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ISSN 2229-600X

IN MODAL DAMPING MECHANISM

Egba Ernest I.

Technology and Vocational Education Department, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

The basis for the approach to damage detection is that changes in the physical properties of the structure affect the modal

parameter of the structure. The paper explored the dynamic performance of a steel beam at damaged and undamaged states by

laboratory tests. The effects of damage on modal damping of the structure were determined. It was discovered that damage on

structures causes changes of the ratio of critical damping value. The rate of change increases at the increase in the severity of

the damage.

KEYWORDS: Damage Detection, Damping, Local Stiffness, Energy Dissipation, Frequency Response Function, Excitation Signal

Damping is any effect that tends to reduce the amplitude

of oscillations in an oscillatory system. It is the energy

dissipated properties of a mterial or system under cyclic

stress (John, 2010). Damping may be mathematically

modelled as a force synchronous with the velocity of the

object but opposite in direction to it. The presence of

damage alters the energy dissipation mechanism in a

structure: the direct consequence is that the damaged

structure presents higher modal damping rates. This change

is particularly significant in the case of reinforced concrete

structures, where damage is usually associated with the

formation of a crack. Zonta (2000) disclosed that many

experience shows how these variations are in the order of

100% of the values measured in uncracked structures. Hence

modal damping represents a very sensitive parameter to

discriminate damaged from undamaged structures. Since

changes in dissipation properties is generally due to a

localized modification in the characteristics of the damaged

structures, one can expect that this modification affects in

different ways each vibration mode.

Savov and Wenzel (2004) discussed damage detection

in a prestressed concrete test beam by means of finite

element model updating. Model-based damage detection

approach with sensitivity based finite element model

updating procedure was used. They considered damage

effects subject to prestressing forces in a concrete test beam.

Damage was simulated by reducing the prestressing force in

the tendons. After each reduction phase, the accelerometers

placed on the top surface were used to measure the vibration

behaviour of the system due to impact device. The obtained

results showed that relaxing of the tendons in prestressed

concrete structures lead to an increase of crack propagation.

Titurus, Friswell, and Starek (2003) looked at the use of

generic elements as a viable tool for parametric model based

damage detection. The form of generic element

parameterization they assumed in their work was a

modification of a standard formulation where only changes

INTRODUCTION

An abrupt failure in a building can be very expensive and

may be disastrous in terms of human life and property

damage. Failure occurs when there is incessant damage to

structures. Damage can be defined as changes introduced

into a system that adversely affects the current or future

performance of that system (Farrar, doubling and David,

2001). Structural damage detection is the capability to

conduct damage and safety assessments of civil,

commercial, and residential infrastructures and to perform

structural inspections, and mitigation activities.

Many techniques of non-destructive evaluation are

certainly available to detect structural damage in building.

Such techniques include visual inspections, ultrasonic

testing, acoustic emission, and so on (Kirkegaard and Rytter,

1994). However, most of these techniques are awkward in

many circumstances due to the need for the investigator to

have access to the structure. A usual evidence of structural

damage in building is the presence of crack.

One of the consequences of the development of crack in

building is a decrease in local stiffness which in turn results

in a decrease in some of the natural frequencies. The most

commonly applied vibration based inspection damage

assessment technique is based on changes of natural

frequencies only. This is dazzling since natural frequencies

can be obtained from measurements at a single point on the

structure. If measurements at several points are carried out

the mode shapes in discrete points of the structure

corresponding to the different natural frequencies may be

established. Then, mode shape information can also be used

for damage assessment. However, in order to be able to

evaluate the deterioration state of a structure by vibration

based inspection, it is necessary to estimate size and location

of the damage. A review of vibration based damage

assessment techniques can be found in Rytter (1993). Again,

modal damping can also be used to detect structural damage

in building.

