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LAB SHEET

EEL2026

TRIMESTER 2

PTD2- Parameters which affect Real and Reactive Power Flow

*Note: On-the-spot evaluation may be carried out during or at the end of the experiment.

Students are advised to read through this lab sheet before doing experiment. Your

performance, teamwork effort, and learning attitude will count towards the marks.

Instruction

1. Before coming to the laboratory read the lab sheet carefully and

understands the procedure of performing the experiments.

2. Do not switch-on the power supply unless permitted by the

lab supervisor.

3. Do not make or break any connection with the power supply on.

4. Handle the equipments with care.

5. Do the necessary calculation, draw the graphs and submit the report within the

specified time of the lab session.

Experiment # 1

Loading Conditions

Objectives

resistive, inductive and capacitive loading conditions.

To diagnose the reason for the voltage drop across the transmission

line when the sending-end and receiving-end voltages have the same

magnitude.

To investigate the effectiveness of the shunt capacitors to improve the

power transfer capability of the line.

Introduction

A short transmission line is modeled by a single reactance as shown in Fig. 1. A good

understanding of the behavior of most of the transmission lines can be obtained by the short

line model. It is this model which will be used in this experiment.

Depending upon the loading condition the phase angle difference between

the sending-end and receiving-end voltages and the voltage drop along

the line will vary. These effects can be easily understood from the phasor

diagram shown in Fig. 1. It may also be observed that a significant voltage

drop will exist across the line even when the sending -end voltage, E 1 and

the receiving-end voltage, E2 are equal in magnitude.

I

E

IX

E

I

(a)

(b)

2

We have studied that the voltage drop along the transmission line and the receiving-end

voltage vary widely for inductive loads. In order to regulate the voltage at the receiving-end

of the line in some way so as to keep it at as constant as possible we should adopt some type

of compensation. One method commonly used is to connect shunt capacitors at the end of the

line. These capacitors produce a significant voltage rise thus compensating for the voltage

drop. Static capacitors are switched in and out in a practical system and their value is adjusted

depending on the loads. For purely inductive loads, the capacitor should deliver reactive

power equal to that consumed by the inductive load. For resistive loads, the reactive power,

which the capacitor must supply to regulate the voltage, is not easy to calculate. In this

experiment, we shall determine the reactive power (the value of capacitor) by trial and error,

adjusting the capacitors until the receiving-end voltage is approximately equal to the sendingend voltage. For loads, which draw both real and reactive power, the same trial and error

method is adopted.

Note that for a short transmission line having a line reactance of X /phase and resistance

neglected. The following formulas will be useful.

Sending-end voltage (L-L) = E11; Receiving end voltage (L-L) = E22

Three-phase sending-end power = Three-phase receiving end Power

E E Sin(1 2 )

= P1 = P2 = 1 2

X

2

E E Cos (1 2 )

E

Three-phase sending-end reactive power = Q1 = 1 - 1 2

X

X

E1 E 2 Cos (1 2 ) E 2 2

Three-phase receiving-end reactive power = Q2 =

X

X

Apparent power at receiving end = S 2

P Q ;

P Q ;

2

1

2

1

2

2

2

2

Equipment required

Three-phase transmission line (8329)

Resistive load (8311)

Inductive load (8321)

Capacitive load (8331)

AC voltmeter (8426)

Three-phase wattmeter/varmeter (8446)

Power supply (8821)

Connection leads (9128)

Procedure

1. Set the impedance of the transmission line to 200 and connect the meters as shown in

Fig. 2. The circuit should be connected to the three-phase variable supply. Note that

watt/var meters and phase meter need 24V AC supply provided in the power supply unit.

Connect all the loads in star. Verify your connections with the lab supervisor before

switching on the power supply.

0-500V

E2

0-500V

E1

5

6

2

3

8821

0-415V

3-phase

P1

8446

Q1

5

6

2

3

4

P2

8329

Q2

5

6

8446

Yconnected

LOAD

8311

8321

8331

2. Adjust the sending-end voltage E1 to 300 V and keep it constant for the reminder part of

the experiment. Use a three-phase resistive load and increase the load in steps making

sure that the loads are balanced. Take readings of sending end and receiving end voltages

and powers, E1, Q1, P1, E2, Q2, and P2. Record your results in Table 1.

3. Switch off the power supply and connect a three-phase balanced inductive load in parallel

with the balanced resistive load. Dont remove any other connections shown in Fig.2.

