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LBS - Location Based Services
Cristina F. Estorninho and João S. Neto
the passed few years can be evidenced. Technological aspects, from the point of view of navigation systems, of how can LBS applications be supported by effective and efﬁcient retrieval and management of geospatial data are also referenced, namely the perspective of spatial databases. In the second part of this document an approach of data management and services is made, referencing the set of services that facilitate the development and deployment of distributed applications in heterogeneous environments (middleware systems). Notions of location techniques are also referenced so that an overview of how can the LBS be a possibility with the communication technologies available, as well as how satellite based systems (GPS) and Networked based systems (GSM, UMTS) work to provide location services to the end-users. II. W HAT IS LBS This section provides an overview of the concept of Location Based Services, the possible application scenarios and issues related to the lack of standardization available at the moment for the usage of LBS. A. Deﬁnition of LBS Location-based services (LBS) is a recent concept that denotes applications integrating geographic location (i.e., spatial coordinates) with the general notion of services. With the rapid development of mobile communication, these applications represent a new challenge both conceptually and technically. In the near future, most of these applications will be part of everyday life since computers, personal digital assistants and cell phones are rapidly evolving, providing more processing power and storage space, within other characteristics essential to deploy LBS based applications. The concept of LBS can be deﬁned as services that integrate a mobile device’s location or position with other information so as to provide added value to a user . Location Service have been around since the 1970’s with the worldwide known Global Positions Systems (GPS) develop by the United States Department of Defense, but it was only in the next decade when the U.S government decided to make the system’s positioning data freely available to other industries around the world that these industries have taken up the opportunity to access position data through GPS and now use it to enhance their products and services. The traditional positioning systems, have their location information typically derived by a device and with the help of a satellite system (i.e., a GPS receiver). However, widespread interest in location-based services and the mobile communication technology has really started to boost only in the late 1990’s, when a new type of localization technology and new market interest in data services was sparked by mobile network
Abstract—This paper presents a simple introduction to Location Based Services applications and techniques of implementation in mobile communications. LBS applications in conjunction with technologies like Wireless networking (WiFi), cellular telephone (GSM), packet radio, radio frequency identiﬁers (RFID), smart personal object technology (SPOT), global positioning systems (GPS), and sensor networks allow mobile users to query their environment and they allow these applications to monitor and track remote objects. All these applications have strong spatial components – object location, proximity, and connectivity are the central organizing principle of these applications. Index Terms—LBS, spatial data, GIS, SDB, location techniques, GPS, GSM
I. I NTRODUCTION HERE has been an explosion of technologies that enable to communicate with mobile and occasionally-connected devices and sensors. Technologies like wireless networking (WiFi), cellular telephone (GSM), packet radio, radio frequency identiﬁers (RFID), smart personal object technology (SPOT), global positioning systems (GPS), and sensor networks are already being implemented in several projects around the world, and many completely new communication innovations will surely arise in the near future. These technologies enable new applications like allowing mobile users to query their environment and applications to monitor and track remote objects. These users can search for nearby services – for example a restaurant, and how to get there from their current location. Emergency services, and taxi dispatchers can send the closest vehicle to where it is needed. In a similar approach, monitoring systems can track the ﬂow of goods and monitor environmental parameters. Services like railroads, airfreight, wholesalers, retailers, and other transportation industries can track dispatched goods from their source to their ﬁnal destination. Environmental systems can monitor air quality, noise, stream ﬂow, and other environmental parameters. Implementing such applications require strong spatial components for object location, proximity, and connectivity. This document starts by presenting an overview of the wide range of LBS applications that can be developed in several commercial areas, namely the various categories of applications and the notions of horizontal and vertical services. It follows by explaining the communication model and pointing related industry issues for LBS applications so that the technological and economic challenges that have been arisen over
Cristina F. Estorninho is with the Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setúbal of the Polytechnic Institute of Setubal, 2910-761 Setúbal Portugal (email: email@example.com) João S. Neto is with the Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setúbal of the Polytechnic Institute of Setubal, 2910-761 Setúbal Portugal (email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
