You are on page 1of 46

DESIGN OF FUZZY LOGIC BASED CONTROLLER FOR

HYBRID SWITCHED INDUCTOR BASED STEP UP


CONVERTER

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements


for the award of the degree of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
In
POWER ELECTRONICS

BANDARU BHARGAV SANTOSH


(14A21D4302)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

SWARNANDHRA
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING &TECHNOLOGY|
(Autonomous)
Seetharampuram-534280
J.N.T.UNIVERSITY:: KAKINADA
DECEMBER-2016

CERTIFICATE & DECLARATION

This is to certify that this project report entitled DESIGN OF FUZZY LOGIC BASED
CONTROLLER FOR HYBRID SWITCHED INDUCTOR BASED STEP UP
CONVERTER submitted by BANDARU BHARGAV SANTOSH (14A21D4302) to
Jawaharlal Nehru University Kakinada, with Swarnandhra College of Engineering &
Technology (Autonomous) for the award of the Degree of Master of Technology in Power
Electronics is a bonafide record of project work carried out by him/her under my
supervision during the year 2015-2016. The contents of this report, in full or in parts, have
not been submitted to any other Institute or University for the award of any degree or
diploma.

SIGNATURE

SIGNATURE

Prof. J.RAMCHANDRA RAO

Dr.K.S.GOWRI SANKAR

SUPERVISOR

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

Associate professor

INTERNAL EXAMINER

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

ABSTRACT

High step-up DC DC converters are suitable for high voltage gain applications
like photovoltaic grid connected systems, fuel cell and high intensity discharge lamps
used in automobile applications and applications that use low magnitude DC voltages at
their input terminals. Boosting of input voltage is very essential in these applications. The
voltage gain of traditional boost converters is limited due to the current ripple and system
efficiency.
To overcome this drawback there is need for new converter configuration that gives
high step up gain. Switched inductor converters are much suitable to achieve this. In the
proposed work a hybrid switched inductor converter is derived with the help of passive
and active switched inductors. Voltage mode based closed loop operation of hybrid
switched inductor converter is modeled and analyzed using fuzzy logic based controller.
The fuzzy logic controller is modeled with the help of fuzzy logic controller toolbox of
MATLAB / SIMULINK. The fuzzy rules are modeled with the help Mamdani rule set.
Modeling and simulation results of the circuit are presented.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my profound gratitude and respect to the project guide,
Mr.J.RAMACHANDRA RAO Associate Professor of Department of Electrical &
Electronics Engineering for assisting us both technically and morally for giving valuable
suggestions, and constantly encouraging us throughout this project work.
I wish to regard my deep sense of gratitude to my project coordinator
Mr.V.MOORTHY, Associate Professor of Department of Electrical and Electronics
Engineering. With reverence and humility I express my deep sense of gratitude to
Dr.K.S.GOWRISANKAR Head of the Department, Electrical and Electronics Engineering,
Swarnandhra college of Engineering & Technology for his support and encouragement to
carry out this project successfully.
I profusely grateful to our principal Dr. M. SREENIVASA KUMAR and
Dr.S.RAMESH BABU, Secretary and Correspondent of Swarnandhra college of
Engineering & Technology for providing the necessary infrastructure for carrying out this
project successfully.
I am thankful to my entire department faculty and my family members for their
kind co-operation and help, extended throughout the progress of this work.

B.BHARGAV SANTOSH
(14A21D4302)

NOMENCLATURE

Symbols

Definitions

CCM

Continuous conduction mode

DCM

Discontinuous conduction mode

PHEV

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

RHFL

Rectifier-type high-frequency-link inverter

TSSC

Three-state switching cell.

ASL

Active switched-inductor

PSL

passive switched-inductor

SH-SLC

Symmetrical hybrid switched-inductor

AH-SLC

Asymmetrical hybrid switched-inductor

VMC

Voltage mode control

CMC

Current mode control

VSS

Variable structured systems

PWM

Pulse-width modulation

PDM

pulse-duration modulation

FL

Fuzzy Logic

TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.NO

TITLE

PAGE NO

ABSTRACT
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
NOMENCLATURE
LIST OF FIGURES
CHAPTER

CHAPTER

CHAPTER 3

CHAPTER 4

LIST OF TABLES
Introduction
1.1
Background Study
1.2
Literature Survey
1.3
Problem Statement
1.4
Aim and Objective
1.5
Organization Of The Project Report
Topology Of Fuzzy Logic Based Controller For Hybrid

iii
iv
v
xi
xiii
1
1
2
4
4
5
6

Switched Inductor Based Step Up Converter


2.1
Introduction

2.2

Hybrid Switched-Inductor Converters Topologies

2.3

Principle Of Operation Of Hybrid Switched-Inductor

Converters
2.3.1 for asymmetrical

structure

with

equal

2.3.2

inductance under ccm mode


for asymmetrical structure

with

equal

2.3.3

inductance under dcm mode


for symmetrical structure

with

equal

11

2.3.4

inductance under ccm mode


for symmetrical structure

with

equal

13

inductance under dcm mode


Controllers for high gain DC-DC converters

16

3.1`

Voltage Mode Control Of Dc-Dc Converters

16

3.2

Current Mode Control Of Dc-Dc Converters

17

3.3
3.4
3.5

Pid Controller
Sliding Mode Controllers
Pulse Width Modulation Controller

18
19
20

3.6
Fuzzy Logic Controller
Simulation Circuits And Results

20
22

4.1
4.2

22
23

Over view of mat lab


Simulation circuit of hybrid switched-inductor
converter
4.2.1 Simulation circuit of hybrid switchedinductor converter using fuzzy logic
controller
4.2.2 Simulation Circuit For Passive Switch

