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You are on page 1of 64

Chapter 13:

Liquids

Pressure

Pressure in a Liquid

Buoyancy in a Liquid

Archimedes' Principle

What Makes an Object Sink or Float

Flotation

Pascal's Principle

Surface Tension

Capillarity

Pressure

The force per unit area that one object exerts on

another

In equation form:

, or Pa (Pascals)

Units:

Pressure, Continued

Example: The teacher lying on nails is unharmed because

force is applied over many nails. Combined

surface area of the nails results in a tolerable

pressure that does not puncture the skin.

Pressure

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When you stand on one foot instead of two, the

force you exert on the floor is

A.

B.

C.

D.

less.

the same.

more.

None of the above.

Pressure

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When you stand on one foot instead of two, the

force you exert on the floor is

A. the same.

Comment:

Distinguish between force and pressure!

Pressure

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR, Continued

When you stand on one foot instead of two, the

pressure you exert on the floor is

A.

B.

C.

D.

less.

the same.

more.

None of the above.

Pressure

CHECK YOUR ANSWER, Continued

When you stand on one foot instead of two, the

pressure you exert on the floor is

C. more.

Explanation:

Twice as much, in fact!

Pressure in a Liquid

Force per unit area that a liquid exerts on an

object

Depth dependent and not volume dependent

Example: Swim twice as deep, then twice as

much weight of water above you

produces twice as much pressure

on you.

Acts equally in all directions

Example:

Your ears feel the same amount of pressure

under water no matter how you tip your head.

Bottom of a boat is pushed upward by water

pressure.

Pressure acts upward when pushing a beach

ball under water.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Independent of shape of container:

Whatever the shape of a container, pressure

at any particular depth is the same.

In equation form:

Pressure in a Liquid

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Water pressure provided by a water tower is

greater if the tower

A.

B.

C.

D.

is taller.

holds more water.

Both A and B.

None of the above.

Pressure in a Liquid

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Water pressure provided by a water tower is

greater if the tower

A. is taller.

Explanation:

Only depth, not amount of water, contributes to pressure.

Effects of water pressure

Acts perpendicular to

surfaces of a container

Liquid spurts at right

angles from a hole in the

surface.

The greater the depth, the

greater the exiting speed.

Buoyancy in a Liquid

Buoyancy

Apparent loss of weight of a submerged object

Amount equals the weight of water displaced

Displacement rule:

A completely submerged object always displaces a

volume of liquid equal to its own volume.

Example: Place a stone in a container that is brimful

of water, and the amount of water overflow

equals the volume of the stone.

Buoyancy in a Liquid

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A cook who measures a specific amount of butter

by placing it in a measuring cup with water in it is

using the

A.

B.

C.

D.

principle of buoyancy.

displacement rule.

concept of density.

All of the above.

Buoyancy in a Liquid

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A cook who measures a specific amount of butter

by placing it in a measuring cup with water in it is

using the

B. displacement rule.

Buoyant force

Net upward force that a fluid exerts

on an immersed object = weight of

water displaced

Example: The difference in the

upward and downward

forces acting on the

submerged block is the

same at any depth

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Buoyancy in a Liquid

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR, Continued

How many forces act on a submerged body at rest in

a fluid?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Onebuoyancy

Twobuoyancy and the force due to gravity

Nonein accord with the equilibrium rule,

None of the above.

Buoyancy in a Liquid

CHECK YOUR ANSWER, Continued

How many forces act on a submerged body at rest in

a fluid?

B. Twobuoyancy and the force due to gravity

Sink or float?

Sink when weight of submerged object is

greater than the buoyant force.

Neither sink nor float when weight of a

submerged object is equal to buoyant

forceobject will remain at any level.

Float when weight of submerged object is

less than the buoyant force it would have

when submergedwhen floating, buoyant

force = weight of floating object.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Archimedes' Principle

Archimedes' principle:

Discovered by Greek scientist Archimedes.

Relates buoyancy to displaced liquid.

States that an immersed body (completely or

partially) is buoyed up by a force equal to the

weight of the fluid it displaces.

Applies to gases and liquids.

Apparent weight of a submerged object

Weight out of water buoyant force

Example: If a 3-kg block submerged in water apparently

"weighs" 2 kg, then the buoyant force or weight of

water displaced is 1 kg.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

On which of these blocks submerged in water is the buoyant

force greatest?