250

in the stiffness are allowed. An H-shaped four thin-walled

tubes frame structure connected by four-fillet weld was used

to evaluate the idea. The joints were manipulated to produce

one healthy and six damaged cases. The finite element

model of the structure was created using Euler-Bernoulli

planer elements with three degrees of freedom per node. The

subject was divided into two major parts. Part one

considered only the undamaged structure where the model

requires updating while part two considered damage

detection by comparing the selected damage cases to the

updated mathematical model of the undamaged structure.

The results proved satisfactory especially in the idea that

presence of damage in a structure affects the modal damping

of the structure.

Ren and Roeck (2002) verified damage identification on

a simply supported beam using element damage index

method. The beam was equally divided into 15 twodimensional beam elements. Damage was simulated by

reducing the stiffness of the selected element. They used

three different solution techniques namely: the MoorePenrose pseudonoiverse method, the Non-Negative LeastSquare (NNLS) method and the Singular Value

Decomposition (SVD) method to compare the results of the

damage scenario. They concluded that the method should

not only be tested with simulated data, but also with real

measurement data as a reliable technique to verify structural

damage in practice.

Salawu and Williams (1993) presented a paper on

structural damage detection using experimental modal

analysis. The paper reviewed four basic methods. One of the

methods exploits the changes in the eigen parameters and the

other three utilize system identification and modal updating

procedures. They made comparison of their effectiveness.

Their studies on a 4.9m simply supported beam showed that

experimental results from modal testing of a structure are all

that is needed for effective and efficient structural damage

identification.

In this paper, the researcher carried out experiments on an Isection universal steel beam to detect damages on the

structure using changes in the modal damping. Damping

velocity of motion is often expressed in terms of ratio of

critical damping (zeta). It is calculated thus:

n

o

2 n

(1.0)

cycles later and (zeta) is the ratio of critical damping.

Materials Used

The materials used were vibrator, dynamic signal analyzer,

accelerometer, sweep signal function generator, computer,

frequency function generator, cutting machine, markers,

measuring tape, transducer and amplifier. A 5.5m universal

steel beam of 203 x 102 x 23mm section with properties as

recorded in Davison and Owen (2003) was also used.

Methods

The experimental set-up for the beam tests is shown in

figure 1. The test beam was I-section (UB 203 x 102 x 23

Kg/m) steel beam. The beam was excited by electromagnetic vibrator while the dynamic response in the vertical

direction was measured at different locations using

accelerometers. A periodic random signal was used as the

excitation signal. The tests were conducted within the

frequency range of 0 - 200 Hz which was sufficient to cover

the first three bending modes. A computer was used to

control the test and acquire frequency response function data

via a dynamic signal analyzer which also served as the

excitation signal generator. A single degree of freedom was

used to extract the modal parameters. The procedures were

repeated for a number of times. Results were taken to serve

as control. The first damage was introduced through the

bottom flange and at 2.4925m from the first support. The

second damage was introduced at the top flange near the

supports. The third damage was introduced by cutting the

same position in as in the first damage but now through and

to the middle of the web. Tests were done simultaneously

after each damage stage and results were as well taken.

251

ISSN 2229-600X

the first mode for the undamaged structure. Figure 3 presents

RESULTS

Table 1 shows values of ratio of critical damping of the

damaged and undamaged structure. The table of values was

derived from the decay traces of the first three lowest modes

for the damaged and undamaged structure. Values were

Table 1: Values of ratio of critical damping of the damaged and undamaged structure.

Frequency

modes

Undamaged

()

First damage

()

Second damage

()

Third damage

()

First mode

0.017

0.022

0.023

0.082

Second mode

0.004

0.003

0.002

0.004

Third mode

0.004

0.005

0.005

0.015

acc2b

m

+555

+444

+333

Displacement

+222

+111

0

-111

-223

-334

-445

-556

8.686 8.764

8.842

8.920

8.998

9.076

9.154

9.232 9.310

S

Time

Figure 2: Decay trace of the first mode for undamaged structure

252

structure

Undamage

First damage

0.09

Second damage

Third damage

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

First mode

Second mode

Third mode

Figure 3: Column chart of ratios of critical damping of the damaged and undamaged structure for the

first three lowest modes.