23

24

4.3

24

4.3.1

25

Simulation Circuit Of Fuzzy Logic Controller

4.4

Open loop control output load voltage waveform

25

4.5

Output inductor voltages under upper leg waveforms

26

4.6

Output inductor voltages lower leg waveforms

26

4.7

Output inductor currents upper leg waveforms

27

4.8

Output inductor currents lower leg waveforms

27

4.9

Fuzzy logic based control output load voltage

28

4.10

waveform
Output inductor voltages upper leg waveforms

28

4.11

CHAPTER 5

Simulation circuit of hybrid switched-inductor


converter using fuzzy logic controller

4.12

Fuzzy logic based closed loop control lower leg


waveforms
Fuzzy logic based closed loop control upper leg

4.13

waveforms
Fuzzy logic based closed loop control lower leg

29
29
30

waveforms
Conclusion

31

References

32
LIST OF FIGURES
Page No.

Figure 2.1

The switched inductor unit

07

Figure 2.2

Asymmetrical structure

07

Figure 2.3

Symmetrical structure

08

Figure 2.4

Mode 1 operation in Asymmetrical structure

08

Figure 2.5

Mode II operation in Asymmetrical structure

09

Figure 2.6

Mode III operation in Asymmetrical structure

09

Figure 2.7

Key waveforms of AH-SLC (a) CCM (b) DCM

11

Figure 2.8

Mode 1 operation in Symmetrical structure

11

Figure 2.9

Mode II operation in Symmetrical structure

11

Figure 2.10

Mode III operation in Symmetrical structure

12

Figure 2.11

Key waveforms of SH-SLC (a) CCM (b) DCM

14

Figure 2.12

comparative analysis on non coupled inductor type topologies

15

Figure 3.1

Voltage mode control of power converter.

16

Figure 3.2

Current mode control of DC-DC converters

17

Figure 3.3

Block diagram of PID controller

18

Figure 3.4

Graphical representation of SM control

20

Figure 3.5

Overview of fuzzy logic controller process

21

Figure 4.1

Hybrid Switched-Inductor Converter

23

Figure 4.2

Active Switch simulation circuit

23

Figure 4.3

Simulation circuit for Passive Switch

24

Figure 4.4

Simulation circuit for Passive Switch.

24

Figure 4.5

Hybrid Switched-Inductor Converter

24

Figure 4.6

Simulation block for Fuzzy Logic Controller)

24

Figure 4.7

Output Load voltage waveform

25

Figure 4.8

Output inductors (a, b) voltages at upper leg

25

Figure 4.9

Output inductors (a, b) voltages at Lower leg

26

Figure 4.10

Output inductors (a, b) currents at upper leg

26

Figure 4.11

Output inductors (a, b) currents at lower leg

27

Figure 4.12

Output Load voltage waveform

27

Figure 4.13

Output inductors (a, b) voltages at upper leg

28

Figure 4.14

Output inductors (a, b) voltages at lower leg

29

Figure.4.15
Figure.4.16

Output inductors (a, b) currents at upper leg


Output inductors (a, b) currents lower leg

29
30

LIST OF TABLES
Page No.
Table 1

Utilized Components and Parameters of Sh-Slc

15

CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION

1.1

BACKGROUND STUDY
A DC DC converter nothing but a chopper is an electronic circuit or

electromechanical device that converts a source of direct current (DC) from one voltage
level to another. It is a type of electric power converter. Power levels range from very low
(small batteries) to very high (high voltage power transmission).
Generally these DC DC converters comprising of a four basic converters .They are
boost, buck, buck- boost, and Cuk converters. These converters work in two distinct modes
with respect to the inductor current: the continuous conduction mode (CCM) and
discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). When the inductor current is always greater than
zero, it is in CCM. When the average inductor current is too low due to the high load
resistance or low switching frequency, then the converter is in DCM. The CCM is
preferable for high efficiency and efficient use of semiconductor switches and passive

components. The DCM requires a special control since the dynamic order of the converter
is reduced. Thus, it is required to find out the minimum value of the inductor to maintain
the CCM.
Fuzzy logic is an approach to computing based on degrees of truth rather than the
usual true or false Boolean logic on which the modern computer is based. The idea of
fuzzy logic was first advanced by Lotfi Zadeh in the year 1960.
The input variables in a fuzzy control system are in general mapped by sets of
membership functions similar to this, known as "fuzzy sets". The process of converting a
crisp input value to a fuzzy value is called "fuzzification". A control system may also have
various types of switch, or "ONOFF", inputs along with its analog inputs, and such switch
inputs of course will always have a truth value equal to either 1 or 0, but the scheme can
deal with them as simplified fuzzy functions that happen to be either one value or another.
Given "mappings" of input variables into membership functions and truth values, the
microcontroller then makes decisions for what action to take, based on a set of "rules", each
of the form
Fuzzy controllers are very simple conceptually. They consist of an input stage, a
processing stage, and an output stage. The input stage maps sensor or other inputs, such as
switches, thumbwheels, and so on, to the appropriate membership functions and truth
values. The processing stage invokes each appropriate rule and generates a result for each,
then combines the results of the rules. Finally, the output stage converts the combined
result back into a specific control output value.
1.2

