in-depth Raman Spectroscopy Analysis of Various Parameters Affecting the Mechanical Stress Near the Surface and Bulk of Cu-TSVs

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in-depth Raman Spectroscopy Analysis of Various Parameters Affecting the Mechanical Stress Near the Surface and Bulk of Cu-TSVs

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Ingrid De Wolf*, Veerle Simons, Vladimir Cherman, Riet Labie, Bart Vandevelde and Eric Beyne

IMEC

Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven

*

Also at dept. MTM, KU Leuven

Abstract

This paper discusses mechanical stress measured with

micro-Raman spectroscopy in the silicon substrate near CuThrough Silicon Vias (TSV). A discussion of the relation

between the observed Raman shift and the various stress

tensor components is given, showing that this relation is often

wrongly applied, and that in many cases the compressive

stress along the vertical axis of the TSV, dominates the Raman

results and hides the tensile axial component which is of most

relevance for its impact on CMOS devices. The effect of

measurement depth, TSV depth and density, and an oxide cap

is shown. Both surface and cross-sectional results are

discussed. Also a direct correlation between results from

Raman measurements and electrical results from FET-arrays

near a TSV is given.

Introduction

3D technology requires several non-standard processing

steps such as the fabrication and filling of high aspect-ratio

through silicon vias (TSVs). The Cu inside the TSVs is known

to be under tensile stress. This stress not only can affect the

performance of nearby devices, it can be expected to cause

additional reliability problems in the BEOL layers (ex. Cu

pumping) or affect the isolation and barriers surrounding the

TSV. Even stress in the Si, near the bottom of the TSV, might

affect the TSV behavior after the Si wafers are thinned and

that part of the TSV is released for bonding.

Local mechanical stress in Si can be studied using microRaman spectroscopy (RS). [1] Several recent publications

correlate RS results measured in the Si near TSVs, with

results from models and electrical measurements. [2-7] These

studies however all have one assumption in common: They

neglect the stress component along the length axis of the TSV

in their calculation of stress from the Raman frequency shift,

and assume unixial or biaxial stress in the Si surface plane.

This assumption is made because it results in a linear relation

between stress and Raman frequency shift, but, as will be

shown in this paper, it is incorrect and can lead to erroneous

conclusions. A better approach is to use an analytical model or

finite element modeling (FEM) to predict the strain tensor

elements in the silicon, and then calculate the expected Raman

shift. This approach, which was developed for Si isolation

structures [8,9], was successfully applied to Cu vias [10,11]

but is time-consuming and requires FEM, it does not offer fast

insight in the stresses.

In this paper, a triaxial stress state is proposed to describe

the relation between stress induced by TSVs and the measured

Raman frequency shift in silicon. Using Raman measurement

results obtained at different depths in the silicon, and results

stress component (in depth direction) has a very important

influence on the Raman results and cannot be neglected, as is

commonly done. We not only show measurements performed,

as is conventionally done, from the top surface of the Si near

the TSV, but also from 2-dimensional X-sectional analysis.

This provides information of stresses near TSVs at deeper

depths in the Si and even in the Si underneath a TSV (before

wafer thinning).

Finally, we discuss RS-measurements performed on the

X-section at a transistor (FET) array located near a TSV on a

fully processed wafer. It is shown that this analysis is not

possible from the top Si surface, because the poly-Si on top of

the gate of the devices masks the signal from the Si substrate.

The X-sectional measurements are directly correlated with the

electrical results obtained on the same devices and confirm

that the TSV induced stress extends several microns away

from the TSVs and affects the devices.

Stress near Cu TSVs

It is well known that there is tensile mechanical stress in

the Cu inside TSVs at room temperature, at the end of the

processing cycle. The magnitude of this stress depends on

many factors: Cu chemistry, deposition and anneal

temperatures, TSV dimensions etc. This stress in the Cu TSV

will introduce stress in the surrounding silicon substrate. Fig.

1 shows a simplified model indicating the various stress

components in cylindrical (left) and Cartesian (right)

coordinates.

surrounding silicon. Left: Cylindrical coordinates. Right: In a

Cartesian axis system with x taken along [110], y along [001]

and z along [-110].