The chart revealed continuous increase in damping value

from undamaged case to the damaged cases in the first and

third mode. Increase of severity of damage led to increase of

damping values. There were both decrease and increase of

damping values due to damage for the second mode.

Discussion

Damage to the structure could be construed as change in the

value of the ratio of critical damping as the structure passed

through test from undamaged to damaged states. Table 1

disclosed that there were 29.41%, 4.55% and 256.22%

increments in the ratio of critical damping value for the first

mode after the first, second and third damage respectively.

The table also showed that there is a massive increase in

the value of ratio of critical damping after the third damage

was introduced. This was because the third damage was at

the center of the beam and affected the web of the beam and

as such encouraged beam deflection.

The second damage did not impart serious change in the

ratio of critical damping value as seen in table 1. This was so

since the second damage was close to the first support and

the structure in question was a simply supported structure.

Figure 3 revealed continuous increase in damping value

from undamaged case to the damaged cases in the first and

third mode. The higher the increase of damping values the

higher the effect of damage. For the second mode, there was

decrease and then an increase of damping.

The work of Salawu and Williams (1994) supports the

reports above. Their work revealed that damping values

generally increase with increasing degree of damage.

However, some cases exist where the values decrease after

an initial increase.

Conclusion / Recommendation

The physical properties of structure such as mass, stiffness

and damping play major role in determining modal

parameters of structures. Cracks as a change in physical

property of structure due to reduction in stiffness cause

detectable changes in modal parameter. The work was

carried out to detect damage using modal damping changes.

Results showed that damage on a structure would cause

increase in the ratio of critical damping value; increase of

severity of damage increases the rate of change of damping

value. However, some cases exist where the values decrease

after an initial increase. The researcher recommends that

regular inspection and maintenance should be carried out on

building structural members to avoid damage on the

structural members that would cause changes in modal

damping.

253

ISSN 2229-600X

Detection Using Experimental Modal Analysis A

Comparison of Some Methods, in proc. Of 11th

International Modal Analysis Conference, 254 260.

REFERENCES

Davison, B. and Owens, G. W., (2003). Steel Designers

Manual. Blackwell Publishers, pp 1071, 1166 1177.

Farrar, C. R., Doebling, S. W. Prime, M. B., and David, A.

Nix.

(2001). Vibration-Based Structural damage

Identification. Philosophical Transaction: mathematics,

Physical and Engineering sciences. Vol. 359, No. 1778.

Using Mode Shapes, In proc. Of 12th International Modal

Analysis Conference, 933 939.

from www.google.com on 14th September 2010.

Prestressed Concrete Test Beam by Means of Fe Model

Updating. 11th International EG- ICE Workshops, Vienna

Consulting Engineers, Hadikgsse 60, A 1140 Vienna,

Austria. Pp 36 39

Damage Assessment of Civil Engineering Structures Using

Neural Networks. First Workshop of the European Group

for Structural engineering Applications of AI, Lausanne,

Switzerland.

Detection Using Generic Elements: Part 1. Model updating.

Computer Structures, Vol. 81 (24-25), pp 2273 2286

Identification using Modal Data I: Simulation Verification,

ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 128, No. 1,

87-96.

Localization by Using Vibrational Measurement. PhD

Thesis: University of Bologna, Gennaio.

engineering structures, Ph.D. thesis, Aalborg University,

Denmark.

Table 1: Values of ratio of critical damping of the damaged and undamaged structure.

Undamaged

()

First damage

()

Second damage

()

Third damage

()

First mode

0.017

0.022

0.023

0.082

Second mode

0.004

0.003

0.002

0.004

Third mode

0.004

0.005

0.005

0.015

Frequency

modes

acc2b

Displacement

m

+555

+444

+333

+222

+111

0

-111

-223

-334

-445

-556

8.686

8.764

8.842

8.920

8.998

9.076

9.154

9.232

9.310

S

254

structure

Undamage

First damage

0.09

Second damage

Third damage

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

First mode

Second mode

255

Third mode

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