LITERATURE SURVEY
Firstly research done about a photovoltaic (PV) system. The system which

significantly reduces rated power converter and efficiency increases by means of it flats
throughout all load ranges at power conversion stages. Because analysis of the proposed
topology, only 20% of total PV system power is produced by the dc/dc power conversion
stage so it have flat efficiency throughout all loads leads to implementation burden of highpower dc/dc power conversion stages is low. So, this technique helpful in this project and
applied to all power rating PCS. Since dc-link voltage can be boosted enough to provide
the ac voltage directly, the current rating of IGBT is about half of that of conventional PCS
with low dc-link voltage without boost converter which leads to increases efficiency. [1]
On comparison of different soft switching converters with conventional singlestage DCM PFC converters, Fly back converter are advanced technique useful for reduce

device stresses. According to analysis single-stage soft-switching Fly back converter is


used in this project to improve the power-factor-correction. High power factor and high
conversion efficiency can be achieved by the simple single-stage circuit with soft-switching
features. [3]
This research undergone usage and control strategies multiport converters and their
implementation using this project the control strategy and power management for an
integrated three-port converter interfaces one solar input port, one bidirectional battery
port, and an isolated output port. Multimode operations and multi loop designs are playing
a vital role. According to analysis these three-port dc/dc converter applications in satellite
field that interfaces a solar input panel, a rechargeable battery port, and an isolated output
port. The converter has three circuit stages to allow two control inputs that are used to
regulate two of the three ports. The output voltage is regulated at any time, but either input
port or battery port can be regulated on the basis of required, according to available solar
power and battery state of charge.
But earlier papers discussed that this converter control design is difficult for a
multiport converter to achieve multifunctional power management because of various
cross-coupled control loops so, it makes difficult to design close-loop controls without
proper decoupling method. So in this project introduces a competitive method to realize
autonomous mode transition means it dont have no modes from controller point of view,
which simplifies the control algorithm and avoids possible system oscillations due to
elimination of instant duty-cycle value change. so this control strategy is very powerful and
intelligent enough to realize complicated control tasks, and should have different
operational mode transition control.[4]
A comparative analysis was done between conventional and hybrid electric vehicle
technologies. An integrated ac/dc charger and bidirectional dc/dc converter for plug-in
hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications has been presented on the basis of advantages
hybrid electric vehicle technology provides an effective solution for achieving higher fuel
economy, better performance, and lower emissions, compared with conventional vehicles.
Additionally, in this project adding plug-in capabilities to hybrid electric vehicles are called
as plug-in-hybrid electric vehicles provides more all electric ranges helpful to improve fuel
economy and reduce emissions more.
Another advantage is that the PHEV have a battery pack of high energy density and
can run solely on electric power for a given range. The battery pack can be recharged by a
neighborhood outlet. The integrated converter is able to function as an ac/dc battery charger

and to transfer electrical energy between the battery pack and the high-voltage bus of the
electric traction system. This PHEV conversion also provides reduced number of highcurrent inductors and current transducers and has provided fault-current tolerance. To
verify the practicality of the proposed converter for PHEV applications with prototype and
vehicle power management system need to be implemented in a real vehicle, and fault
tolerance of the system should be tested in real-world applications [5]
A soft-switching scheme is presented and verified for an isolated multiphase
dc/pulsating-dc converter, which is the front-end stage of a three-phase rectifier-type highfrequency-link inverter (RHFL). This analysis outlines a switching scheme to improve the
energy efficiency for an isolated high-frequency multiphase dc/pulsating-dc converter. In
this project implementing without usage of any auxiliary circuit to RHFL introduces a
switching scheme achieves zero-current or zero-voltage switching for the power switches.
Moreover, on the back-end pulsating-dc/ac converter, the proposed soft-switching scheme
reduces the switching frequency requirements for the associated switchers, which need
high-frequency switching.
In conjunction with the hybrid modulation scheme on the back-end pulsating-dc/ac
converter, this switching scheme leads to less overall switching loss than other existing
schemes. These schemes are suitable for isolated low-voltage dc to three-phase highvoltage ac applications from the stand points of cost, efficiency, and footprint, also
proposed scheme reduces the frequency of the pulsating-dc output, which normally equals
twice or higher of the switching frequency, thereby reducing the switching requirement
(i.e., switching loss) [6]
Reference [7] analysis the differences of advantages the hard switching and soft
switching, In earlier papers discussed about switches of resulting topologies operate in hard
switching mode, but it have some switching losses. In order to achieve soft switching an
active clamping circuit was added means an active clamping modified push-pull converter
using the three-state switching cell (TSSC).
The active clamping circuit allows soft switching in the converter switches for a
determined load range. Thus, switching losses are reduced and the converter efficiency is
improved. Qualitative and quantitative analyses, a design example and experimental results
are presented for the proposed converter. The experimental tests are performed on a 1 kW
laboratory prototype, which steps the input voltage from 48 V to 400V. So in this project
utilizing a modified push-pull converter based on the TSSC allows the connection of a

blocking capacitor in series with the primary winding of the isolator transformer, as it is
possible to avoid its saturation. [7]
1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Conventional converters suffers with the drawback of low conversion gain as a result
fly back converters are found to be a better option for achieving higher conversion gains
but the transformer used in fly back converters increases stress of the switches which in
tuned increases the switching losses As a result life of the switches decreases so this
imposes a need for a new circuit that can minimize the losses the circuit proposed for study
minimizes forsake issues
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
The project is aimed to design a high gain DC-DC converter based on fuzzy logic
controller with switched inductor.
The primary objective of the project is to develop and simulate a high gain DC-DC
converter. The secondary objective is to design and implement pulse width modulation
(PWM), fuzzy logic based closed loop controllers for achieving better dynamic response.
Finally, to compare the performance of PWM and fuzzy logic controller for high gain DCDC output response.
1.5 ORGANISATION OF THE PROJECT REPORT
The thesis has been organized into five chapters.
Chapter 1:

Discussed about introduction, background study, literature survey, problem


statement, aim and objective.

Chapter 2:

Discussed about the topology of fuzzy logic based controlled for hybrid
switched inductor based step up converter and modes of operation.

Chapter 3:

Discussed about respected simulated circuits for fuzzy logic based step up
converter using MATLAB/SIMULINK

Chapter 4: Discussed about the Simulation results of hybrid switches step up converter
with and without fuzzy logic controller
Chapter 5:

Discussed about conclusion & references of the work under taken in this
thesis and also acknowledge about the future work.

