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F.

6 AL Physics Test 1

NAME : ________________________(_____)
F.6
Marks: _________/70
FORM SIX TEST 1 on BASIC KNOWLEDGE, STATICS, KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS
Time allowed: 90 minutes
When necessary, take the acceleration due to gravity to be 10 m s-2.
Section A: Structure Type Questions (34 marks)
1. A ball of density 2 g cm-3 and volume 10 cm3 is dropped inside a vertical cylindrical tube containing
fluid. In addition to the fluid friction f, a constant upward buoyancy force U, always acts on the ball by
the fluid. The following shows the force diagram of the ball at a certain instant.

Ball
Fluid

Figure 1

W
(a) Is the ball as shown in Figure 1 moving up or down?

(1 mark)

Moving down

1M

(b) Given that f and U, both in Newton, are expressed as


f = 0.5u
and
U = 0.01V
where u is the speed, in m s-1, of the ball and V is the volume V, in cm3, of the ball.
(i)
Find the acceleration of the ball just at the moment the ball is released. (2 marks)
Net force when released = W U = (2/1000)(10)(10) 0.01(10) = 0.1 N
1M
a = F/m = 0.1/(0.02) = 5 m s-2

1M

Terminal speed reached when f + U = mg


(ii)

Calculate the terminal speed of the ball.


0.5u + 0.01(10) = (2/1000)(10)(10)

(2 marks)
1M

v = 0.2 m s-1

2.

1M

A uniform rod of weight 200 N and length 1 m is suspended at one end


by a rope to the ceiling and with the other end on a rough floor as
shown in Figure 2.
(a) Identify the forces T, f and R.
(2 marks)
T:

Tension

1M

R: Normal reaction
(b) Find the values of T, f and R.
Take moment about lower end:

f:

Rod

Friction
1M
(3 marks)

Rope

T
200 N
Figure 2

60o
Rough floor

T(1) = (200)(cos60o) = 50 N

1M

f = (50)(sin60o) = 43.3 N

1M

R = 200 (50)(cos60o) = 175 N

1M

No,
1M
Coefficient of friction can be larger than f/R since
1 f may be smaller than the limited friction.
1M

R
f

F. 6 AL Physics Test 1

(c) A student said that the coefficient of friction between the rod and the floor is given by f/R. Do you
agree? Why?
(2 marks)

3.

A block of mass 2 kg and dimension 1 0.5 m2 is resting on a rough


plank inclined at as shown in Figure 3. The coefficient of friction
between the block and the plank is 0.4 and O represents the centre of
mass of the block.
(a) Draw and label all the forces, with correct points of application of
the forces, acting on the block.
(1 mark)
(b) Determine the value of greater than which the block would start to
slide down the plank.
(2 marks)

1 mR
0.5 m
f

O
P

mg
Figure 3

When mgsin = mgcos

1M

tan = 0.4, = 21.8o

1M

(c) If the plank is gradually tilted from horizontal, would the


block slide down or topple about point P
WhenExplain
all the forces
acting by
at P,
tan =the0.5/0.25
= 63.4othan which the block would
1M
first?
your answer
stating
angle greater
start to topple.
(2
It would slide down first.
1M
marks)

p = vm = (2 600 m s-1)(20 kg) = 52 000 kg m s-1


4.

1M

A spacecraft with an astronaut on board is launched on a rocket booster. The rocket with the spacecraft
has a total initial mass of 4.80 105 kg at take-off. The rocket engine propels hot exhaust gas at a
constant speed of 2 600 m s -1 relative to the rocket in a backward direction. Assume that 20 kg of gas
is expelled in the first 0.01 second. (Neglect
air resistance.)
-1
force =the
vm/t
= (52
000 kg m sof
)/0.01
1M
(a) Net
Calculate
change
of momentum
the expelled gas in the first 0.01 second.
(1 mark)
= 5.2 106 N

1M

a = (F mg)/m
1M
(b) From your result in (a), estimate the average thrust (the upward force) acting on the rocket due to
=the
[5.2
106 (4.8
105)(10)]/
4.8 second.
105 = 0.833 m s-2
1M
exhausted
gas during
the first
(2 marks)

(c) Assuming
thespeed
change
mass of
rockettoduring
first second
is negligible,
No,that
since
of in
expelled
gastherelative
earth the
changes
according
to speed ofestimate
rocket, the
acceleration of the rocket.
(2 marks)
1M
No, gravity acts as an external force.2

1M

F. 6 AL Physics Test 1

(d) Determine if the following quantities remain constant if the rocket keeps exhaust gas at the same
rate for the first 20 s. Give reasons to your answer.
(2 marks)
(i)
Average thrust acting on the rocket.