Increase the load in steps making sure that the loads are balanced. Take readings of

sending end and receiving end voltages and powers, E 1, Q1, P1, E2, Q2, and P2. Record

your results in Table 2.

4. Switch off the power supply, remove the inductive load and connect a three-phase

balanced capacitive load in parallel with the balanced resistive load. Take readings of

sending end and receiving end voltages and powers,E1, Q1, P1, E2, Q2, and P2 for different

loadings. Record your results in Table 3.

5. Draw three graphs of receiving end voltage, E2 (obtained from steps 2, 3, and 4) on the

same graph paper as a function of the receiving-end power P2 and discuss your results.

6. Switch off the power supply and connect a phase meter to measure the phase angle

difference between E1 and E2 and a voltmeter to measure the voltage across the

transmission line as shown in Fig. 3. Note that the load consists of resistances in parallel

with capacitances. Now for each resistive load, adjust the capacitive load so that the load

voltage E2 is as close as possible to 300 V. Take readings of X C, E1, P1, Q1, E2, P2, Q2, and

the phase angle for different loadings. Record your results in Table 4.

7. Draw the graphs of E2 and the phase angle difference between E1 and E2 as a function of

P2 from the results in Table 4. Note that the addition of static capacitors has yielded a

much more constant voltage, and further more, the power P2 which can be delivered has

increased. On this curve, indicate the phase angle between E 2 and E1 as well as the

reactive power Q2 used for individual resistive load settings.

8. In this part of the experiment, we shall observe a significant voltage drop along the

transmission line even when the voltages E 1 and E2 are equal in magnitude. This voltage

drop is due to the phase angle difference between the two voltages. Switch off the supply

and insert an ammeter in series with the transmission line as shown in Fig. 3 to measure

the line current without removing any other connection. Using the circuit shown in Fig. 3,

set the load resistance per phase at 686 and E1 = 300 V, adjust the capacitive reactance

until the load voltage is as close as possible to 300 V. Measure and record E 1, Q1, P1, E2,

Q2, P2, E3, the line current I and the phase angle.

8451

1

2

0-500V

3

4

E2

0-500V

E1

686

8329

5

6

2

3

8821

P1

Q1

5

6

2

3

4

P2

8446

0-415V

Q2

5

6

686

A

686

8446

E3

3-phase

8311

8331

0-250V

9. Using the results of step 8, draw the phasor diagram of per phase values of E 1 and E2 to

scale and draw E3. From the diagram compute E3 and compare it with the measured value.

Also compute the real power, reactive power and apparent power consumed by the line.

From the apparent power compute the line current and compare it with the measured

value.

Observations

Table 1: Results of procedure step 2

R

4800

2400

1600

1200

960

800

686

E1

V

P1

W

Q1

var

E2

V

P2

W

Q2

Var

R

4800

2400

1600

1200

960

800

686

Xl

4800

2400

1600

1200

960

800

686

E1

V

P1

W

Q1

var

E2

V

P2

W

Q2

var

P2

W

Q2

var

R

4800

2400

1600

1200

960

800

686

Xc

4800

2400

1600

1200

960

800

686

E1

V

P1

W

Q1

var

E2

V

R

4800

2400

1600

1200

960

800

686

Xc

E1

V

P1

W

Q1

var

E2

V

P2

W

Q2

var

Angle

degree

E1=

E2=

P1=

P2=

Q1=

Q2=

E3=

Phase angle =

Sample calculation

Line current, I =

Let

E1 = 350 V

E2 = 350 V

E3 = 165 V

P1 = 600 W

P2 = 510 W

Q1 = 170 var

Q2 = -280 var

o

Phase angle = 48 and Line current, I = 0.95

E1 per phase = 350/3 = 202 V

E2 per phase = 350/3 = 202 V

E3 = 165 V

P1 per phase = 600/3 = 200 W

P2 per phase = 510/3 = 170 W

Q1 per phase = 170/3 = 56.7 var

Q2 per phase = -280/3 = 93.3 var

The phasor diagram of voltages to scale is shown in Fig.4.

E

-48

E 3 = 165

From the figure E3 = 165 V which is the same as the measured value. [The voltage E 3 may

also be calculated using the formula, E3 = 2*E1*sin(24o)]

Real power consumed = 200 170 = 30 W

Reactive power consumed = 56.7 (-93.3) = 150 var

Apparent power in the line = 150 2 302 153 VA

7

The difference between the calculated value and the measured value is 0.02 A.