CHAPTER-2
HYBRID SWITCHED-INDUCTOR HIGH GAIN DC-DC
CONVERTERS
2.1

INTRODUCTION
The one of the important electronic circuits are DC-DC converters, which are

widely used in power electronics. The main problem with operation of DC-DC converter is
unregulated power supply, which leads to improper function of DC -DC converters. There
are various analogue and digital control methods used for dc-dc converters and some have
been adopted by industry including voltage- and current-mode control techniques .The DCDC converter inputs are generally unregulated dc voltage input and the required outputs
should be a constant or fixed voltage. Application of a voltage regulator is that it should
maintains a constant or fixed output voltage irrespective of variation in load current or
input voltage. Various kinds of voltage regulators with a variety of control schemes are
used to enhance the efficiency of DC-DC converters.
Today due to the advancement in power electronics and improved technology a
more severe requirement for accurate and reliable regulation is desired. This has led to need
for more advanced and reliable design of controller for dc-dc converters. There are various
types of DC-DC converters required for particular purpose like Buck, Boost, Buck and
Boost, Cuk and fly back. These all DC-DC converters have their specific configurations to
complete their tasks. Varieties in DC-DC converter required different type of controlling
techniques because single technique cannot be applied to all converters as the all have
different specifications.

2.2

HYBRID SWITCHED-INDUCTOR CONVERTERS TOPOLOGIES

Transformer less high gain converters with passive switched-inductor unit (P-SL)

and active switched-inductor unit (A-SL) shown in Figure 2.1. The P-SL unit consists two
inductors Lu L2 and three diodes D1, D2, D3, when the potential voltage across the point A
and B (i.e. VAB) is positive, Db D2 become conduct and D3 is shutting off, two inductors
are parallel connected; when VAB becomes negative, D1 D2 are reverse biased and D3 is
conducted, then the two inductors are series connected with the input (1-1') of the two-port
network.

Figure 2.1 The switched-inductor unit


(a) passive switched-inductor
(b) active switched-inductor
The A-SL (active switch inductor) unit is made up of two switches S1, S2 and two
inductors L1, L2, the working principle of A-SL is similar to that of P-SL, (passive switch
inductor) when the switches S1 and S2 are turned on simultaneously, the inductors L1 and
L2 are parallel connected; when S1 and S2 are turned off, L1 and L2 are series connected.
A high voltage gain can be achieved by combining the P-SL and A-SL units. The
inductors L1 and L2 in A-SL unit can be substituted with P-SL unit, then the proposed
hybrid switched-inductor converters (H-SLC) can be obtained, shown in Figure. 2.2

.
Figure 2.2 Asymmetrical structure
Where Figure 2.2 shows the asymmetrical structure and Figure 2.3 shows the
symmetrical structure. The power switches share the same switching signals, which is easy
to control. When the switches are conduct, the inductors operates in parallel connection and
charged by the power source; when the switches are shutting off, the inductors operates in
series connection and discharged to the output.

Figure 2.3 Symmetrical structure


2.3

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF HYBRID SWITCHED-INDUCTOR


CONVERTERS

2.3.1 Asymmetrical Structure with Equal Inductance under CCM mode


Asymmetrical structure with equal inductance under continuous conduction mode
(CCM) as discussed in three modes. They are

Mode-1 [t0-t1]: The switches S1 and S2 are triggered on during the time interval. The
equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2.4 (a). The three inductors L1a, L1b, L2 are charged
in parallel by the power source. The voltage across the inductors can be expressed as
V LIa =V LIb =V L 2=V i

(2.1)

Figure 2.4 Mode-1 Operation in asymmetrical structure


Mode-2 [t1-t2]: During this time interval, S1 and S2 are triggered off. The equivalent
circuit is shown in Figure 2.5. The three inductors L1a, L1b, L2 are series connected to
transfer the energy to output. The voltage across the inductors is:
V LIa =V LIb =V L 2=

V iV 0
3

(2.2)

Figure 2.5 Mode II operation in Asymmetrical structure

Figure 2.6 Mode III operation in Asymmetrical structure


Based on the voltage-second balancing of inductors, the following equation can be
derived:

V i V 0
3
The voltage gain in CCM operation is:
V
1+2 D
GCCM = 0 =
V i 1D

(2.3)

D .V i + ( 1D ) .

(2.4)

2.3.2 Asymmetrical Structure with Equal Inductance under DCM mode


Asymmetrical structure with equal inductance under discontinuous conduction mode
(DCM) as discussed in three modes. They are
Mode 1 [t0-t1]: This mode is similar to Mode 1 in CCM operation. During the time th the
peak current through the inductors L1a, L1b, L2 is:
i LIap =i LIbp =i L2 a =

vi
DT s
L

(2.5)

Where L1a=L1b=L2 =L.


Mode 2[t1-t2]: This mode is similar to Mode 2 in CCM operation. During the time t2, the
inductor current decreased to 0. IL1ap, IL1bp, iL2a can be expressed as:
i LIap =i LIbp =i L2 a =

V 0 V i
D2 T S
3L

(2.6)

Mode 3[t2-t3]: During this time interval, the equivalent circuit is shown in Figure
5.3(c). The load is supplied by the capacitor. Combining (5.5) and (5.6), the relationship
between D2 and D is:
D 2=

3Vi
D
V 0V i

(2.7)

The average current through the output diode is equal to load current Io, therefore:
V
1
D2 i LIp =I 0= 0
2
RL

(2.8)

Combing (5.5), (5.7) and (5.8), we can derive:

1+ 1+
V 0=

6 D2
t

(2.9)

Vi

The time constant is defined as:


t=

Lf S
RL

(2.10)
Where L is the inductance of the three inductors; is the switching frequency; RL is the load.
The voltage gain in DCM operation is:

GDCM =

V0
=
Vi

1+ 1+
2

6 D2
t

(2.11)