(ii)

5.

Total momentum of the rocket and the expelled gas.

A boy weighing 50 kg performs `Bungi jump from a bridge as shown in Figure 5.1. The natural
length and elastic constant of the rope holding the boy are 80 m and 1000 N m -1 respectively. The time
variation of the speed of the boy during his downward trip is shown in Figure 5.2. (You may neglect
the effect of air resistance in answering the following questions.)
Speed / m s-1
B
v

O
Figure 5.1
When s = 80, v2 02 = 2(10)(80), v = 40 m s-1

C Time / s

t
Figure 5.2

1M

(a) It is known that OA is a straight line. Find the time t and speed v at moment A. (2 marks)
v = 0 + at, 40 = (10)t, t = 4 s
1M

Acceleration is decreasing,

1M

Since net force mg kx is decreasing as x becomes larger.

1M

(b) Describe the acceleration (or deceleration) of the boy by considering the forces acting on him
(i)
during AB;
(2 marks)
Acceleration = 0, since mg = kx.
1M

Deceleration is increasing,

Since net force kx mg is increasing as x becomes larger.

1M
1M

F. 6 AL Physics Test 1

(ii)

at B;

(1 mark)

(iii)

during BC.

(2 marks)

(c) Find the total displacement of the boy during the downward trip. (Ignore the effect of air
resistance.)
(3 marks)
(a) (i)

(ii)

By conservation of energy, mgh = kx2


2
(50)(10)(80
+ x)with
= uniform
(1000)(x)circular
A
body moving
motion.

1M
1MM

x2 body
x 80continuously
=0
The
changes it direction of motion or velocity

x = 9.46
m, of momentum is brought about by the force.
This
change

1M

totalupdisplacement
= 80 + 9.46runway.
= 89.5 m
Set
a friction-compensated

1MM

To investigate the relation between force and acceleration, a trolley is pulled by one, two and
three identical elastic cords which are stretched by the same amount.

End of Section
A
The corresponding accelerations are recorded
by the motion
sensor connected to a data logger.
Section A
B:graph
Essay
Questions
(16 force
marks)
of Type
acceleration
against
shows
1M
(a) (i) aGive
an
example
in
which
a
body
is accelerating but its speed remains unchanged. Briefly
explain
linear relationship.
M
the motion by using the concepts of force and the change of momentum.
(ii) To
Briefly
outlinethe
anrelation
experiment
to show
following
relation:
investigate
between
massthe
and
acceleration,
use one elastic cord to pull one, two
force mass acceleration
Under
what
condition(s) would the relation become an equation?
(8 marks)
and
three
trolleys.
M
(b) (i) By considering a head-on collision between two moving spheres of different masses, show clearly
thatcorresponding
the principle of
conservationare
ofrecorded
momentum
Newtons laws
of motion.
The
accelerations
andfollows
a graphfrom
of acceleration
against
1/mass 1 M
(5 marks)
shows a linear relationship.
M
(ii) Consider a particle of mass m1 originally moving with speed u
v
m1
1
collides
obliquelywith
another stationary one with mass m2. The
Thus,
acceleration
force/mass.
M

two particles then move off with speeds v1 and v2 at angle as


v2
For a body of mass 1 kg moving
1 m s-2, the force acting on it is 1mN.
1M
acceleration
v 2with
m2
2
1
.
shown. Show that cos
(3
2
v
m
1

(b) (i) Consider a head-on collision between


two1 billiard
balls A and B moving with velocities uA and uB
marks)
respectively
(uA > uB) in the same direction.
M
uA
uB
+ve
A
B
FA
FB
Let FA and FB be the average forces acting on A and B respectively during collision and t be the
time during which the two balls are in contact.
1M
4
By Newtons second law, the impulse FAt will decrease the momentum of ball A, i.e. M

F. 6 AL Physics Test 1

FAt = mAvA mAuA

Similarly, the momentum of ball B will increas by FBt,

FBt = mBvB mBuB

By Newtons third law, FA equals FB in magnitude but are opposite in direction, 1M


therefore

(mAvA mAuA) = mBvB mBuB

mAuA + mBuB = mAvA + mBvB


(ii)

