You are on page 1of 758

ANSYS Icepak Tutorials

ANSYS, Inc.
Southpointe
275 Technology Drive
Canonsburg, PA 15317
ansysinfo@ansys.com
http://www.ansys.com
(T) 724-746-3304
(F) 724-514-9494

Release 15.0
November 2013
ANSYS, Inc. is
certified to ISO
9001:2008.

Copyright and Trademark Information


2013 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use, distribution or duplication is prohibited.
ANSYS, ANSYS Workbench, Ansoft, AUTODYN, EKM, Engineering Knowledge Manager, CFX, FLUENT, HFSS and any
and all ANSYS, Inc. brand, product, service and feature names, logos and slogans are registered trademarks or
trademarks of ANSYS, Inc. or its subsidiaries in the United States or other countries. ICEM CFD is a trademark used
by ANSYS, Inc. under license. CFX is a trademark of Sony Corporation in Japan. All other brand, product, service
and feature names or trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Disclaimer Notice
THIS ANSYS SOFTWARE PRODUCT AND PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION INCLUDE TRADE SECRETS AND ARE CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY PRODUCTS OF ANSYS, INC., ITS SUBSIDIARIES, OR LICENSORS. The software products
and documentation are furnished by ANSYS, Inc., its subsidiaries, or affiliates under a software license agreement
that contains provisions concerning non-disclosure, copying, length and nature of use, compliance with exporting
laws, warranties, disclaimers, limitations of liability, and remedies, and other provisions. The software products
and documentation may be used, disclosed, transferred, or copied only in accordance with the terms and conditions
of that software license agreement.
ANSYS, Inc. is certified to ISO 9001:2008.

U.S. Government Rights


For U.S. Government users, except as specifically granted by the ANSYS, Inc. software license agreement, the use,
duplication, or disclosure by the United States Government is subject to restrictions stated in the ANSYS, Inc.
software license agreement and FAR 12.212 (for non-DOD licenses).

Third-Party Software
See the legal information in the product help files for the complete Legal Notice for ANSYS proprietary software
and third-party software. If you are unable to access the Legal Notice, please contact ANSYS, Inc.
Published in the U.S.A.

Table of Contents
1. Using This Manual ................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1. Whats In This Manual ........................................................................................................................ 1
1.2. How To Use This Manual .................................................................................................................... 1
1.2.1. For the Beginner ...................................................................................................................... 1
1.2.2. For the Experienced User .......................................................................................................... 1
1.3.Typographical Conventions Used In This Manual ................................................................................ 1
1.4. Mouse Conventions Used In This Manual ........................................................................................... 2
1.5. When To Call Your ANSYS Icepak Support Engineer ............................................................................ 2
2. Finned Heat Sink ..................................................................................................................................... 3
2.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 3
2.2. Prerequisites ..................................................................................................................................... 3
2.3. Problem Description ......................................................................................................................... 3
2.4. Step 1: Create a New Project .............................................................................................................. 4
2.5. Step 2: Build the Model ..................................................................................................................... 5
2.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .................................................................................................................. 19
2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ........................................................................................... 24
2.8. Step 5: Save the Model .................................................................................................................... 29
2.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution ............................................................................................................. 29
2.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ........................................................................................................... 32
2.11. Step 8: Summary ........................................................................................................................... 45
2.12. Step 9: Additional Exercise ............................................................................................................. 47
3. RF Amplifier ........................................................................................................................................... 49
3.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 49
3.2. Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................... 49
3.3. Problem Description ....................................................................................................................... 49
3.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ............................................................................................................ 50
3.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................... 51
3.6. Step 3: Create Assemblies ................................................................................................................ 67
3.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh .................................................................................................................. 69
3.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings ........................................................................................... 72
3.9. Step 6: Save the Model .................................................................................................................... 79
3.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................... 80
3.11. Step 8: Examine the Results ........................................................................................................... 84
3.12. Step 9: Summary ........................................................................................................................... 95
4. Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location .............................................................................. 99
4.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 99
4.2. Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................... 99
4.3. Problem Description ....................................................................................................................... 99
4.4. Step 1: Create a New Project .......................................................................................................... 100
4.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................. 100
4.6. Step 3: Creating Separately Meshed Assemblies ............................................................................. 115
4.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh ................................................................................................................ 116
4.8. Step 5: Setting up the Multiple Trials .............................................................................................. 117
4.9. Step 6: Creating Monitor Points ..................................................................................................... 120
4.10. Step 7: Physical and Numerical Setting ......................................................................................... 120
4.11. Step 8: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 122
4.12. Step 9: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 122
4.13. Step 10: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 123
4.14. Step 11: Reports .......................................................................................................................... 126
4.15. Step 12: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 127
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

iii

Tutorials
4.16. Step 13: Additional Exercise to Model Higher Altitude Effect ......................................................... 128
5. Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing ................................................................................ 131
5.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 131
5.2. Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................. 131
5.3. Problem Description ..................................................................................................................... 131
5.4. Step 1: Create a New Project .......................................................................................................... 132
5.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................. 132
5.6. Step 3: Create a Separately Meshed Assembly ................................................................................ 136
5.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh ................................................................................................................ 137
5.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings ......................................................................................... 139
5.9. Step 6: Save the Model .................................................................................................................. 142
5.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 142
5.11. Step 8: Examine the Results ......................................................................................................... 142
5.12. Step 9: Summary ......................................................................................................................... 143
5.13. Step 10: Additional Exercise ......................................................................................................... 144
6. Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing ................................................................ 145
6.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 145
6.2. Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................. 145
6.3. Problem Description ..................................................................................................................... 145
6.4. Step 1: Create a New Project .......................................................................................................... 146
6.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................. 147
6.6. Step 3: Create Nested Non-conformal Mesh Using Assemblies ........................................................ 152
6.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh ................................................................................................................ 153
6.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings ......................................................................................... 154
6.9. Step 6: Save the Model .................................................................................................................. 156
6.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 156
6.11. Step 8: Examine the Results ......................................................................................................... 156
6.12. Step 9: Summary ......................................................................................................................... 158
7. Non-Conformal Mesh .......................................................................................................................... 161
7.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 161
7.2. Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................. 161
7.3. Problem Description ..................................................................................................................... 161
7.4. Step 1: Create a New Project .......................................................................................................... 162
7.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................. 162
7.6. Step 3: Generate a Conformal Mesh ............................................................................................... 165
7.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ......................................................................................... 166
7.8. Step 5: Save the Model .................................................................................................................. 167
7.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................... 167
7.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ......................................................................................................... 167
7.11. Step 8: Add an Assembly to the Model ......................................................................................... 169
7.12. Step 9: Generate a Non-conformal Mesh ...................................................................................... 171
7.13. Step 10: Save the Model .............................................................................................................. 172
7.14. Step 11: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................ 173
7.15. Step 12: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 174
7.16. Step 13: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 175
8. Mesh and Model Enhancement Exercise ............................................................................................. 177
8.1. Objective ...................................................................................................................................... 177
8.2. Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................. 177
8.3. Skills Covered ............................................................................................................................... 177
8.4. Training Method Used ................................................................................................................... 177
8.5. Loading the Model ........................................................................................................................ 177
8.6. A 15 Minute Exploration ................................................................................................................ 178

iv

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Tutorials
8.7. Step-by-Step Approach ................................................................................................................. 178
8.8. Modification 1: Non-Conformal Mesh of the Heat Sink and Components ........................................ 179
8.9. Modification 2: Non-Conformal Mesh for the hi-flux-comps Cluster ................................................ 182
8.10. Modification 3: A Super Assembly ................................................................................................ 187
8.11. Modification 4: Separation Tolerance and Minimum Gap Settings ................................................. 187
8.12. Additional Exercise: Local Mesh Refinement and Comparisons Between the Non-Conformal and
Conformal Meshes .............................................................................................................................. 190
8.13. Conclusion .................................................................................................................................. 191
9. Loss Coefficient for a Hexa-Grille ........................................................................................................ 193
9.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 193
9.2. Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................. 193
9.3. Problem Description ..................................................................................................................... 193
9.4. Step 1: Create a New Project .......................................................................................................... 194
9.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................. 194
9.6. Step 3: Define Parameters and Trials ............................................................................................... 196
9.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh ................................................................................................................ 203
9.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings ......................................................................................... 205
9.9. Step 6: Save the Model .................................................................................................................. 208
9.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 209
9.11. Step 8: Examine the Results ......................................................................................................... 209
9.12. Step 9: Summary ......................................................................................................................... 210
10. Inline and Staggered Heat Sinks Comparison .................................................................................. 213
10.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 213
10.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 213
10.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 213
10.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 214
10.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 215
10.6. Step 3: Define Design Variables .................................................................................................... 216
10.7. Step 4: Define Parametric Runs and Assign Primary Functions ...................................................... 218
10.8. Step 5: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 222
10.9. Step 6: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 223
10.10. Step 7: Save the Model .............................................................................................................. 225
10.11. Step 8: Monitor Points ............................................................................................................... 225
10.12. Step 9: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................ 225
10.13. Step 10: Examine the Results ...................................................................................................... 226
10.14. Step 11: Summary ..................................................................................................................... 233
11. Minimizing Thermal Resistance ........................................................................................................ 235
11.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 235
11.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 235
11.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 235
11.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 236
11.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 237
11.6. Step 3: Define Design Variables .................................................................................................... 237
11.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 240
11.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 240
11.9. Step 6: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 240
11.10. Step 7: Define Primary, Compound, and Objective Functions ....................................................... 240
11.11. Step 8: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................ 243
11.12. Step 9: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 244
11.13. Step 10: Optimization in DesignXplorer ...................................................................................... 245
11.14. Step 11: Summary ..................................................................................................................... 249
11.15. Step 12: Additional Exercise ....................................................................................................... 249
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Tutorials
12. Radiation Modeling .......................................................................................................................... 251
12.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 251
12.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 251
12.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 251
12.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 251
12.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 251
12.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 258
12.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 261
12.8. Step 5: Solving the Model Without Radiation ................................................................................ 261
12.9. Step 6: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 264
12.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution: No Radiation ................................................................................... 265
12.11. Step 8: Surface to Surface (S2S) Radiation Model ........................................................................ 265
12.12. Step 9: Discrete Ordinates (DO) Radiation Model ........................................................................ 267
12.13. Step 10: Ray-Tracing Radiation Model ........................................................................................ 268
12.14. Step 11: Examine the Results ...................................................................................................... 268
12.15. Step 12: Summary ..................................................................................................................... 271
13. Transient Simulation ......................................................................................................................... 273
13.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 273
13.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 273
13.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 273
13.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 273
13.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 274
13.6. Step 4: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 278
13.7. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 278
13.8. Step 6: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 279
13.9. Step 7: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 279
13.10. Step 8: Generate a Summary Report ........................................................................................... 280
13.11. Step 9: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 281
13.12. Step 10: Examine Transient Results in CFD-Post .......................................................................... 285
13.13. Step 10: Summary ..................................................................................................................... 290
14. Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench .......................................................................................... 293
14.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 293
14.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 293
14.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 293
14.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 294
14.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 295
14.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 296
14.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 298
14.8. Step 5: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 298
14.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 299
14.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 299
14.11. Step 8: Create a Zoom-In Model ................................................................................................. 303
14.12. Step 9: Edit the Zoom-in Model .................................................................................................. 306
14.13. Step 10: Mesh the Zoom-In Model ............................................................................................. 308
14.14. Step 11: Zoom-In Physical and Numerical Settings ...................................................................... 309
14.15. Step 12: Examine the Zoom-in Results ........................................................................................ 310
14.16. Step 13: Summary ..................................................................................................................... 311
14.17. Step 14: Additional Exercise 1 .................................................................................................... 312
14.18. Step 15: Additional Exercise 2 .................................................................................................... 312
15. IDF Import ......................................................................................................................................... 315
15.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 315
15.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 315

vi

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Tutorials
15.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 315
15.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 315
15.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 316
15.6. Step 3: Component Filtration Alternatives .................................................................................... 321
15.7. Step 4: Component Models Alternatives ...................................................................................... 323
15.8. Step 5: Summary ......................................................................................................................... 324
16. Modeling CAD Geometry .................................................................................................................. 325
16.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 325
16.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 325
16.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 325
16.4. Step 1: Creating a New Project ..................................................................................................... 326
16.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 327
16.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 336
16.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 342
16.8. Step 5: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 345
16.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 346
16.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 347
16.11. Step 8: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 350
17. Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards ................................................................................... 353
17.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 353
17.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 353
17.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 353
17.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 354
17.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 354
17.6. Conduction Only Model (PCB Without the Components) .............................................................. 365
17.7. Step 1: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 365
17.8. Step 2: Set Physical and Numerical Values .................................................................................... 366
17.9. Step 3: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 367
17.10. Step 4: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................ 367
17.11. Step 5: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 367
17.12. PCB With the Actual Components Under Forced Convection ...................................................... 369
17.13. Step 1: Generate a Mesh ............................................................................................................ 370
17.14. Step 2: Set Physical and Numerical Values .................................................................................. 370
17.15. Step 3: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................ 370
17.16. Step 4: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 370
17.17. Summary .................................................................................................................................. 371
17.18. Additional Exercise 1 ................................................................................................................. 371
18. Joule/Trace Heating .......................................................................................................................... 373
18.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 373
18.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 373
18.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 373
18.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 373
18.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 374
18.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 381
18.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 383
18.8. Step 5: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 385
18.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 385
18.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 386
18.11. Step 8: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 390
19. Microelectronics Packages - Compact models .................................................................................. 391
19.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 391
19.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 391
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

vii

Tutorials
19.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 391
19.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 392
19.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 392
19.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 403
19.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 404
19.8. Step 5: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 405
19.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 405
19.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 406
19.11. Step 8: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 410
19.12. Step 9: Additional Exercise ......................................................................................................... 410
20. Multi-Level Meshing .......................................................................................................................... 411
20.1. Objective .................................................................................................................................... 411
20.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 411
20.3. Skills Covered .............................................................................................................................. 411
20.4. Loading the Model ...................................................................................................................... 411
20.5. Step-by-Step Approach ............................................................................................................... 411
20.6. Modification 1: Multi-Level Meshing of the Fan_Guide ................................................................. 414
20.7. Modification 2: Multi-Level Mesh of the Sheetmetal_hs_assy.1 ..................................................... 415
20.8. Generate a Mesh ......................................................................................................................... 416
20.9. Conclusion .................................................................................................................................. 420
21. Characterizing a BGA-package by Utilizing ECAD Files .................................................................... 423
21.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 423
21.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 423
21.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 423
21.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 423
21.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 423
21.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 429
21.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 430
21.8. Step 5: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 431
21.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 431
21.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 431
21.11. Step 8: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 433
22. Zero Slack with Non-Conformal Meshing ......................................................................................... 435
22.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 435
22.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 435
22.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 435
22.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 437
22.5. Step 2: Default Units .................................................................................................................... 437
22.6. Step 3: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 437
22.7. Step 4: Import Traces ................................................................................................................... 437
22.8. Step 5: Add Slack Values .............................................................................................................. 439
22.9. Step 6: Generate Mesh (with Slack Values) .................................................................................... 440
22.10. Step 7: Zero Slack ...................................................................................................................... 441
22.11. Step 8: Generate Mesh (with Zero Slack) ..................................................................................... 443
22.12. Step 9: Physical and Numerical Settings ..................................................................................... 443
22.13. Step 10: Save the Model ............................................................................................................. 444
22.14. Step 11: Calculate a Solution ...................................................................................................... 444
22.15. Step 12: Examine the Results ...................................................................................................... 444
22.16. Step 13: Summary ..................................................................................................................... 445
23. ANSYS Icepak - ANSYS Workbench Integration Tutorial ................................................................... 447
23.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 447
23.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 447

viii

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Tutorials
23.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 447
23.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 448
23.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 449
23.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 452
23.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 454
23.8. Step 5: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 455
23.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 455
23.10. Step 7: Examine the Results with CFD-Post ................................................................................. 456
23.11. Step 8: Thermo-Mechanical Structural Analysis ........................................................................... 460
23.12. Step 9: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 461
24. Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post ............................................................................................ 463
24.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 463
24.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 463
24.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 464
24.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 464
24.5. Step 2: Parametric Trials and Solver Settings ................................................................................. 467
24.6. Step 3: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 467
24.7. Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post ............................................................................. 468
24.8. Step 5: Comparison Study ............................................................................................................ 493
24.9. Step 6: Summary ......................................................................................................................... 498
25. High Density Datacenter Cooling ..................................................................................................... 499
25.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 499
25.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 499
25.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 499
25.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 500
25.5. Step 2: Set Preferences ................................................................................................................ 501
25.6. Step 3: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 502
25.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 528
25.8. Step 5: Create Monitor Points ....................................................................................................... 529
25.9. Step 6: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 530
25.10. Step 7: Save the Model .............................................................................................................. 531
25.11. Step 8: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................ 531
25.12. Step 9: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 533
25.13. Step 10: Additional Exercise: Visualize and analyze the results in ANSYS CFD-Post ........................ 540
25.14. Step 11: Summary ..................................................................................................................... 540
26. Design Modeler - Electronics ............................................................................................................ 541
26.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 541
26.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 541
26.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 541
26.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 542
26.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 543
26.6. Step 3: Add Shortcuts to the Toolbar ............................................................................................ 544
26.7. Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak ....................................................................................... 545
26.8. Step 5: Opening the Model in ANSYS Icepak ................................................................................. 563
26.9. Step 6: Summary ......................................................................................................................... 564
27. CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box ............................................................................... 565
27.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 565
27.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 565
27.3. Create a New ANSYS Icepak Project ............................................................................................. 565
27.4. Create a Support for the Box and Resize Cabinet .......................................................................... 567
27.5. Set Up the Model for Non-conformal Meshing ............................................................................. 571
27.6. Generate the Mesh ...................................................................................................................... 575
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

ix

Tutorials
27.7. Power and Material Inputs ........................................................................................................... 578
27.8. Fan Inputs ................................................................................................................................... 579
27.9. Physical and Numerical Settings .................................................................................................. 579
27.10. Calculate a Solution ................................................................................................................... 585
27.11. Examine the Results .................................................................................................................. 586
27.12. Additional Exercises .................................................................................................................. 595
27.13. Setup for Transient Analysis Forced Convection Mode ............................................................. 597
28. Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler ............. 601
28.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 601
28.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 601
28.3. Tutorial Outline ........................................................................................................................... 601
28.4. Part 1: General Topics .................................................................................................................. 601
28.5. ANSYS Workbench Project Schematic .......................................................................................... 602
28.6. DesignModeler ........................................................................................................................... 605
28.7. CAD Model Import ...................................................................................................................... 605
28.8. PART 2: Model Conversion From CAD to Icepak ............................................................................ 606
28.9. ANSYS DesignModeler- Electronics .............................................................................................. 607
28.10. Simplify - Level 0 ....................................................................................................................... 609
28.11. Slice Tool in DM ......................................................................................................................... 612
28.12. Simplify - Level 1 ....................................................................................................................... 615
28.13. Simplify - Level 2 ....................................................................................................................... 618
28.14. Simplification into Icepak Objects Level 3 ................................................................................ 618
28.15. Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 622
29. Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler ................................................................................................................................................... 623
29.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 623
29.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 623
29.3. Tutorial Outline ........................................................................................................................... 623
29.4. Model Description ...................................................................................................................... 623
29.5. Getting Started ANSYS Workbench, Project Schematic ............................................................... 624
29.6. Getting Started - ANSYS DesignModeler ...................................................................................... 627
29.7. Import of CAD Geometry ............................................................................................................ 627
29.8. Initial Model Review .................................................................................................................... 628
29.9. CAD Geometry Information and Repair Utilities ........................................................................... 630
29.10. Suppress Non-Essential Bodies .................................................................................................. 631
29.11. Functionality Based Grouping ................................................................................................... 632
29.12. Simple Shapes vs. Complex Shapes ............................................................................................ 633
29.13. Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak ................................................................................ 635
29.14. Summary .................................................................................................................................. 674
30. MRF Tutorial ...................................................................................................................................... 675
30.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 675
30.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 675
30.3. Opening the Project .................................................................................................................... 676
30.4. Modifying the Geometry ............................................................................................................. 677
30.5. Generating the Mesh ................................................................................................................... 680
30.6. Examine the Mesh ....................................................................................................................... 684
30.7. Solution Settings for MRF Fan Model ........................................................................................... 686
30.8. Post-processing the Results ......................................................................................................... 691
30.9. BONUS SECTION: Comparing MRF to 3D Icepak Fans .................................................................... 692
31. Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude ...................................................................... 693
31.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 693
31.2. Opening the Project .................................................................................................................... 694