Figure 2.7 Key waveforms of AH-SLC (a) CCM (b) DCM


Figure 6 shows the key waveforms of the Asymmetrical hybrid switched-inductor
converter (SH-SLC) in CCM operation and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM)
operation.
2.3.3 For Symmetrical Structure with Equal Inductance under CCM mode
Symmetrical structure with equal inductance under continuous conduction mode (CCM) as
discussed in three modes. They are
Mode 1[t0-t1]: During this time interval, S1 and S2 are turned on. The current-flow path is
shown in Figure 7(a). The four inductors L1a, L1b, L2a, L2b are charged by the power
source in parallel. The voltage across
V LIa =V LIb =V L 2 a=V L2 b=V i (2.12)

Figure 2.8 Mode 1 operation in Symmetrical structure

Mode 2 [t1-t2]: During this time interval, S1 and S2 are turned off. The current-flow path
is shown in Figure 7(b). The four inductors L1a, L1b, L2a, L2b are discharged to the output
in series. The voltage across the inductors is
V LIa =V LI b =V L 2 a=V L2 b=

V iV 0
4

(2.13)

Figure 2.9 Mode II operation in Symmetrical structure


Based on the voltage-second balancing of inductors, we can derive
D .V i + ( 1D ) .

V i V 0
=0
4

(2.14)
The voltage gain in CCM operation is
GCCM =
(2.15)

V 0 1+3 D
=
V i 1D

Figure 2.10 Mode III operation in Symmetrical structure


2.3.4 For Symmetrical Structure with Equal Inductance under DCM mode
Symmetrical structure with equal inductance under discontinuous conduction mode (DCM)
as discussed in three modes. They are
Mode 1[t0-t1]: This mode is similar to Mode 1 in CCM operation. During the time t1, the
peak current through the inductors L1aL1bL2aL2b is: Li
i LIap =i LIbp =i L2 ap=i L2 bp=
Where

Vi
DT S
L

(2.16)

L1 a=L1 b=L2 a=L2 b= L

Mode 2[t1-t2]: This mode is similar to Mode 2 in CCM operation. During the time t2, the
inductor current decreased to 0. iL1apiL1bpiL2apiL2bp can be expressed as:
i LIap =i LIbp =i L2 ap=i L2 bp=

V 0V i
D2T S .
4L

(2.17)

Mode 3[t2-t3]: During this time interval, the equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5(c).
The load is supplied by the capacitor. Combining (16) and (17), D2 could be expressed as
D 2=

4Vi
D.
V 0V i

(2.18)
The average current through the output diode is equal to load current Io, therefore:

V
1
D2 i LIp =I 0= 0
2
RL
(2.19)
Combing (16), (18) and (19), the output voltage could be obtained
V 0=

1 1
8D2
+ 1+
Vi
2 2
t
(2.20)

The voltage gain in DCM operation is:


GDCM =

V0 1 1
8 D2
= + 1+
Vi 2 2
t

(2.21)

Figure 2.11 Key waveforms of SH-SLC (a) CCM (b) DCM


Figure 6 shows the key waveforms of the symmetrical hybrid switched-inductor
converter (SH-SLC) in CCM operation and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM)
operation.

The comparison of switch voltage stress in the four converters is shown in Table. To
realize the same voltage ratio, the Boost converter and SL-Boost converter present the high
voltage stress across the switch; while the switch voltage stress is greatly decreased in SHSLC and SC-Boost. That means the switches with low voltage stress can be utilized. These
Utilized Components and Parameters of Sh-Slc as shown in Table 1
Table 1 Utilized Components and Parameters of Sh-Slc
SH-SLC

AH-SLC

SC-Boost

SL-Boost

Boost

Voltage gain

1+3 D
1D

1+2 D
1D

2
1D

1+ D
1D

1
1D

Voltage of
MOSFET

( 1+G ) Vi
2

1+2 GVi
3

GV i
2

GV i

GV i

GV i
2

GV i

GV i

2+GVi
3
Voltage of
output
diodes
Voltage of
diodes in th
P-SL

( 1+G ) Vi

( 1+G ) Vi

( G1 ) V i
4

( G1 ) V i
3

( G1 ) V i
2

Vi

Vi

Vi

GV i
2

Voltage of
diodes in th
SC

IL
Io

G CCM +3
4

GCCM

G CCM +1
2

GCCM

Figure 2.12 comparative analysis on non coupled inductor type topologies


All the five converters are non coupled inductor type topologies. As can be seen, high
voltage gain can be achieved in the proposed converter, and the 10 times voltage ratio can
be desired when D=0.7, thus can reduce the current ripple and current stress of power
components efficiently as shown in the Figure 2.9.The below analysis of different converter
topologies of comparison done by the table components as shown in the Table

CHAPTER-3
CONTROLLERS FOR HIGH GAIN DC-DC CONVERTERS

3.1

VOLTAGE MODE CONTROL OF DC-DC CONVERTERS


It is a type of single loop controller connected to a reference voltage, so at first

output voltage is measured and compared to a reference voltage Figure 3.1. This VMC
method is used in research as well as in industry due its easy implementation It uses
measured output and reference voltage to generate the control voltage.

Figure 3.1 Voltage mode control of power converter.

After this the control voltage is used to determine the switching duty ratio by comparison
with a constant frequency waveform. This duty ratio is used to maintain the average
voltage across the inductor. This will eventually bring the output voltage to its reference
value and which help in the delivery of constant voltage without any variation.
There are various drawbacks in VMC method:

Poor reliability and stability of the main switch.


It is less in reliability, stability, or performance when several converters in

parallel supply with one load.


It is not simple and often inefficient methods of keeping the main
transformer of a push- pull converter operating in the centre of its linear
region. iv. It is a very slow system, as respond is much longer of switching
cycles.