operators. In late 90’s, mobile networks were widely deployed in Europe as well in other parts of the world, and income from telephony services had proven to be signiﬁcant to mobile operators. Yet, even though mobile voice services continue to be a major revenue generator for mobile operators, they have started to look around for means to ﬁnd new areas for future growth. One major way to reap additional ﬁnancial beneﬁts of mobile networks apart from voice is to offer data services, many of which will be location enhanced. B. Historical Perspective The origins of LBS remotes to 1996 with the launch in the US of the E911 - Enhanced 911. This service was for mobile-network operators to locate emergency callers with prescribed accuracy, so that the operators could deliver a caller’s location to the appropriate emergency response units . The technology of cellular networks was insufﬁcient at the time to fulﬁll the accuracy demands of the US government, so the operators made an increased effort to develop the technology so that the positioning methods could be improved. To pay the investment made in the E911 service, commercial LBS’s were launched, mainly based in ﬁnder services on demand that weren’t well accepted by the users, so the operators phased out these services. By 2004, operators were offering ﬂeet management, children and pets tracking services, mainly based in low accuracy position techniques (Cell-ID technology) . LBS got his second wind by the year 2005, when GPS-capable mobile devices, the Web 2.0 paradigm and 3G broadband wireless services entered the market . C. Horizontal and Vertical Market The location market is developed around both business and consumer services and can be grouped into a vertical and horizontal service sphere. The vertical market is characterized by users drawn from industry environments where the management of mobile location information is and has always been an integral part of the business. As for the horizontal market, this is characterized by users drawn from industry environments where the use of mobile location information is a new and added value to existing services.
primarily to serve military purposes. Since it has been freely available worldwide, this technology has encouraged other industries to develop their applications. Emergency services represent a very obvious and reasonable application area where the deployment of location technology makes sense. In many cases, persons calling a so-called emergency response agency (e.g., police, ﬁre department) are unable to communicate their current location or they simply do not know it. In Europe, statistics reveal that 50% to 70% of the 80 million ‘‘real’’ EU-wide emergency calls each year originate from mobile phones.As a result, the EU Commission asked member states to develop national regulations for mobile operators enforcing the automatic positioning of emergency calls to the extent technically feasible, which means that unlike some other continents, European regulators do not enforce the highest accuracy levels such as GPS for locating emergency cases. Although GPS allows a cell phone to be located accurately, European operators have the right to start out with the accuracy levels their mobile networks can provide right now. So they’ve implemented the so-called Cell-ID technology for mobile positioning: • 100 meters or less accuracy in urban areas • Only up to 3-kilometer accuracy in rural areas As for commercial services, virtually inﬁnite solutions can be implemented in this area. The level of accuracy determines the usability of the services:
Usability of commercial services
E. Classiﬁcation of Location Based Applications Several analysts and researchers all over the world have taken several approaches in order to classify LBS applications. A major distinction of services is whether they are personoriented or device-oriented:
Table I V ERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL MARKETS
Person-oriented applications: Applications where a service is user-based, turning the focus of the applications determining the position of a person or to use the position of a person to enhance a service. Usually, the person located can control the service. Examples of such applications can be social networking, where the objective is to locate friends or family with the consent of the user. Device-oriented applications: Applications that are external to the user, that may also focus on the position of a person, but they do not need to. Instead of only a person, an object (e.g., a car) or a group of people (e.g., a ﬂeet)
D. Application Scenarios The main usage areas of location services are military and government industries, emergency services, and the commercial sector. As previously mentioned, GPS was the ﬁrst known location system used by the U.S Department of Defense
could also be located. In device-oriented applications, the person or object located is usually not controlling the service. Examples for this kind of applications can be car tracking for theft recovery, where the car is sending information without human intervention. F. Classiﬁcation of Location Based Services As for the classiﬁcation of the services that can be implemented for location purposes, two types of application design are being distinguished: push services and pull services:
Application layer: Also known simply as client, comprises all of those services that request location data to integrate it into their offering. Middleware layer: As the LBS application market grows, many network operators have put this layer between the positioning and application layer, primarily because PDE sits close to the core of a mobile operator’s network, leading to complex and lengthy retrieving of each user data service. This layer can signiﬁcantly reduce the complexity of service integration because it establishes one single connection to the network, and then mitigates and controls all location services added in the future, saving operators and third-party application providers time and cost for application integration .