Let the initial velocity of m1 be u, then by conservation of momemtum


m1u = m1v1 + m2v2
Squaring both sides,

m12u2 = m12v12 + m22v22 + 2m1m2v1v2cos

By conservation of energy, m1u2 = m1v12 + m2v22


Multiplying 2m1 to both sides, we have
m12u2 = m12v12 + m1m2v22 (2)
Put (2) into (1),
m1v2 = m2v2 + 2m1v1cos
so

cos

v2
2v1

1 5

m2
m1

(1)

M
M
M

F. 6 AL Physics Test 1

End of Section B
Section C: Multiple Choice Questions (20 marks)
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

1.

The mass m and radius r of a uniform metal sphere are measured respectively as
m 20.30 0.05 g,
r 4.210 0.005 cm.
-3
The density, in kgm , of the metal sphere is best represented as
A.
64.95 0.39 kgm-3.
B.
64.947 0.391 kgm-3
C.
65.0 0.4 kgm-3.
D.
64.9 0.4 kgm-3.

2.

The velocity-time graph of a 2 kg ball after being thrown v/ms-1


up in a certain medium at a speed 2 m s-1 is shown in the
2
figure. The magnitude of acceleration of the ball at t = 0 s
is
A.
10 m s-2.
0
B.
20 m s-2.

1
C.
30 m s-2.
D.
40 m s-2.
A 5 kg block is sliding down on the smooth plane of a
15 kg wedge inclined at 45 o, which is placed on a
5 kg
rough horizontal ground as shown. The coefficient of
block
friction between the wedge and the rough ground is
0.2. If the wedge is stationary during the process, the Smooth plane
friction acting on the wedge by the rough horizontal
45o
ground is
A.
0 N.
Rough ground
B.
25 N.
C.
30 N.
D.
40 N.

3.

4.

A
10 m

t/s

15 kg
wedge

F. 6 AL Physics Test 1

A sphere is projected downwards from A with a speed of 10 ms -1 at an angle of 30 o to the


horizontal. The sphere rebounds from the ground, first at B and then at C. If collisions are
perfectly elastic, the horizontal distance BC is equal to
A.
8.7 m.
B.
10.0 m.
C.
26.0 m.
D.
43.5 m.
5.

A uniform metre rule of mass 0.15 kg is hinged to a wall at P and the


other end R is connected by a wire attached to the wall at Q, vertically
above P. A block X of mass 0.1 kg is hung from the rule 30 cm from R.
The metre rule is horizontal. Find the moment about P produced by the
tension in the wire.
A.
1.45 Nm
B.
1.05 Nm
C.
0.75 Nm
D.
0.70 Nm

P
X

6.
wire
beam

wall

7.

8.

The figures shows a uniform rigid beam AB, pivoted at A, held in horizontal position by a wire
attached to a wall at point C, vertically above A. The beam carries a load W. If W is shifted
gradually from A towards B, which of the following quantities will increase?
(1)
The tension in the wire.
(2)
The horizontal compression force in the beam.
(3)
The vertical component of the reaction at A.
A.
(1) only
B.
(3) only
C.
(1) and (2) only
D.
(2) and (3) only
Two objects of masses m and 4m move towards each other along a straight line with kinetic
energies E and 4 E respectively. The total linear momentum of both masses taken together is
A.
3 2mE
B.
4 2mE
C.
5 2mE
D.
15 2mE
A spaceship burns fuel and moves with constant acceleration in
F a straight line. Which of the
F
graphs below best represents the time variation of the thrust F acting on it due to the ejection of
fuel?
A.
B.
0

t
F

t
F

7
0

F. 6 AL Physics Test 1

C.

9.

10.

D.

An object of mass 3 kg is tied to another object of mass 2 kg with a


string passing over a fixed smooth pulley. The weight of the pulley is
negligible. When the objects move under the action of gravity, the
vertical upward force acting on he axle of the pulley is
A.
10 N.
B.
24 N.
C.
48 N.
D.
50 N.

axle

3 kg

An object of mass 3 kg is placed on a smooth plane inclined at 30 o to the


horizontal. It is connected by a light string passing over a frictionless
3 kg
pulley to another object of mass 2 kg, as shown above. Given that g =
-2
10 ms , when the system is released, the tension in the string will be
A.
18 N
B.
20 N
30o
C.
24 N
D.
25 N
End of Test

2 kg

2 kg