Exercise

1. Analyze your results based on the graphs you have drawn in steps 5 and 7. From the

graphs plotted predict the voltage regulations for load powers of 60W, 70W and 80W

respectively under different loading conditions (resistive, resistive-inductive and resistivecapacitive) and compile the results.

2. Analyze your results obtained in step 9.

3. A three-phase transmission line has reactance of 100 per phase. The sending-end

voltage is 100 kV and the receiving-end voltage is also regulated to be 100 kV by placing

a bank of static capacitors in parallel with the receiving-end load of 50 MW. Predict

(a) the reactive power supplied by the capacitor bank

(b) the reactive power supplied by the sending-end side

(c) the voltage drop in the line per phase

(d) the phase angle between the sending-end and receiving-end voltages and

(e) the apparent power supplied by the sending-end side.

4. If the 50 MW load in Exercise 3 is suddenly disconnected formulate the receiving-end

voltage which would appear across the capacitor bank. What precaution, if any, must be

taken?

5. Argue why it is not possible to raise the receiving-end voltage by static capacitors if the

transmission line is purely resistive.

6. State briefly what you have learned from this experiment.

Experiment # 2

PARAMETERS WHICH AFFECT REAL AND REACTIVE

POWER FLOW

Objectives

To investigate the flow of real and reactive power when sender and

receiver voltages are different, but in phase.

To forecast the flow of real and reactive power when sender and receiver

voltages are equal, but out of phase.

To analyze the flow of real and reactive power when sender and receiver

voltages are different and out of phase.

Introduction

Transmission lines are designed and built to deliver electric power. Power flows

from the generator (sender end) to the load (receiver end). But, in complex

interconnected systems, the sender and receiver ends may become reversed

depending upon the system load conditions which, of course, vary throughout

the day. Power in such a line may flow in either direction. The character of the

load also changes from hour to hour, both as to kVA loading and as to power

factor. How, then, can we attempt to understand and solve the flow of electric

power under such variable loading conditions, further complicated by the

possible reversal of source and load at the two ends of the line?

We can obtain meaningful answers by turning to the voltage at each end of the

tine. In Fig.1 a transmission line having a reactance of X (per phase) has

sender and receiver voltages of E1 and E2 V respectively. (A transmission line is

both resistive and reactive, but we shall assume that the reactance is so much

larger that the resistance may be neglected) If we allow these voltages to have

any magnitude or phase relationship, we can represent any loading condition we

please. In other words, by letting E 1 and E2 take any values and any relative

phase angle, we can cover all possible loading conditions which may occur

Referring to Fig. 1, both E1 and E2 are phasors with different magnitude and out

of phase.

X

E1

SENDER

E2

RECEIVER

The voltage drop along the line is E 1- E2; consequently, for a line having a

reactance of X , the current I is given by

I=

E1 E 2

jX

when E1 E2 is the phasor difference between the sending- and receiving-end voltages.

If we know the value of E 1 and E2, and the phase angle between them, it is a

simple matter to find the current I, knowing the reactance X of the line. From

this knowledge we can calculate the real and reactive power, which is

delivered by the source and received by the load.

Suppose, for example, that the properties of a transmission line are as follows:

Line reactance per phase, X = 100

Sender voltage (E1) = 20 kV

Receiver voltage (E2) = 30 kV

Receiver voltage lags behind sender voltage by 26.5.

These line conditions are represented schematically in Fig. 2. From the phasor

diagram in Fig. 3, we find that the voltage drop (E 1 E2) in the line has a value

of 15 kV. The current I has a value of 15 kV/100 = 150 A and it lags behind

(E1 E2) by 90. From the geometry of the figure, we find that the current

leads E1 by 27. The active and reactive power of the sender and the receiver

can now be found.

X=100

E1=20

E2=30

kV

kV

26.5

R

10

E1=20kV

E2=30kV

I = 150

A

27

26.5

90

53.5

E1 = 20

kV E1 E2 = 15 kV

E2 = 30 kV

Fig. 3: Phasor diagram

Note: When determining the sine and cosine of the angle between voltage and

current, the current is always chosen as the reference phasor. Consequently,

because E1 lags behind I by 27, the angle is negative.

The real power delivered by the sender is, 150 A x 20 kV x cos (-27) = +2670

kW.

The real power received by the receiver is, 150 A x 30 kV x cos (-53.5) = +2670kW.

The reactive power delivered by the sender is, 150 A x 20 kV x sin (-27) =

-1360 kvar.