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Tutorials
31.3. Adding the Fins ........................................................................................................................... 695
31.4. Modeling the effects of Altitudes ................................................................................................. 699
31.5. Summary .................................................................................................................................... 706
32. Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial ..................................................................................... 707
32.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 707
32.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 707
32.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 707
32.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 707
32.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 708
32.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 724
32.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 725
32.8. Step 5: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 726
32.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution .......................................................................................................... 726
32.10. Step 7: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 727
32.11. Step 8: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 728
33. Icepak HFSS Coupling ..................................................................................................................... 729
33.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 729
33.2. Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 729
33.3. Problem Description ................................................................................................................... 729
33.4. Step 1: Create a New Project ........................................................................................................ 730
33.5. Step 2: Build the Model ................................................................................................................ 730
33.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh .............................................................................................................. 732
33.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings ....................................................................................... 733
33.8. Step 5: Volume/Surface Mapping ................................................................................................. 733
33.9. Step 6: Save the Model ................................................................................................................ 735
33.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution ........................................................................................................ 735
33.11. Step 8: Examine the Results ....................................................................................................... 735
33.12. Step 9: Summary ....................................................................................................................... 743
Index ........................................................................................................................................................ 745

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

xi

xii

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 1: Using This Manual


1.1. Whats In This Manual
This manual contains tutorials that teach you how to use ANSYS Icepak to solve different types of
problems. In each tutorial, features related to problem setup and postprocessing are demonstrated.
The tutorial Finned Heat Sink provides detailed instructions designed to introduce the beginner to
ANSYS Icepak. This tutorial provides explicit instructions for all steps in the problem setup, solution,
and postprocessing. The remaining tutorials assume that you have read or solved the tutorial Finned
Heat Sink, or that you are already familiar with ANSYS Icepak and its interface. In these tutorials, some
steps will not be shown explicitly. The input files are available in the installation area and available for
download on the ANSYS Customer Portal.

1.2. How To Use This Manual


Depending on your familiarity with computational fluid dynamics and ANSYS Icepak, you can use this
tutorial guide in a variety of ways:
1.2.1. For the Beginner
1.2.2. For the Experienced User

1.2.1. For the Beginner


If you are a beginning user of ANSYS Icepak, you should first read and solve the tutorial Finned Heat
Sink, in order to familiarize yourself with the interface and with basic setup and solution procedures.
You may then want to try a tutorial that demonstrates features that you are going to use in your application. For example, if you are planning to solve a problem involving radiation, you should look at the
tutorial Radiation Modeling.
You may want to refer to other tutorials for instructions on using specific features, such as grouping
objects, even if the problem solved in the tutorial is not of particular interest to you.

1.2.2. For the Experienced User


If you are an experienced ANSYS Icepak user, you can read and/or solve the tutorial(s) that demonstrate
features that you are going to use in your application. For example, if you are planning to solve a
problem involving radiation, you should look at the tutorial Radiation Modeling.
You may want to refer to other tutorials for instructions on using specific features, such as grouping
objects, even if the problem solved in the tutorial is not of particular interest to you.

1.3. Typographical Conventions Used In This Manual


Several typographical conventions are used in this manuals text to facilitate your learning process.
Different type styles are used to indicate graphical user interface menu items and text inputs that you
enter (e.g., Open project panel, enter the name projectname).
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Using This Manual


A mini flow chart is used to indicate the menu selections that lead you to a specific panel. For example,
Model Generate mesh
indicates that the Generate mesh option can be selected from the Model menu at the top of the
ANSYS Icepak main window.
The arrow points from a specific menu toward the item you should select from that menu.
A mini flow chart is also used to indicate the list tree selections that lead you to a specific panel or operation. For example,
Problem setup

Basic parameters

indicates that the Basic parameters item can be selected from the Problem setup node in the
Model manager window
Pictures of toolbar buttons are also used to indicate the button that will lead you to a specific panel. For
example,
indicates that you will need to click on this button (in this case, to open the Walls panel) in
the toolbar.

1.4. Mouse Conventions Used In This Manual


The default mouse buttons used to manipulate your model in the graphics window are described in
Manipulating Graphics With the Mouse in the Icepak User's Guide. Although you can change the mouse
controls in ANSYS Icepak to suit your preferences, this manual assumes that you are using the default
settings for the mouse controls. If you change the default mouse controls, you will need to use the
mouse buttons you have specified instead of the mouse buttons that the manual tells you to use.

1.5. When To Call Your ANSYS Icepak Support Engineer


The ANSYS Icepak support engineers can help you to plan your modeling projects and to overcome
any difficulties you encounter while using ANSYS Icepak. If you encounter difficulties we invite you to
call your support engineer for assistance. However, there are a few things that we encourage you to
do before calling:
1. Read the section(s) of the manual containing information on the options you are trying to use.
2. Recall the exact steps you were following that led up to and caused the problem.
3. Write down the exact error message that appeared, if any.
4. For particularly difficult problems, package up the project in which the problem occurred (see Packing
and Unpacking Model Files in the Icepak User's Guide for instructions) and send it to your support engineer.
This is the best source that we can use to reproduce the problem and thereby help to identify the cause.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 2: Finned Heat Sink


2.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to model a finned heat sink using ANSYS Icepak as well many features
and functions essential to any ANSYS Icepak project. For the sake of brevity, many of the later tutorials
do not cover basic steps or explain the steps in detail as those tutorials assume you have completed
this tutorial beforehand.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Create a new project.
Create a model using blocks, openings, fans, sources, and plates.
Generate a mesh for your model.
Set up a simulation with various physical conditions and parameters, including turbulence.
Calculate a solution.
Post-process your results by using object faces, plane cuts, and isosurfaces to create contours and vector
fields.

2.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little to no experience with ANSYS Icepak and thus each step is
described explicitly.

2.3. Problem Description


The cabinet contains an array of five high-power devices, a backing plate, ten fins, three fans, and a
free opening, as shown in Figure 2.1: Problem Specification (p. 4). The fins and backing plate are constructed of extruded aluminum. Each fan has a total volume flow rate of 18 cfm and each source dissipates
power at the rate of 33 W. According to the design objective, the base of the devices should not exceed
65C when air sweeps the fins at an ambient temperature of 20C.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Finned Heat Sink


Figure 2.1: Problem Specification

2.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.

2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
The New project panel appears.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model

3. Specify a name for your project and click Create.


ANSYS Icepak creates a default cabinet with the dimensions 1 m 1 m 1 m, and displays the
cabinet in the graphics window.

Note
You can rotate the cabinet around a central point using the left mouse button, or you
can translate it to any point on the screen using the middle mouse button. You can zoom
into and out from the cabinet using the right mouse button. To restore the cabinet to
its default orientation, select Home position in the Orient menu. Alternatively, you can
click the Home position icon (
key.

) above the graphics display window or press the H

2.5. Step 2: Build the Model


To build the model, you will first resize the cabinet to its proper size. Then you will create the backing
plate and opening, followed by the elements that will be duplicated (i.e., the fans, fins, and devices).
1. Resize the default cabinet in the Cabinet panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Finned Heat Sink


Model

Cabinet

Extra
You can also open the Cabinet panel by selecting the Cabinet item in the Model manager
window and then clicking the Edit object button ( ) in the Object modification toolbar.
Resizing of the cabinet object can also be done in the geometry window in the lower
right hand corner of the GUI.
a. In the Cabinet panel, click the Geometry tab.
b. Under Location, enter the following coordinates:
xS

xE

0.075

yS

yE

0.25

zS

zE

0.356

c. Click Done to resize the cabinet and close the panel.


d. In the Orient menu, select Scale to fit to scale the view of the cabinet to fit the graphics window.

Extra
You can also scale the view by clicking the Scale to fit button (

).

Extra
After selecting the object to be edited in the Model manager window, there are
several ways you can open the Edit panel:
Double-click the object in the Model manager window, or
Type Ctrl+E, or

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Right-click the object in the Model manager window and scroll to Edit object, or
Click the Edit button in the object geometry window located in the bottom righthand corner, or
Click the Edit icon (

) in the model toolbar.

2. Create the backing plate.


The backing plate is 0.006 m thick and divides the cabinet into two regions: the device side (where
the high-power devices are contained in a housing) and the fin side (where the fins dissipate heat
generated by the devices). The backing plate is represented in the model by a solid prism block.

Extra
Blocks and conducting thick plates allow six-sided control for meshing and thermal specifications. Conducting thin plates, however, have no physical thickness and therefore
allow for only two-sided control.
a. Click the Create blocks button (

) to create a new block.

ANSYS Icepak creates a new solid prism block in the center of the cabinet. You need to change
the size of the block.
b. Click the Edit object button (

) to open the Blocks panel.

c. Click the Geometry tab.


d. Enter the following coordinates for the block:
xS

xE

0.006

yS

yE

0.25

zS

zE

0.356

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Finned Heat Sink

e. Click Done to modify the block and close the panel.


3. Create the free opening on the fin side of the backing plate.
a. Click the Create openings button (

) to create a new opening.

ANSYS Icepak creates a free rectangular opening on the X-Y plane at the center of the cabinet.
You need to change the size of the opening.
b. Click the Edit object button (

) to open the Openings panel.

c. Click the Geometry tab.


d. Enter the following coordinates for the opening:

xS

0.006

xE

0.075

yS

yE

0.25

zS

0.356

zE

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model

e. Click Done to modify the opening and close the panel.


4. Create the first fan.
Each fan is physically identical to the others, except with respect to its location on the cabinet wall.
To create the set of three fans, you will build a single fan as a template and then create two copies,
each with a specified offset in the y direction.
) to create a new fan.

a. Click the Create fans button (

ANSYS Icepak creates a free circular fan lying in the X-Y plane in the center of the cabinet. You
need to change the size of the fan and specify its volumetric flow rate.
b. Click the Edit object (

) to open the Fans panel.

c. Click the Geometry tab.


d. Enter the following coordinates for the fan:
xC

0.04

yC

0.0475

zC

e. Enter 0.03 for the external radius (Radius), and 0.01 for the internal radius (Int Radius).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Finned Heat Sink

f.

Click the Properties tab.

g. Keep the default Fan type of Intake.


h. Under the Fan flow tab, select Fixed and Volumetric. Enter a volumetric flow rate of 18 cfm.

Note
Make sure to update the units to cfm by clicking on the triangle button and selecting
cfm from the drop-down list.

10

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model

i.

Click Done to modify the fan and close the panel.

5. Copy the first fan (fan.1) to create the second and third fans (fan.1.1 and fan.1.2).
a. In the graphics display window, select fan.1 using the right mouse button.
b. In the object context menu, select Copy and the Copy fan fan.1 panel opens.
c. Enter 2 as the Number of copies.
d. Select the Translate option and specify a Y offset of 0.0775 m.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

11

Finned Heat Sink

e. Click Apply.
ANSYS Icepak makes two copies of the original fan, each offset by 0.0775 m in the y direction
from the previous one.

Extra:
Alternatively, you can simply select the object(s) you need to copy in the Model manager
window and then press Ctrl+C to bring up the Copy panel for the object(s).

6. Create the first high-power device.


Like the fans, each device is physically identical to the others, except with respect to its location in
the cabinet. To create the set of five devices, you will build a single rectangular planar source as a
template and then create four copies, each with a specified offset in the y direction.
a. Click the Create sources button (

) to create a source.

ANSYS Icepak creates a free rectangular source in the center of the cabinet. You need to change
the geometry and size of the source and specify its heat source parameters.

Note
For planar objects, select the desired plane first, then enter the coordinates.

b. Click the Edit object button (

12

) to open the Sources panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


c. Click the Geometry tab.
d. Keep the default selection of Rectangular.
e. In the Plane drop-down list, select Y-Z.
f.

Enter the following coordinates for the source:


xS

xE

yS

0.0315

yE

0.0385

zS

0.1805

zE

0.2005

g. Click the Properties tab.


h. Under Thermal specification, set the Total power to 33 W.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

13

Finned Heat Sink

i.

Click Done to modify the source and close the panel.

7. Copy the first device (source.1) to create the other four devices (source.1.1, source.1.2, source.1.3, and
source.1.4).
a. In the Model manager window, select the source.1 item under the Model node.
b. Click the Copy object button (

).

c. Follow the same instructions that you used above to copy the fans, using a Y offset of 0.045 m to
create 4 copies.
8. Create the first fin.
Like the fans and devices, each fin is physically identical to the others, except with respect to its
location in the cabinet. To create the array of ten fins, you will build a single rectangular plate as a
template, and then create nine copies, each with a specified offset in the y direction.
a. Click the Create plates button (

) to create a plate.

ANSYS Icepak creates a free rectangular plate on the X-Y plane at the center of the cabinet. You
need to change the orientation and size of the plate and specify its thermal parameters.
b. Click the Edit object button (

) to open the Plates panel.

c. Click the Geometry tab.


14

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


d. In the Plane drop-down list, select X-Z.
e. Enter the following coordinates for the plate:

f.

xS

0.006

xE

0.075

yS

0.0125

yE

zS

0.05

zE

0.331

Click the Properties tab.

g. Under Thermal model, select Conducting thick from the drop-down menu.
h. Set the Thickness to 0.0025 m.
i.

Keep default as the Solid material.

Note
Since the default solid material is extruded aluminum, you do not need to explicitly
specify the material here.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

15

Finned Heat Sink

j.

Click Done to modify the plate and close the panel.

9. Copy the first fin (plate.1) to create the other nine fins (plate.1.1, plate.1.2, ..., plate.1.9).
a. In the Model manager window, select the plate.1 item under the Model node.
b. Click the Copy object button (

).

c. Follow the same instructions that you used above to copy the fans, using a Y offset of 0.025 m to
create 9 copies.
The completed model is shown in Figure 2.2: Completed Model for the Finned Heat Sink (p. 17),
visible in the Isometric view (available in the Orient menu or by clicking the Isometric view button
(

)).

Note
You can remove the object names by clicking the Display object names button (

16

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

).

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 2.2: Completed Model for the Finned Heat Sink

10. Display objects by type.


You can display all object types, filter blocks by type (fluid, solid, network, hollow), and display blocks
with traces and/or CAD block. This feature is useful for model verification. You can display all plate
objects that have the conducting thick sub type.
a. Model Show objects by type
b. The Show objects by type panel appears as shown in Figure 2.3: Show objects by type Panel (p. 17).
Figure 2.3: Show objects by type Panel

c. Select Plate for Object type and Conducting thick for Sub type.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

17

Finned Heat Sink


d. Click Display to show the conducting thick plates. The model then appears as in Figure 2.4: Display
of Conducting Thick Plate Objects (p. 18).
Figure 2.4: Display of Conducting Thick Plate Objects

e. Click Close to exit the Show objects by type panel.


11. Check the model to be sure that there are no problems (for example, objects that are too close together
to allow for proper mesh generation).
Model Check model

Note
You can also click the Check model button (

) to check the model.

Note
ANSYS Icepak should report in the Message window that 0 problems were found.

18

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Generate a Mesh


12. Check the definition of the modeling objects to ensure that you specified them properly.
View Summary (HTML)
The summary report now appears in a web browser. The summary displays a list of all the objects
in the model and all the parameters that have been set for each object. You can view the detailed
version of the summary by clicking the appropriate object names or property specifications. If you
notice any incorrect specifications, you can return to the appropriate modeling object panel and
change the settings in the same way that you originally entered them.

Note
The summary report also shows the user-specified material properties for each of the
objects to help identify the proper material specifications. Figure 2.5: Partial Table of
Summary Report for Blocks (p. 19) shows the summary report for block.1, which includes
its material specifications.
Figure 2.5: Partial Table of Summary Report for Blocks

2.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


You will generate the mesh in two steps. First you will create a coarse mesh and examine it to determine
where further mesh refinement is required. Then you will refine the mesh based on your observations
of the coarse mesh.

Extra
For more information on how to refine a mesh locally, refer to Refining the Mesh Locally.
Model Generate mesh

Extra
You can also generate a mesh by clicking the Generate mesh button (
Mesh control panel.

), which opens the

1. Generate a coarse (minimum-count) mesh.


a. In the Mesh control panel, select Coarse in the Mesh parameters drop-down list.
ANSYS Icepak updates the panel with the default meshing parameters for a coarse (minimumcount) mesh, shown in the panel below.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

19

Finned Heat Sink


b. Set the Mesh units and all the Minimum gap units to mm.
c. Set the Minimum gap to 1 mm for X, Y, and Z.
d. Set the Max X size to 3.5, the Max Y size to 12.5, and the Max Z size to 17.5.

e. Click the Generate button to generate the coarse mesh.

Note
If the Allow minimum gap changes option is unchecked under the Misc tab, ANSYS
Icepak will inform you that your minimum object separation is more than 10% of the
smallest size object in the model. You can stop the meshing process, ignore the
warning, or allow ANSYS Icepak to correct the values.

20

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Generate a Mesh


f.

If this warning appears, click Change value and mesh in the Minimum separation in x and Minimum
separation in y panels to accept the recommended changes to your model and continue generating
the mesh.

2. Examine the coarse mesh on a cross-section of the model.


a. Click the Display tab.
b. Select the Cut plane option.
c. In the Set position drop-down list, select X plane through center.
d. Select the Display mesh option.
The mesh display plane is perpendicular to the fins, and aligned with the devices, as shown in
Figure 2.6: Coarse Mesh on the Y-Z Plane (p. 22).

Note
The number of elements may vary slightly on different machines.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

21

Finned Heat Sink


Figure 2.6: Coarse Mesh on the Y-Z Plane

e. Use the slider bar to move the plane cut through the model. See Figure 2.7: Fine and Coarse Mesh
on the Y-Z Plane (p. 23) to examine a close-up view of the coarse mesh.

Note
You can change the mesh color using the Surface mesh color and the Plane mesh
color options.
The mesh elements near the fins are too large to sufficiently resolve the problem physics. In the
next step, you will generate a finer mesh.
3. Generate a finer mesh.
a. Click the Settings tab.
b. Under the Global tab, select Normal in the Mesh parameters drop-down list.
ANSYS Icepak updates the panel with the default meshing parameters under the Global tab.
4. Click the Generate button in the Mesh control panel to generate the finer mesh.
5. Examine the new mesh.
The graphics display updates automatically to show the new mesh. Click the Display tab and use
slider bar to advance the plane cut and view the mesh throughout the model.