Push Services: This kind of services imply that the user receives information as a result of his whereabouts without having to actively request it. The information may be sent to the user with prior consent (e.g., a subscription-based terror attack alert system) or without prior consent (e.g., an advertising welcome message sent to the user upon entering a new town). Pull Services: In contrast to the push services, a user actively uses an application and, requests information from the network. This information may be locationenhanced (e.g., where to ﬁnd the nearest hotel).
G. LBS Communication Model Technologically, the implementation of LBS can be described by a three-tier communication model, including a positioning layer, a middleware layer, and an application layer.
LBS Three-tier Communication Model
Positioning layer: Responsible for calculating the position of a mobile device or user. It does so with the help of position determination equipment (PDE) and geospatial data held in a geographic information system (GIS).While the PDE calculates where a device is in network terms, the GIS allows it to translate this raw network information into geographic information (longitudes and latitudes). The end result of this calculation is then passed on via a location gateway either directly to an application or to a middleware platform. Originally, the positioning layer would manage and send location information directly to an application that requests it for service delivery.
Simplifying application integration is important for mobile operators in order to move to a so-called wholesale model for location data. The wholesale approach means that operators offer a kind of bulk access to the location of devices. To give an example of how could this bulk access to location information be used there’s the ﬂeet management services where company’s offering such services have to buy the information of the location of cars from mobile operators. The problem with this wholesale model is that privacy issues arise with the offering of location data from operators. Here, location middleware can fulﬁll another role depending of it’s usage in downstream or upstream: • Downstream: Allows users to manage location access rights of third-party applications. • Upstream: Systematically anonymizes location information revealed. Thus, the location middleware takes over a similar role as an anonymizing proxy does on the Internet. In this way, many privacy concerns are addressed by an operator. Also, users get direct access to manage their privacy. III. S PATIAL DATABASES In various ﬁelds there is a need to manage geometric, geographic, or spatial data, which means data related to space.
The space of interest can be, for example, the two-dimensional abstraction of the surface of the earth, or parts of it (geographic space). The term “spatial database system” is associated with a view of a database as containing sets of objects in space rather than images or pictures of a space. It is considered that spatial DBMS provide the underlying database technology for geographic information systems (GIS) and other applications. A. GIS - Geographic Information Systems GIS is known to be a technological ﬁeld incorporating geographical features with tabular data in order to map, analyze, and assess real-world problems. The key word to this technology is Geography, which means that the data (or some portion of the data) is spatial (data that is in some way referenced to locations on the earth). Coupled with this data is usually tabular data known as attribute data, that can be generally deﬁned as additional information about each of the spatial features. An example of this would be schools. The actual location of the schools is the spatial data. Additional data such as the school name, level of education taught, student capacity would make up the attribute data. It is the partnership of these two data types that enables GIS to be such an effective problem solving tool through spatial analysis. GIS operates on many levels. On the most basic level, GIS is used as computer cartography, i.e. mapping. The real power in GIS is through using spatial and statistical methods to analyze attribute and geographic information. The end result of the analysis can be derivative information, interpolated information or prioritized information . Typically, GIS is integrated by several components: • Hardware: Equipment needed to support the many activities of GIS, such as data collection and data analysis. The workstation, which runs the GIS software and is the attachment point for ancillary equipment, it’s the main component Data collection requires a digitizer for conversion of hard copy data to digital data and a GPS data logger to collect data in the ﬁeld. With the advent of web-enabled GIS, web servers have also become an important piece of equipment for GIS. • Software: The GIS application package is essential for creating, editing and analyzing spatial and attribute data, therefore this package contain a myriad of GIS functions inherent to it. Extensions or add-ons are software that extends the capabilities of the GIS software package. Component GIS software is the opposite of application software. Component GIS seeks to build software applications that meet a speciﬁc purpose and thus are limited in their spatial analysis capabilities. Utilities are stand-alone programs that perform a speciﬁc function. For example, a ﬁle format utility that converts from on type of GIS ﬁle to another. There is also web GIS software that helps serve data through Internet browsers. • Data: The heart of any GIS. Data is divided in two primary types that are used in GIS: a geodatabase is a database that is in some way referenced to locations on the earth and geodatabases are grouped into two different types: vector and raster. Vector data is spatial data represented as points, lines and polygons, and as
for raster data is cell-based data such as aerial imagery and digital elevation models. Together with this data is usually data known as attribute data, generally deﬁned as additional information about each spatial feature housed in tabular format. Documentation of GIS datasets is known as metadata, which contains such information as the coordinate system, when the data was created, when it was last updated, who created it and how to contact them and deﬁnitions for any of the code attribute data. Trained personnel: Well-trained people knowledgeable in spatial analysis and skilled in using GIS software are essential to the GIS process.
