion


N p=

2k
sin2

Assumption;
k = 1 (full depth teeth)
= 20 (pressure angle)
N p=

2 x1
2
sin 20

N p=18 teeth
11) Force acting on tires
Assumption:

Maximum force acting on tires


Static friction in dry surface (rubber with asphalt (tar),

s = 0.7

Weight

Maximum weight of car


Maximum weight of driver

= 150kg
= 60kg

Total weight
W = (150+60) (9.81)
W = 2060.1 N

Ff
N
Normal force acting on each tire;
N=

2060.1
4

N = 515.03 N
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 19

s N

Ff =

Ff = (0.7) (515.03)
Ff = 360.52 N
12) Force transmitted,
Ft =

2T
Dp

360.52=

2T
0.06

T = 10.82 Nm
13) Torque acting on shaft
Assumption:
Torque shaft = Torque pinion
Fd

= 10.82

(360.52) d

= 10.82

= 3.00 cm

14) Stress acting on shaft


F
=
A
=

360.52
4
7.069 x 10

A= r 2
A= r (0.015)2
4

A=7.069 x 10

=0.51 MPA
15) Lateral Force
Cornering force or side force is the lateral (i.e., parallel to the road surface) force produced by a
vehicle tire during cornering. Lateral force is generated by tire slip and is proportional to slip angle at
low slip angles. The rate at which lateral force builds up is described by relaxation length.
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 20

Lateral force, Fyz


mass .V 2 . 2

R
3

Where;
Mass = 50 kg for front body
v

= 25 m/s (speed of the engine)

Rmax = 3.44779 m (max turning radius)


Therefore,
Lateral force, Fyz

mass. V 2 . 2

R
3

= 6.043 kN (steering force, S)

16) Torque due to lateral force, ML


ML

= Fyz r tan

Where;
R

= 0.12m (radius of wheel)


= 23.58 (angle of tie rod)

Thus,
ML

= Fyz r tan

ML

= 316.51 N.m

EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 21

17) Self-aligning torque, MY


= (Fyz lc / 6

MY
Where;

c : 0.05 (tyre contact length)


MY

= (Fyz lc / 6

MY

= 2.64 N.m

18) Total torque for caster angle (offset of steering axis)


Total torque

= ML + MY

Total Torque = 319.15 N.m

19) Mechanical efficiency


=

MA
MR
We assumed the mechanical efficiency is 80 percent because the range for optimum is between
70 to 90 percent.

MA

= 4.189 0.8

MA

= 3.35

Torque

= Force Distance of track

Distance of track

= 990 M Speedway PLUS GO kart

Force

= Torque/ Distance
= 319.15N.m / 990m
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 22

= 0.32N
20) Equilibrium force

F cos

F sin

F =
23.58
0.32 cos

23.58
0.32 sin

F =
F =0.32 N
So, the force needed for one revolution of the steering wheel is F = 0.32N.

Convert newton to kilogram

0.32N / (9.81 ms-2) = 0.033 kg for one revolution of the steering wheel

EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 23

21) Bearing
. The angular-contact bearing has been chosen because it can support greater thrust capacity in one
direction as well as radial loads. The cutaway shoulder allows bearing assembly and use of a one-piece
machined cage.

Figure 2.9 Angular contact ball bearing


We take bore, Do as 25mm, width is 15mm, fillet radius is 1.0mm, load rating

C10

is 14.80kN and

load rating C is 9.4 kN from table 4.

22) Equivalent radial load


It is then necessary to define an equivalent radial load that has same effect on the bearings life as
applied loading.
P = XVFr + YFa
Where P

equivalent radial load

Fr
Fa
V

=
=
=

radial load (360.53N)


axial load (702.71N)
rotation factor (1.0 for inner ring)

radial factor (0.56) from table 11.2


EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 24

axial factor (2.30) from table 11.2

1836.88N

23) Basic Rating Life


The standardized calculation method for dynamically stressed rolling bearings is defined in ISO
281:2007(E). The lifetime of 90 % of a group of patently identical ball bearings under identical
operating

conditions

is

defined

as

the

nominal

basic

rating

life.

For ball bearings:

L10

basic rating life of ball bearings with 90 % reliability [106 revolutions]

basic dynamic load rating ( 14.80kN)

dynamic equivalent bearing load (1836.88N)

When the bearing rotation speed is constant, the bearing life can be also expressed in operating hours.
For ball bearings:

L10

basic rating life in operating hours

operating speed (3600rpm)

106
14.80 kN
(
)
216000 1836.88 N

L10

=
Median life

242152.55hours
=

5L10

1210762.75hours

138.21 years
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 25

3.0 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT


Before the steering component is assembled completely, a few stages must be completed first.
The processes involved are fabrication process, assembly process, and inspection and modification
process, testing process and lastly is finishing process.

Fabrication

3.1.