3.2

CURRENT MODE CONTROL OF DC-DC CONVERTERS


It is more complex than VMC as it contain dual loop including voltage and current

control loops Figure 3.2. There are various application of CMC for different application.
After sensing the inductor current it is used to control the duty cycle. An error signal is
produced after comparing the output voltage Vo with fixed reference voltage Vref and this
error signal is used to generate control signal ic. The next step is to sense inductor current
and compared with control signal ic to generate the duty cycle of particular frequency and
drive the switch of the converter.
All response depend on the position of feedback loop as if the feedback loop is
closed, the inductor current is proportional to the control signal ic and the output voltage
becomes equal to reference voltage Vref. Irrespective of the various advantages of CMC it
also has some drawbacks.

Figure 3.2 current mode controls of DC-DC converters


Advantages of current mode control techniques: It shows the improved transient
response as from the begging it reduces the order of the converter to a first order system. ii.
Good and improved performance in line regulation. iii. It is more suitable for converters
operating in parallel. iv. Overload is opposed by self protection. v. Main switch adopt more
protection. vi. Main transformer core is present in the centre of its B-H curve as a result of
Anti-saturation. vii. Disadvantages of current mode control techniques. viii. It is very
unstable when duty ratio exceeds 0.5 in the peak current mode- control. ix. Presence of
Sub-harmonic oscillations.
3.3

PID CONTROLLER
PID control is one of the oldest and classical control technique used for DC-DC

converters .It uses one of its families of controllers including P, PD, PI and PID controllers
Figure 3.3. These different combinations will gives us various ways to regulate dc power
supply in these converters. But here we will discuss only PID in details. Due to the various
advantages of PID it is widely used for industrial applications in the area of power
electronics. One of the main causes for the use of this classical technique still in industrial
applications is easy implementation of tuning method like Ziegler-Nichols tuning
procedure by which we can easily optimise proportional, integral and derivative term of
this control method needed to achieve a desired closed-loop performance.
A proportional integral derivation controller (PID Controller) is a generic control
loop feedback mechanism widely used in industrial control system as well as in research.
This approach is often viewed as simple, reliable, and easy to implement. PID controllers

are commonly used as controllers for boost converters in PV. Some important advantages
and disadvantages of PID control technique are:
Advantages of PID controllers: i. It is easy and simple to implement. ii. Easy to
understand. iii. Reliable for linear systems.
Disadvantages of PID controllers: i. It does not reliable and satisfactorily in case of
non-linear systems. ii. It shows longer rise time when overshoot in output voltage
decreases. iii. It suffers from dynamic response and produces overshoot affecting the output
voltage regulation of converter.

Figure 3.3 Block diagram of PID controller


3.4 SLIDING MODE CONTROLLERS
SM controller is a type of non-linear controller. It is employed and adopted for
controlling variable structured systems (VSSs). It is very easy to implement as compared to
other types of nonlinear and classical controllers .Two important steps in SM control is to
design a sliding surface in state space and then prepared a control law to direct the system
state trajectory starting from any arbitrary initial state to reach the sliding surface in finite
time, and at the end it should arrive to a point where the system equilibrium state exists that
is in the origin point of the phase plane. There are three important factors responsible for
the stability of SM controllers, existence, stability, and hitting condition. Sliding Mode
control principle is graphically represented in Figure 3.4.

Figure 3.4 Graphical representation of SM control


The sliding line divides the phase plane into two main regions shown in the figure.
Each region is represent by a switching state and when the trajectory comes at the system
equilibrium point, in this case the system is considered as stable system. A unique feature
of an ideal sliding mode control technique is that it operates at infinite switching frequency.
But practical SM controllers are operated at finite switching frequencies only which
represent a quasi-sliding mode.
Advantages of SM controllers: i. It shows good stability for large line and load
variations. ii. High robustness. iii. Fast dynamic response. iv. Simple and easy
implementation. S=0 represent the sliding surface and x1 = the voltage error variable and
x2 =voltage error dynamics respectively
Disadvantages of SM controllers: i. SM controlled converters suffers from
switching frequency variation. ii. These controllers are not available in integrated-circuit
(IC) forms for their power-electronic applications. iii. There is no systematic procedure
available for the design of sliding mode controllers.
3.5

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION CONTROLLER


Pulse-width modulation (PWM) is a modulation technique used to encode

a message into a pulsing signal, it is also called as pulse-duration modulation (PDM)


Although this modulation technique can be used to encode information for transmission, its
main application is to allow the control of the power supplied to electrical devices,
especially to inertial loads such as motors. In addition, PWM is one of the two principal

algorithms used in photovoltaic solar battery chargers the other being maximum power
point tracking.
The average value of voltage (and current) fed to the load is controlled by turning the
switch between supply and load on and off at a fast rate. The longer the switch is on
compared to the off periods, the higher the total power supplied to the load.
The PWM switching frequency has to be much higher than what would affect the load (the
device that uses the power), which is to say that the resultant waveform perceived by the
load must be as smooth as possible. The rate (or frequency) at which the power supply
must switch can vary greatly depending on load and application. The term duty
cycle describes the proportion of 'on' time to the regular interval or 'period' of time; a low
duty cycle corresponds to low power, because the power is off for most of the time. Duty
cycle is expressed in percent, 100% being fully on.
3.6

FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER


The nature of Fuzzy control is non-linear and adaptive and it is a practical

alternative for a variety control applications .The concept of Fuzzy Logic (FL) was
conceived by Lotfi Zadeh, a professor at the University of California at Berkley. According
to him, it not as a control methodology, but as a way of processing data by allowing partial
set membership function rather than crisp.
There are four main elements in the fuzzy logic controller system structure named
as: Fuzzifier, Rule base, Inference engine and defuzzyfier. The working of fuzzy logic
controller structure can be easily understood from the block diagram Figure 2.5. Its
working is divided in 3 main steps: i. Fuzzification. ii. Inference. iii. Defuzzification.