A.

B.

C.

D.

1 kg of lead

1 kg of aluminum

1 kg of uranium

All the same.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

On which of these blocks submerged in water is the buoyant

force greatest?

B. 1 kg of aluminum

Explanation:

The largest block is the aluminum one. It displaces more

water and therefore experiences the greatest buoyant force.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR, Continued

When a fish expands its air bladder, the density of the fish

A.

B.

C.

D.

decreases.

increases.

remains the same.

None of the above.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR ANSWER, Continued

When a fish expands its air bladder, the density of the fish

A. decreases.

Explanation:

The largest block is the aluminum one. It displaces more

water and therefore experiences the greatest buoyant force.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR, Continued-1

When a fish makes itself less dense, the buoyant

force on it

A.

B.

C.

D.

decreases.

increases.

remains the same.

None of the above.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR ANSWER, Continued-1

When a fish makes itself less dense, the buoyant

force on it

B. increases.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR, Continued-2

When a fish decreases the size of its air bladder,

the density of the fish

A.

B.

C.

D.

decreases.

increases.

remains the same.

None of the above.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR ANSWER, Continued-2

When a fish decreases the size of its air bladder,

the density of the fish

B. increases.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR, Continued-3

When a submarine takes water into its ballast

tanks, its density

A.

B.

C.

D.

decreases.

increases.

remains the same.

None of the above.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR ANSWER, Continued-3

When a submarine takes water into its ballast

tanks, its density

B. increases.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR, Continued-4

When a submerged submarine expels water from

its ballast tanks, its density

A.

B.

C.

D.

decreases.

increases.

remains the same.

None of the above.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR ANSWER, Continued-4

When a submerged submarine expels water from

its ballast tanks, its density

A. decreases.

Explanation:

This is how a submerged submarine is able to surface.

Flotation

Principle of flotation:

A floating object displaces a weight of fluid equal to its own

weight.

Example: A solid iron 1-ton block may displace 1/8 ton of water

and sink. The same 1 ton of iron in a bowl shape displaces a

greater volume of waterthe greater buoyant force allows it to

float.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR, Continued-5

The reason a person finds it easier to float in saltwater

compared with freshwater is that in saltwater

A.

B.

C.

D.

a person feels less heavy.

Neither of these.

None of the above.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR ANSWER, Continued-5

The reason a person finds it easier to float in saltwater

compared with freshwater is that in saltwater

C. Neither of these.

Explanation:

A floating person has the same buoyant force whatever the density of

water. A person floats higher because a smaller volume of the denser

saltwater is displaced.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR, Continued-6

On a boat ride, the skipper gives you a life preserver filled

with lead pellets. When he sees the skeptical look on your

face, he says that you'll experience a greater buoyant force

if you fall overboard than your friends who wear

Styrofoam-filled preservers.

A. He apparently doesn't know his physics.

B. He is correct.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR ANSWER, Continued-6

On a boat ride, the skipper gives you a life preserver filled

with lead pellets. When he sees the skeptical look on your

face, he says that you'll experience a greater buoyant force

if you fall overboard than your friends who wear

Styrofoam-filled preservers.

B. He is correct.

Explanation:

He's correct, but what he doesn't tell you is you'll drown! Your life

preserver will submerge and displace more water than those of your

friends who float at the surface. Although the buoyant force on you will

be greater, the net force downward is greater still!

Flotation

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

You place an object in a container that is

full to the brim with water on a scale. The

object floats, but some water spills out. How does the weight of

the object compare with the weight of the water displaced?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Weight of object is less than weight of water displaced.

Weight of object is equal to weight of water displaced.

There is not enough information to decide.

Flotation

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

You place an object in a container that is

full to the brim with water on a scale. The

object floats, but some water spills out. How does the weight of

the object compare with the weight of the water displaced?

A. Weight of object is equal to weight of water displaced.

Explanation:

This principle is wonderfully illustrated with Scotland's Falkirk Wheel.

water and the same weight, regardless of whether

there are boats in them. This makes rotation and

lifting almost effortless.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Denser fluids will exert a greater buoyant force on

a body than less dense fluids of the same volume.

Example: Ship will float higher in saltwater

than in freshwater

Applies in air

The more air an object displaces,

the greater the buoyant force on it.