Assembly

Inspection and
modification

Testing

Finishing

FABRICATION
In steering system, least fabrication needed to be done because steering system are using a

standard part of steering car, especially steering rack and pinion, steering shaft, steering wheel, tie rod
and rod end. But, some modification on the tie rod and also steering shaft are needed to ensure the
fittings and mounting of steering system into chassis and suspension system are good.
There are certain processes included in the fabrication;
i.

Bend sawing

ii.

Welding process (GMAW)

iii.

Grinding such as table grinding and hand grinding

iv.

Cutting

v.

Lathe process

vi.

Drilling

vii.

Plasma cutting

viii.

Sheet metal bending process


EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 26

There is one part in steering system that we fabricate ourselves, which is the mounting of the
pillow block to hold the steering shaft. For the mounting of the pillow block, we used a steel plate that
has the suitable thickness which is 50mm and we bended it to C shapes. We also drilled the plates so
that it can be mounted to the upper side of the chassis trust.

3.2.

ASSEMBLY
After the fabricated part was finished completely, the steering components were installed on the

chassis. The steel plate was welded to the chassis as it cannot be weld to the floor of the car because it
has different materials. Steering rack holder base with the racks and pinion was mounted to the steel
plate together with the chassis to ensure the strength of steering rack gripped before installation of other
components. The steering base holder needed to be fixed at one suitable position so that the driver will
be comfortable and will not have any disruption while driving the car. After welding and mounting
process, the components of steering such as steering shaft, tie rod, universal joint that joined the shaft
and the rack and pinion were assembled to the base holder. Then, the measurement of every
components is taken again according to their suitable length based on the position of the base holder.
After the decision was made, the steering system was assembled but not permanently because some
modification process is needed.

Figure 1: Steering system assembled for the measurement and repositioning process.
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 27

3.3.

INSPECTION AND MODIFICATION


After assembly process, our group had identified certain problem on the steering system. The

first problem was the steering shaft was too long to be assembled with the steering wheel which makes
the steering wheel located near to the driver chest. The second problem was the tie rod component was
also too long to be attached to the knuckle and the steering wheel need to be attached with quick
release for safety purposes. To resolve these problems, some modifications were made to increase the
efficiency and the performance of each components involve in steering system.

Figure 2: Steering shaft was cut based on the exact measurement.

Figure 3: Modification on steering shaft.

EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 28

The steering shaft is too long to be assembled to the pinion and rack and steering shaft. The steering
shaft will affect the driver movement since the cockpit is made small. Therefore, we decided to cut it to
suitable dimension that we had already measured. Basically, the steering shaft has no permanent joint
to connect it with other components. Therefore, the steering shaft is being cut at several places along
the shaft because we not only want to reduce the length of it but we also need to join the universal joint
to connect the steering shaft with the pinion and rack and also connect the steering shaft with the
steering wheel. At first, we wanted to weld the steering shaft that had been cut directly, but to reduce
the tendency of steering shaft to be broken into pieces we decided to make a bracket that can hold two
end of each steering shaft. This also can increase the performance of the steering shaft and make it
tougher than before. Later, the steering shaft was assembled together with the pinion and rack and
steering wheel. Then, we mounted it to the pillow block whose function is to hold the steering shaft in
slanting position.

Figure 4: The steering shaft after being attached to two universal joint.

Besides steering shaft, tie rod component also need some modification on their length. Since the
steering base holder is not mounted at the center of the car, we need to reduce the length of tie rod for
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 29

both sides with different length by using cutting process. The tie rods then were welded back by using
the same method as the steering shaft which is by using a bracket to support the two ends of the tie rod
parts that have been cut. To increase the efficiency of the tie rods, we decided to use the adjustable
outer tie rod rather than fixed outer tie rod, so that we do not need to cut the tie rod again if the length
of the tie rod is not accurate. But, the adjustable tie rod is only applicable for length of 50 mm.

Figure 5: The tie rod after some modification with adjustable outer tie rod.

Other than that, we decided to attach the steering wheel with the quick release to make it easier
for the driver to save themselves if any emergency happen. This quick release component was installed
on the steering wheel and theres a small button at the side to unlock the steering. The function of this

EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 30

component is to remove the steering wheel from the steering shaft so that it will give more space to the
driver and make it easy for the driver to jump out of the car if any accident or emergency occur.

Figure 6: Steering wheel with quick release.

Figure 7: Quick release.

3.4.

TESTING
There are some testing processes on the steering system such as cornering test and strength test

on the kingpin at the knuckle. The ultimate test was when the steering system was tested during
cornering a day before the racing competition. There were some problems arised on that day such as
loses and loosen of nuts and bolts and oversteer in cornering.
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 31

Figure 8: Cornering test.

There is nothing much to do for the loosen nuts and bolts. The only solution is by tightening it back
every time the car was not used.