IV. L OCATION T ECHNIQUES Systems that determine the location of a mobile objects can be divided into two categories : • Tracking: when a sensor network determines the location. The object to track has to be equipped with a speciﬁc tag or badge that allows the sensor network to acquire it’s position. The location information is ﬁrst available in the sensor network. If the mobile object needs it’s location data, the sensor network has to transfer this information to it by wireless communication. • Positioning: when a system of transmitters or beacons sends out radio, infrared, or ultrasound signals. The location is directly available at the mobile system and does not have to be transferred wirelessly. In addition, location information is not readable for other users, thus the positioning system does not have to consider privacy issues. Systems that use tracking as well as positioning are based on the following various basic techniques, often used in combination: • Cell of Origin (COO): Technique used if the positioning system has a cellular structure. Wireless transmitting technologies have a restricted range (i.e., a radiated signal is available only in a certain area around the cell). If the cell has a certain identiﬁcation, it can be used to determine a location. • Time of Arrival (TOA), Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA): Electromagnetic signals move at a very high speed (light speed - approximately 300,000 km/s), the
corresponding runtimes are very short. If a nearly constant light speed is assumed, the time difference between sending and receiving a signal to compute the spatial distance of transmitter and receiver can be used. A similar principle can be used with ultrasound. The signals take a longer time, thus measurement is simpler, but ultrasound can only reach low distances. If the time difference between two signals is measured, the term TDOA is used. In GSM networks, the term Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD) is often used instead of TDOA. Angle of Arrival (AOA): Using antennas with direction characteristics, the direction of arrival of a certain signal can be found. Given two or more directions from ﬁxed positions to the same object, the location of the object can be computed. Because it is too difﬁcult to constantly turn an antenna for measuring, receivers use a set of antennas that are lined up with a certain angle difference in all directions. Measuring the signal strength: The intensity of electromagnetic signals decreases even in vacuum with the square of the distance from their source. Given a speciﬁc signal strength, the distance to the sender can be computed. Unfortunately, obstacles such as walls or trees additionally reduce the signal strength, thus this method is inaccurate. Processing video data: Using video cameras, signiﬁcant patterns in a video data stream can be acquired to determine the user’s location. If users wear badges with conspicuous labels, they can be detected in video images. For this, positioning systems use techniques from image processing to detect and interpret image data. In principle, video positioning systems are based on the AOA technique: a speciﬁc pixel in an image represents a certain angle relative to the camera’s optical axis; however, video data can transport color information, which can be used to transfer additional information (e.g., the user’s identiﬁcation).
location u is obtained if two circles are intersected. Usually, there exist two intersection points, thus there is the need to eliminate one point with the help of additional information. In contrast to triangulation, trilateration leads to nonlinear equation systems, which have no closed solution for 3D positioning.
Traversing: (Figure 7) uses several distance–angle pairs. It starts with a known point p1 and the distance and direction to another point p2 is measured. After a few steps, the unknown point u is obtained. Note that in principle a single step from a known point to the unknown point could be used.