22

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Generate a Mesh


Figure 2.7: Fine and Coarse Mesh on the Y-Z Plane

6. Turn off the mesh display.


a. Click the Display tab in the Mesh control panel.
b. Deselect the Display mesh option.
c. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.

Note
After deselecting the Display mesh option and closing the Mesh control panel, you
can display the mesh on selected objects by using the context menu in the graphics
display window. To display the context menu, hold down the Shift key and press the
right mouse button anywhere in the graphics window, but not on an object. Select
Display mesh and select the object you want it displayed on.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

23

Finned Heat Sink


Figure 2.8: Display mesh Option

2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Before starting the solver, first review estimates of the Reynolds and Peclet numbers to check that the
proper flow regime is being modeled.
1. Check the values of the Reynolds and Peclet numbers.
Solution settings

24

Basic settings

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 2.9: Basic settings panel

a. Click the Reset button as shown in Figure 2.9: Basic settings panel (p. 25). Reset calculates the
Reynolds and Peclet numbers.
b. Check the values printed to the Message window.
The Reynolds and Peclet numbers are approximately 13,000 and 9,000, respectively, so the flow
is turbulent. ANSYS Icepak consequently recommends setting the flow regime to turbulent.

Note
These values are only estimates, based on the current model setup. Actual values may
vary, and may need verification, depending on your design.

c. Change the Number of iterations to 200.


d. Click Accept to save the solver settings.
2. Using the Problem setup wizard, enable turbulence modeling using the zero equation turbulence
model and neglecting radiation heat transfer.
a. In the Model manager window, right-click Problem setup and then select Problem setup wizard
(Figure 2.10: Problem setup wizard panel at step 1 of 14 (p. 26)). The Problem setup wizard provides
a simple interface with user guidance for defining the physics of the model.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

25

Finned Heat Sink


Figure 2.10: Problem setup wizard panel at step 1 of 14

b. For step 1 of 14, keep the default settings for check boxes. Click Next.
c. For step 2 of 14, keep the default flow condition selected. Click Next.
d. Note that you are now at step 5 of 14 according to the Problem setup wizard panel, shown in Figure 2.11: Problem setup wizard at step 5 of 14 (p. 27). Ensure that you select Set flow regime to
turbulent.

Extra
Hold your mouse pointer over any selection in the Problem setup wizard to have a
text bubble appear for additional information on the selection, as shown in Figure 2.11: Problem setup wizard at step 5 of 14 (p. 27).

26

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 2.11: Problem setup wizard at step 5 of 14

Click Next.
e. For step 6 of 14, select Zero equation (mixing length) as your turbulence model. Click Next.
f.

For step 7 of 14, select Ignore heat transfer due to radiation. Click Next.

g. Note that you are now at step 9 of 14 according to the panel. Leave the check box empty to exclude
solar radiation and click Next.
h. For step 10 of 14, select Variables do not vary with time (steady-state) for steady-state simulation.
Click Next.
i.

Note that you are now at step 14 of 14, as shown in Figure 2.12: Problem setup wizard at step 14 of
14 (p. 28). Ignore altitude effects by leaving the check boxes empty. Click Done to finish the Problem
setup wizard, fully defining the problem setup.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

27

Finned Heat Sink


Figure 2.12: Problem setup wizard at step 14 of 14

Note
You can edit these settings and other aspects of the problem setup by double-clicking
Basic parameters in the Model manager window. Figure 2.13: Basic parameters
panel (p. 29) shows the Basic parameters panel.

28

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 6: Calculate a Solution


Figure 2.13: Basic parameters panel

2.8. Step 5: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak automatically saves the model for you before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the job you saved and continue your analysis in a future ANSYS
Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will simply
overwrite your job file when it saves the model.)
File Save project

Note
Alternatively, you can click the

button in the File commands toolbar.

2.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


1. Start the calculation.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

29

Finned Heat Sink


Solve Run solution

Note
You can click the Run solution button (

) in the Model and solve toolbar.

Figure 2.14: Solve Panel

2. Match your settings to those of Figure 2.14: Solve Panel (p. 30).
3. Click Start solution to start the solver.

Note
No universal metric exists for judging convergence; a good indicator is when the solution
no longer changes with more iterations and when the residuals have decreased to a
certain degree. The default criterion is that each residual reduces to a value of less than


except the energy residual, for which the default criterion is
. It is a good idea
to judge convergence not only by examining residual levels, but also by monitoring relevant integrated quantities.

30

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 6: Calculate a Solution


ANSYS Icepak begins to calculate a solution for the model, and a separate window opens where the
solver prints the numerical values of the residuals. ANSYS Icepak also opens the Solution residuals
graphics display and control window, where it displays the convergence history for the calculation.
Upon completion of the calculation, your residual plot will look something like Figure 2.15: Plot of
Solution Residuals (p. 32). You can zoom in the residual plot by using the left mouse.

Note
The actual values of the residuals may differ slightly on different machines, so your plot
may not look exactly the same as Figure 2.15: Plot of Solution Residuals (p. 32).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

31

Finned Heat Sink


Figure 2.15: Plot of Solution Residuals

4. Click Done in the Solution residuals window to close it.

2.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


ANSYS Icepak provides a number of ways to view and examine the solution results, including:
plane cut views
object face views

32

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results


summary report
The following steps illustrate how to generate and display each view.

Note
The objective of this exercise is to determine whether the air flow and heat transfer associated
with the heat sink (fans and fins) are sufficient to maintain device temperatures below 65C.
You can accomplish this by creating different plane cuts and monitoring the velocity vector
and temperature on it. Plane-cut views allow you to observe the variation in a solution variable
across the surface of a plane.
You will use the Plane cut panel to view the direction and magnitude of velocity across a
horizontal plane.
1. To open the Plane cut panel, select Plane cut in the Post menu.

Extra
You can also open the Plane cut panel by clicking the Plane cut button (

).

2. Display velocity vectors on a plane cut on the fin side of the enclosure.
Post Plane cut
a. In the Name field, enter the name cut-velocity as shown in Figure 2.16: Plane cut Panel for cutvelocity (p. 34).
b. In the Set position drop-down list, select X plane through center.

Tip
Click the drop-down arrow button located next to the Set position text field to open
the drop-down list.

c. Select the Show vectors option.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

33

Finned Heat Sink


Figure 2.16: Plane cut Panel for cut-velocity

d. Click Parameters next to the Show vectors option.


e. In the Display options box, select Dart in the Arrow style drop-down menu (Figure 2.17: Plane cut
vectors Panel for cut-velocity (p. 34)). This will display the vectors as dart-like objects.
Figure 2.17: Plane cut vectors Panel for cut-velocity

f.

Click Done to exit out of the panel.

g. Click Create.

34

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results


h. In the Orient menu, select Orient positive X.
This orients the model as shown in Figure 2.18: Velocity Vectors on the Fin Side of the Enclosure (p. 35). You can see that the maximum velocity occurs at the fan blades. The lowest velocity
occurs between the top fin and the adjacent cabinet wall, and between the bottom fin and the
adjacent cabinet wall.

Extra
You can also select the positive X orientation by clicking the Orient positive X button
(

).

Figure 2.18: Velocity Vectors on the Fin Side of the Enclosure

i.

In the Plane cut panel, turn off the Active option.


This temporarily removes the velocity vector display from the graphics window, so that you can
more easily view the next post-processing object.

Note
You can later open the Inactive folder in the Model manager window and locate
cut_velocity. The object cut_velocity can be either deleted or reactivated
by dragging it to Trash or to the Post-processing folder, as well as within the rightclick context menu.

3. Display contours of temperature on the fin side of the enclosure.


Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

35

Finned Heat Sink


a. Click New in the Plane cut panel.
b. In the Name field, enter the name cut-temperature.
c. In the Set position drop-down list, select X plane through center.
d. Select the Show contours option and click Parameters.
The Plane cut contours panel opens.
e. Keep the default selection of Temperature.
f.

For Shading options, keep the default selection of Banded.

g. For Color levels, select Calculated and then select This object from the drop-down list.
h. Click Apply.
ANSYS Icepak computes the color range for the display based on the range of temperatures on
this plane cut.

i.

Click Done to save the new settings, close the panel, and update the graphics display.
The graphics display updates to show the temperature contour plot. The actual values of temperature may slightly differ on different systems. You can use the scroll bar to change the xlocation of the plane cut. In addition, the plane cut can be dragged through the model when
you hold down the Shift key and the middle mouse button on the plane. Ensure you click the
edge of the plane cut so as to not move any objects.
Figure 2.19: Temperature Contours on the Fin Side of the Enclosure (p. 37) shows that heat is
conducted through the fins in both directions away from the sources as well as the thermal
boundary layers resulting from the forced convection.

36

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results


Figure 2.19: Temperature Contours on the Fin Side of the Enclosure

j.

In the Plane cut panel, deselect the Active option.

4. Display velocity vectors superimposed with pressure contours.


a. Click New in the Plane cut panel.
b. In the Name field, enter the name cut-prvelocity.
c. In the Set position drop-down list, select X plane through center.
d. Specify the display of velocity vectors.
i.

Select the Show vectors option and click Parameters.


The Plane cut vectors panel opens.

ii. Select Fixed from the Color by drop-down list.


iii. Click the square next to Fixed color and select black from the color palette.
iv. Click Done to close the panel.
e. Specify the display of contours of pressure.
i.

Select the Show contours option and click Parameters.


The Plane cut contours panel opens.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

37

Finned Heat Sink


ii. In the Plane cut contours panel, select Pressure in the Contours of drop-down list.
iii. For Shading options, keep the default selection of Banded.
iv. For Color levels, select Calculated and then select This object from the drop-down list.
v. Click Done to save the new settings, close the panel, and update the graphics display.
The graphics display updates to show the pressure contour plot superimposed onto the velocity vector plot.
Figure 2.20: Pressure Contours and Velocity Vectors on the Fin Side of the Enclosure (p. 38) shows
isolated regions of high pressure immediately downstream of the fans, including local maxima
at the upstream tips of the fins.
Figure 2.20: Pressure Contours and Velocity Vectors on the Fin Side of the Enclosure

f.

In the Plane cut panel, turn off the Active option.

5. Display contours of temperature on all five high-power devices.


An object-face view allows you to examine the distribution of a solution variable on one or more
faces of an object in the model. To generate an object-face view, you must select the object and
specify both the variable to be displayed (e.g., temperature) and the attributes of the view (e.g.,
shading type).
You will use the Object face panel to create a solid-band object-face view of temperature on all
five high-power devices and on the backing plate.
a. To open the Object face panel, select Object face in the Post menu.

38

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results


Post Object face

Extra
You can also open the Object face panel by clicking the Object face button (

).

b. In the Name field, enter the name face-tempsource.


c. In the Object drop-down list, click source.1, hold down the Shift key, and click source.1.4 to select
all the sources, and click the Accept button.
d. Select the Show contours option.

e. Click Parameters next to the Show contours option.


The Object face contours panel opens.
f.

In the Object face contours panel, keep the default selection of Temperature in the Contours of
drop-down list.

g. For Shading options, keep the default selection of Banded.


h. For Color levels, select Calculated and then select This object from the drop-down list.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

39

Finned Heat Sink

i.

Click Done to save the new settings, close the panel, and update the graphics display.
The graphics display updates to show the temperature contours on the sources.

j.

Use your right mouse button to zoom in and look more closely at each source.
Figure 2.21: Temperature Contours on the Five Devices (p. 41) shows a view with the temperature
contours on all five sources. The temperature distributions are similar for all sources: warm in
the center and decreasing in temperature toward the edges of the source. Temperature distributions on the top and bottom sources are similar to each other, as are distributions on the two
remaining sources.

Note
To view the temperature contours on an individual source, hold down the Shift key
and drag a box around a source object using the left mouse button. The source object
will show as highlighted in the Model manager window. Right-click the source object
to display the context menu and select Create Object face(s) Separate. ANSYS
Icepak displays the Object face panel for that particular object. Change the settings
to match the ones used above for all source objects and click Create.

40

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results


Figure 2.21: Temperature Contours on the Five Devices

k. In the Object face panel, deselect the Active option.


6. Display line contours of temperature on the backing plate.
a. Click New in the Object face panel.
b. In the Name field, enter the name face-tempblock.
c. In the Object drop-down list, select block.1 and click Accept.
d. Select the Show contours option and click Parameters.
The Object face contours panel opens.
e. In the Object face contours panel, keep the default selection of Temperature in the Contours of
drop-down list.
f.

For Contour options, deselect Solid fill and select Line.

g. For Level spacing, select Fixed and set the Number of contour lines to 200.
h. For Color levels, select Calculated and then select This object from the drop down list.
i.

Click Done to save the new settings, close the panel, and update the graphics display.
The graphics display updates to show the temperature contours on the block. Figure 2.22: Temperature Contours on the Backing Plate (p. 42) shows that most of the heat is confined to the
region near the sources. The maximum temperature occurs near the middle three sources.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

41

Finned Heat Sink


Figure 2.22: Temperature Contours on the Backing Plate

j.

Click Done in the Object face panel to close the panel. Deselect the Active option for the object
face in the Model manager window.

7. Utilize the Transparency slider in the Plane cut panel to help visualize multiple plane cuts simultaneously.
a. Refer to Figure 2.16: Plane cut Panel for cut-velocity (p. 34). Select Active in the Plane cut panel to
display in the graphics display window. Select the check box for the Transparency slider in order to
enable transparency. Click and drag the slider between the allowable values 0.000.99 to control
the degree of transparency. In the Plane cut panel, deselect the Active option.
b. Click Done in the Plane cut panel to close the panel.
c. Figure 2.23: Example of Transparency Feature with Multiple Plane cut Contours (p. 43) is a combination
of two plane cut temperature contours and a partially transparent pressure contour as an example
of the Transparency feature. Notice that the single, semi-transparent pressure contour allows concurrent visualization of the temperature profiles immediately next to the block.

42

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results


Figure 2.23: Example of Transparency Feature with Multiple Plane cut Contours

8. Create a summary report of object-specific solution data. Summary reports can provide physical information from the solution about specific Model objects, Groups objects, Post-processing objects and
Points objects. Follow the steps below to create a summary report:
a. First, make the post-processing object cut-temperature active again by accessing the context menu
under the Inactive node in the Model manager window.
b. Report Summary report

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

43

Finned Heat Sink

c. Click New in the Define summary report panel five times to create 5 rows of Objects.
d. In the first row, select object block.1, then click Accept. In the Value drop-down menu, select Heat
flow.

Note
Although you did not change the default settings of the check boxes Comb and
Mesh, you may encounter projects in which you need to change these. Comb refers
to combined: The report generates a single, combined value for all the sides selected;
deselecting the option would report the side values separately. Mesh allows you to
report on the reduced mesh of the selected object in the case that an object intersects
with other objects and the mesh in the intersecting region might not necessarily belong to the object of interest.

e. In the second row, use the Shift key to select all 3 fans, then click Accept. In the Value drop-down
menu, select Volume flow.
f.

In the third row, use the Shift key to select all 5 sources, then click Accept. In the Value drop-down
menu, select Heat flow.

g. In the fourth row, use the Shift key to select all 10 plates, then click Accept. In the Value drop-down
menu, select Heat flow.

44

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Summary
h. In the fifth row, use the Shift key to select post cut-temperature, then click Accept. Keep the default
settings in the other fields.
i.

Click Write to generate a panel for the object summary report (Figure 2.24: Report summary data
Panel (p. 45)). Examine the values reported and confirm they are consistent with the physics of the
model. Click Done to exit out of this panel, then Close to exit the Define summary report panel.
Figure 2.24: Report summary data Panel

9. Save the post-processing objects created.


a. Select Save post objects to file in the Post menu.
b. Click Save in the File selection window that opens.
Upon saving the project, all objects created during post-processing are saved within a
post_objects file for future retrieval.

2.11. Step 8: Summary


In this tutorial, you have determined the ability of the specified heat sink to maintain source temperatures
below 65C. Post-processing results show that the maximum source temperature is about 60C, indicating
that the heat sink provides adequate cooling for the sources.
In addition, you have learned the basic workflow of an ANSYS Icepak project, including model building,
mesh generation, problem setup, solution calculation, and post-processing as well essential features
and functions that you will likely use in later tutorials or your own projects.
We repeat some of the tips and best practices found in this tutorial for your convenience:
1. Best Practices

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

45

Finned Heat Sink


a. Check the default materials, properties, and operating conditions under the Defaults tab in the
Basic parameters panel. These defaults often render some specifications unnecessary.
b. Use the Show objects by type feature to verify your model objects by type.
c. Use the Check model feature to ensure there are no problems with the model.
d. View the HTML summary report (View Summary (HTML)) to ensure proper specification of
geometries, properties, and materials for each object.
e. Select the Allow minimum gap changes option in the Misc tab of the Mesh control panel to allow
ANSYS Icepak to avoid unnecessary meshing due to inadvertent misalignments in the model. This is
suitable for this tutorial but may not be in other projects.
f.

Select Normal in the Mesh parameters field when flow structures require finer grids than possible
with Coarse meshing.

g. Use the Problem setup wizard for guided problem setup. Edit the problem setup if needed using
the

Basic parameters panel.

h. Save the model and mesh before starting the solution so that you can open the saved job and continue analysis in a future session.
i.

Judge convergence by monitoring residual levels as well as relevant integrated quantities, which
should eventually stop changing significantly with more iterations.

2. Tips and Tricks


a. Explore the several methods to complete a task as you work through a problem in ANSYS Icepak.
For example, you can edit model object geometries by using their object edit panel, or you can use
the Edit window in the bottom right-hand corner while having the object node selected in the
Model manager window. Use the options best suited for you to help streamline your workflow.
b. Choose blocks and plates according to your needs. Blocks and conducting thick plates allow six-sided
control for meshing and thermal specifications. Conducting thin plates, however, have no physical
thickness and therefore allow for only two-sided control.
c. Remove object names by clicking the Display object names button (
the graphics window.

) to reduce visual clutter in

d. Use the Reset button in the Basic settings panel to have ANSYS Icepak estimate dimensionless
numbers (for example, the Reynolds and Peclet numbers for forced convection) and determine the
appropriate flow regime.
e. Hold your mouse pointer over any selection in the Problem setup wizard to have a text bubble
appear for additional information on the selection.
f.

Use the Transparency slider in the post-processing object edit panels to improve visualization of
post-processing objects.

g. Use the post summary report to view an object-specific summary of the solution results.

46

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Additional Exercise

2.12. Step 9: Additional Exercise


To determine the effectiveness of the heat sink under conditions involving the failure of the middle
fan, you can either deactivate fan.1.1 or edit it fan.1.1 to fail. To make it fail, edit it by double-clicking
on fan.1.1 in the model manager window, go to the Properties tab and select Failed under the Options
tab, assign a free area ratio of 0.3, and click Done. Mesh the model and solve it again using a different
solution ID. Compare the new results with the previous setup.