Because Cu is under tensile stress, it will introduce tensile

stress in the silicon along the radial direction (r). The

circumferential stress c is expected to be compressive. Along

the depth, also the axial component, a, is expected to be

compressive. If we look at the stress in a point P, located in

the x-y plane in the xyz-axes system, this translates into a

tensile stress xx and compressive stress yy and zz. For

simplicity shear stress components are neglected here. This is

valid only far away from the TSV top and bottom edges. The

331

axis system is chosen such that the silicon surface is in the XZ plane and the X-section in the X-Y plane. This choice is

made to simplify the calculations of the Raman selection rules

and shifts for measurements on the cross-section XY-plane.

relation between the Raman shift and the three stress

components as shown in Fig. 1 is given by:

The Raman frequency of silicon () changes due to strain.

The relation between ( = (strain) o (no strain)) and

the strain is given by the eigenvalues from the following

secular equation [8,9]:

Triaxial:

(cm-1) = -1.93x10-9 (xx + zz) - 0.75 10-9yy (Pa)

(1)

This equation is given for an axis system x=[100], y=[010],

z=[001]. In the general case when all the strain tensor

elements are non-zero, this equation cannot be solved and

modeling is required to obtain information on the stress

components. If there is uniaxial or biaxial stress, the solution

is straightforward and the relation between Raman peak

frequency and stress becomes simply linear. For the Cartesian

system of Fig. 1, this is:

Uniaxial:

Biaxial:

(2)

xx (MPa)= 518 (cm-1)

xx + zz (MPa)= 518 (cm-1)

(3)

values used for p, q, and r in Eq. 1. Depending on the values

used, it can range between 430 and 520.

Eq. 2 (uniaxial stress) is often used to correlate Raman

measurements near TSVs with stress.[2-7] However, the

assumption of uniaxial stress is not correct for TSVs and can

lead to erroneous conclusions. Indeed, lets assume that a

Raman shift of -0.038 cm-1 is measured. Eq. 2, which is often

applied for RS studies, would translate this into xx = 20

MPa, tensile. Now assume that there is not uniaxial but biaxial

stress and that xx is 100MPa (tensile) and zz is -80MPa

(compressive). According to Eq. 3 that would also give a

Raman shift of -0.038 cm-1. Using Eq. 2 would thus give a

large underestimation of the tensile radial stress component,

xx. This is the stress component that is often correlated with

electrical measurements showing impact of TSV induced

stress.

Actually, also assuming biaxial stress is incorrect in the

case of TSVs, because it neglects the third stress component,

the axial component, yy. This component has to be taken into

account and in reality often will dominate the Raman results.

Indeed, analytical and finite element models indicate that xx

and zz have a similar magnitude but opposite sign, i.e.

according to Eq. 3 no Raman shift would be measured

although the stresses can be very high. In reality a Raman shift

is measured, but it is dominated by the axial stress component,

yy. For the further discussions, we use a triaxial stress

(4)

valid, certainly not close to edges of the TSV, this relation is

much more reliable to determine TSV induced stress than Eq.

2 and 3, and will provide more realistic values and insight in

TSV induced stresses.

Experimental

RS experiments were performed with either the 458 nm

or 633 nm laser line as excitation wavelength. For the first, the

penetration depth in the silicon is about 300 nm, so only the

stress near the top surface is measured. For the latter, the

penetration depth is about 3200 nm, and with this laser line

stresses at a larger depth will dominate the results [12]. The

spot size on the sample is about 1 m. All the results were

calibrated using the plasma lines of the laser. [1] Experiments

were performed on Cu TSVs with 5 m diameter and a depth

of 22 or 40 m. Experiments were done on two kinds of Cu

chemistry (called A and B).

Raman spectroscopy results: top-surface measurements

In this first results part we first recall a previously

published experiment but discuss it in view of Eq. 4. In [12],

we showed the stress measured near two TSVs and nearby

shallow trench isolation (STI) islands. Here we focus on the

results near the TSVs. A RS-experiment was done scanning

the top surface of the silicon across two Cu nails, as indicated

in the inset (top-right) of the figure.

T

S

V

T

S

V

on (100) Si surface, scanning across two 5 m diameter CuTSVs (orange bars) (Chemistry A) using a 458 nm and a 633

nm laser line. At the position of the TSVs no signal is

obtained.