The reactive power received by the receiver is, 150 A x 30 kV x sin (-53,5)=

-3610 kvar.

(Note that equations for real power and reactive power given in the

lab sheet for Experiment-1 can also be used for the above

calculation.)

Based on the results calculated above, if wattmeters and varmeters were

placed at the sender and receiver ends they would give readings as shown in

Fig. 4. This means that active power is flowing from the sender to the receiver,

and owing to the absence of line resistance, none is lost in transit.

150A

+267

0

1360

kW

kvar

11

+267

0 kW

-3610

kvar

Real Power

Reactive Power

Real Power

Reactive Power

However, reactive power is flowing from receiver to sender and, during transit,

3160 - 1360 = 2250 kvar are consumed in the transmission line. This reactive

power can be checked against

Line kvar = I2X = 1502 x 100 = 2250 kvar.

It will be noted that this is not the first time that we have found real power

and reactive power flowing simultaneously in opposite directions.

Sender and receiver voltages are different, but in phase.

When the voltages at the sender and receiver ends are in phase, but unequal,

reactive power will flow. The direction of flow is always from the higher

voltage to the lower voltage.

Consider a transmission line in which the voltages at the sender and receiver

ends are 30 kV and 20 kV respectively and the line reactance is 100 (Refer

to Fig. 5).

X = 100

E2=20kV

I

E1 3

E1=30 kV

E2=20kV

E1=30kV

The voltage drop in the line is 10 kV and the current is 10 kV/100 = 100 A

as

shown in Fig. 6.

E2 = 20kV

E1 = 30kV

E1 E2 = 10kV

12

I = 100A

Fig. 6 Phasor diagram showing current and voltages

The real power delivered by the sender end is, 100 A x 30 kV x cos (+ 90) =

0 W.

The real power received by the receiver is, 100 A x 20 kV x cos (+90) = 0

W.

The reactive power delivered by the sender end is,

100 A x 30 kV x sin ( + 90) = + 3000kvar.

The reactive power received by the receiver is

100A x 20 kV x sin ( + 90") = +2000kvar.

If wattmeters and varmeters were placed at each end, the readings would

be as shown in Fig. 7.

100A

0 kW

+300

0

0 kW

Reactive Power

+200

0

Real Power

kvarReactive Powe

S

Reactive power flows from the sender to the receiver, and 1000 kvar are

absorbed in the transmission line during transit. As can be seen, reactive

power flows from the high-voltage to the low-voltage side.

Sender and receiver voltages are the same, but out of phase.

Real power can only flow over a line if the sender and receiver voltages are

out of phase. The direction of power flow is from the leading to the lagging

voltage end. Again, it should be noted that this rule applies only to

transmission lines, which are mainly reactive. The phase shift between the

sender and receiver voltages can be likened to an electrical "twist", similar to

the mechanical twist which occurs when a long steel shaft delivers mechanical

power to a load. Indeed, the greater the electrical "twist" the larger will be the

real power flow. However, it is found that it attains a maximum when the

phase angle between the sender and receiver ends is 90. If the phase angle

is increased beyond this (by increased loading) it will be found that less real

power is delivered.

13

Consider a transmission line in which the voltages at each end are equal to 30

kV and the receiver voltage lags behind the sender by 30. The line reactance

is 100 , and the circuit is shown in Fig. 8.

E1 =

30kV

X = 100

I

E2

E1 =

30kV

30

=30kV

R

E2

=30kV

Fig. 8 Line with phase angle difference between E 1 and E2 and phasor

diagram

The voltage drop in the line (E 1 - E2) is found to be 15.5 kV. So the current I

=15500/100 = 155 A and it lags (E 1 - E2) by 90o, as shown in Fig. 9.

E1 =

15o

E1 E2 = 15.5kV

30kV

15o

I

E2 =

30kV

Fig. 9 Phasor diagram showing voltages and current

Taking the current as the reference phasor, we can find the real and reactive

power associated with the sender and the receiver ends as shown in Fig.10.

155A

+450

0 kW

+120

0

+450

0 kW

-1200

kvar

kvar

Real Power

Reactive

Power

Real Power

Reactive Power

Fig. 10 Real and reactive power flow in the line

Sender End

Real power delivered = 30 kV x 155 A x cos (+15) = +4500 kW,

14

Receiver End

Real power received = 30 kV x 155 A x cos (-15) = + 4500 kW.