Note
When you are finished examining the results, you can end the ANSYS Icepak session by
clicking Quit in the File menu.
File Quit

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

47

48

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 3: RF Amplifier
3.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to model an RF amplifier using ANSYS Icepak as well many features and
functions essential to any ANSYS Icepak project. For the sake of brevity, many of the later tutorials do
not cover basic steps or explain the steps in detail as those tutorials assume you have completed this
and/or the last tutorial (Finned Heat Sink) beforehand.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Create a new project.
Create a model using openings, fans, sources, enclosures, PCBs, heat sinks, and walls.
Use non-conformal meshing.
Set up a simulation with various physical conditions and parameters, including turbulence and natural
convection.
Calculate a solution.
Post-process your results by using power and temperature limits, object faces, plane cuts, isosurfaces and
variation plots.

3.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with ANSYS Icepak but that you are generally familiar with the interface. If you are not, review the Sample Session in the Icepak Users Guide.

3.3. Problem Description


RF amplifiers are typically sealed enclosures that are placed within larger systems. They present a challenge from the thermal management perspective because no direct exchange of air exists between the
interior of the amplifier and the ambient. The common method of cooling such subsystems is to mount
a large heat sink on the amplifier housing that cools all the devices within the enclosure. A simplified
version of an RF amplifier (Figure 3.1: Schematic of the RF Amplifier (p. 50)) will serve as the model for
this tutorial. There will be free convection inside the amplifier and forced convection in the external
domain.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

49

RF Amplifier
Figure 3.1: Schematic of the RF Amplifier

3.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak from the Users Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.

2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
The New project panel appears.

50

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model

3. Specify the name rf_amp for your project and click Create.
ANSYS Icepak creates a default cabinet with the dimensions 1 m 1 m 1 m, and displays the
cabinet in the graphics window.

Note
You can rotate the cabinet around a central point using the left mouse button, or you
can translate it to any point on the screen using the middle mouse button. You can zoom
into and out from the cabinet using the right mouse button. To restore the cabinet to
its default orientation, select the Home position in the Orient menu. Alternatively, you
can click the Home position icon (

) above the graphics window or press the H key.

3.5. Step 2: Build the Model


To build the model, you will first resize the cabinet to its proper size. Then you will create the amplifier
housing, devices (heat sources), PCB, heatsink, fan and other geometrical objects.
1. Resize the default cabinet and create an opening on one side of the cabinet.
Model

Cabinet

Select the cabinet in the Model manager window and specify the following in the object geometry
window:

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

51

RF Amplifier

Extra
After selecting the object to be edited in the Model manager window, there are several
ways you can open the Edit panel:
Double-click the object in the Model manager window, or
Type Ctrl+e, or
Right-click the object in the Model manager window and scroll to Edit object, or
Click the Edit button in the object geometry window, or
Click the Edit object icon (

) in the model toolbar

Figure 3.2: The Cabinet Geometry Tab Panel

One side of this cabinet has an opening. To assign Properties on this boundary, in the Properties
tab of the Cabinet object panel (Figure 3.3: The Cabinet Boundary Panel (p. 53)):
a. Change the Max y Wall type to be an Opening.
b. Click Done to accept the inputs and close the panel.

52

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 3.3: The Cabinet Boundary Panel

2. Create the Y and Z faces of the amplifier housing as an enclosure using the enclosure object.
Click the Create enclosures icon (
dimensions:

) in the model toolbar, then specify the following Name and

In the Properties tab specify the followings:


a. Change the Boundary type to Open for Min X and Max X. For others, retain the boundary type as
Thin.
b. Specify the Solid material as Polystyrene-rigid-R12.

Tip
You have to scroll down the list to find this material.

c. Click Done.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

53

RF Amplifier
Figure 3.4: The Enclosure Panel

3. Create a wall on the Xmin face of the amplifier housing.


The wall covers the Xmin side of the enclosure.
4. Click the Create walls icon (

) in the model toolbar to create a new wall.

In the object edit window, name the wall Xmin and change the plane to Y-Z.

Note
Although you are using the align tools to place the wall at the desired locations, you
could also specify the dimensions/locations of the wall in the Geometry tab and achieve
the same result. However, the align tools are faster and thus the recommended method.
To start the process, click the Morph edges icon (
by-step procedure described below:

) in the model toolbar. Now, follow the step-

a. Select the Zmax edge of the wall, indicated by the red edge in the figure (Figure 3.5: Schematic
Showing Edge Identities for Alignment (p. 55)) by left mouse clicking it in the graphical window.
Notice that it turns red to indicate that it has been selected.
b. Click the middle mouse button to accept this edge.
c. Select the lower Zmax edge of the enclosure, indicated by the yellow edge in the figure (Figure 3.5: Schematic Showing Edge Identities for Alignment (p. 55)) with the left mouse button. Notice
that it turns yellow to indicate its selection.

54

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 3.5: Schematic Showing Edge Identities for Alignment

d. Click the middle mouse button to accept the transformation. The wall Xmin should have now been
moved and resized. Now the wall should extend to the entire Xmin side of the enclosure.
To specify the remaining wall dimension, stay in the Morph edges mode and complete the following
steps:
a. Click the Zmin edge of the wall with the left mouse button. Be sure that the Zmin edge of the wall
(and not the enclosure edge) is highlighted in red. By repeatedly clicking the left mouse button,
ANSYS Icepak cycles through all possible edges.
b. Click the middle mouse button to accept.
c. Using the left mouse button, click the lower Zmin edge of the enclosure.
d. Click the middle mouse button to accept. The wall now forms the Xmin face of the enclosure.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

55

RF Amplifier
e. Click the right mouse button to exit the Morph edges mode.
The resulting model is shown in Figure 3.6: Geometry with Wall (p. 56) with shading to highlight
new definitions. Shading is available under the Info tab in most panels.
Figure 3.6: Geometry with Wall

Double-click the newly created wall object (Xmin) in the Model manager window to open the Walls
panel. Specify the following properties to the wall in the Properties tab.
a. Specify a Wall thickness of 1 mm (0.001 m).
b. Specify the Solid material as Polystyrene-rigid-R12 under Plastics.
c. Specify the External conditions as Heat transfer coefficient and click the Edit button.
56

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


The Wall external thermal conditions panel opens.
i.

Select Heat transfer coeff in the Thermal conditions group box.

ii. Set the Heat transfer coeff to 5 W/K-m2.


iii. Click Done to close the Wall external thermal conditions panel.
iv. Click Done to close Walls panel (Figure 3.7: The Walls Panel (p. 57)).
Figure 3.7: The Walls Panel

5. Create the PCB.


The PCB will cover the Xmax side of the enclosure.
a. Click the Create printed circuit boards icon ( ) in the Model toolbar to create a PCB and doubleclick the PCB object in the Model manager window.
b. Specify the following in the geometry window:

c. Specify the Trace layer type as Detailed and specify the parameters under Trace layer parameters
(make sure that you enter both columns) in the Properties tab as shown in Figure 3.8: The Printed

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

57

RF Amplifier
circuit boards Panel (p. 58). Click the Add layer button 3 more times. There is a total of four internal
layers.

Note
Specify the layer thicknesses in microns.
Notice that the Effective conductivity in plane and normal directions are updated when you
click the Update button (Figure 3.8: The Printed circuit boards Panel (p. 58)).
Figure 3.8: The Printed circuit boards Panel

d. Click Done to close the Printed circuit boards panel.

58

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


6. Create the devices as 2D sources.
There are 12 devices on the bottom side of the PCB. Create these devices as 2D sources. The following
steps show you how to create one and then use the copy utility to create the remaining 11 sources.
a. Click the Create sources icon ( ) in the model toolbar to create a source and double-click the source
object in the Model manager window.
b. Specify the following source name, dimensions, and properties.

c. In the Properties tab, specify the Total power as 7 W (Figure 3.9: The Sources Panel (p. 59)) and
click Done.
Figure 3.9: The Sources Panel

d. Create two copies of the source and separate them by 0.055 m in the Z direction. Follow the steps
below for copying the source object.
i.

Right-click the source object and choose the Copy option. Alternatively, click the source object
in the Model manager window and press Ctrl+C to bring up the Copy panel.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

59

RF Amplifier
ii. Specify the Number of copies as 2.
iii. Select the Translate option.
iv. Specify a Z offset of 0.055 m.
v. Click Apply to copy the object.
Figure 3.10: The Copy source device Panel

e. Similarly, create the other source objects (devices) by copying the sources created in the previous
steps.
i.

Click and select device, then while holding down the Ctrl key, select device.1, and device.2.
Right-click and choose the Copy option, or press Ctrl+c.

ii. Specify the Number of copies as 3.


iii. Turn on the Translate option.
iv. Specify a Y offset of 0.064 m.
v. Click Apply to copy the object.

Note
Following these two copy actions, you should now have 12 sources (Figure 3.11: Geometry with Devices (p. 61)) in a four rows by three columns pattern.

60

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 3.11: Geometry with Devices

7. Create the heat sink.


You will create an extruded fin heat sink with the flow in the Y direction to remove heat from the
PCB.
a. Click the Create heat sinks icon ( ) in the Model toolbar to create a heat sink and double-click the
heat sink object in the Model manager window. Specify the following dimensions in the geometry
window.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

61

RF Amplifier

b. In the Heat sinks object panel, select the Geometry tab, and specify a Base height of 0.004 m and
an Overall height of 0.04 m.
c. Specify the properties of the heat sink as shown in Figure 3.12: The Heat sinks Panel (p. 62) below.
Note that you are not changing parameters in the Flow/thermal data, Pressure loss, or Interface
tabs.
Figure 3.12: The Heat sinks Panel

d. Click Done to close the Heat sinks panel.


8. Create the fan.
For this model, we will make use of ANSYS Icepaks fan library and search tool.
a. Select the Library tab in the model manager window (Figure 3.13: Search Fan library Panel (p. 63)).
b. Right-click Libraries in the Model manager window and choose Search fans.
The Search fan library dialog appears.
62

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


i.

In the Physical tab, deactivate the Min fan size and enter 80 mm for the Max fan size.

ii. Select the Thermal/flow tab, enable the Min flow rate option and specify a Min flow rate of 80
cfm.

Note
The minimum flow rate used in the search criteria implies the minimum free flow
of the fans.

iii. Click the Search button.

Note
ANSYS Icepak lists all the fans in its libraries that satisfy these conditions.

c. Select the fan called delta.FFB0812_24EHE in the Name column by clicking it.
d. Click Create to load the fan into the model.
Figure 3.13: Search Fan library Panel

e. Now, specify the location of the fan. Resize the fan geometry as shown in Figure 3.14: The Fans Panel (p. 64). Note the plane orientation is X-Z.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

63

RF Amplifier
Figure 3.14: The Fans Panel

The final geometry should look like Figure 3.15: The Final Geometry (p. 65).

64

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 3.15: The Final Geometry

f.

Display objects by type.


You can enable the display of all object types, the filtering of blocks by type (fluid, solid, network,
hollow), and the display of blocks with traces and/or CAD block. This feature is useful here to
view the otherwise unseen devices behind the heat sink. Generally, this also aids in model verification.
i.

Model Show objects by type

ii. The Show objects by type panel appears as shown in Figure 3.16: Show objects by type Panel (p. 66).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

65

RF Amplifier
Figure 3.16: Show objects by type Panel

iii. Click Display to show the devices. The model then appears as in Figure 3.17: Displaying Objects
of Type Source (p. 66).
Figure 3.17: Displaying Objects of Type Source

iv. Click Close to exit the Show objects by type panel.


g. Check the definition of the modeling objects to ensure that you specified them properly.
66

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Create Assemblies


View Summary (HTML)

Note
The HTML version of the summary displays in your web browser. The summary displays
a list of all the objects in the model and all the parameters that have been set for
each object. You can view the detailed version of the summary by clicking the appropriate object names or property specifications. If you notice any incorrect specifications,
you can return to the appropriate modeling object panel and change the settings in
the same way that you originally entered them.

3.6. Step 3: Create Assemblies


For both organizational purposes and to have a finer mesh in the fan and enclosure, you will create
two assemblies. The first assembly consists of the RF amplifier and heat sink; the second assembly
consists only of the fan.
1. To create the amplifier assembly:
a. Select the positive X view by either using the icon in the shortcut menu or simply press Shift+X and
then S to scale to fit the view in the graphics window.
b. While pressing Shift, drag a bounding box around the amplifier using the left mouse button. Do not
drag the bounding box around the fan. Release the mouse button and notice that all of the objects
forming the amplifier and heat sink have been selected in the Model manager window.
c. Right-click the highlighted enclosure ("Housing") in the Model manager window and select Create
and then Assembly from the list. You have now added all of the selected objects to the assembly.
d. In the Object geometry window, rename assembly.1 to amplifier and click Apply.
2. Create a new assembly for the fan object:
a. Click the Create assemblies icon (

) in the model toolbar to create a new assembly.

b. In the Model manager window, use the left mouse button to drag the fan, delta.FFB0812_24EHE,
into the new assembly to add the fan to this assembly.
c. In the Object geometry window, rename this assembly as fan and click Apply.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

67

RF Amplifier
Figure 3.18: Two Assemblies

68

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Generate a Mesh

3.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


Before generating a mesh, specify the slack values for the assemblies.

Note
Slack values represent a finite offset from an object to a non-conformal mesh boundary
and are required when meshing assemblies separately. Selecting small slack values can
decrease the total number of cells in the mesh with a negligible change in accuracy.
On the other hand slack values that are too large may cause excessive mesh bleeding.
It is good practice to set slack values such that two or three cells fit in the slack region.
Note that in this particular model the gap between the two assemblies is large enough
to accommodate nonzero slack values. Refer to Zero Slack with Non-Conformal Meshing
for more discussion on slack values.
1. Edit both assemblies (right-click the assembly name in the model toolbar and select Edit), then select
the Meshing tab.
2. Toggle Mesh separately and then specify the slack values indicated in the following table. Make sure
you remember to add slack values to both assemblies.
Table 3.1: Slack Values for the Amplifier and Fan
Name

Min X

Min Y

Min Z

Max X

Max Y

Max Z

Amplifier

0.02

0.01

0.05

0.01

Fan

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.05

0.01

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

69

RF Amplifier
Figure 3.19: Fan Assemblies Panel

3. To create the mesh, go to Model Generate Mesh. The Mesh control panel (Figure 3.20: The Mesh
control Panel (p. 71)) appears. You can also open the Mesh control panel by clicking the Generate
mesh icon (

70

) in the shortcut menu.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Generate a Mesh


Figure 3.20: The Mesh control Panel

4. First, generate a coarse mesh by choosing Coarse in the Mesh parameters drop-down list in the Global
tab, as shown in Figure 3.20: The Mesh control Panel (p. 71). Click Generate to create a mesh.

Note
If you have unchecked Allow minimum gap changes in the Misc tab, the Minimum
separation warning will appear. This warning message appears when the minimum gap
specified is more than 10% of the smallest sized object in the model. Select Change
value and mesh if the warning message pops up.

5. To view the mesh, display a plane cut view through the center of the cabinet, perpendicular to the fins
(y-z plane).
6. To create a plane cut, follow these steps:
a. Click the Display tab at the top of the Mesh control panel.
b. Toggle Display mesh and Cut plane.
c. Under Plane location, set position to X plane through center in the drop-down list.
d. Press Shift+X to orient to the positive X direction and view the newly created cut plane.
e. Move the plane using the slider bar to see different views.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

71

RF Amplifier
Make sure that the amplifier assembly is expanded and inspect the cells adjacent to the heat sink
fins. Notice that the resolution is coarse (Figure 3.21: Coarse and Fine Mesh (p. 72)), with only a
couple of cells between the fins. As the flow passes between the fins, the boundary layers will grow
and their degree of resolution will dictate the accuracy of the simulation. You want to have at least
three to four cells between the fins to adequately resolve the growth of the boundary layers. Refining
the mesh results in better resolution.
7. Select Normal in the Mesh parameters drop-down list in the Settings tab. Click Generate and inspect
the resulting mesh. Note that this has increased the number of cells between adjacent fins (Figure 3.21: Coarse and Fine Mesh (p. 72)), providing better resolution of the boundary layers.
You can display the mesh on selected objects or the cut plane by using the context menu in the
graphics window. To display the context menu, hold down the Shift key and press the right mouse
button anywhere in the graphics window. Select Display mesh or Display cut plane mesh in the
context menu and the mesh will be displayed on selected objects or the cut plane will be displayed.
It is also a good practice to select the Quality tab and review the Face Alignment, Quality, Volume,
and Skewness. The histograms show the quality metric (Face Alignment, Quality Ratio, Volume or
Skewness) versus the number of cells. Clicking the bars that form the histogram displays the cells
with that value in the graphics window.
Figure 3.21: Coarse and Fine Mesh

8. Once you have explored the mesh quality, click Close to dismiss the Mesh control dialog box.

3.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


Before starting the solver, you will first review estimates of the Reynolds and Peclet numbers to check
that the proper flow regime is being modeled.

72

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


1. Check the values of the Reynolds and Peclet numbers.
Solution settings

Basic settings

a. Click the Reset button (Figure 3.22: The Basic settings Panel (p. 73)).
Figure 3.22: The Basic settings Panel

b. Check the values printed to the Message window.


The Reynolds and Peclet numbers are approximately 55000.0 and 40000.0 respectively, so the
flow is turbulent. ANSYS Icepak recommends setting the flow regime to turbulent.

Note
These values are only estimates, based on the current model setup. Actual values may
vary, and may need to be verified, depending on your design.

c. Click Accept to save the solver settings.


2. Using the Problem setup wizard, enable turbulence modeling using the zero equation turbulence
model and neglecting radiation heat transfer.
a. In the Model manager window, right-click Problem setup ( ) and then select Problem setup wizard.
Figure 3.23: Problem setup wizard panel at step 1 of 14 (p. 74) shows what appears. The Problem
setup wizard provides a simple interface with user guidance for defining the physics of the model.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

73

RF Amplifier
Figure 3.23: Problem setup wizard panel at step 1 of 14

b. For step 1 of 14, indicated in the bottom-left corner of the Problem setup wizard panel, keep the
default settings for the check boxes. Click Next.
c. For step 2 of 14, select Flow is buoyancy driven (natural convection) as in Figure 3.24: Problem
setup wizard panel at step 2 of 14 (p. 75), since natural convection is not negligible inside the RF
amplifier. Click Next.

74

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 3.24: Problem setup wizard panel at step 2 of 14

Extra
Hold your mouse pointer over any selection in the Problem setup wizard to have a
text bubble appear for additional information on the selection, as shown in Figure 3.24: Problem setup wizard panel at step 2 of 14 (p. 75).

d. For step 3 of 14, keep the default setting of Use Boussinesq approximation for the natural convection
model.
e. For step 4 of 14, keep the Operating pressure at the default value of 101325.0 N/m2. Select Set
gravitational acceleration and leave the default values for all directions, as shown in Figure 3.25: Problem setup wizard at step 4 of 14 (p. 76). Click Next.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

75

RF Amplifier
Figure 3.25: Problem setup wizard at step 4 of 14

f.

For step 5 of 14, select Set flow regime to turbulent to enable turbulence modeling, shown in Figure 3.26: Problem setup wizard at step 5 of 14 (p. 76). Click Next.
Figure 3.26: Problem setup wizard at step 5 of 14

g. For step 6 of 14, select Zero equation (mixing length) to choose the zero equation turbulent model,
shown in Figure 3.27: Problem setup wizard at step 6 of 14 (p. 77). Click Next.

76

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 3.27: Problem setup wizard at step 6 of 14

h. For step 7 of 14, turn off radiation by selecting Ignore heat transfer due to radiation. Click Next.
i.

For step 9 of 14, keep the check box clear to ignore solar radiation. Click Next.

j.