The measurement was done using the 458 nm (blue) line

of the laser, which has a penetration depth in Si of about 300

nm and thus probes the stress in the top layers. The

measurement was repeated at the same position using the 633

nm laser light (red line), which has a much larger penetration

depth (about 3200 nm) and thus deeper stress fields will

332

the surface, remains overall negative close to the TSV,

indicating that a tensile stress component dominates. When

probing deeper, becomes positive near the TSVs,

indicating that compressive stress dominates the Raman signal

close to the TSV, and only a small tensile component is

measured further away. Okoro et al. [13] performed

simulations of the TSV induced stress. Some of the results are

shown in Fig. 3. Far away from the top surface of the TSV, the

shear stress becomes zero and the radial (xx) and

circumferential (zz) stress become equal but with opposite

sign. From Eq. 4 follows that in this case the Raman shift will

be dominated by the compressive axial stress. We indeed

observe in nearly all experiments done with the 633 nm line a

dominating positive shift of the Raman peak. This experiment

shows clearly the pitfalls of Raman spectroscopy. The tensile

axial stress can be of the order of 100 MPa or more but remain

undetected in a RS-experiment because its effect on is

suppressed by the other stress components.

for the shorter one (~ 0.15 cm-1). One can assume that this

effect is entirely due to changes of the axial stress component,

zz, because the diameter of the TSV did not change.

T

S

V

on (100) Si surface, scanning across a 5 m diameter and 22

m (red) and 40 m (black) deep Cu-TSV (orange bar)

(Chemistry B) using a 633 nm laser line.

Fig. 5: Finite element

model of the triaxial stress

components introduced by

a 5 m diameter, 40 m

deep TSV in the

surrounding Si at a depth

of 2 m below the Si

surface.

Fig. 3 Plot of the stress profile in Si, starting from the edge of

a 5 mm wide Cu-TSV at room temperature. (a) At the center

region, i.e. deep in the silicon far from the TSV top and

bottom; (b) at the top of the Si. From [13].

Near the surface, the axial stress is highly compressive

close to the TSV, but falls fast back to zero and the picture is

dominated by the tensile shear and radial stress, and the

compressive circumferential stress (Fig. 3). From the Raman

results, it seems that the tensile components dominate. It is

more difficult to make conclusions, because we do not know

the effect of the shear stress on the Raman shift, and in

addition the stress near the top surface of the sample is also

influenced by STI layers.

Fig. 4 shows the effect of TSV length on the Raman shift

for 22 and 40 m deep TSVs, diameter 5 m. The

measurements were done using the 633 nm laser line, so

results are from a relative large depth where we can assume

that the shear stress can be neglected. In this experiment the

Cu chemistry inside the TSVs differs from the one in Fig. 2.

No tensile stress component is detected. Again, this does not

mean that it is not present, yy dominates the result and xx

and zz might be large but only their difference affects .

And, as is shown in the simulations, this difference is expected

to be small. Clearly visible is that the positive shift of

close to the TSV is larger for the longer TSV (~ 0.4 cm-1) than

40 m

22 m

xx

=r

xx

=a

zz

=c

2 m below Si surface

77 MPa

Tensile

-96 MPa

Compressive

16

-230 MPa

Compressive

were done to calculate the stress at a depth of 2 m below the

Si surface for a 40 m deep, 5 um diameter TSV (Fig. 5). The

depth of 2 m was chosen because the penetration depth of the

633 nm laser light, with an exponentially decaying intensity, is

3.2 m. So, the stress at that position will give a relative good

match. If we take the values of the 3 stress components at the

same point close to the TSV (indicated by arrow in Fig. 5),

and use Eq. 4 to calculate , we obtain = 0.37 cm-1. This

FEM prediction is very close to the measured value 0.4 cm-1.

This experiment again clearly shows how important it is to use

the correct relation for the Raman data. Although only a

positive shift of is measured, there might be a high tensile

stress component present in the silicon near the TSVs.

333

10 m

5 m

array of TSVs (633 nm light, chemistry B)

0.20

0.15

x (m)

10

20

30

-1

40

0.10

0.05

0.00

-0.05

-0.10

50

0

10

15

20

25

0.20

10

0.15

20

30

-1

x (m)

y (m)

(cm )

with cap

T

S

V

is observed. To study this in more detail, a second scan was

made imaging the Raman shift near the 2nd TSV from the

right, as indicated in Fig. 8, bottom. The combination of the

two results clearly shows a dominating positive Raman shift,

the overlapping stress fields in between TSVs, and indeed the

negative Raman shift underneath the TSV. Can this be

explained using Eq. 4?