V. GPS - G LOBAL P OSITIONING S YSTEM As previously referenced, the usage of satellites for positioning goes back to the 1960’s. The advantages of such method, among others, are: • Positioning can theoretically be carried out around the globe. • Environmental conditions, such as the weather, have no relevant inﬂuence on the positioning process. • Acquired positions have highly precise rates. As disadvantages there are: • Considerable costs with the launch and maintenance of the satellites. • The positioning it’s only possible if the user receives a certain number of satellites. Particularly, positioning inside buildings is not possible. A. Basic Principles of Satellite Navigation To determine a position with the help of satellites, the exact positions of the satellites and the exact distances to the satellites are required. With this information, the positioning of an object is restricted to the spherical surfaces around each
A. Triangulation, Trilateration, and Traversing • Triangulation: (Figure 5) needs two ﬁxed positions (p1 and p2). From each position, the angle to the location u is measured. Geometrically speaking, u is obtained if two lines are intersected. With the help of trigonometric functions, the coordinates of u can be calculated.
Trilateration: (Figure 6) also needs two ﬁxed positions, but uses two distances to the unknown location. The
satellite. At least three satellites are needed to determine the objects location in a tri-dimensional space .
on to the Master Control Station (MCS), which is located in Colorado Springs, Colorado. To be able to achieve global coverage from the equator to the poles, 24 satellites move on six different orbits with four satellites per orbit (Figure 9). Every satellite orbits the earth at the distance of approximately 20,200 km. A satellite needs 12 hours for a complete orbit. They move in a way that at least ﬁve and at most 11 satellites are mostly visible over the horizon from every point on the earth’s surface. The number of satellites that can actually be received can be lower because of shadowing by buildings or landscape formations. A satellite has an expected lifetime of 7.5 years. In order for the GPS to remain operable after satellite failures, more than 24 satellites are in orbit. The number was sometimes increased up to 28. Currently, an operator needs 60 days to launch a new satellite into orbit after the failure of a satellite. It is planned for reasons of cost to shorten the time for launching to 10 days. With this change, the number of satellites could be reduced to 25. C. GPS Services To determine a position with the help of GPS a registration it’s not needed, since the GPS signals are free of charge. The mechanism is based on one-way communication of the satellites to the users. Two GPS services exist :
Positioning with satellites
Satellites move around in space on ﬁxed orbits, thus a mobile object can easily compute it’s exact position at any time. A list of all working satellites and their orbits it’s commonly named an almanac, and it’s frequently downloaded to the mobile receiver. It is also updated when satellites are shut down or new satellites start to operate in new orbits. B. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) The GPS system is divided into three segments  (Figure 9):
User segment: contains the devices of the mobile users like GPS receivers, which are constantly subject to miniaturization and price reduction. They are often the size of a mobile telephone. GPS receivers can be plug-in cards or separate devices with a serial interface connection. Space segment: consists of the satellites that move around in space. Every satellite weighs between 1.5 and 2 tons and has an autonomous energy supply with solar cells. The central computer of the typical satellite has a 16MHz CPU. They were programmed in Ada, a structured, statically typed, imperative, wide-spectrum, and objectoriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages. The operating system of a satellite normally consists of approximately 25,000 lines of code. Control segment: necessary for administration of the satellites as well as for correction of the satellite internal data (system time and orbits). Several monitor stations permanently receive the satellite signals. They have a precisely known, ﬁxed position and atomic clocks that are synchronized with the system time; thus, the monitor stations can calculate the correction data. They are passed
Precise Positioning Service (PPS): service that allows positioning with a precision of 22 m in the horizontal and 27.7 m in the vertical. Over a period of 24 hours, 95% of the measuring is within the given precision. PPS (formerly called P-Code or Precision Code) is encrypted and can only be decoded by the armed forces of the United States and members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). This service is not accessible to civilian users. Standard Positioning Service (SPS): Formerly called C/ACode or Coarse/Acquisition Code, this service is available for civilian users. Until April 30, 2000, it had a precision of 100 m in the horizontal and 156 m in the vertical.