Reactive power received = 30 kV x 155 A x sin (- 15) = - 1200 kvar.

The sender delivers both active and reactive power to the line and the

receiver absorbs active power from it. However, the receiver delivers reactive

power to the line, so that the total reactive power received by the line is 2400

kvar.

This example shows that a phase shift between sender and receiver voltages

causes both real and reactive power to flow. However, for angles smaller than

45 the real power considerably exceeds the reactive power.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

DESCRIPTION

MODEL

Resistive Load

8311

Inductive Load

8321

8329

Capacitive Load

Three-Phase Regulating Autotransformer

8331

8349

AC Voltmeter

8426

Three-Phase Wattmeter/Varmeter

6446

Phase Meter

8451

Power Supply

6821

Connection Leads

9128

PROCEDURE

WARNING.

15

any connections with the power on!

In order to convey a sense of realism to the terms "sender" and "receiver" two consoles will be used in the following experiments. A transmission line

will connect the two consoles (Station A and B) and the active and

reactive power flow between them will be studied. The experiment will

be conducted in three parts.

Part-I: Sender and receiver voltages unequal, but in phase

Part-II; Sender and receiver voltages equal, but out of phase

Part-III: Sender and receiver voltages unequal, and out of phase

Note that there will be minor changes only in the connections between the parts of the

experiments. Dont remove all the connections, simply do the changes only. Verify your

connections for each part with your lab supervisor

PART-I: Sender and Receiver voltages unequal, but in phase

1. Connect a three-phase transmission line between terminals 4, 5, 6 (variable AC

output) of two consoles, one of which is designated as Station A and the other,

Station B. Connect the two three-phase wattmelers/varmeters (6446) at each end

as well as a phase meter (8451) as shown schematically (single line diagram) in

Fig. 11. Note that watt/var meters and phase meter need 24V AC supply

provided in the power supply unit. Verify your connections with the lab

supervisor before switching on the power supply.

0 500

V

STATION A

4 O

0-415 V

3-phase

E1

0 500

E2 V

STATION B

O 4

5 O

8451

Q1

8446

8329

Q2

8446

0-415 V

3-phase

O 5

8821

8821

6 O Fig. 11 Sender and Receiver voltages unequal, but in phase

O 6

2. With the transmission line switch S open, adjust the line-to-line voltages so that

E1 and E2 are both equal to 300 V and observe that the phase angle difference

between terminals 4-5 of station A and terminals 4-5 of station B is zero. Is phase

angle zero?

Yes

No

3. Without making any changes, measure the phase angle between terminals 45 of station A and terminals 5-4 of station B.

16

4. Without making any change, measure the phase angle between terminals 4-5 of

station A and terminals 5-6 of station B.

Phase angle is lagging Phase angle is leading

5. Measure the phase angle between terminals 4-5 of station A and terminals 64 of station B.

Phase angle is lagging Phase angle is leading

6. By measuring all phase angles between line and neutral of station A and B prove

that the phasor diagrams for both stations are as given in Fig. 12. The purpose of

this preliminary phase angle check is to familiarize with the phase angles between

the voltages at the two stations.

4A

4B

Rotation

Rotation

120

120

6A

120

120

120

5A

6B

120

5B

Fig. 12. The phase angles between the voltages at the two stations.

7. Close the Three-Phase Transmission Line switch, S with E 1 = E2 = 300V, and the

transmission line impedance = 200

. Observe the three-phase

wattmeler/varmeter readings. There should be no significant power exchange.

P1 = _________ W

P2 = _________ W

Q1 = _________ var

Q2 = _________ var

17

P1 = _________ W

P2 = _________ W

Q1 = _________ var

Q2 = _________ var

_________________________________________________________________

9. Reduce station A voltage to 300 V and raise station B voltage to 350 V. Observe power flow.

P1 = _________ W

P2 = _________ W

Q1 = _________ var

Q2 = _________ var

________________________________________________________________

10.Vary the voltages of both station A and station B and check the truth of the

statement that reactive power always flows from the higher voltage to the lower

voltage.

PART-II: Sender and Receiver voltages equal, but out of phase

Study the Three-Phase Regulating Autotransformer to shift the phase of station A by

15. The phase shift (lag or lead) is obtained by changing the connections of a threephase transformer by means of a tap switch.

When the position of the tap-switch in the regulating transformer is altered, the

secondary voltage will a) be in phase with the primary, b) lag the primary by 15 or,

c) lead the primary by 15".