(cm )

array of TSVs. Again we can assume that the measured Raman

shift is dominated by the compressive yy component at this

penetration depth. One clearly sees that the stress fields from

the various TSVs overlap, resulting in a larger stress at the

center.

In another experiment, the influence of a 500 nm SiO2

layer on top of the TSV was studied (Fig. 7). A sample with

and without oxide cap on top was sintered at 420 oC, to mimic

the back-end-of-line (BEOL) processing temperature load.

This sintering step is expected to bring the Cu in the TSV,

because of thermal expansion, into a compressive stress state

at higher temperatures. This will introduce expansion of the

Cu and possibly plastic deformation. When cooling down to

room temperature, this plastic deformation results in the so

called Cu pumping [14,15]. The sample with oxide cap

present clearly shows a larger positive at room

temperature. This can again very likely be attributed to an

increase of the compressive axial stress component, yy. A

possible explanation is that the compressive stress build-up

during the sintering step is larger than for the case with oxide

cap, because the Cu is not free to expand in the vertical

direction, at the top of the TSV. A larger part of this stress

might remain present at room temperature. But further

experiments are required to investigate these results in more

detail.

40

0.10

0.05

0.00

-0.05

50

-0.10

0

10

15

20

25

y (m)

measured on (110) X-section surface in the area indicated by

the yellow rectangle in the microscope image (left). 633 nm

laser line, chemistry B.

Actually, Eq. 4 is only valid for measurements in

backscattering from the (100) surface of a Si wafer. It is not

valid for measurements on the X-section surface. Solving the

secular equation (after appropriate rotation of all relevant

tensors to the correct axes system) shows that for

measurements from the X-section surface (X-Y surface in Fig.

1), assuming triaxial stress, the relation for the Raman peak

measured in our configuration (this depends on the

polarization of incident and scattered light) is given by:

without cap

measured on (100) Si surface, scanning across a 5 m

diameter Cu-TSV (orange bar) with (black) and without (red)

oxide cap on top. 633 nm laser line, chemistry B.

Triaxial:

(cm-1) = -2.31x10-9 xx 1.93 10-9 yy 0.37 10-9zz (Pa)

In general Raman spectra are measured in backscattering

from the top surface of the silicon wafer, because this is the

easiest way and in general does not require sample

preparation. But experiments can as well be done from the

cross-sectional surface. A X-section was made through an

array with Cu-TSVs by careful polishing. Two 2D-scans were

performed to measure the Raman shift in the Si along the

width and depth of the TSVs. In a 1th scan the outer right TSV

of an array was measured. The yellow rectangle in Fig. 8, topleft, shows the analyzed region. We clearly observe a positive

Raman shift next to the TSV. The red band along the top

surface is a measurement artifact. But at the right side near the

xx and zz are equal (Fig. 3). However, for a X-section, one

could expect that the out-of plane component, zz, is reduced a

lot, because the free silicon surface can partly relax. In

addition, about half of the TSV is gone because of Xsectioning, so, a reduced stress can be expected. Also a

reduction of xx can be expected for the same reason, but not

that much of yy. yy is compressive and probably dominates

also in X-section experiments the Raman image. Underneath

the TSV, we indeed expect a tensile value for zz because the

TSV is under tensile stress and wants to shrink. This

demonstrates the complexity of Raman spectroscopy for the

analysis of stress due to TSVs. Probably the combination of

top and X-sectional measurements, with the correct settings of

334

on the different stress components.

Correlation with electrical measurements

The main reason for the increasing interest in the analysis

of stress induced by TSVs, in addition to possible reliability

issues, is the impact of this stress on the electrical

performance of nearby electronic devices. It was shown that

this impact indeed cannot be neglected for certain

technologies [16,17]. The following experiment was to

investigate whether there is indeed a direct correlation

between drain current of FE-transistors and the stress

measured using RS. The drain current of 4 large FETs

(5mx10m), with increasing distance from a TSV (Fig. 9,

top), was measured. There is a clear variation in drain current

with distance from the TSV (Fig. 9, bottom).

FET 4

FET 3

FET 2

FET 1

TSV

bottom. A scan was done along the line visible in the figure.