Figure.3.5: Overview of fuzzy logic controller process


In this process, at the first step crisp set used as input data or non-fuzzy data, after
this it is converted to a fuzzy set using fuzzyfier by the help of linguistic variables, fuzzy
linguistic terms and membership functions.
The most important thing regarding fuzzy logic is that a numerical value does not
have to be fuzzified using only one membership function. Membership functions vary such
as Triangular, Gaussian, Trapezoidal, Generalized Bell and Sigmoidal. Rule base is the
backbone of fuzzy logic controllers. Rule Base: i. The purpose of rule base is to control the
output variable. ii. A fuzzy rule is a simple IF-THEN rule with a specific condition and
conclusion, represented by the matrix table. iii. error and change in error are the two
variables taken along the axes, and the conclusions are within the table.
Advantages of Fuzzy Logic Controller: i. Low-cost implementations based on
cheap sensors, low-resolution analog-to-digital converter. ii. This systems can be easily
upgraded by adding new rules to improve performance or add new features, iii. Fuzzy
control can be used for the improvement of traditional controller systems. iv. It provides a
robust performance under parameter variation and load disturbances. v. It has wider range
of operating conditions than PID. vi. Can be operated with noise and disturbance of
different natures. vii. Developing the fuzzy controller is much cheaper than developing a
model based or other controllers for the same work.

CHAPTER-4
SIMULATION FRAMEWORK AND RESULTS

4.1

OVER VIEW OF SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT


Simulation modeling is a very significant step in any product development. This is

because before the system can be modeled as a hardware prototype, it needs to be tested for
actual operation, fault analysis, possible improvements etc. It should also be noted that all
system variables are accessible to be studied in detail, and the dynamics of the system can
be predicted. It is known that disturbances can be suppressed and parts of a system can be
studied in isolation through simulations. The important reasons for performing a simulation

before hardware implementation are that the latter is too expensive, might be unsafe since it
has never been done before among other practical problems.
Simulation allows for exhaustive experiments to be carried out. Simulation also
facilitates learning about the system behavior under different operating conditions,
providing realistic operator training and experiment under various load profiles. Once the
designs of the entire system and individual components have been finalized, as done in the
previous section, the next step in the procedure is to develop a simulation model. This
model would be a simulation implementation in order to demonstrate the working
capability of the proposed system and the proof of principle of operation. The simulations
have been carried out using MATLAB and Simulink software. The significance of various
blocks is explained. Some of the blocks have embedded MATLAB code, which is
presented in the appendices. The simulation parameters are given at the end of the section.

4.2 HYBRID SWITCHED-INDUCTOR CONVERTER


Simulation model for the circuit shown in figure 4.1 is modeled with the help of
Simscape and Sim Power Systems toolboxes of MATLAB. The schematic of the simulation
is presented in figure 4.1.

Figure 4.1 Hybrid Switched-Inductor Converters


4.2.1 Simulink Model of Active Switch Inductor
The schematic of the simulation active switch circuit is presented in figure 4.2. The active
switch is a combination of two switches s1and s2 with two inductors.

Figure 4.2 Simulated Circuits for Active Switch


4.2.2 Simulated model of Passive Switch
The schematic of the simulation passive switch circuits is presented in figure 4.3, figure 4.4

Figure 4.3 simulated model of upper leg passive switch (a)

Figure 4.4 Simulated model of Passive Switch with lower leg (b)
4.3

SIMULATED MODEL OF FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER


HYBRID SWITCHED-INDUCTOR

Figure 4.5 fuzzy logic controller based hybrid switched-inductor


4.3.1

Simulink Model of Fuzzy Logic Controller

The schematic block of Fuzzy Logic Controller is shown in Figure 4.6.

Figure 4.6 Simulation model for Fuzzy Logic Controller


The dc dc connected in the circuit is controlled with Pulse width modulation
control scheme. Results of the simulation are presented in respectively.
4.4

OPEN LOOP CONTROL OUTPUT LOAD VOLTAGE WAVEFORM


Hybrid switched-inductor converter load output voltage as shown in figure 4.7these

load out put voltage wave form generated under open loop control technique

Figure 4.7 Output Load voltage waveform


4.5

OUTPUT INDUCTOR VOLTAGES UNDER UPPER LEG WAVEFORMS

Figure 4.8 Output inductors (a, b) voltages at upper leg


In Hybrid switched-inductor converter, the switches are hybrid and the respective
inductor voltages across upper leg switch wave forms as shown in the figure 4.8. These
output inductor voltages under open loop control
4.6

OUTPUT INDUCTOR VOLTAGES LOWER LEG WAVEFORMS


In Hybrid switched-inductor converter, the switches are hybrid and the respective

inductor voltages across lower leg switch wave forms as shown in the figure 4.9. These
output inductor voltages under open loop control.

Figure 4.9 Output inductors (a, b) voltages at Lower leg


4.7

OUTPUT INDUCTOR CURRENTS UPPER LEG WAVEFORMS

Figure 4.10 Output inductors (a, b) currents at upper leg


In Hybrid switched-inductor converter, the switches are hybrid and the respective
inductor currents across upper leg switch wave forms as shown in the figure 4.10. These
output inductor voltages under open loop control
4.8

OUTPUT INDUCTOR CURRENTS LOWER LEG WAVEFORMS

Figure 4.11 Output inductors (a, b) currents at lower leg


In Hybrid switched-inductor converter, the switches are hybrid and the respective
inductor currents across lower leg switch wave forms as shown in the figure 4.11. These
output inductor voltages under open loop control.