11.Connect the above phase-shifting autotransformer to the variable AC terminals

4,5,6 of station A as shown schematically in Fig. 13. Open the switch (S) in the

18

stations A and B to 350 V. With the Phase Meter determine the phase angle of the

secondary voltage 4, 5, 6 of the phase shifting transformer with respect to the

variable AC terminals 4, 5, 6 of the Power Supply of Station B. Record your

readings for the three positions of the phase-shift tap switch in Table 1.

0 500

V

E

Phase shifting

Autotransformer

4 O

8451

0 500

E V

2

O 4

0-415 V

3-phase

P1

5 O

8349

8329

8446

8446

8821

6 O

0-415 V

P2

O 5

3-phase

8821

O 6

STEPS 11 AND 12

Table 1

Tap switch

position in

degree

0

Phase angle

E1 in V

E2 in V

(Lag/Lead)

+ 15

-15

Note: The buck-boost tap switch must be kept at zero and the correct phase sequence

must be applied to the primary of the transformer.

12.Check that the phase-shift is the same for all the three phases, and that

all voltages are balanced.

13.Connect a three-phase, 400- transmission line between secondary terminals 4, 5, 6 of the three-phase phase shifting autotransformer and the

power supply terminals of station B by closing the switch (see Fig.14).

Change the tap switch position and record your results in Table 2.

0 500

845

0 500

V

1

E

E V

4 O

0-415 V

REGULATING

AUTOTRANSFORMER

3 phase

5 O

882

834

9

O 4

P

844

6

19

832

9

844

6

0-415 V

O 5

882

1

3 phase

Table 2

Tap

Switch

E1

P1

Q1

E2

P2

Q2

var

var

Position in

degree

Phase

angle in

degree

0

+ 15

-15

Does this experiment proves the statement that real power flows from the

leading voltage towards the lagging voltage side of a transmission line?

Yes

No

(Caution!! First DIRECTLY SWITCH OFF the main power supplies of both

sending end and receiving end and then set the supply

autotransformers to zero voltage. Make changes in connection for PARTIII)

PART-III: Sender and Receiver voltages unequal, and out of phase

In the following steps we shall connect passive loads (resistive, inductive,

and capacitive) at the receiver end of the line. The object of the experiment is

to show that a phase shift between sender and receiver voltages occurs only

when real power is being delivered to the load.

20

14. Using only one console, set up the experiment as shown in Fig. 15,

setting E1 = 380 V and using a star-connected Resistive Load of 1200

per phase and a 200- Transmission Line. Take readings and record your

results in Table 3

0 500

V

E

3-phase

5 O

4 O

0-415 V

0 500

V

8451

8329

8446

LOAD

8446

8311

8821

8321

6 O

8331

Fig. 15 Transmission line with different loadings

Take

readings and record your results in Table 3.

Take

readings and record your results in Table 3.

Table 3

Step

Load

E1

P1

Q1

E2

P2

Q2

var

var

Phase

shift

degree

14

15

16

RESISTIVE

INDUCTIVE

CAPACITIVE

Exercise

1. A three-phase transmission line has a reactance of 100 and at

different times throughout the day it is found that the sender and

receiver voltages have magnitude and phase angles as given in Table 4.

21

In each case calculate the real and reactive power of the sender and

receiver and investigate the direction of the power flow. The voltages

refer to line-to-line voltages.

Table 4

SENDER

ES

ER

kV

kV

100

120

100

120

120

100

100

120

100

100

Phase angle

60

60

60

30

0

RECEIVER

MW

Mvar

MW

Mvar

ES Leads ER

ES Leads ER

ES Leads ER

Es Lags ER

2. In Question 1 assume that E S = ER = 100 kV at all times but that the phase

angle between them changes in steps of 30 according to the Table 5. Calculate the value of the real power in each case as well as its direction of flow,

knowing that ER lags ES in each case. Plot a graph of real power versus phase

angle. Investigate the limit to the maximum power which such a line can

deliver under static voltage conditions.

Table 5

SENDER, P

RECEIVER, P

degree

MW

MW

0

30

60

90

120

150

180

3. Discuss briefly what you have learnt from this experiment.

Marking Scheme

Lab Assessment

(10%) Components

Details

Hands-On &

Efforts (2%)

efforts during the lab sessions will be assessed.

On the Spot

Evaluation (3%)

on the theory concerned with the lab

22

Lab Report

(5%)

discussion sheet and recorded experimental data

on the same day of performing the lab

experiments.

23

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