At the position of the TSV, no signal was obtained because

metal of the bond pad on top of the TSV was still present.

Left from the TSV, a wavy pattern is visible in the Raman

shift near the FETs. This is probably caused by polycrystalline

Si which is on top. The only indication of a varying stress can

be seen by observing the minima of the wavy pattern, as

indicated by the dotted line. This seems to indicate that there

is a TSV-induced stress variation in this sample. Because

these measurements are not conclusive, a X-sectional sample

was prepared. The X-sectional picture is shown in Fig. 11. For

clarity, the top view image is shown at the top to indicate the

position of the FETs. A 2D-scan as in Fig. 8 was done near the

surface below the FETs, but for clarity we only show slices of

the measurement results obtained at depths close to the Si

surface. Only these stresses are relevant for their impact on the

FETs. The measurement that is taken exactly at the surface

also shows the wavy pattern that is caused by the

polycrystalline Si. But about 0.1 m under the surface, where

the focused laser beam spot does not probe the poly-Si

anymore, this waviness is gone and a clear variation of the

Raman shift with position is seen.

Top view

FET 4

with respect to a TSV. Bottom: Drain current of the FETs.

FET 3

X-section view

FET 2

FET 1

TSV

layers were etched away to allow performing Raman

measurements. These measurements were not possible on the

fresh sample because of the presence of passivation layers

giving luminescence signals and of metal layers blocking the

Raman light. A top view of the sample after etch, showing

clearly the position of the FETs, is given in Fig. 10, top.

FET 3

FET 2

FET 1

TSV

T

S

V

Bottom: Stress induced Raman frequency shift () measured

on the (100) Si surface across the FETs and TSV area. The

TSV position is indicated by the yellow bar.

induced Raman frequency shift () measured on the (110) Si

X-section across the FETs and TSV area at the surface (top)

and about 0.1 m below the surface (bottom).

Overall is positive, indicating that a positive stress

component is dominating the picture. The origin of this

component is not clear, and it does not reduce to zero far away

from the TSV. If we neglect this component, and take a zero

reference far from the TSV (indicated by the dotted line), we

see a clear variation in the Raman shift going from more

negative close to the TSV to zero further away. If we calculate

this shift with regard to this defined zero-line at the center

position of the 4 TSVs, and plot it together in Fig. 12 with the

335

see a very good correlation. They follow the same decay,

away from the TSV. This confirms that the stress extends

minimally 10 microns away from the TSVs, for this Cu

chemistry and technology. Very close to the TSV,

increases again, probably due to the axial component which

dominates the picture. One has to keep in mind that close to

the TSV and the Si surface, it is difficult to deduce the values

of the different stress components from the Raman shift.

Further experiments, both on X-section and top surface, are

required for this purpose.

TSV

FET 1

FET 2

FET 3

FET 4

Id

frequency shift deduced from Fig. 11 at the same position.

Conclusions

The paper demonstrates the strength but also the pitfalls of

RS for the study of local mechanical stress in Si. The main

conclusion is that a uniaxial or biaxial stress model cannot be

used to correlate the measured Raman frequency shift with

stress near TSVs. A triaxial model is proposed that provides

more realistic results. The measured Raman frequency shift

depends on all three axial stress components. Actually, to be

more precise also shear stress components should be included

in the calculations, making them more complex. But at large

depths below the Si surface, these components can be

neglected and the triaxial model is valid. For conventional

measurements from the top (100) Si surface, the compressive

axial component dominates the Raman frequency shift. The

tensile axial stress and compressive circumferential stress for a

large part cancel their effect on out.

Measurements can also be done from the cross-section

surface of silicon. In that case, a different relation between the

Raman shift and the stress tensor components has to be used.

This relation depends on the experimental set-up, i.e. on the

polarization of incident and scattered light and on the crystal

directions of the cross-section plane. In addition, stress

relaxation effects due to the free cross-sectional surface and

the reduced Cu nail have to be taken into account.

The presented results provide new insights in stress

induced by TSVs and the effect of various TSV parameters on

this stress.

Acknowledgments

Without the great contribution of the whole 3D-team of

imec and their industrial partners, this work could not have

been done. Part of this work was done in the frame of the EC

project eBrains.

References

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fine-pitch high-density microbumps and through-Si vias,

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337

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