Figure 9: Figure 2: The steering is mounted on the steel plate at lower side of chassis

This is a stainless steel of rack and pinion that is of full part, including tie rod and rod end. This
part is actually for buggy cars. The rack and pinion is made from stainless steel so that it will not rust.
There is no modification on the steering rack because if we modified the pinion and rack it will affect
its efficiency and may be the center of rotation will change due to changes of length of the rack. The
problem that occurred for the rack and pinion component is how to mount the component so that it will
give better performance when the driver drives the car. Firstly, we placed the components on the upper
side of the chassis, but the tire is over cornering for both side of tires. After that, we decided to change
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 32

the position of this component to the lower side of the chassis and it gives a better movement for both
tires. After we changed the place of mounting of the pinion and rack, the efficiency and the
performance of the steering became better especially for cornering.

3.5.

FINISHING

For the finishing process, we only check the overall system or steering system and make sure it
functions very well. All the maintenance such as alignment of the tires and tighten up all nuts and bolts
in this system were done. The system was maintained in proper condition before racing day for safety
purposes. The performance for every components in the steering system were checked a day before the
race day.

4.0

COST ANALYSIS
This section performs the overall cost for steering system. The costing includes the components

cost, tooling cost, process cost and machining cost that involved in the making of our system.

NO.

COMPONENTS

QUANTITY

Steering wheel

PRICE PER UNIT

EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 33

(RM)
106.84

2
3

Steering shaft
Pinion and Rack

1
1

2, 551.25
200.00

Tie rod

4, 129.09

5
6

Tie rod end and clevis


Steering wheel quick release

2
1

56.30
110.13

TOTAL (RM)

5.0

7, 153.61

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


5.1

DISCUSSION
For this project, few problems had occurred throughout the designing and fabricating of the

steering system. There were also problems during the analysis stage. Second week of the semester,
the size and design of the chassis was changed. This decision affected the design made during the
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 34

previous semester for steering system. When the design changed, the analysis and the calculation
changed as well. Therefore, the previous analysis and calculations is unusable and invalid for this
semesters fabrication process. The steering team resolved this problem by re-analyzing;
recalculating and redesign the whole steering system within 2 weeks time before the next stage can
be proceed. This is to ensure that, our steering will work well and safe to be maneuvered and
handled. Not only that, we also want to ensure that our cornering is suitable and within range so that
no accident will occur during the race.
During the fabrication stage, our teams progress was a bit slow compared to the planned one.
This is because; we had to wait for chassis department and suspension department to finish off their
part first. When they are done, then only we can start fabricating and assembling all the parts
together. However, we managed to catch up and finished our job on time. We solved this problem,
by having extra hours in the workshop and went all out for the last 3 weeks before the competition.
Not only that many problems occurs during fabrication. The first problem was the placement of
the pinion and rack. We designed the pinion and rack where we want it to be placed further up front
of the chassis. However, the rack cant be placed in the middle as it disturbed the placement of the
pedals. Therefore, we shifted the rack more to the left. With this settings, came another problem. The
steering shaft cant be placed directly to connect the steering wheel to pinion and rack as the angle
of the shaft will disturbed the pedals and disrupt the drivers legs. A modification need to be made.
We solved this problem by cutting the steering shaft into two. Then we joined the shaft with two
universal joints with one at the end of the shaft to connect it with the pinion and the other universal
joint is used to connect the two cut shafts. Both joints are connected through GMAW (Gas Metal
Arc Welding).
Next problem was the tie rods. The standardize length of tie rods are of the same length. Since
our pinion and rack are placed more towards left, we need to cut the tie rod on the left side shorter
than the one on the right side. Proper calculation need to be made to ensure that the right and left
ratio are equal to each other.
However, our main problem was the slip tires. At first, we cant figure out what was the cause
of this problem. It took us such a long time to find a solution. Turned out, the placement of the rack
plays a very important role. In the beginning, we placed and mounted the rack on the upper and the
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most front side of the chassis. Due to this position, the tie rods have a very large and sharp angle.
Thus, making the tire slips bigger. To fix this, we change the position of the rack. We brought the
rack down and mounted it to the floor of the car. With this, the slip tires are lessened and the driver
can control and maneuver the car better.
All in all, many modifications had to be made from the original design. The designated steering
system is workable theoretically but during fabrication, many factors are affecting the design thus
leading to few adjustments. However, all the modifications made are within the rules and regulations
and definitely followed the Preliminary Design Specifications (PDS).

5.2

CONCLUSION
Our department has achieved the target by completing the steering system for the single seater

vehicle. We also had fulfilled the requirement of the PDS and followed the rules and regulations in
the FM Malaysia Challenge race competition. The steering system was evaluated and tested by
selected panels.
For every design, there will always be a room for some improvements. One of the
recommendations is, with extra funding, every class should be eligible to buy a new set of steering
system. This is to ensure that there would not be any clearance or defect to the pinion and rack as
this will cause many problems. Another recommendation is, before fabricating it is better to do
EMD6M3A: HANDLING SYSTEM 36

another analyze and calculation of the steering system. This is to ensure the smoothness and ease of
work during fabrication. Not only that, we aim to have the best and efficient steering system for this
project as we do not want any failure, damage and breakdown to occur during the race.

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