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Name : Wara Itsna Nurmaulana

NIM : K2312077
Class : A
Physic Education 2012 / II

Assignment 2
Part I
Observe the passive voice in this article. Please underlined the passive verb!
Spectral analysis

We mentioned compounds of calcium, lithium, and strontium without specifying which


compounds we were talking about. This may have given you the impression that only the
spectrum of one of the elements in a compound can be observed. It is true that the flame of
your alcohol burner is hot enough to produce the spectra of sodium, lithium, calcium, copper,
and a few other elements, but that is not hot enough to produce the other spectra of elements,
such as oxygen and chlorine. However, if we heat a sample of a compound to a sufficiently
high temperature (for example, by putting it in an electric arc), the spectra of all the elements
in the compound will be observed. Under such conditions, the resulting spectrum is no longer
simple. It will most likely contain complicated patterns of many closely spaced lines. Yet
each element gives out its own spectrum, which is different from that of any other. It takes
accurate measurements of the positions of spectral lines to identify an element. Once this has
been done, however, the presence of that element has been definitely established.
With a good instrument, it is observed that the yellow of the sodium flame is not just
any yellow. It is a very specific color indeed, which has its own special place in the spectrum.
It is a yellow made by no other element. The presence of this particular pair of lines always
means that sodium is present in the light source. Even if the yellow color is hidden from the
unaided eye by many colors, the spectroscope will show the presence of sodium.
Although calcium, lithium, and strontium give flame tests of nearly the same color,
each gives its own set of characteristic spectral lines when viewed through a spectroscope.
The spectroscope thus enables us to distinguish one element from another.
Spectral analysis, or spectroscopy, can be done on tiny quantities of matter, such as
very small sample of a rare mineral or of a biological material. Spectroscopy can even be
used to determine the presence of different elements in distant objects like our sun and other
stars.

Analysis of sunlight was one of the very early uses of spectroscope in the study of
unknown matter. Most of the spectral lines observed in sunlight could also be produced with
known material in the laboratory. However, during a solar eclipse in 1868, a new set of
spectral lines was found in the spectrum of the light coming from the edge of the sun. This set
of lines had never been seen before and could not be produced with any element known at the
time. The lines were therefore thought to be from a new element, which was given the name
"helium" after the Greek word for sun. Eventually, the element was also detected on earth
through the use of a spectroscope.
During the first few years of spectroscopy, five new elements were discovered that are
present on earth in such a small concentrations that they were previously unknown. For
example, in analyzing the spectrum of minerals found in the water of a certain spring in
Germany, two lines of unknown origin were found in the blue region of the spectrum. This
bit of evidence was enough to challenge Robert Bunsen, the German chemist, to search for a
new element in the water. In order to isolate some of the pure element, which he named
"cesium"; it was necessary to evaporate 40,000kg of spring water! In more recent times,
spectral analysis has been one of the tools found helpful in identifying some of the new
elements produced by nuclear reactions.
Time after time, this interplay between chemical analysis and spectral analysis has
caused complex substances to yield the secret of their composition. Invariably, the results
given by these two different methods agree completely.
(From Uri Haber-Schaim. et al; Introductory Physical Science; Prentice Hall, Inc;
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632;1987).

Part II
Change the following passive sentences into their active equivalents

1.

Today, many varieties of lasers are made using different atoms and molecular
compounds in the solid, liquid, or gaseous states.
Active:Today, the scientists make many varieties of lasers using different atoms and
molecular compounds in the solid, liquid, or gaseous states.

2. Much more energy is sent into the ruby crystal by the flash lamp.
Active:The flash lamp sends much more energy into the ruby crystal.
3.

These atoms are struck by the oscillating electrons in the tube and get excited.
Active:In the tube and get excited, the oscillating electrons struck these atoms

4.

If the source emits a broad band of wavelengths, a broad band of color will be seen.
Active:It will see a broad band of color if the source emits a broad band of wavelengths.

5.

Even light of several unknown wavelengths can be distinguished and identified by


diffraction gratings.
Active:Diffraction gratings can distinguish and identify even light of several unknown
wavelength.

6.

A standard optical diffraction grating can not be used to discriminate between different
wavelengths in the x-ray wavelength range.
Active:To discriminate between different wavelengths in the x-ray wavelength range can
use a standard optical diffraction grating.

7.

We are surrounded by many every day cases of oscillations.


Active: Many every day cases of oscillations surround us.

8.

If the source is narrow, and this is viewed through a diffraction grating, a line spectrum is
seen.
Active:Scientist sees a line spectrum, if the source is narrow, and he views through a
diffraction grating.

9.

The spectra which show the composition of light emitted by hot gases are called
emission spectra.
Active:Emission spectra is the spectra which show the composition of light emitted by
hot gases.

10. Absorption spectrum is the one which is observed when white light is passed through a
cool gas.
Active:Absorption spectrum is observe when white light is passed through a cool gas.

11. After the light has passed through a diffraction grating, the continuous white light
spectrum is found to have black lines across it.
Active:The scientists find the continous white light spectrum have black line across it
after the light has passed.
12. Absorption spectra are found when the light from stars is analyzed.
Active:The scientists find absorption spectra when the light from stars is analyzed.
13. Simple line spectra can be obtained from some gemstones and colored glass.
Active:From some gemstones and colored glass can obtain simple line spectra.
14. The wave model is used to explain diffraction, interference, and polarization of light.
Active: To explain diffraction, interference, and polarization of light use the wave model.
15. In particular, when light is absorbed by a metal surface, it behaves as particles.
Active:In particular, when a metal surface absorbs light, it behaves as particles.

Part III
Change the following active sentences into the passive ones
1.

We notice that the displacement changes between positive and negative values.
Passive: It is noticed that the displacement changes between positive and negative
values.

2.

We can use the displacement- graph to find the period and frequency of the oscillation.
Passive: The displacement-graph can be used to find the period and frequency of the
oscillation.

3.

A placement time graph can represent many oscillating systems.


Passive: Many oscillating systems can be represented by a placement-time graph.

4.

If we compare the displacement time and acceleration-time graphs, well see that they
are very similar to one another.
Passive: Well see that the displacement-time and accelaration-time graphs are very
similar to one another, if we compared them.

5.

We can deduce the velocity graph from the displacement graph.


Passive: The velocity graph can be decuded from the displacement graph.

6.

We say that these oscillations are damped.


Passive: We say that these dampen oscilloscope

7.

Chemists have shown that if we mix iron ore with coal or charcoal, well obtain iron.
Passive: If we mix iron ore with coal or charcoal, well obtain iron, it had been shown by
chemists

8.

We can extract elements from their compounds by spectroscopy.


Passive: Spectroscopy can be extracted elements from their compounds

9.

We can not decompose the radioactive elements by ordinary heat, electricity, reaction
with acids, and the like.
Passive: The radioactive elements can not be decomposed by ordinary heat, electricity,
reaction with acids, and the like.

10. Since the 1960s, in medical scientists have used lasers in treating many diseases.
Passive: Laser have been used by medical scientists in treating many diseases since the
1960s.