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Revision 1

1. What is the controlled output and what are the manipulated variables
2. Draw the elements of the feedback system in standard block diagram form.
3. What type of mathematical model could you use to describe the dynamics behaviour of the
process? How could you determine the parameter of the models?
4. Discuss the role of each mode of the P, I and D algorithm
Sketch a block diagram representation of the feedback control schemes. Clearly indicates on the
diagram the process transfer function Gp(s), the set point, SP(s), the transfer function of the controller,
Gc(s), and a disturbance to the system, dv(s), with dynamics , Gd(s)as well as the manipulated
variables ,mv(s) and the controller output cv(s).
Revision 2:
Considered the distillation column control strategy
a) Sketch the develop control strategy of the process based on the control parameters stated below:
1. Pressure control loop
2. level control loop
3. Composition control loop
and considering each control loop in above, briefly discuss the anticipated dynamics characteristics of
the loop paying particular attention to possible system interaction ( closed loop performance)

b) The reactor system under consideration is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: CSTR exothermic reaction ( attachment)


The reactor is fed by a stream rich in reactant A, of concentration CA(IN) and flowrate F(IN). Within
the system the following exothermic reaction take place, ABC. Reactant A is converted to product
B, but at high temperatures B undergoes further reaction and is transformed to undesired by-product
C. The reactor is cooled by means of a heat exchanger. The objectives is to maintain the temperature
of the reaction mass at the desired value when subjected to changes in inlet concentration (CIN) and
temperature (TIN)
1. Define what is the manipulated variable (MV), control variable (CV) and disturbances in this
process and also sketch the control loop if feedforward (FF) control strategy is implemented in this
process
2. Draw the block diagram represents the FF control strategy.
c) In cascade control schemes, supposed that the secondary loop process are represented by the
symbol GPS(s) and the secondary loop controller by GCS(s). While the primary loop dynamics for the
process and the controller are given by GPP(s) and GCP(s). Draw the block diagram represent the
cascade control strategy, and derived the closed loop transfer function describing the response of the
primary controlled output to a changed in the primary setpoint.

Revision 3:
Q1
Considered the following control schemes
a) Feedback control
i. Describe the basic objective of this control scheme.
ii. Draw a block diagram representation of the control scheme
iii. Give a process engineering example where the use of this control scheme would be beneficial.
Draw a diagram showing the implementation of the scheme.
b) Feedforward control
i. Describe the basic objective of this control scheme.
ii. Draw a block diagram representation of the control scheme.
iii. Give a process engineering example where the use of this control scheme would be beneficial.
Draw a diagram showing the implementation of the scheme.
c) Ratio control
i. Describe the basic objective of this control scheme.
ii. Give a process engineering example where the use of this control scheme would be beneficial.
Draw a diagram showing the implementation of the scheme.
Q2
a. Describes the experimental procedure known as an open loop step test. Detail how you would
obtain the parameter of a first order plus dead time transfer function model using data obtained from
an open loop step test on a process plant.
b. Describe the Ziegler-Nichols continuous cycling method for tuning a proportional-intergral-

derivatives controller (PID) ( Z-N closed loop method). Your explanation should detail:
i. The experimental method/procedures
ii. The rules for determination of the controller parameters
iii. The advantages and disadvantages of the method
Q3
a. PID control is the industrial standard algorithm and many alternative tuning procedures has been
proposed to determine the best possible method to get a reasonable setting for the controller. The
methods aims are to satisfy a variety of a quantitative performance measure. Described what you
understand by the following performance measure and gives examples of output loops where they
would be useful indicators of performance
i. Decay ratio ( Quarterly decay ratio)
ii. Settling time
iii. Rise time
iv. Offset
v. Overshoot
b. Cascade control schemes are commonly found in process plant.
i. With the aid of a process example, describe the structure of the cascade control
ii. With reference to the example, draw the block diagram of the proposed cascade control scheme
and explain how the cascade control strategy gives superior performance compare to a single
feedback control loop.
iii. What are the steps involves in tuning the two controllers within the cascade controller.