Root Locus Technique

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Root Locus Technique

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S - plane

j

Pole

G(s)=

Zero

S+1

S+2

j

Stable

Un stable

Closed-loop system

K

G(s)

C(s)

R(s)

C(s) = KG(s)

R(s) 1+KG(s)

Closed-loop system

Open loop system TF

1+KG(s)=0

1+KG(s)= 1+K

N(s)

D(s)

Characteristics equations

= D(s)+KN(s)

G(s)=

N(s)

D(s)

Root locus

Root locus is the technique to draw the roots

(poles) of a closed loop characteristics

polynomial while changing the design

parameter K

K

R(s)

G(s)

C(s)

Simple example

G(s)=

K=0, S=-2

K=, S=-1

S+2+K(S+1)=0

S(K+1)+2+K=0

S+1

S+2

In More General

1+KG(s)=0

KG(s)=-1

|KG(s)|=1 - Magnitude condition

KG(s)

= nx180 , n=(+,-)1,3,5,..

Angle condition

A locus of the points satisfies the angle

condition alone is the roots locus

In s - plane

P1

KG(S)=KZ1Z2 / P1P2

1

Z2

Z1

2

P2

KG(s)= 1+ 2- 1- 2

1. Root locus starts from open loop poles and ends at open loop zeros(finite and infinite)

1+KG(s)= 1+K

N(s)

D(s)

= D(s)+KN(s)=0

When K= , N(s)=0, - Root locus ends at zero

If the number of zeros are less than poles(m<n), then

For large values of s

G(s)=

1

S+2

G(s) has a pole at infinity if G(s) goes to as s goes to

2. The number of segments are equal to the number of poles

3. The root locus is symmetrical to real axis

4. A segment in the real axis is on the root locus if odd number of poles / zeros are

located in the right hand side of the segment on the real axis

The angle contribution of the poles and zeros to its left are (+/-)180 degrees.

Odd numbers of poles / zeros results in (+/-) 180 degree

This is the angle condition for root locus.

Terminology

5. The branches going to infinity

b) Centroid The point where all the asymptotes meet in the real axis

Fact

The number of asymptotes are equal to the number of infinity zeros

The centroid =

+_ 180(2k+1)

n-m

poles zeros

n-m

k=0,1,2,..

6. Break-in point and Break-away point

Fact

1. If a root locus lies between two adjacent open-loop poles on the real axis, then there

exists at least one break-away point between the two poles.

2. If the root locus lies between two adjacent zeros on the real axis, then there

always exists at least one break-in point between the two zeros.

D(s)+KN(s)=0

One of the solutions to dK/ds=0 is the break in or break away point.

7. Angle of departure and angle of arrival

The angle of arrival = 180 (zeros angle contribution) + (poles angle contribution)

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