The satellites send out a continuous signal with approximately 20 W, and they use two frequencies: L1 (1575.42 MHz) for PPS and SPS, and L2 (1227.6 MHz) exclusively for PPS. Because all satellites send signals at the same frequencies, a receiver must be able to assign the signals to the respective satellites. GPS uses Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) for this purpose: every satellite uses a unique code called the Pseudo Random Noise (PRN). The receiver knows all of the codes and can ﬁlter out the corresponding sequence from the superimposed signals of all satellites. The PRN’s do not disturb themselves mutually (they are designed to be orthogonal). With the help of the satellite signal, the receiver can measure the time difference of the involved clocks and compute the pseudo range. As a second function, the signal transfers data with a data rate of 50 bits/s. These data contain the position of the satellite, the system time, and the orbits of other satellites. The GPS system is subject to the following distorting effects, which inﬂuence the precision :
Table II GPS P RECISION
Clock errors: Although the clocks in the satellites work perfectly, they can cause an error of 1.5 m in the position calculation. • Orbit ﬂuctuations: The satellites do not move around perfectly in their calculated orbits, as the gravitational forces of the sun and moon disturb them. Such ﬂuctuations can cause errors up to 2.5 m. • Atmosphere disturbances: Atmospheric pressure and weather conditions affect the signal spreading and cause errors around values of 0.5 m. • Ionosphere disturbances: The loaded particles of the ionosphere disrupt the signal spreading and cause errors up to 5.0 m. • Multipath error: Reﬂected signals in the environment of the receiver cause errors of around 0.6 m. Besides these effects, the SPS signal was artiﬁcially distorted until the year 2000 to prevent very precise measuring of positions. This mechanism, called Selective Availability (SA), randomly dithered the time sent by the satellites. In addition, the orbit information was distorted. Through this system, an exact positioning was no longer possible. The background of SA was that the U.S. army did not want to enable too exact positioning for other forces. SA was switched off on May 1, 2000 for economic reasons. SPS now provides a precision of 25 m in the horizontal and 43 m in the vertical (with 95%). Table 1 summarizes the precisions of the different GPS services. Future developments are planned to improve the precision of SPS, especially to correct ionospheric distortion.
modiﬁcations in the network structure, a simple positioning is possible within the GSM network, simply by determining in which cell a mobile telephone is registered. The mobile participant can also access location-related data via the radio signals from the base stations. A base station can broadcast such data via so-called Cell Broadcast Channels (CBCHs), a logical data channel in the GSM data stream. A mobile phone has to listen for speciﬁc frames where small pieces of data, such as locations about the emergency phones, hotels, hospitals, gas station, and so on, can be transferred. The resolution of the position is too inaccurate for some services. The cell radius varies from less than 1 km in city centers up to 35 km in the countryside. If a mobile user stays in a small cell, the position is relatively exact. The 35 km as a maximum are, however, far too large for most services. Ericsson has developed a system called the Mobile Positioning System (MPS) , that allows a more precise positioning among large cells. MPS cooperates with standard GSM systems and needs only minimal modiﬁcations for installation at the communication infrastructure. The mobile terminals (i.e., the cell phones) do not have to be modiﬁed, which is particularly important because customers often reject costintensive modiﬁcations of the terminals. The precision by MPS can be improved by GPS. To determine the positions, MPS uses several mechanisms: • Cell of Global Identity (CGI): (Figure 10) Using the identiﬁcation of a cell, the position of a mobile participant can be roughly determined. This inaccurate method is only used if more precise procedures are not available.
VI. N ETWORKED BASED P OSITIONING The development of positioning systems is often a signiﬁcant investment. To reduce the costs, existing wireless networks can be used for positioning services. Particularly cellular networks are suitable for this purpose because the cell identiﬁcation already transports a rough location (COO). Additional mechanisms such as runtime measurement (TOA) or angle measurement (AOA) allow a more exact delimitation of the position. At the present time, two of the main means of transport for positioning systems are GSM and UMTS. These architectures will only be successful if they provide a portfolio of attractive services. There will not be a single “killer application” since people need variety to be satisﬁed by a single application . A. GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications Cellular phone networks are highly available, cover a large geographic area, and reach a high number of mobile users. Cellular phone infrastructures are often viewed as the most promising platforms for LBS. In 2003, more than 1.2 billion people in the world used cellular phones. Without any
Cell of Global Identity (CGI)
Segment antennas: (Figure 11). Base stations often have several antennas, which divide the 360 degrees into (usually two, three, or four) segments. Thus, a base station can limit the location of a mobile user to an angular segment of 180, 120, or 90 degrees.
