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Root Locus Technique

A time domain design

S - plane
j

Poles and zeros in S - plane


Pole

G(s)=

Zero

S+1
S+2

S Plane (complex plane)


j

Stable

Un stable

Closed-loop system
K

G(s)
C(s)

R(s)

C(s) = KG(s)
R(s) 1+KG(s)

Closed-loop system
Open loop system TF

1+KG(s)=0

1+KG(s)= 1+K

N(s)
D(s)

Characteristics equations

= D(s)+KN(s)

G(s)=

N(s)
D(s)

Root locus
Root locus is the technique to draw the roots
(poles) of a closed loop characteristics
polynomial while changing the design
parameter K
K
R(s)

G(s)
C(s)

Simple example
G(s)=

K=0, S=-2

K=, S=-1

S+2+K(S+1)=0
S(K+1)+2+K=0

S+1
S+2

In More General

1+KG(s)=0
KG(s)=-1
|KG(s)|=1 - Magnitude condition
KG(s)
= nx180 , n=(+,-)1,3,5,..
Angle condition
A locus of the points satisfies the angle
condition alone is the roots locus

In s - plane

P1

KG(S)=KZ1Z2 / P1P2
1

Z2

Z1
2

P2

KG(s)= 1+ 2- 1- 2

Rules to plot root locus


1. Root locus starts from open loop poles and ends at open loop zeros(finite and infinite)

1+KG(s)= 1+K

N(s)
D(s)

= D(s)+KN(s)=0

When K=0, D(s)=0, - Root locus starts from poles


When K= , N(s)=0, - Root locus ends at zero

Rules to plot root locus


If the number of zeros are less than poles(m<n), then
For large values of s

The only solution for K= is s=

G(s)=

1
S+2

G(s) has a zero at infinity if G(s) goes to 0 as s goes to


G(s) has a pole at infinity if G(s) goes to as s goes to

Rules to plot root locus


2. The number of segments are equal to the number of poles
3. The root locus is symmetrical to real axis

Rules to plot root locus


4. A segment in the real axis is on the root locus if odd number of poles / zeros are
located in the right hand side of the segment on the real axis

The angle contribution of the poles and zeros to its left are (+/-)180 degrees.
Odd numbers of poles / zeros results in (+/-) 180 degree
This is the angle condition for root locus.

Terminology

Rules to plot root locus


5. The branches going to infinity

a) Asymptotes lines on the s-plane - the branches goes to infinity converges


b) Centroid The point where all the asymptotes meet in the real axis
Fact
The number of asymptotes are equal to the number of infinity zeros

The angle of asymptotes a =

The centroid =

+_ 180(2k+1)
n-m

poles zeros
n-m

k=0,1,2,..

Rules to plot root locus


6. Break-in point and Break-away point
Fact
1. If a root locus lies between two adjacent open-loop poles on the real axis, then there
exists at least one break-away point between the two poles.
2. If the root locus lies between two adjacent zeros on the real axis, then there
always exists at least one break-in point between the two zeros.
D(s)+KN(s)=0
One of the solutions to dK/ds=0 is the break in or break away point.

Rules to plot root locus


7. Angle of departure and angle of arrival

The angle of departure =180-(poles angle contribution)+(zeros angle contribution)


The angle of arrival = 180 (zeros angle contribution) + (poles angle contribution)