For step 10 of 14, keep the default setting of Variables do not vary with time (steady-state) for
steady-state simulation. Click Next.

k. For step 14 of 14, keep the check boxes clear to ignore altitude effects. Finally, click Done to finish
the Problem setup wizard. These settings now fully define the problem setup.

Note
You can edit these settings and other aspects of the problem setup by double-clicking
( ) Basic parameters in the Model manager window. Figure 3.28: Basic parameters
panel (p. 78) shows the Basic parameters panel that appears.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

77

RF Amplifier
Figure 3.28: Basic parameters panel

3. Return to the Basic settings panel, specify the number of iterations as 300, click Reset and then Accept
again.
4. Set up the temperature limits for all the sources.
Model Power and temperature limits
a. Figure 3.29: Panel of Power and temperature limit setup (p. 79) shows the required settings for the
next few steps.

78

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 6: Save the Model


Figure 3.29: Panel of Power and temperature limit setup

b. Enter a new value of 60 C for Default temperature limit.


c. Click All to default.
d. Click Apply and then click Accept to close the panel.

Note
ANSYS Icepak uses the default temperature limit during post-processing to identify
components that exceed their limits or components that are close to this limit. ANSYS
Icepak does not use this value to solve the problem.

3.9. Step 6: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start the calculation, you
will be able to open the job you saved and continue your analysis in a future ANSYS Icepak session. (If
you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will simply overwrite your
job file when it saves the model.)

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

79

RF Amplifier
File Save project

Note
You can click the save button (

) in the File commands toolbar.

3.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution


1. Create monitors.

Note
It is good practice to monitor the solution progress for certain objects. Dragging the
object in the Model manager window and placing it in the Points folder can accomplish
this.
a. Drag device.2 and cabinet_default_side_maxY into the Points folder.
b. Right-click the cabinet_default_side_maxY in the Points folder.
c. Select Edit and deselect Temperature and select Velocity (Figure 3.30: The Modify point Panel (p. 80)).
d. Click Done to accept the modifications and to dismiss the per-objects Modify point panel.
Figure 3.30: The Modify point Panel

2. Start the calculation.


Solve Run solution

80

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Calculate a Solution


a. Since this particular example has neither radiation nor blocks with joule heating, ensure that you
select Disable radiation and deselect Disable varying joule heating.

Note
Disable radiation instructs ANSYS Icepak not to calculate radiation parameters for
the model. For cases in which your model has blocks with joule heating, only then
should you select Disable varying joule heating. Otherwise, leave the option
deselected. Refer to Using the Solve Panel to Set the Solver Controls in the ANSYS
Icepak Users Guide for more information on the settings in the Solve panel.

b. Select Write overview of results when finished in the Results tab.


c. Click the Start solution button to start the solver. While iterating the solution, windows will appear
showing convergence history, Figure 3.31: Convergence Plot (p. 82) and Figure 3.32: Monitor Plot Temperature (p. 83).

Note
Alternatively, you can click the Run solution icon (
to display the Run solution panel.

) in the model and solve toolbar

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

81

RF Amplifier
Figure 3.31: Convergence Plot

82

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Calculate a Solution


Figure 3.32: Monitor Plot - Temperature

Figure 3.33: Monitor Plot - Velocity

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

83

RF Amplifier

3.11. Step 8: Examine the Results


Once the model has converged (Figure 3.31: Convergence Plot (p. 82) and Figure 3.32: Monitor Plot Temperature (p. 83)), ANSYS Icepak automatically generates a solution overview report. This report
contains detailed information, such as object-based mass and volumetric flow rates, fan operating
points, heat flows for objects with specified power, heat flows for objects that communicate with the
ambient, maximum temperatures, and overall balances.
Carefully review the solution overview and note that the solution satisfies conservation of mass and
energy (scroll to the bottom of the report). Also note the fan operating point. The solution overview is
automatically saved and can be reopened from Report Solution overview Create.
1. Compare the object temperature values for all sources with the temperature limits assigned.
Post Power and temperature values
The Power and temperature limit setup panel appears.
a. Click Show too hot.
The Power and Temperature limit setup show the default temperature limit and the resulting
maximum temperature value for each source next to them.
If an assembly is expanded in the Model manager window and if the resulting temperature of
any object exceeds the temperature limit specified, ANSYS Icepak shows all the critical objects
in red color.
b. Click Accept to close the dialog box.
2. Create object faces.

Note
Ensure that the amplifier and fan assemblies are expanded, so that the fins are visible.
a. Press Shift+Z to orient the view in the positive Z direction.
b. To create an object face, click the Object face icon (

) in the shortcut toolbar.

c. In the Object drop down list, specify heatsink.1 as the object and click Accept.
d. Select Show contours and click the Parameters button (adjacent to show contours) to access the
Object face contours edit dialog box.
i.

Select This object in the drop-box adjacent to Calculated to use the object-based range.

ii. Click Done to close the Object face contours panel.

84

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Examine the Results


e. Click Done to close the Object face panel.

Note
You can also create contours on heatsink.1 by selecting this object in the Model
manager window and right-clicking to display the context menu. Select Create>Object
face(s)>Separate and the Object face panel will appear. The Object face panel is
displayed for that particular object.

Figure 3.34: Object face Panel

Note
Using the mouse, rotate the heat sink to examine the surface temperature distribution.
Notice that the location of the devices is clearly discernible on the bottom of the heat
sink. Also note that the devices get progressively hotter in the flow direction (Figure 3.35: Temperature Contours on the Heat Sink Object Face (p. 86)).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

85

RF Amplifier
Figure 3.35: Temperature Contours on the Heat Sink Object Face

Note
Notice that face.1 has now appeared in the Model manager window in the Postprocessing folder. Right-click face.1 and note that you can make it active, edit it, or
delete it. You can move face.1 into the Inactive folder by dragging and dropping
face.1 within the Model manager window. You can make face.1 active again or
delete it by dragging it to Trash or to the Post-processing folder, as well as with the
right-click dialog.

3. Create plane cuts.


a. To create a plane cut, click the Plane cut icon (

86

) in the shortcut toolbar.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Examine the Results


b. Select the Set position as Point and normal and select Show vectors, as shown in the panel below.
Enter PX, PY, and PZ, as well as NX, NY, and NZ according to Figure 3.36: Plane cut Panel (p. 87).
You may also specify the points coordinates as 0.680 by using the slider at the bottom of the Plane
location box in the same panel.
Figure 3.36: Plane cut Panel

c. Click the Parameters button adjacent to Show vectors.


d. Select Uniform in Display options group box and specify value as 5000. The Uniform option for
the velocity will uniformly place the vectors among the 5000 data points.
e. Select This object in the drop-box adjacent to Calculated and click Done to close the panel.
The vector plots are shown in the graphics window (Figure 3.37: Plane Cut of Velocity Vector
Field (p. 88)).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

87

RF Amplifier
Figure 3.37: Plane Cut of Velocity Vector Field

Note
Examining the vector plot, we can see that the flow pattern is symmetric, with two large
recirculating zones adjacent to the fan. Zoom into the region directly in front of the fan
and notice that two smaller recirculating zones exist in front of the hub. These local effects
can be important when objects are close to the hub region.

Note
You can move a plane cut through a model by pressing the Shift key, holding down the
middle mouse button on an edge of the plane cut and dragging the plane cut through
the model in the graphics window.

88

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Examine the Results


4. Create isosurfaces.
a. Click the Isosurface icon (

) in the shortcut toolbar.

b. Specify Temperature as the Variable, input a Value of 55C, and select Show contours and click
Parameters. In the Isosurface contours panel, select Smooth for Shading options and This object
in the drop-box adjacent to Calculated. Click Done.
c. Click Update in the Isosurface panel and notice that an isosurface has been placed around all of the
sources, indicating that they have temperatures equal to 55C (Figure 3.38: Temperature Isosurface
Contour of 55C for Sources (p. 89)).
Figure 3.38: Temperature Isosurface Contour of 55C for Sources

d. Now, change the Variable to Speed and input a Value of 4. Click Update. Notice that the regions
with velocities in excess of 4 m/s are now displayed (Figure 3.39: Temperature Contours on Isosurface
of Speed 4 m/s (p. 90)).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

89

RF Amplifier
Figure 3.39: Temperature Contours on Isosurface of Speed 4 m/s

5. Utilize the Transparency slider to help visualize multiple post-processing objects simultaneously.
a. With the previously created isosurface still active, select the plane cut (cut.1) in the Model manager
window and select Active to make it visible again.
b. Edit iso.1. Select the Transparency check box, shown in Figure 3.40: Isosurface Panel with Transparency Enabled (p. 91). Set the value to 0.63.

90

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Examine the Results


Figure 3.40: Isosurface Panel with Transparency Enabled

c. Click Done to show the isosurface and plane cut simultaneously (Figure 3.41: Concurrent Visualization
of Semi-Transparent Isosurface and Opaque Plane cut (p. 92)). Notice the semi-transparency of the
isosurface allows the concurrent visualization of the opaque velocity flow field near the fan.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

91

RF Amplifier
Figure 3.41: Concurrent Visualization of Semi-Transparent Isosurface and Opaque Plane
cut

Note
You can access the Transparency slider in the following post-processing objects:
Object face, Plane cut, and Isosurface.

6. Create a summary report of object-specific solution data. Summary reports can provide physical information from the solution about specific Model objects, Groups objects, Post-processing objects and
Points objects. Follow the steps below to create a summary report:
a. First, make the post-processing object face.1 active again by accessing the context menu under the
Inactive node in the Model manager window.
b. Report Summary report

92

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Examine the Results

c. Click New in the Define summary report panel three times to create 3 rows of Objects.
d. In the first row, select object heatsink.1, then click Accept. In the Value drop-down menu, select
Heat flow.

Note
Although you did not change the default settings of the check boxes Comb and
Mesh, you may encounter projects in which you need to change these. Comb refers
to combined: The report generates a single, combined value for all the sides selected;
deselecting the option would report the side values separately. Mesh allows you to
report on the reduced mesh of the selected object in the case that an object intersects
with other objects and the mesh in the intersecting region might not necessarily belong to the object of interest.

e. In the second row, select the fan, object delta.FFB0812_24EHE, then click Accept. In the Value
drop-down menu, select Volume flow.
f.

In the third row, select post face.1, then click Accept. In the Value drop-down menu, select Temperature.

g. Click Write to generate a panel for the object summary report (Figure 3.42: Report summary data
Panel (p. 94)). Examine the values reported and confirm they are consistent with the physics of the
model. Click Done to exit out of this panel, then Close to exit the Define summary report panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

93

RF Amplifier
Figure 3.42: Report summary data Panel

7. Create variation plots.


a. Click the Variation plot icon (

) in the shortcut toolbar.

Note
Before creating the variation plots, ensure that the amplifier assembly is expanded,
so that the fins are visible. Next, press Shift+Z to orient the view in the positive Z
direction.

b. Within the variation plot dialog box, complete the following:


i.

Specify the Variable as UY.

ii. Click the From screen button.


iii. Click the center of the heat sink fins.
iv. Click Create.
c. An X-Y plot of UY velocity versus Z coordinate is now visible (Figure 3.43: Variation Plot of UY Velocity
Versus Z Coordinate (p. 95)). Toggle the Symbols button and notice that the velocity profile across
the solution domain is represented with a solid line at the post-processing locations. Notice that
ANSYS Icepak creates a locally colored line according to the UY velocity magnitude, seen in the
graphics window.

94

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Summary
Figure 3.43: Variation Plot of UY Velocity Versus Z Coordinate

d. Save the X-Y plot.


i.

Click the Save button at the bottom of the Variation of UY plot window.

ii. Enter a file name in the resulting Save curve dialog box.
iii. Click Save to save the file in the model folder.

3.12. Step 9: Summary


In this tutorial, you have learned about the basic usage of enclosure, PCB, source and heat sink objects
to create an RF amplifier. You have also learned how to use ANSYS Icepaks fan library and search tool.
Furthermore, this tutorial has introduced you to evaluating mesh quality as well as non-conformal
meshing to reduce cell count and computational cost.
You have now learned the basic workflow of an ANSYS Icepak project, including model building, mesh
generation, problem setup, solution calculation, and post-processing as well essential features and
functions that you will likely use in later tutorials or your own projects.
We repeat some of the tips and best practices found in this tutorial for your convenience:
1. Best Practices
a. Check the default materials, properties, and operating conditions under the Defaults tab in the
Basic parameters panel. These defaults often render some specifications unnecessary.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

95

RF Amplifier
b. Use the alignment and morph tools to position objects based on other existing objects. This can be
faster than specifying object dimensions and coordinates in many situations.
c. Use the Show objects by type feature to verify your model objects by type.
d. View the HTML summary report (View Summary (HTML)) to ensure proper specification of
geometries, properties, and materials for each object.
e. Reduce mesh counts and consequently decrease run times in regions requiring less resolution by
creating separately meshed assemblies when appropriate. Also select suitable slack values that improve
the convergence rate while avoiding mesh bleeding.
f.

Select the Allow minimum gap changes option in the Misc tab of the Mesh control panel to allow
ANSYS Icepak to avoid unnecessary meshing due to inadvertent misalignments in the model. This is
suitable for this tutorial but may not be in other projects.

g. Ensure that you have at least three to four cells between fins to resolve adequately the boundary
layers between them by visually inspecting the mesh. Refine the mesh as necessary by using Normal
meshing.
h. Evaluate your mesh quality under the Quality tab in the Mesh control panel.
i.

Use the Problem setup wizard for guided problem setup. Edit the problem setup if needed using
the

j.

Basic parameters panel.

Judge convergence by monitoring residual levels as well as relevant integrated quantities for certain
objects with point monitors, which should eventually stop changing significantly with more iterations.

2. Tips and Tricks


a. Explore the several methods to complete a task as you work through a problem in ANSYS Icepak.
For example, you can edit model object geometries by using their object edit panel, or you can use
the Edit window in the bottom right-hand corner while having the object node selected in the
Model manager window. Use the options best suited for you to help streamline your workflow.
b. Cycle through all possible edges in the Morph edges mode by repeatedly clicking the left mouse
button. This is useful in case you have difficulty selecting an edge.
c. Remove object names by clicking the Display object names button (
the graphics window.

) to reduce visual clutter in

d. Highlight critical regions using the Power and temperature limits feature (Model Power and
temperature limits) to designate maximum power and temperature, which can then be highlighted
in the graphics window after the solution calculation (Post Power and temperature values).
Note that setting these limits does not affect how ANSYS Icepak calculates the solution.
e. Use the Reset button in the Basic settings panel to have ANSYS Icepak estimate dimensionless
numbers (for example, the Reynolds and Peclet numbers for forced convection) and determine the
appropriate flow regime.
f.

96

Hold your mouse pointer over any selection in the Problem setup wizard to have a text bubble
appear for additional information on the selection.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Summary
g. Use the Transparency slider in the post-processing object edit panels to improve visualization of
post-processing objects.
h. Move a plane cut through a model by pressing the Shift key, holding down the middle mouse button
on an edge of the plane cut and dragging the plane cut through the model in the graphics window.
i.

Expand all of your assemblies quickly by right-clicking


selecting Expand all.

Model in the Model manager window then

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

97

98

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 4: Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


4.1. Introduction
The purpose of this tutorial is to demonstrate ANSYS Icepak parametric and optimization features with
the help of a small system level model.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Use network blocks as one way of modeling packages.
Specify a contact resistance using side specifications of a block object.
Define a variable as a parameter and solve the parametric trials to optimize your model for maximum
performance.
Specify fan curves and dynamically update them.
Use local coordinate systems.
Generate a summary report for multiple parametric solutions.
The tutorial will guide you through the usual workflow with additional steps specific to this exercise:
creating a project, building the model, creating separately meshed assemblies, generating a mesh, setting
up parametric trials, creating point monitors, problem setup, calculating solutions, post-processing, as
well as an additional exercise to model the effects of higher altitude on the system.

4.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with ANSYS Icepak, but that you are generally familiar with the interface. If you are not, review Sample Session in the Icepak Users Guide and the tutorial
Finned Heat Sink of this guide as some of the steps that were discussed in these tutorials will not be
repeated here.

4.3. Problem Description


The system level model consists of a series of IC chips on a PCB. A fan is used for forced convection
cooling of the power dissipating devices. A bonded fin extruded heat sink with eight 0.008 m thick fins
is attached to the IC chips. The fan flow rate is defined by a nonlinear fan curve. The system also consists
of a perforated thin grille. A study is carried out for the optimum location of the fan by using the
parameterization feature in ANSYS Icepak.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

99

Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Figure 4.1: Schematic of the Geometry

4.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak Users Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.
2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
3. Specify a name for your project (for example, fan_locations) and click Create.
ANSYS Icepak creates a default cabinet with the dimensions 1 m 1 m 1 m, and displays the
cabinet in the graphics window. You will modify this cabinet in the next section.

4.5. Step 2: Build the Model


1. Resize the default cabinet.
The cabinet forms the boundary of your computational model. Press the isometric view icon ( )
for a 3D view. Select Cabinet in the Model manager window and enter the location values as shown
in the geometry window below. The geometry window can be found in the lower right hand corner
of the GUI.

100

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


2. Create the Fan.
Click the Create fans icon ( ) in the object toolbar next to the Model manager window to create
a 2D intake circular fan on one side of the cabinet. Change the plane to yz and enter the location
values shown in the geometry window below:

Defining a parameter for multiple trials.


One of the objectives of this exercise is to parameterize the location of the fan. To create a parametric variable in ANSYS Icepak, input a $ sign followed by the variable name. Thus, to create
the parametric variable zc, type $zc in the zC box in addition to the other location values, and
click Apply. When ANSYS Icepak asks you for an initial value of zc", enter an initial value of 0.1,
and click Done.
Figure 4.2: The Param value Panel

We will now set the physical properties that will define the fan behavior:
a. Edit the fan object and go to Properties tab.
b. In the Properties tab, retain the selection of Intake for Fan type and select Non-linear in the Fan
flow tab.
c. Enter the characteristic curve by clicking on the Edit button and selecting Text Editor in the dropdown list in the Non-linear curve group box.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

101

Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Figure 4.3: The Fans Panel (Properties Tab)

d. First change the units of the volume flow rate and pressure according to the units in Table 4.1: Values
for the Curve Specification Panel (p. 102) and enter the values in pairs with a space between them in
the Curve specification panel.
Table 4.1: Values for the Curve Specification Panel
Volume Flow (CFM)

Pressure (in_water)

0.42

20

0.28

40

0.2

60

0.14

80

0.04

90

0.0

Note
Pay attention to the two zero values in Table 4.1: Values for the Curve Specification
Panel (p. 102). In general, you should start a fan curve specification with a zero flow
rate and end the specification with a zero pressure.

e. Click Accept to close the form.


102

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


f.

Select the Edit button again in the Non-linear curve group box and click Graph Editor in the dropdown list to view the fan curve (Figure 4.4: The Fan Curve Panel (p. 103) ).
Figure 4.4: The Fan Curve Panel

g. Click Done to close the Fan curve panel.


h. In the Properties tab, set the fan to an RPM (revolutions per minute) of 4000 in the Swirl tab, located
next to the Fan flow tab.
i.

In the Properties tab, set the Operating RPM of 2000 in the Options tab, located next to the Swirl
tab.