4.9

FUZZY LOGIC BASED CONTROL OUTPUT LOAD VOLTAGE


WAVEFORM
Hybrid switched-inductor converter load output voltage as shown in figure 4.12

these load output voltage wave form generated under fuzzy logic based closed loop control
technique .Compare these waveform with Open loop control waveform and observe the
variations in Load output voltage

Figure 4.12 Output Load voltage waveform


4.10

OUTPUT INDUCTOR VOLTAGES UPPER LEG WAVEFORMS


In Hybrid switched-inductor converter, the switches are hybrid and the respective

inductor voltages across upper leg switch wave forms as shown in the figure 4.13 .These
output inductor voltages under Fuzzy logic based loop control

Figure 4.13 Output inductors (a, b) voltages at upper leg


4.11 FUZZY LOGIC BASED CLOSED LOOP CONTROL LOWER LEG
WAVEFORMS
In Hybrid switched-inductor converter, the switches are hybrid and the respective
inductor voltages across lower leg switch wave forms as shown in the figure 4.14 .These
output inductor voltages under Fuzzy logic based loop control

Figure 4.14 Output inductors (a, b) voltages at lower leg

4.12

FUZZY LOGIC BASED CLOSED LOOP CONTROL UPPER LEG


WAVEFORMS

Figure 4.15 Output inductors (a, b) currents at upper leg


In Hybrid switched-inductor converter, the switches are hybrid and the respective
inductor voltages across upper leg switch wave forms as shown in the figure 4.15 .These
output inductor voltages under Fuzzy logic based loop control
4.13

FUZZY LOGIC BASED CLOSED LOOP CONTROL LOWER LEG


WAVEFORMS

Figure 4.16 Output inductors (a, b) currents lower leg

In Hybrid switched-inductor converter, the switches are hybrid and the respective
inductor voltages across lower leg switch wave forms as shown in the figure 4.16 .These
output inductor voltages under Fuzzy logic based loop control

CHAPTER-5
CONCLUSION
Hybrid switched-inductor converters which based on the switched-inductor cell and
active-network are studied with the help of fuzzy logic controller. The characteristics of the
converters are shown as following:
The proposed converter can achieve a high gain(up to 20 times) with a small duty cycle
which is difficult for traditional Boost converter; The proposed SH-SLC combines the
advantages of switched-inductor cell that can reduce the current stress of inductors and
active-network which can bring down voltage stress of switches; The inductors in the SLcell can be integrated into one magnetic core, which helps to reduce the size of magnetic
components Simulation and experimental results have been given to verify the analysis.

REFERENCES

[1].X. Wu, J. Zhang, X. Ye, and Z. Qian, Analysis and derivations for a family ZVS
converter based on a new active clamp ZVS cell, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.
55, no. 2, pp. 773781, Feb. 2008.
[2].C. T. Pan and C. M. Lai, A High-Efficiency High Step-Up Converter With Low
Switch Voltage Stress for Fuel-Cell System Applications, IEEE Trans. Ind.
Electron., vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 19982006, Jun. 2010.
[3].M. Sarhangzadeh, S. H. Hosseini, M. B. B. Sharifian, and G. B. Gharehpetian,
Multiinput Direct DCAC Converter With High-Frequency Link for Clean
Power-Generation Systems, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26, no. 6, pp.17771789, Jun 2011.
[4].L. S. Yang and T. J. Liang. Analysis and Implementation of a Novel Bidirectional
DCDC Converter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 422434, Jan.
2012.
[5].Y. Zhao, W. H. Li, and X. N. He, Single-Phase Improved Active Clamp CoupledInductor-Based Converter With Extended Voltage Doubler Cell, IEEE Trans.
Power Electron., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 2869-2878, Jun. 2012.
[6].Y. P. Hsieh, J. F. Chen, T. J. Liang, L. S. Yang, Novel High Step-Up DCDC
Converter With Coupled-Inductor and Switched-Capacitor Techniques , IEEE
Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 9981007, Feb. 2012
[7].R.G Ganesan and M. Prabhakar, Non-isolated high gain boost converter for
photovoltaic applications, in Proc. IEEE ICPEC, 2013pp.277-280. 1
[8].B. Gu, J. Dominic, J. S. Lai, Z. Zhao, and C. Liu, High Boost Ratio Hybrid
Transformer DCDC Converter for Photovoltaic Module Applications, IEEE
Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 2048-2058, Apr. 2013.
[9].P. H. Tseng, J. F. Chen, and Y. P. Hsieh, A novel active clamp high step-up DC-DC
converter with coupled-inductor for fuel cell system, in Proc. IEEE IFEEC, 2013,
pp. 326-331
[10]. H. M. Hsu and C. T. Chien, Multiple Turn Ratios of On-Chip Transformer With
Four Intertwining Coils, IEEE Trans.Electron Devices., vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 44-47,
Jan. 2014.
[11]. X. Zhang, C. C. Yao, C. Li, L. X. Fu, F. Guo, and J. Wang, A Wide Bandgap
Device-Based Isolated Quasi-Switched-Capacitor DC/DC Converter, IEEE Trans.
Power Electron., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 2500-2510, May. 2014.

[12]. H. S. Kim, J. W. Baek, M. H. Ryu, J. H. Kim, and J. H. Jung, The HighEfficiency Isolated ACDC Converter Using the Three-Phase Interleaved LLC
Resonant Converter Employing the Y-Connected Rectifier, IEEE Trans. Power
Electron., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 4017-4028, Aug. 2014.
[13]. Y. H. Hu, W. D. Xiao, W. H. Li, and X. N. He, Three-phase interleaved highstep-up converter with coupled-inductor-based voltage quadrupler, IET Power
Electronics., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1841-1849, Jul. 2014.
[14]. T. Meng, S. Yu, H. Q. Ben, and G. Wei, A Family of Multilevel Passive Clamp
Circuits With Coupled Inductor Suitable for Single-Phase Isolated Full-Bridge
Boost PFC Converter, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 4348-4356,
Aug. 2014.
[15]. J. H. Lee, T. J. Liang, J. F. Chen, Isolated Coupled-Inductor-Integrated DCDC
Converter With Non dissipative Snubber for Solar Energy Applications, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 3337-3348, Jul. 2014.