If an object displaces its weight, it

hovers at a constant altitude.

If an object displaces less air, it

descends.

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR, Continued-7

As you sit in class, is there a buoyant force acting

on you?

A. No, as evidenced by an absence of lift

B. Yes, due to displacement of air

Archimedes' Principle

CHECK YOUR ANSWER, Continued-7

As you sit in class, is there a buoyant force acting

on you?

B. Yes, due to displacement of air

Explanation:

There is a buoyant force on you due to air

displacement, but much less than your weight.

Whether an object floats or sinks depends

upon the

volume of the object.

volume of the fluid displaced.

For an object to float:

Weight of object is less than buoyant force

of the liquid, i.e., less than the weight of the

liquid it displaces.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Continued

Three rules:

1. An object more dense than the fluid in which

it is immersed will sink.

2. An object less dense than the fluid in which

it is immersed will float.

3. An object having a density equal to the

density of the fluid in which it is immersed

will neither sink nor float.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Two solid blocks of identical size are submerged in water.

One block is lead and the other is aluminum. Upon which is

the buoyant force greater?

A.

B.

C.

D.

On the aluminum block

Same on both blocks

There is not enough information to decide.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Two solid blocks of identical size are submerged in water.

One block is lead and the other is aluminum. Upon which is

the buoyant force greater?

Explanation:

The buoyant force depends upon the volume of the block that is

submerged. Since both submerged blocks are the same size, they

displace the same volume of water. So they have the same buoyant

force.

Pascal's Principle

Pascal's principle:

Discovered by Blaise Pascal, a

scientist and theologian in the

17th century

States that a change in pressure

at any point in an enclosed fluid

at rest is

transmitted undiminished to

all points in the fluid

Applies to all fluidsgases

and liquids

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Application in hydraulic press

Example:

Pressure applied to the left piston is transmitted to the right piston.

A 10-kg load on small piston (left) lifts a load of 500 kg on large

piston (right).

Application for gases and liquids:

Seen in everyday hydraulic devices used in construction

In auto lifts in service stations

Increased air pressure produced by an air compressor is

transmitted through the air to the surface of oil in an underground

reservoir. The oil transmits the pressure to the piston, which lifts

the auto.

Pascal's Principle

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

In a hydraulic device, it is impossible

for the

A. output piston to move farther than

the input piston.

B. force output to exceed the force

input.

C. output piston's speed to exceed

the input piston's speed.

D. energy output to exceed energy

input.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Pascal's Principle

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

In a hydraulic device, it is impossible

for the

D. energy output to exceed energy

input.

Surface Tension

The contractive tendency of the

surface of liquids is due to

surface tension.

Examples:

When you submerge a wire

in water and pull it out with a

spring, the spring stretches.

When you place a

paintbrush in water and pull

it out, the water contracts

and pulls the hairs together.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Other examples:

Drops of any kind are

spherical because their

surfaces tend to contract

and force each drop into

the shape having the least

surface area for a given

volume a sphere.

Bubbles are spherical for

the same reason surface

tension.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Surface tension is caused by

molecular attractions.

Beneath the surface, each molecule

is attracted in every direction by neighboring molecules.

A molecule on the surface of a liquid is pulled only by

neighbors on each side and downward from below; there

is no pull upward.

These molecular attractions tend to pull the molecule

from the surface into the liquid, causing surface tension.

Factors affecting surface tension:

The type of liquid

Water has greater surface tension than oil.

Soapy water has lower surface tension than water

without soap.

The molecules in a hot liquid have higher energy

and are not bound tightly as in a cooler liquid.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Capillarity

The rise of a liquid in a fine,

hollow tube or in a narrow space

is called capillarity.

Adhesion between the molecules

of the glass and water draws the

film of water into the tube.

Surface tension causes the film on

the surface to contract.

This raises the liquid from below to

rise into the tube.

When the force of the surface

tension balances out the weight of

the liquid, the liquid stops rising.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Capillarity, Continued

The height of rise depends

upon the weight of the liquid

and the narrowness of the

tube.

The lighter the liquid, the

higher the capillary rise.

The narrower the tube, the

higher the capillary rise

Capillarity, Continued-1

Examples:

Oil rises in a wick.

Hair let loose in a bathtub causes the scalp to

get wet.

Insects have a hard time getting out of water

when their legs get wet.

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