Note
The RPM under the Swirl tab specifies the nominal RPM of the fan from the existing
fan curve. The Operating RPM in the Options tab is a working RPM value used in
conjunction with the nominal RPM to dynamically scale and update the fan curve
according to the fan laws. The nominal RPM can also be used to compute the swirl

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

103

Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


factor. Refer to Chapter 21: Fans in the Users Guide for more information regarding
fan objects.

j.

Click Update and Done to close the fan window.

Now the model looks as shown in Figure 4.5: Model with Fan (p. 104).
Figure 4.5: Model with Fan

Extra
The shading of the fan object can be changed by changing the Shading option under
the Info tab to change the shading of just that object, or by leaving it as default and
changing the default shading option by going to View Default shading to change
the shading of all objects that have default shading selected.

3. Set up a grille.
a. Click the Create grille icon ( ) for creating a new grille, set its plane to Y-Z. Then, using the Morph
faces ( ) option move the grille to the max-X face of the cabinet. After clicking the icon ( ), the
graphics display window presents step by step instructions on how to use the Morph faces option.
Alternatively, you can use the coordinates shown in the geometry window below:

104

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


b. Now define properties for the grill by clicking the Properties tab.

Note
This is a 50% open perforated thin grille.
i.

For the Velocity loss coefficient, keep the default selection of Automatic.

ii. Specify a Free area ratio of 0.5.

Note
The free area ratio is the ratio of the area through which the fluid can flow unobstructed to the total planar area of the obstruction. ANSYS Icepak calculates the
loss coefficient of the grille based on the free area ratio. Different resistance types
govern the method of calculation. See Pressure Drop Calculations for Grilles in the
Users Guide for more information on the free area ratio and the various pressure
drop calculation methods.

iii. Retain Perforated thin vent for the Resistance type. Refer to Figure 4.6: Grille Panel (Properties
Tab) (p. 106) for the correct settings.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

105

Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Figure 4.6: Grille Panel (Properties Tab)

iv. Click Update and then Done to close the panel.


For more details on loss coefficient data, refer to Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance, by I. E. Idelchick.
The model looks as shown in Figure 4.7: Model with Fan and Grille (p. 107).

106

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 4.7: Model with Fan and Grille

4. Set up a wall.

Note
The model includes a 0.01 m thick PCB that touches and covers the entire min-Y floor
of the cabinet. The PCB is exposed to the outside with a known heat flux of 20 W/m2. In
order to consider the heat flux, we will use a wall object to simulate the PCB.
a. Click the Create walls icon ( ) to create a new wall. We will define the geometry and physical
parameters for the wall object:
i.

Make the plane X-Z.

ii. Use the Morph faces icon (


min-Y floor of the cabinet.

) from the model toolbar to align the wall object with the entire

Note
If you have difficulty selecting faces, try clicking near the edge of a face. Clicking
correctly should highlight the entire face in red.

iii. Edit the Wall object and go to Properties tab.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

107

Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


iv. In the Material group box, set the Wall thickness to 0.01 m and the Solid material to FR-4.
v. In the Thermal specification group box, specify a Heat flux of 20 W/m2. See Figure 4.8: Walls
Panel (Properties Tab) (p. 108) for the correct settings.
Figure 4.8: Walls Panel (Properties Tab)

vi. Click Update and then Done to close the panel.


After creating the wall, the model looks as shown in Figure 4.9: Model with Wall Added (p. 109).

108

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 4.9: Model with Wall Added

5. Create blocks.
In this step, you will create several types of blocks to represent different physics.
Creation of Solid Blocks
Now, create four blocks that dissipate 5 W each and have a contact resistance of 0.005 C/W on
their bottom faces.
a. Create a new block ( ) , and retain the Type as solid and Geom as Prism. Enter the location
values shown in the panel below:

b. Edit the block and specify the following in the Properties tab:
i.

In the Surface specification group box, click the Individual sides check box and click Edit
(Figure 4.10: The Individual side specification (p. 110)).
A. Select Min Y and toggle Thermal properties and Resistance.
B. Under Thermal condition, retain the selection of Fixed heat and Total power of 0 W.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

109

Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


C. Select Thermal resistance from the drop-down menu next to Resistance.
D. Set Thermal resistance to 0.005 C/W and click Accept.
E. Click Accept to close the panel.
Figure 4.10: The Individual side specification

ii. In the Thermal specification group box in the Properties tab, retain the selection of default
for Solid Material (you can also select Al-Extruded which is the default).
iii. Set Total Power to 5 W.
iv. Click Update and Done to close the panel.
c. Next, make three copies of this block with an X offset of 0.08 m.

Extra
The previous tutorial showed you how to make a copy of an object.

110

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 4.11: Creation of Solid Blocks

Creation of Network blocks


Create four IC chips in the form of network blocks. To create a network block, create a Block object
and change the block type to Network in the Properties tab. Each network block has junctionto-board, junction-to-case, and junction-to-sides thermal resistances. The values of these resistances
are known beforehand.
a. Add a new block, and position it as shown in the panel below:

b. Edit the block to change the properties of this block;


Ensure that the Block type is set to Network.
Toggle Star Network.
Enter the Network parameters as shown in Figure 4.12: The Properties Panel (p. 112).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

111

Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Figure 4.12: The Properties Panel

c. Now make three copies of this network block with an X offset of 0.08 m. This finishes the creation
of the network blocks.
Creation of a Hollow Block

Note
Finally, to cut out a section of the cabinet from the computational domain, create a
hollow block. This represents a region that does not directly affect heat transfer via
solid conduction but that does, however, alter the flow patterns surrounding this region.
a. Create a new Block. Set the Block type as Hollow.
b. In the Geometry tab, go to the Local coord system drop-down menu..
c. Select Create new to open the Local coords panel.
d. Enter X offset = 0.1, Y offset = 0, Z offset = 0.
e. Click Accept. This is just to demonstrate the use of local coordinate system.
f.

112

Further, size the block as follows:

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model

6. Now we will create the detailed heat sink. The heat sink base acts as a heat spreader for all the chips.
a. Click the Create heat sinks icon ( ) and edit it. In the Properties tab, select Detailed in the Type
drop-down menu. Entering its location and properties as shown in the following table:
Table 4.2: Heatsink Properties
Geometry
Plane:

X-Z

xS / xE:

0.05/0.34

yS / yE:

0.03/

zS / zE:

0.1/0.23

Base height:

0.01 m

Overall height:

0.06 m

Properties
Type:

Detailed

Flow Direction:

Detailed Fin type:

Bonded fin

Fin setup
Fin spec:

Count/thickness

Count:

Thickness:

0.008 m

Flow/thermal data
Fin material:

default

Base material:

Cu-Pure

Interface
Fin bonding:

Click the Edit button

Effective thickness:

0.0002 m

Solid material:

default

b. Click Update and Done. This completes the model building process. The complete model should
look like that shown in Figure 4.13: Final Model (p. 114).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

113

Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Figure 4.13: Final Model

7. Check the definition of the modeling objects to ensure that you have specified them properly.
View Summary (HTML)
The summary report now appears in a web browser. The summary displays a list of all the objects
in the model and all the parameters that have been set for each object. You can view the detailed
version of the summary by clicking the appropriate object names or property specifications. If you
notice any incorrect specifications, you can return to the appropriate modeling object panel and
change the settings in the same way that you originally entered them.

Note
The summary report also shows the user-specified material properties for each of
the objects to help identify the proper material specifications. Figure 4.14: Partial
Table of Summary Report for Blocks (p. 115) shows the summary report for block.1,
which includes its material specifications.

114

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Creating Separately Meshed Assemblies


Figure 4.14: Partial Table of Summary Report for Blocks

4.6. Step 3: Creating Separately Meshed Assemblies


One of the key aspects of modeling is to use a mesh with good quality and sufficient resolution for the
model. We need to have a fine mesh in the areas where temperature gradients are high or flow is
turning. Having a too coarse of a mesh will not give you accurate results and at the same time, too fine
a mesh may lead to longer run times. The best option is to explore the model carefully and look for
opportunities to reduce mesh counts in the areas where the gradients are not steep. Creating nonconformal assemblies gives required accuracy along with reduced mesh count. Select set of objects to
create assemblies. Also decide suitable slack values for assembly bounding box. Your selection can be
reviewed in the section below where we will create non-conformal meshed assemblies.
We will now create two non-conformal meshed assemblies.
1. To create the first assembly, first highlight all the blocks (except the hollow block) and the heat sink
object in the Model manager window, then right-click them and choose Create and then Assembly.
2. Right-click and select Rename from the menu. Rename the assembly, as Heatsink-packages-asy.
3. To build the bounding box" for the assembly called Heatsink-packages-asy, double-click it to edit the
assembly.
4. In the Meshing tab of the Assemblies panel, toggle Mesh separately, and then set the Slack parameters
as the following:
Table 4.3: Slack Values for Heatsink-packages-asy Assembly
Min X

0.005 m

Max X

0.015 m

Min Y

0.005 m

Max Y

0.005 m

Min Z

0.005 m

Max Z

0.005 m

Note
Note that for the Heatsink-packages-asy, we have set a bounding box that is 0.005 m bigger
than the assembly at five sides except Max X where the slack is defined higher (0.015 m)
to capture the wake region of the flow.

5. Click Update and Done to complete the bounding box specifications for the assembly.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

115

Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Following the same procedure above, create one more assembly for the fan object (name it Fanasy). Use the following table to assign the Slack values for the Fan-asy assembly.
Table 4.4: Slack Values for Fan-asy Assembly
Min X

0m

Max X

0.005 m

Min Y

0.002 m

Max Y

0.002 m

Min Z

0.002 m

Max Z

0.002 m

4.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


To generate the mesh:
1. Open the Mesh control panel, keep the default values for the mesh settings and ensure that Mesh assemblies separately is selected.
2. Click Generate. You may get a warning about minimum separation if the Allow minimum gap changes
option is deselected in the Misc tab.

Extra
This warning appears because the Minimum gap (separation), which is like a tolerance
setting for the mesher, is larger than 10% of the smallest feature in the model. When
there are objects smaller than the mesher tolerance, those objects will not be meshed
correctly. To avoid this, you need to change the value to modify the minimum gap to
10% of the smallest object. The prompt window that appears allows you to do this with
the Change value and mesh option. This option is used for this particular tutorial and
may not be applicable all the time. As the mesh separation setting is a useful tool designed
to avoid unnecessary meshing due to inadvertent misalignments in the model (without
modifying the geometry), we may use other options suitable to the model.

3. Click Change value and mesh.


4. Examine the mesh by taking plane cuts in all directions under the Display tab.
5. Go to the Mesh control panel, click the Quality tab and examine Face alignment (Figure 4.15: Graph
of Face alignment (p. 117)). Due to differences among different machines, your numbers may not be exactly
the same as those of Figure 4.15: Graph of Face alignment (p. 117).

116

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Setting up the Multiple Trials


Figure 4.15: Graph of Face alignment

Note
Recall from previous examples that Figure 4.15: Graph of Face alignment (p. 117) is a graph
of cell number versus face alignment. For more information on face alignment as a
measure of mesh quality, see Checking the Face Alignment from the Icepak Users Guide.

6. Click Close when you are done.

4.8. Step 5: Setting up the Multiple Trials


Before we start solving the model, we will set up the parametric trials for the fan location parameter
zc".
1. Go to the Solve menu and select Define trials.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

117

Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


a. The Parameters and optimization panel pops up.
b. Toggle Parametric trials in the Setup tab.
c. Select the Design variables tab and next to Discrete values, type 0.165 following 0.1, separated
by a space as shown in the Figure 4.16: The Parameters and optimization Panel (Design variables
Tab) (p. 118):
Figure 4.16: The Parameters and optimization Panel (Design variables Tab)

118

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Setting up the Multiple Trials


d. Click Apply.

Note
After the first trial has been completed, ANSYS Icepak has the option of starting the following trial(s) from the default initial conditions specified in Problem setup panel, or
from the solution(s) of the trial run(s) that have completed.
For this model, next go to the Trials tab and ensure the Restart ID is blank for the 2nd trial as
shown in Figure 4.17: The Parameters and optimization Panel (Trials Tab) (p. 119). This instructs ANSYS
Icepak to start the 2nd run from the default initial conditions.
2. Click Reset button and select Values to use the base names for trial naming. Note that resetting automatically selects tr_zc_0_1 for the second trials Restart ID. Delete this entry to make it blank again.
Figure 4.17: The Parameters and optimization Panel (Trials Tab)

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

119

Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


3. Click Done to close the Parameters and optimization panel.

4.9. Step 6: Creating Monitor Points


Create two monitor points by dragging and dropping (block.1 and grille.1) into the Points folder to
monitor the velocity in the grille and the temperature in one of the solid blocks. You can easily change
the variables monitored by selecting them in the Modify points panel. Select Velocity for the grille
and Temperature for the block.
Figure 4.18: The Modify point Panel

4.10. Step 7: Physical and Numerical Setting


First, use the Basic settings panel to determine the flow regime.
Solution settings

Basic settings

1. Enter 200 in the Number of iterations field in the Basic settings panel (Figure 4.19: The Basic settings
Panel (p. 121)).

120

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Physical and Numerical Setting


Figure 4.19: The Basic settings Panel

2. Click Reset. In the message window. ANSYS Icepak recommends setting the flow regime to turbulent
based on the approximate Reynolds and Peclet numbers.
3. Click Accept to accept the new settings.
Use the Problem setup wizard to set up the basic parameters of the problem.
1. Right-click

Problem setup in the Model manager window and select Problem setup wizard.

2. Follow the instructions as the Problem setup wizard panel guides you.

Important
Do the following in the wizard (keep the rest of the settings at default): Select forced
convection, set the flow regime to turbulent, use the zero equation turbulence model,
include radiation heat transfer, and use the surface-to-surface radiation model.

3. Click Done when the panel is at step 14 of 14 to finish your problem setup.

Note
You can edit the problem setup by expanding

Problem setup in the Model manager

window, then double-clicking Basic parameters (


Panel (p. 122) shows the panel that appears.

). Figure 4.20: The Basic parameters

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

121

Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Figure 4.20: The Basic parameters Panel

4.11. Step 8: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak saves the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the job you saved and continue your analysis in a future ANSYS
Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will simply
overwrite your job file when it saves the model.)
File Save project
Alternatively, click the save button (

) in the file commands toolbar.

4.12. Step 9: Calculate a Solution


Solve Run solution
In the Results tab of the Solve panel that appears, enable Write overview of results when finished,
then click Dismiss to close the Solve panel. The Solve panel is used for single trials only; therefore, the
solution can only be calculated from the Parameters and optimization panel.
Solve Run optimization
In the Parameters and optimization panel that appears (Figure 4.17: The Parameters and optimization
Panel (Trials Tab) (p. 119)), click Run to calculate a solution for both trials.
122

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 10: Examine the Results

4.13. Step 10: Examine the Results


Once the solutions converge, load the solution ID:
Post Load solution ID
Select the solution that corresponds to the first (parametric) run: zC = 0.1. If you want to view objects
inside the assemblies, you can open all the model nodes by right-clicking Model in the Model manager
window and selecting Expand all. Use the various post-processing features available in ANSYS Icepak
to display your solution. A description of how to generate plane cut and object face views can be found
in Step 7: Examine the Results of the Finned Heat Sink tutorial. In particular, use the following views:
1. Plane cut panel to display the velocity vectors on a plane through the cabinet
Figure 4.21: Trial 1 Vector Plots at Constant Z Plane Cut

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

123

Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Figure 4.22: Trial 2 Vector Plots at Constant Z Plane Cut

Important
To view the 2nd parametric run, click the Post menu and select Load solution ID.
Select the solution that corresponds to the second parametric run: zC = 0.165. The
graphics display window updates automatically.

2. Object face panel to display temperature contours on wall.1 and on all blocks

124

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 10: Examine the Results


Figure 4.23: Trial 1 Temperature Contours on Blocks and PCB (wall.1)

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

125

Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


Figure 4.24: Trial 2 Temperature Contours on Blocks and PCB (wall.1)

3. Surface probe panel to display the temperature values at a particular point


Examine the solution sets of both runs. You will find that, in the second run, the maximum temperature is lower than in the first run and that the network blocks are the hottest objects inside the
cabinet. The second trial has the fan located at zC= 0.165 which is closer to the heat sink location.
This increases the flow velocity over the heat sinks and thus increases the convective heat transfer
coefficient, which leads to more heat transfer from the fins (blocks) and thus reduces the maximum
temperature.

4.14. Step 11: Reports


1. Overview Report
At the end of the runs, ANSYS Icepak automatically displays an overview report because you selected
Write overview of results when finished in the Solve panel. This report has:
fan operating point
volume flow rate through the grille

126

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 12: Summary


heat flow from the chips
network junction temperatures
heat flows for the wall and the grille.
Examine these results. Go to the Report menu and then select Solution overview and click View
to display the desired overview report.
2. Summary Report
You can also create a single summary report containing the results of all the trial runs completed.
Go to the Solve menu and select Define report. In the Define summary report panel, under ID
pattern, enter the default filter, "*", which selects all the available solution IDs. Click New and then
hold down Ctrl. Select block.1, block.1.1., block.2, block.2.1, and block.3 from the
drop-down menu under Objects, click Accept and then click Write. Verify that the second trial gives
lower maximum and mean temperatures.

4.15. Step 12: Summary


In this tutorial, you learned how to set up and solve multiple trials to optimize a parameter, specify a
dynamically updating fan curve, create a new local coordinate system, and use separate meshed assemblies to reduce mesh counts. The use of network blocks to model packages has been demonstrated as
well as how to specify contact resistance using side specifications of a block object. You also learned
how to generate a summary report for multiple solutions.
We repeat some of the tips and best practices found in this tutorial for your convenience:
1. Best Practices
a. Start a fan curve specification with a zero flow rate and end the specification with a zero pressure.
b. View the HTML summary report (View Summary (HTML)) to ensure proper specification of
geometries, properties, and materials for each object.
c. Reduce mesh counts and consequently decrease run times in regions requiring less resolution by
creating separately meshed assemblies when appropriate. Also select suitable slack values that improve
the convergence rate while avoiding mesh bleeding.
d. Select the Allow minimum gap changes option in the Misc tab of the Mesh control panel to allow
ANSYS Icepak to avoid unnecessary meshing due to inadvertent misalignments in the model. This is
suitable for this tutorial but may not be in other projects.
e. Create monitor points of relevant quantities (temperature, pressure, or velocity) to help judge convergence alongside residuals.
f.

Use the Problem setup wizard for guided problem setup. Edit the problem setup if needed using
the

Basic parameters panel.

2. Tips and Tricks


a. Use the RPM under the Swirl tab as a fan's nominal RPM. Use the Operating RPM in the Options
tab as the working RPM value, used in conjunction with the nominal RPM to update the fan curve
according to the fan laws.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

127

Use of Parameterization to Optimize Fan Location


b. Display different types of shading to help visualize parts of your model better by editing an individual
object in the Model manager window or by applying it globally (View Default shading).
c. Click near the edge of a face in the Morph faces mode if you have difficulty selecting faces. Clicking
correctly should highlight the entire face in a red shading.

Note
Use the left mouse button first to select a face, then accept the selection with the
middle mouse button. Right-click to cancel your selection or to exit the Morph faces
mode.

d. Create hollow blocks to cut out a section of the cabinet from the computational domain. Hollow
blocks only alter flow patterns and do not participate in solid conduction heat transfer.
e. Use the appropriate Restart ID for your trials' initial conditions when running a parametric optimization
to improve convergence rate.