Timing Advance (TA): (Figure 12). Base stations and mobile terminals use certain time slots for communication.
Because the timing must be exact, the mechanism takes into account the signal runtime between terminal and base station. A mobile terminal sends a data burst earlier when the distance to the base station increases. With this mechanism, a burst always arrives at the base station exactly within a time slot. This information can be used to determine the position within a cell more precisely. The distance to the base station is measured in steps of approximately 555 m. Timing advance can be combined with segment antennas to increase precision.
VII. C ONCLUSION Until now, LBS applications were difﬁcult to implement mainly because of the technology used. The availability of new network technologies including 2.5G and 3G technologies increased the use of data services. The ‘always-on’ data connection, the higher data transfer rates, and the charging per volume and per user-value, will enable LBS to beneﬁt from these technologies. The ability to push data to users based on their location and preferences, in a seamless and inexpensive manner, is likely to help LBS services to proliferate. Future releases of 2.5G and 3G technologies are likely to beneﬁt from the fruits of the ongoing effort to standardize different aspects of LBS. As for the standardization of LBS , a big effort is being made, both on the network and application side. Main forces are the 3G Partnership Program (3GPP), deﬁning mainly the addition of LBS capabilities to future releases of 3G networks, and the Location Interoperability Forum (LIF), formed by vendors and interested parties to developing and promote common and ubiquitous solutions for LBS which are network and location technology independent. The result of these efforts will have an signiﬁcant effect on the success of LBS, affecting the technology choice operators will make, the required investment to launch or upgrade existing LBS, as well as on the actual availability, usability, and cost of services. LBS must have attractive and accessible services and applications to take off. Some of these future services are likely to beneﬁt from higher accuracy location technologies . The ability to offer such services requires tight cooperation between mobile operators, application developers and equipment vendors. This requires the understanding of subscribers preferences and usage habits as well technology expertise. Standardization is likely to facilitate the development and launch of services, but the key is still in attracting the subscribers. Only a joint effort by the different players is likely to enable that . R EFERENCES
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Uplink Time of Arrival (UL-TOA): (Figure 13). The better positioning possible in GSM networks occurs when a mobile participant is in the reach of at least four base stations. By measuring the signal runtimes from a mobile terminal to the base stations, the position can be determined with a precision of 50 to about 150 m. A similar computation is used as in the case of satellite navigation.
Uplink Time of Arrival
B. UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System In GSM, services like voice, fax and data are standardized, ensuring compatibility between different networks and terminals, but it difﬁcults development of new services. The introduction of SAT and WAP was the ﬁrst step towards an open service environment. However, both concepts are not sufﬁcient for complex UMTS services because they are designed for very limited GSM phones and do not provide access to all relevant network elements. To overcome the current limitations, a ﬂexible service environment for UMTS has been standardized. The main objectives are to facilitate quick service development and convenient service access.
Cristina Estorninho Born in 16/07/1986 at Golegã, has 3rd level of Computer Science/Equipment Maintenance taken at Escola Proﬁssional Gustave Eiffel (2004), works as a volunteer at Pastoral Social of parish church of Golegã since 2003 and is a student of Electrical and Computers Engineering in the telecommunications area at Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setúbal of the Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal.
João Neto Born in 1/04/1982 at Lisbon, has 3rd level of Power Engineering/Electronics taken at Escola Secundária Sebastião da Gama (2003), is a trainee at Sadofone, Lda - Telecommunications, ITED Installer and Designer Technician registered under the number ITS50216PI and a student of Electrical and Computers Engineering in the telecommunications area at Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setúbal of the Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal.
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