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15.0 V

RC =5 K

vO (t ) VO vo (t )
RB =5 K

100

Example of
+
A Small-Signal
Analysis of a BJT Amplifier
v (t )
_

Consider the following BJT

RE =5 K
amplifier:

5.8 V

COUS

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Lets determine its small-signal, open-circuit voltage gain:

Avo

vo (t )
vi (t )

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To do this, we must follow each of our five small-signal analysis


steps!
Step 1: Complete a D.C. Analysis

15.0 V

The DC circuit that we must analyze is:

RC =5 K

IC

VO
RB =5 K

100

IB

5.8 V

RE =5 K

IE

Note what we have done to the original circuit:


1) We turned off the small-signal voltage source (vi (t ) 0
), thus replacing it with a short circuit.
2) We replaced the capacitor with an open circuitits DC
impedance.

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15.0 V

341046654.doc

Now we proceed with the DC analysis.


We ASSUME that the BJT is in active
mode, and thus ENFORCE the equalities
VBE 0.7 V and IC IB .

RC =5 K

VO

RB =5 K
We now begin to
ANALYZE the circuit by
writing the BaseEmitter Leg KVL:
5.8 5I
0.7
I 5( 1)
B

5.8 V

Therefore:

IB
and thus:

IC

100

IB
RE =5 K

IE

5.1
0.01 mA
5 5(101)

II

1.0 mA

IE IB IC 1.01 mA
Q: Since we know the DC bias currents, we have all the
information we need to determine the small-signal parameters.

Why dont we proceed directly to step 2?

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A: Because we still need to CHECK our assumption! To do this,


we must determine either VCE or VCB .
15.0 V

Note that the Collector voltage is:

VC 15 IC RC
15 (1.0)5

RC =5 K

10.0 V
And the Emitter voltage is:

VE IE RE

(1.01)5

5.8 V

5.05 V
Therefore, VCE is:

VO
RB =5 K

100

IB
RE =5 K

VCE VC VE

10.0 5.05
4.95 V

We now can complete our CHECK:

IC 1.0 mA > 0

VCE 4.95 V > 0.7


Time to move on to step 2!

IC

IE

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Step 2: Calculate the small-signal circuit parameters for


each BJT.
If we use the Hybrid- model, we need to determine gm and r :

gm

1.0 mA
IC
mA

40
VT
0.025V
V

VT
0.025 V

2.5 K
IB
0.01 mA

The Early voltage VA of this BJT is unknown, so we will neglect


the Early effect in our analysis.
As such, we assume that the output resistance is infinite (
ro ).

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Step 3: Carefully replace all BJTs with their small-signal


circuit model.
15.0 V

RC =5 K
RB =5 K

B
C

+
+
_

vi (t)

vbe

vO (t )
VO vo (t )

2.5 K

40 vbe

5. 8 V

RE =5 K

COUS

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Step 4: Set all D.C. sources to zero.

RC =5 K
RB =5 K

vo (t )

B
C

+
+
_

vi (t)

vbe

2.5 K

40 vbe

RE =5 K

We likewise notice that the large capacitor (COUS) is an


approximate AC short, and thus we can further simplify the
schematic by replacing it with a short circuit.

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RC =5 K
RB =5 K

ib
+
_

vi (t)

vo (t )
C

ic

vbe

2.5 K

40 vbe

ie

We notice that one terminal of the small-signal voltage source,


the emitter terminal, and one terminal of the collector resistor
RC are all connected to groundthus they are all collected to
each other!
We can use this fact to simplify the small-signal schematic.

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RB =5 K

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ib

ic
+

+
_

vi (t)

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r
2. 5 K

vbe

40 vbe

vo (t )
RC =5 K

ie

The schematic above is the small-signal circuit of this


amplifier. We are ready to continue to step 5!
Step 5: Analyze small-signal circuit.
The left side of the circuit provides the voltage divider
equation:

vbe

r
v
RB r i

2. 5
vi
5.0 2.5
v
i
3

A result that relates the input signal to the base-emitter


voltage.

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C
+

+
_

vi (t)

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vbe

2.5 K

40 vbe

vo (t )

RC =5 K

E
The right side of the schematic allows us to determine the
output voltage in terms of the base-emitter voltage:

vo ic RC
(gmvbe ) RC
40(5)vbe
200vbe

Combining these two equations, we find:

vo 200vbe
v
200 i
3
66.7 vi
The open-circuit, small-signal voltage gain of this amplifier gain
is therefore:

Avo

vo
66.7
vi

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The common base amplifier uses a bypass capacitor or a direct


connection from base to ground to hold the base at ground for
the signal only!

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