4.16. Step 13: Additional Exercise to Model Higher Altitude Effect


You can also use the final model to simulate the effects of higher altitudes. In order to model this correctly, new air properties at the particular altitude need to be defined and assigned to the default fluid.
The density of air is the most affected property and gets lower as altitude increases. The data for air
properties at a different altitude is presented in many handbooks and may even include temperature
change with it. For an altitude of 3000 m, you can select the available library material Air@(3000m).
Note that you can create and store a custom material having any properties in the material library for
use in any project.

In the Model manager window, select


air material to the default fluid.

128

Problem setup

Basic parameters and assign the new

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 13: Additional Exercise to Model Higher Altitude Effect

In addition, in the Fan flow section of the Fans Properties tab, you must modify all the defined fan
curves by multiplying the existing pressures times the ratio of densities (the density of air at 3000 m /
the density of air at 0 m), which in this case is less than 1. Use the values in Figure 4.25: Updating Fan
Curves to Account for Altitude Effects (p. 129) for this modification. Finally, the model is ready for running
to account for the effects of higher altitude.
Figure 4.25: Updating Fan Curves to Account for Altitude Effects

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

129

130

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 5: Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing


5.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to model a cold-plate using ANSYS Icepak.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Use the meshing priorities of different objects to mesh complicated model setups in ANSYS Icepak.
Use multiple fluids in a single model.
Account for external natural convection and internal forced convection.
Create separately meshed assemblies to reduce the overall mesh count.
Specify per-object meshing parameters.

5.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have reviewed Sample Session in the Icepak Users Guide and tutorials
Finned Heat Sink and RF Amplifier of this guide.

5.3. Problem Description


The model consists of a cold-plate, where the cold-plate fluid is transporting a significant fraction of
the heat from two plates mounted on either side of it. The natural convection in the external air is also
instrumental to heat transfer in this case. The model setup is shown in Figure 5.1: The Cold-Plate Model (p. 132).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

131

Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing


Figure 5.1: The Cold-Plate Model

The objective of this exercise is to illustrate the use of two different fluids in ANSYS Icepak. The model
includes two heated plates, cooled by water circulating inside the cold-plate cavity, as well as by air
driven by natural convection externally. Separately meshed assemblies will be employed to reduce the
overall mesh count in the domain. The model will be constructed using the default metric unit system.

5.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


Create a new project called cold-plate.

5.5. Step 2: Build the Model


Construct the cabinet and all the other objects according to the following specifications. Note that
during the model building, you may use the alignment tools. Remember that you can align the face,
edge and vertex of one object with another. For example, you could align the bottom face of the cylinders
to the cabinet (see Figure 5.1: The Cold-Plate Model (p. 132)). You may also use the align tools to create
the openings on the cold-plate inlet and outlet regions.
Cabinet ( )
Enter the following start and end locations for the cabinet:
Table 5.1: Cabinet Start and End Values

132

xS

0.0 m

xE

0.4 m

yS

0.0 m

yE

0.3 m

zS

0.0 m

zE

0.2 m

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Blocks (

Create a solid block, block.1, and a fluid block, block.2, with the specifications in Table 5.2: Specifications of block.1 and block.2 (p. 133). Note the specified materials for each block.
Table 5.2: Specifications of block.1 and block.2
Object
Name: block.1

xS

0.05 m

xE

0.35 m

Geometry: Prism

yS

0.08 m

yE

0.22 m

Block type: Solid

zS

0.07 m

zE

0.13 m

Name: block.2

xS

0.06 m

xE

0.34 m

Geometry: Prism

yS

0.09 m

yE

0.21 m

Block type: Fluid

zS

0.08 m

zE

0.12 m

Solid material:
Al-Extruded

Fluid material:
Water(@280K)
Because you have created block.2 after block.1, block.2 has a higher relative meshing priority.

Note
ANSYS Icepak meshes the objects according to their mesh priority; this is important when
intersection between two or more objects occurs. If two or more objects intersect, you
may not obtain the correct results with the default meshing priority. The ascending order
of the model object nodes in the model manager window determines the mesh priority
of the corresponding model objects. For example, the model object in the bottom node
has the highest meshing priority. For more information on controlling meshing priority,
see Controlling the Meshing Order for Objects in the ANSYS Icepak Users Guide.

Note
Because Al-Extruded is set as the Default solid in the Defaults tab of the Basic parameters panel, you can leave the material selection as default while creating the object instead
of selecting the material each time when an object is being created.
Next, create 4 cylindrical blocks. While editing cylindrical blocks, first select the block shape as cylinder,
then select the desired plane and finally enter the dimensions.
Table 5.3: Cylindrical Block Specifications
Object

xC

yC

zC

Height

Radius

IRadius

Specifications

Name:
block.3

0.1
m

0.0
m

0.1
m

0.09
m

0.015
m

0.0 m

Block type: Solid

Geometry:
Cylinder

Solid material: Al-Extruded

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

133

Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing


Object

xC

yC

zC

Height

Radius

IRadius

Specifications

0.3
m

0.0
m

0.1
m

0.09
m

0.015
m

0.0 m

Block type: Solid

Plane: X-Z
Name:
block.4
Geometry:
Cylinder

Solid material: Al-Extruded

Plane: X-Z
Name:
block.5

0.1
m

0.0
m

0.1
m

0.09
m

0.01
m

0.0 m

Geometry:
Cylinder

Block type: Fluid


Fluid material: Water(@280K)

Plane: X-Z
Name:
block.6

0.3
m

0.0
m

0.1
m

0.09
m

0.01
m

0.0 m

Geometry:
Cylinder

Block type: Fluid


Fluid material: Water(@280K)

Plane: X-Z
Because the fluid blocks, block.5 and block.6, are created after the solid blocks, they will have
higher relative meshing priorities.

Note
An alternative way to build the cylinders would be to create the solid block, block.3, and
then the fluid block, block.5, group these together, and then copy them with an offset of
0.2 in the X direction. Note that the naming of the cylinders will not be consistent with
the tutorial. However, you could rename the objects to their corresponding names in the
tutorial by right-clicking each copied object in the Model manager window and selecting
Rename.

Plates (

Table 5.4: Plate Specifications


Object

134

Specifications

Name: plate.1

xS

0.07 m

xE

0.33 m

Thermal model:
Conducting thick
(0.01 m)

Geometry:
Rectangular

yS

0.1 m

yE

0.2 m

Total power:
200 W

Plane: X-Y

zS

0.06 m

zE

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Solid material: Al-Extruded
Name: plate.2

xS

0.07 m

xE

0.33 m

Thermal model:
Conducting thick
(0.01 m)

Geometry:
Rectangular

yS

0.1 m

yE

0.2 m

Total power:
200 W

Plane: X-Y

zS

0.13 m

zE

Solid material: Al-Extruded

Note
An alternative way to create plate.2 is to copy plate.1 with a Z offset of 0.07 m.

Openings (

The openings at the liquid inflow and outflow regions of the cold-plate are:
Table 5.5: Opening Specifications
Object

xC

yC

zC

Radius

Name: opening.1
(outlet opening)

0.1 m

0m

0.1 m

0.01 m

0.3 m

0m

0.1 m

0.01 m

Specifications

Type: Free
Geometry: Circular
Plane: X-Z
Name: opening.2
(inlet opening)

Y Velocity = 0.2
m/s

Type: Free
Geometry: Circular
Plane: X-Z

Note
You could also have made a copy of the outlet opening (opening.1) with an X offset of
0.2 m along with a specified Y Velocity = 0.2 m/s to create the inlet opening (opening.2).
For agreement with the tutorial, ensure that you have placed the inlet and outlet in their
correct positions by referring to Figure 5.1: The Cold-Plate Model (p. 132).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

135

Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing


The openings at the cabinet boundary for external air natural convection are:
Table 5.6: Openings at Cabinet Boundary Specifications
Object
Name: opening.3

xS

0.4 m

xE

Type: Free

yS

0.0 m

yE

0.3 m

Geometry: Rectan- zS
gular

0.2 m

zE

0.0 m

Plane: Y-Z
Name: opening.4

xS

0.0 m

xE

Type: Free

yS

0.0 m

yE

0.3 m

Geometry: Rectan- zS
gular

0.2 m

zE

0.0 m

Plane: Y-Z

Note
Instead of creating the openings, opening.3 and opening.4 above, you could have edited
Cabinet and changed the wall type on the Min x and Max x faces to Opening. Note,
however, that you cannot rename the two resulting objects.
See Figure 5.1: The Cold-Plate Model (p. 132) for the final model.

Note
Figure 5.1: The Cold-Plate Model (p. 132) displays different opacity, shading and color of
some objects to make the objects easier to see.

5.6. Step 3: Create a Separately Meshed Assembly


To create a separately meshed assembly, highlight all the objects in the Model manager window other
than the cabinet, opening.3, and opening.4. Right-click them and choose Create and then Assembly.
To enable separate meshing for the assembly, double-click assembly.1 to edit the assembly. Under the
Meshing tab, toggle the Mesh separately button and then enter the slack values as follows in the
Slack settings box:

136

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Generate a Mesh

The bounding box of the assembly is larger than the original assembly by 0.01 m on five sides. The
slack value for the min Y side of the assembly is set to be 0 m, since the min Y side of the assembly is
at the bottom surface of the cabinet. Click Update and Done to complete editing the separately meshed
assembly.

5.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


Open the Mesh control panel and ensure that your settings match those of Figure 5.2: Mesh control
Panel Settings (p. 138). The mesh needs to be refined for the inner prismatic fluid block (block.2). In the
Misc tab, use the settings shown in the below figure. Then toggle Object params and click Edit in the
Local tab. Choose block.2 and check Use per-object parameters and enter 30, 16, and 10 respectively

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

137

Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing


for the X, Y, and Z counts for the mesh in the fluid block, as shown in the following figure. Click Done
to close the Per-object meshing parameters panel.

Note
The X, Y, and Z "counts" are also known as element counts, the number of divisions into
which an edge is subdivided. In other words, an element count is the number of elements
that lie along the edge. For more information on per-object meshing parameters, see
Definitions of Object-Specific Meshing Parameters in the ANSYS Icepak Users Guide.
Figure 5.2: Mesh control Panel Settings

138

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


Click Generate to mesh the model. Visualize the mesh at plane cuts and surface displays from the
Display tab. Note that if you have Selected object selected, you can only generate surface and volume
mesh displays on the objects themselves and not an assembly. You may select several objects in order
for several concurrent displays or you may select All to generate mesh displays for all objects automatically.

5.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


Calculation of the Reynolds number based on properties of Water(@280K) and the inlet opening diameter shows that the problem is turbulent.

Caution
Using the Reset button in the Basic settings panel to determine flow regime will give
dimensionless numbers based on the default fluid material from the Basic parameters
panel, which in this case is Air. Therefore, exercise caution when relying on ANSYS Icepak
to determine the Reynolds number.

Note
Basic parameters panel, you can instead use the Problem setup
Instead of accessing the
wizard to define your problem setup by double-clicking Problem setup in the Model
manager window. See Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings in the Icepak Tutorials of the
Finned Heat Sink tutorial for more instruction regarding the Problem setup wizard. You
must still use the same settings described in this tutorial for the Problem setup wizard.
Basic parameters and choose the Zero
To set up turbulent flow, go to Problem setup
equation turbulence model for the Flow regime in the General setup tab.
Gravity acts in the negative x direction in this problem. To setup the effects of gravity, toggle the
Gravity vector in the General setup tab. Enter the new values for the Gravity vector as X = -9.80665
m/s2, Y = 0.0 m/s2, and Z = 0.0 m/s2. Now go to the Transient setup tab and set an initial X velocity
of 0.005 m/s in the X direction. Accept all other defaults in the Basic parameters panel. These are
shown in Figure 5.3: Switching on Gravity and Turbulent Flow (p. 140).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

139

Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing


Figure 5.3: Switching on Gravity and Turbulent Flow

Note
For steady-state natural convection cases, set a small initial velocity opposite to the gravity
vector direction as this assists with the initial convergence of the model. For cases in which
Basic
there is no forced convection, clicking on Reset in the Solution settings
settings menu automatically sets a small initial velocity in the direction opposite to the
gravity vector. This may not be necessary in this model though, because the flow will be
forced through the cold plate. We will have mixed (forced and natural) convection heat
transfer.

140

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 5.4: Basic and Advanced Solver Settings

Select the Basic settings panel from the Solution settings branch of the tree and set the Number of
iterations to 300. Go to Advanced settings and make sure Under-relaxation factors for Pressure,
Momentum, and Temperature are 0.3, 0.7, and 1.0, respectively. Change the Stabilization under
Joule heating potential to BCGSTAB, and select Double for the Precision drop-down list. The recommended basic settings and advanced solver setup for this model are shown in Figure 5.4: Basic and
Advanced Solver Settings (p. 141).
Add three monitor points to the Points folder, one to monitor the velocity at the center of the opening.1
(outlet opening), and two to monitor the temperature at the center of block.2 and plate.2, respectively.
The easiest way to create them is to select the objects from the Model manager window and then
drag them to the Points folder of the tree. ANSYS Icepak will then automatically monitor values at the
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

141

Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing


centers of these objects. The default setting is to monitor Temperature. To change this, double-click
the object under the Points folder and choose which variables to monitor at that location.

5.9. Step 6: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak automatically saves the model for you before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model after the model building and meshing is complete.
File Save project
Alternatively, click the save button (

) in the file commands toolbar.

5.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution


Select the Solve menu and click Run solution. In the Solve panel, under the Results tab toggle Write
overview of results when finished, and then click Start solution.

5.11. Step 8: Examine the Results


Review the solution overview report created to ensure that mass (volume) flow rate and energy balances
are satisfied. To postprocess the results, create the following object face and plane cut objects:
Table 5.7: Object Face and Plane Cut Specifications
Object

Specifications/Display Attributes

Description

face.1

Object: all blocks (select the blocks using Object-face view of temperature on all the blocks.
the Ctrl key or the Shift key and the left What is the maximum temperature?
mouse button)
Show contours/Parameters
Contours of: Temperature
Contours options: Solid fill and
Smooth
Color levels: Calculated/Global limits

cut.1

Set position: Z plane through center


Show vectors/ Parameters
Color by: Velocity Magnitude

Observation: Water is circulating through the internal


channel, providing most of the cooling for the
model. On the outside, air flows over the system by
natural convection.

Color levels: Calculated/Global limits


face.2

Objects: opening.1 (outlet) and opening.2 (inlet)


Show particle traces/ Parameters

Observe the flow pattern from inlet opening to


outlet opening passing through the cold plate. Animate the particle traces.

Variable: Speed
Display options: Uniform: 30
Particle options: Keep all the defaults
Style: Trail (Width = 1) and
Marker: (cone )
Color levels: Calculated/ This Object

142

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Summary
cut.2

Set position: X plane through center


Show particle traces/ Parameters

Observe the flow pattern in positive X direction.


Animate the particle traces.

Color variable: Speed


Display options: Uniform: 30
Particle options: Keep all the defaults
Style: Trail (Width = 1) and
Marker (cone )
Color levels: Calculated/ This Object
cut.3

Set position: Y plane through center


Show contours of Temperature.

Due to the nature of the problem, the temperature


distribution is symmetric on the Y-Z plane. Verify
this in the solution.

You can save the post-processing objects that you just created by clicking Save post objects to file
option in the Post menu. ANSYS Icepak will save these objects under the file named post_objects in
the Icepak project folder.

5.12. Step 9: Summary


In this problem, you modeled a cold-plate that included two heat plates cooled by water circulating
inside the cold-plate cavity as well as air driven by natural convection externally. This exercise has also
demonstrated how to use the different meshing priorities of objects to model complicated model setups,
model multiple fluids in a single model, account for external natural convection and internal forced
convection, create separately meshed assemblies to reduce the overall mesh count, and specify perobject meshing parameters.
We repeat some of the tips and best practices found in this tutorial for your convenience:
1. Best Practices
a. Use the alignment and morph tools to position objects based on other existing objects. This can be
faster than specifying object dimensions and coordinates in many situations.
b. Reduce mesh counts and consequently decrease run times in regions requiring less resolution by
creating separately meshed assemblies when appropriate. Also select suitable slack values that improve
the convergence rate while avoiding mesh bleeding.
c. Use the Problem setup wizard for guided problem setup. Edit the problem setup if needed using
the

Basic parameters panel.

d. Create monitor points of relevant quantities (temperature, pressure, or velocity) to help judge convergence alongside residuals.
2. Tips and Tricks
a. Copy similar objects then edit the copied objects to the desired specifications to eliminate redundancies. This may be faster than creating every object individually.
b. Display different types of shading to help visualize parts of your model better by editing an individual
object in the Model manager window or by applying it globally (View Default shading).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

143

Cold-Plate Model with Non-Conformal Meshing


c. Exercise caution when using the Reset button in the
Basic settings panel to determine the flow
regime. ANSYS Icepak only provides estimates, which may not necessarily be the correct value for
your application. In some cases, you may want to perform a hand calculation to confirm.

5.13. Step 10: Additional Exercise


To see the cooling capacity or effectiveness of water, run the same model by replacing the fluid material of the fluid blocks with Glycol-20; that is, change all the water blocks into glycol blocks. You should
see an increase in the maximum global temperature. Note that this fluid material is actually ethylene
glycol.

144

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 6: Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing


6.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to model simple heat pipes and an active heat sink using ANSYS Icepak.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Create orthotropic solid materials.
Use those materials to simulate a simplified heat-pipe in a system.
Use of copy mirror and copy translate functions to create an array of objects.
Create nested non-conformal assemblies.

6.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with ANSYS Icepak, but that you are generally familiar with the interface. If you are not, review Sample Session in the Icepak Users Guide and the tutorial
Finned Heat Sink of this guide. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly.

6.3. Problem Description


Heat-pipes are used to transport heat from a heat source area, where there is limited space for heat
dissipation, to a place where it can be dissipated more easily. The objective of this exercise is not to
model the detailed physics inside a heat pipe. Instead, you will model a heat pipe by using a series of
cylindrical solid blocks that connect the heat source to an air-cooled heat sink. These blocks will have
an orthotropic conductivity with a very large conductivity in the pipe axis direction along which the
heat is carried away. The model will be constructed using the default metric unit system. You will also
make use of nested non-conformal meshing using assemblies to reduce the cell count in the model.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

145

Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing


Figure 6.1: Heat-pipe Tutorial Base Model

6.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Copy the file ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/heat-pipe/heat-pipe-nested-NC.tzr to your
working directory. You must replace by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed
on your computer system.
2. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak Users Guide.

Note
ANSYS Icepak can be started in ANSYS Workbench using the import .tzr feature or it can
be opened as a stand-alone product.

146

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


3. Click Unpack in the Welcome to Icepak panel.
4. In the File selection panel, select the packed project file heat-pipe-nested-NC.tzr and click Open.
5. In the Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog, select a directory where you would like
to place the packed project file, enter a project name in the New project text field, then click Unpack.

6.5. Step 2: Build the Model


Note
In ANSYS Icepak, the packed file feature compresses a model to the files needed to build,
mesh and run the model (job, model, and problem files). In many of the tutorials, part of the
model is already created and packed to speed up the learning process. The model originally
has three blocks and only block.1 has an assigned power (25 W). The model also has one
fan and one grille. Next, build a heat sink in the area of the fan, grille and the heat pipe
system to connect block.1 to the heat sink.
1. Create materials utilizing ANSYS Icepaks orthotropic material conductivity feature. The idea is to have
a material that has very high conductivity in the pipe heat removal directions but normal conductivity
in the other directions.
Click the material icon (

) in the object toolbar for each new material to be created.

Right-click the material name and select Edit or double-click the material name to open the Edit
panel.
Go to the Properties tab and make sure to toggle Material type to be Solid and set the Conductivity
type to be Orthotropic from the drop-down list.
Deselect the Edit check box next to Conductivity and create the following materials with orthotropic
conductivity properties using the template in Figure 6.2: Orthotropic Material Properties (p. 148).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

147

Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing


Figure 6.2: Orthotropic Material Properties

Table 6.1: Orthotropic Properties


Name

Nominal Conductivity

Orthotropic multiplier

material.1

20000

X=1

Y = 0.005

Z = 0.005

material.2

20000

X = 0.005

Y=1

Z = 0.005

material.3

20000

X=1

Y=1

Z = 0.005

The above materials have orthotropic conductivity, which means conductivity is different per
orthogonal direction. The effective conductivity in each orthogonal direction is equal to the
nominal conductivity multiplied by the orthotropic multiplier in that direction.
2. After creating these heat pipe materials, we build the heat pipe made of cylindrical blocks and square
joints.
Create five block objects.
Use the values in the following table (be sure to note the geometry)
Table 6.2: Block Specifications
Object

Geometry

xC

yC

zC

Height

Radius

IRadius

Specifications

pipe1

Shape:
Cylinder

0.05
m

0.11
m

0.1
m

0.245
m

0.01 m

0.0 m

Type: solid

Plane:
Y-Z
pipe2

148

Shape:
Cylinder

Solid material:
material.1
0.325 0.365 0.1
m
m
m

0.267
m

0.01 m

0.0 m

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Type: solid

Step 2: Build the Model


Object

Geometry

xC

yC

zC

Height

Radius

IRadius

Plane:
Y-Z
pipe3

Specifications
Solid material:
material.1

Shape:
Cylinder

0.31
m

0.125 0.1
m
m

0.225
m

0.01 m

0.0 m

Plane:
X-Z

Type: solid
Solid material:
material.2

Object

Geometry

xS

yS

zS

xE

Joint1

Shape:
Prism

0.295 0.095 0.085 0.325


m
m
m
m

yE

zE

Specifications

0.125
m

0.115
m

Type: solid
Solid material:
material.3

Joint2

Shape:
Prism

0.295 0.35
m
m

0.085 0.325
m
m

0.38 m

0.115
m

Type: solid
Solid material:
material.3

Note
You can use the Copy object function to speed up the creation of the remaining objects
after pipe1 and joint1 are created. However, the names will not be the same as the
tutorial. To rename an object, right-click the object in the Model manager window
and click Rename.

3. Next, we will also build the heat sink using block objects.
Build the base and one pin according to the following
Table 6.3: Base and Pin Specifications
Object

Geometry

xS

yS

zS

xE

yE

Base

Shape:
Prism

0.42
m

0.35
m

0.05
m

0.592 0.38 m
m

zE

Properties

0.15 m

Type: solid
Solid material: default

Object

Geometry

xC

yC

zC

Height Radius
/ Radius2

Pin

Shape:
Cylinder

0.44
m

0.38
m

0.067 0.04
m
m

0.01 m
/
0.006
m

IRadius
/ IRadius2

Properties

0m/0
m

Type: solid

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

149

Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing


Plane: X-Z

Solid material: default

Nonuniform selected (for


a nonuniform radius)
Note that the Nonuniform check box is available in the Edit window. Alternatively, you may find
it also named Nonuniform radius in the Geometry tab of the Blocks panel as shown below. The
Plane option is X-Z (Figure 6.3: Nonuniform Cylinder (p. 150)).
Figure 6.3: Nonuniform Cylinder

Make two copies of Pin with an offset of 0.033 m in the Z direction (Number of copies = 2, Translate
with Z offset = 0.033 m).

150

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Highlight the three tapered fins (Pin, Pin.1 and Pin.2), make four copies of this highlighted group with
an offset of 0.033 m in the X direction (Number of copies = 4, Translate with X offset = 0.033
m).
Group all the pins by highlighting them in the Model manager window, right-click and select Copy
and finally make one copy as follows: Number of copies = 1, Translate with Y offset = -0.03, Mirror
with Plane: XZ and About: Low end.
The final model should appear as shown in Figure 6.4: Model with Heat Pipe and Heat Sink (p. 151).
Figure 6.4: Model with Heat Pipe and Heat Sink

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

151

Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing

6.6. Step 3: Create Nested Non-conformal Mesh Using Assemblies


In this exercise, our goal is to reduce the overall cell count to a reasonable level while retaining a good
cell resolution within the model, especially where the velocity and temperature gradients are higher.
1. Create three individual assemblies (one for the heat sink and the base, the second one for the vent, and
the last one for the fan).
a. Highlight all the pins and the base in the model manager window.
b. Right-click and select Create then Assembly.
c. Rename the assembly as Heatsink-asy.
d. Double-click the assembly to open the Edit panel.
e. Under the Meshing tab, toggle the Mesh separately button.
f.

Set the slack to the following values:


Table 6.4: Slack Values for Heatsink-asy
Min X

0.005 m

Max X

0.005 m

Min Y

0.005 m

Max Y

0.005 m

Min Z

0.015 m

Max Z

0.005 m

Note
For the Heatsink-asy, you have set a bounding box that is 0.005 m bigger than the
assembly at five sides except Min Z where the slack is defined higher (0.015 m) to
capture the wake region of the flow. Also keep in mind that on the face Min Z is
where the wake occurs because the fan is of type Exhaust rather than of type Intake.

g. Click Update and Done.


h. Following the same procedure above, create two more assemblies; one for vent.1 (name it Vent-asy)
and one for the fan (name it Fan-asy).
i.

Use the following tables to assign slack values for Vent-asy and Fan-asy assemblies, respectively.
Table 6.5: Slack Values for Vent-asy
Min X

0.01 m

Max X

0.01 m

Min Y

0.01 m

Max Y

0.01 m

Min Z

0.01 m

Max Z

0m

Table 6.6: Slack Values for Fan-asy

152

Min X

0.01 m

Max X

0.01 m

Min Y

0.01 m

Max Y

0.01 m

Min Z

0m

Max Z

0.01 m

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Generate a Mesh


2. Put the previously created assemblies into an outer assembly covering all.
a. Highlight all the three assemblies above and right-click your selection.
b. Select Create assembly.
c. Rename this main assembly HS-vent-fan-asy.
d. Assign the following slack values to the assembly.
Table 6.7: Slack Values for HS-vent-fan-asy
Min X

0.02 m

Max X

0.02 m

Min Y

0.02 m

Max Y

0.02 m

Min Z

0m

Max Z

0m

6.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


1. Go to Model Generate Mesh or use the toolbar shortcut (

) to open the Mesh control panel.

2. In the Mesh control panel, specify a global maximum element size of 0.025 m in all three directions
(Max X size = Max Y size = Max Z size = 0.025).
3. Verify that the Coarse option is selected next to Mesh parameters and change the Max size ratio from
10 to 5.
4. Make sure that Mesh assemblies separately button is toggled.
5. Under the Options tab, set the Init element height to 0.003.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

153

Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing


Figure 6.5: Mesh control Panel

6. Click Generate. Visualize the mesh by making plane cuts and surface displays under the Display tab,
especially between the heat sink pins and on the surface of the fan and grille objects. The meshing
panel should look like the one in Figure 6.5: Mesh control Panel (p. 154) when finished.

6.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


Note
Basic parameters panel, you can instead use the Problem setup
Instead of accessing the
wizard to define your problem setup by double-clicking Problem setup in the model
manager window. See 2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings of the Finned Heat Sink
tutorial for more instruction regarding the Problem setup wizard. You must still use the
same settings described in this tutorial for the Problem setup wizard.
Basic parameters. In the General setup tab, change the Flow regime
1. Go to Problem setup
to be Turbulent and keep the default selection of Zero equation.
2. Go to the Transient setup tab and set the initial condition for the velocity in the Z direction to be -0.1
m/s to achieve faster convergence. If there is an initial guess at the start of the solution there is less of
a chance of excessively large initial velocities in the first iteration.
Figure 6.6: Turbulent Flow and Initial Z Velocity (p. 155) shows these two steps. Click Accept for these
changes to take effect.

154

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 6.6: Turbulent Flow and Initial Z Velocity

3. Under Solution settings


settings Panel (p. 155)).

Basic settings, set the Number of iterations to 200 (Figure 6.7: Basic

Figure 6.7: Basic settings Panel

4. Click Accept.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

155

Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing

6.9. Step 6: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak automatically saves the model for you before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.
File Save project

6.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution


1. Add in two monitor points, one to monitor the velocity at the center of vent.1 and one to monitor the
temperature at the center of block.1.
a. Select vent.1 and block.1 from the list and then drag them to the Points branch of the tree. (Alternatively, one can create monitor points by simply selecting these objects in the Model manager
window, clicking on the right mouse button and selecting Create and then Monitor point.)
b. Because ANSYS Icepak will by default monitor the temperature at the centroid or center of these
objects, double-click vent.1 under the monitor Points branch.
c. Select velocity as the variable to monitor and deselect temperature.
d. Accept the change.
2. Go to Solve Run solution or click the shortcut button (

). Start the solver by clicking Start solution.

6.11. Step 8: Examine the Results


To post-process the results for this exercise, create the following Object face and Plane cut objects:
Table 6.8: Object face and Plane cut Specifications
Object

Specifications

Description

face.1

1. In the Object field, select all blocks

Object face view of temperature contours on all the


blocks.

(Choose using the Ctrl and/or Shift


keys and left mouse button)
2. Select Show contours
3. Click Parameters

Observations: The view shows the flow of heat


from the heated block (block.1) to the air-cooled
heat sink.

4. Contours of: Temperature


5. Contour / Shading options: Solid fill
/ Smooth
6. Color levels: Calculated (Global limits)
cut.1

1. Go to the Plane location box


2. Set position: Y plane through center
3. Click and drag the slider to around
0.800

Plane cut (X-Z) view of the velocity vector field.


Observations: The view shows air flowing from
the vent to the fan as the air passes through the
array of fins.

4. Select Show vectors

156

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Examine the Results


5. Click Parameters
6. Color by: Velocity magnitude
The post-processing objects face.1 and cut.1 should look similar to Figure 6.8: Temperature Contours
on All Blocks (face.1) (p. 157) and Figure 6.9: Velocity Vector Field Around Fan and Heat Sink (cut.1) (p. 158).
Figure 6.8: Temperature Contours on All Blocks (face.1)

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

157

Heat-Pipe Modeling and Nested Non-Conformal Meshing


Figure 6.9: Velocity Vector Field Around Fan and Heat Sink (cut.1)

6.12. Step 9: Summary


In this problem, you have modeled a simplified heat pipe using cylindrical solid blocks of orthotropic
conductivity. The exercise has also demonstrated the application of copy and mirror features as well as
the use of nested non-conformal meshing using assemblies in ANSYS Icepak.
We repeat some of the tips and best practices found in this tutorial for your convenience:
1. Best Practices
a. Reduce mesh counts and consequently decrease run times in regions requiring less resolution by
creating separately meshed assemblies when appropriate. Also select suitable slack values that improve
the convergence rate while avoiding mesh bleeding.
b. Increase slack values for faces with a wake region if using a separately meshed assembly. Do this to
model the wake more accurately.
c. Use the Problem setup wizard for guided problem setup. Edit the problem setup if needed using
the

Basic parameters panel.

d. Create monitor points of relevant quantities (temperature, pressure, or velocity) to help judge convergence alongside residuals.
158

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Summary
2. Tips and Tricks
a. Copy similar objects then edit the copied objects to the desired specifications to eliminate redundancies. This may be faster than creating every object individually.
b. Choose appropriate solution initializations to achieve faster convergence.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

159

160

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 7: Non-Conformal Mesh


7.1. Introduction
This tutorial examines the effects of using a non-conformal mesh rather than a conformal mesh in a
simple pin-fin heat-sink problem.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Generate a non-conformal mesh and related parameters such as slack values, maximum element sizes,
and so on.
Understand the effects of a non-conformal mesh on total mesh count and results.
Generate and compare summary reports.
Apply non-conformal rules and restrictions.

7.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS Icepak and that you have
explored the Sample Session in the Icepak Users Guide and the tutorial Finned Heat Sink. For this
reason, some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly.

7.3. Problem Description


The model consists of a pin-fin heat sink composed of aluminum, which is in contact with a source
dissipating 10 W, as shown in Figure 7.1: Problem Specification (p. 162). The source-heatsink assembly
sits in the middle of a wind tunnel with a wind speed of 1.0 m/s. The ambient temperature is 20C. The
flow regime is turbulent.
The objective of this exercise is to become familiar with the non-conformal meshing methodology and
its application. You will examine and compare the solution results of a conformal and a non-conformal
mesh.
In ANSYS Icepak, you can mesh assemblies of objects separately. First, you define a region around an
assembly, then ANSYS Icepak meshes this region independently of meshes external to your defined
region. This allows a fine mesh to be confined in a particular region of interest and helps to reduce
overall mesh count without sacrificing the accuracy of the results.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

161

Non-Conformal Mesh
Figure 7.1: Problem Specification

7.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


Open a new project and name it non-conformal.

7.5. Step 2: Build the Model


Cabinet ( )
Enter the following start and end locations for the cabinet.
xS

0.3 m

xE

0.7 m

yS

0.5 m

yE

0.7 m

zS

0.0 m

zE

1.0 m

Define an opening on the Cabinet boundary:


1. Open the Cabinet object panel.
2. In the Properties tab, change Wall type of Min z to Opening.
3. Click Edit to open the Openings panel.
4. In the Properties tab of the Openings panel, enter 1 m/s for the Z velocity and keep Temperature
as ambient (which is 20C). Refer to Figure 7.2: Openings Panel for Wall Min z (p. 163).

162

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 7.2: Openings Panel for Wall Min z

Extra:
You can edit the ambient temperature setting, among other default settings, in the
Basic parameters panel.

Define a grille on the Cabinet boundary:


1. Under the Properties tab of the Cabinet panel, change the wall type of Max z to Grille.
2. Click Edit to open the Grille panel.
3. In the Properties tab of the Grille panel, change the Free area ratio to 0.8 and leave the other
default property specifications.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

163

Non-Conformal Mesh
Figure 7.3: Grille Properties Specifications

Source (

Create a source using the following dimensions:


Object

Specification

Name: source.1

xS = 0.48 m

xE = 0.52 m

Geometry: Rectangular

yS = 0.52 m

yE =

Plane: X-Z

zS = 0.48 m

zE = 0.52 m

Heat sink (

Total power: 30 W

Now, create a heat sink with the following geometrical and physical properties (Figure 7.4: Heat sinks
Panel (Specifications for Geometry and Properties) (p. 165)):

164

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Generate a Conformal Mesh


Figure 7.4: Heat sinks Panel (Specifications for Geometry and Properties)

7.6. Step 3: Generate a Conformal Mesh


Generate a conformal mesh for the model.
1. Open the Mesh control panel using Model Generate mesh or the Generate Mesh button (

).

a. In the Mesh control panel, set the Max element size for X to 0.02 m, for Y to 0.01 m, and for Z
to 0.05 m.
b. Under the Global tab, select Normal next to Mesh parameters.
c. Under the Misc tab, select Allow minimum gap changes.
d. Click Generate.

Note
The minimum gap for X, Y, Z may adjust to 10% of the minimum dimension in respective directions. Make a note of the number of elements, shown in the Mesh control
panel, as well as the face alignment range, displayed in the Message window.

2. Examine the mesh.


a. Click the Display tab.
b. Select the Cut plane option.
c. In the Set position drop-down list, select Y plane through center.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

165

Non-Conformal Mesh
d. Select the Display mesh option.

Note
The mesh display plane is an X-Z plane cut through the center of the cabinet as shown
in Figure 7.5: Conformal Mesh, Central Y Plane (p. 166). Note the clustered mesh lines extending from the heat sink all the way across the domain in both the X and Z directions.
The total number of cells is about 144000.
Figure 7.5: Conformal Mesh, Central Y Plane

3. Disable the mesh display.


a. Deselect the Display mesh option.
b. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.

7.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Before starting the solver, first review estimates of the Reynolds and Peclet numbers to check that ANSYS
Icepak is modeling the proper flow regime.
Solution settings

166

Basic settings

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results


Click Reset in the Basic settings panel. Check the values printed to the Message window. The Reynolds
and Peclet numbers are approximately 12600 and 8900, respectively, so the flow is turbulent.

Note
Instead of accessing the
Basic parameters panel as described below, you can instead
use the Problem setup wizard for guided problem setup by double-clicking Problem
setup in the model manager window. See 2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings of
the Finned Heat Sink tutorial for more instruction regarding the Problem setup wizard. You
must still use the same settings described in this tutorial for the Problem setup wizard.
Basic parameters and choose the Zero
1. To set up turbulent flow, go to Problem setup
equation turbulence model under the General setup tab.
2. Forced convection is the predominant form of convection in this exercise. Natural convection is negligible,
so do not enable gravity. Also ignore radiation heat transfer as it is also negligible in comparison to
forced convection. This exercise is a steady-state analysis. Click Accept to accept the new solver settings.
3. Go to

Solution settings

Basic settings and set the Number of iterations to 300.

4. Go to Advanced settings and specify Under-relaxation factors for Pressure, Momentum, and Temperature as 0.7, 0.3, and 1.0 respectively.
5. Define a monitor point by dragging the source object (source.1) into the Points folder. This creates
a monitor point for the temperature of the object, which can be used to judge convergence alongside
the residuals.

Extra:
Speed up the convergence by initializing the solver with a Z velocity of 1.0 m/s in the
Transient setup tab of the Basic parameters panel.

7.8. Step 5: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak saves the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model before the solution. The model can be saved using File Save project.

7.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


Start the calculation by clicking Solve Run solution. Specify conformal" as the ID. Click Start
solution to start the solver.

7.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


In this step, examine the maximum temperature using ANSYS Icepaks summary reporting tool.
Report Summary report
1. Define a report that will display temperature data for the source and the heat sink.
a. In the Define summary report panel, click New.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

167

Non-Conformal Mesh
b. In the Objects drop-down list, select heatsink.1 and click Accept.
c. In the Value drop-down list, select Temperature.
d. Repeat steps (a) through (c) for source.1.

e. Click Write to generate a summary report.


ANSYS Icepak opens the Report summary data panel, where minimum, maximum, and mean
temperatures for the heat sink and source are displayed. Note that the maximum temperature is
about 36.7 C.

2. Click Done to close the Report summary data panel.


3. Click Close to close the Define summary report panel.

168

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Add an Assembly to the Model

7.11. Step 8: Add an Assembly to the Model


You will now create an assembly out of the source and heat sink objects. The assembly will be meshed
separately from the rest of the model.

Note
Because you are changing the current model, thereby invalidating the post-processing data
that has been loaded from the previous steps, you will need to generate a mesh (a nonconformal mesh) and calculate the solution again which is shown in steps 9 through 11.
1. Create an assembly consisting of the source and the heat sink objects.
a. Click the Create assemblies button ( ) to create a new assembly. This creates an assembly node
in the Model manager window under the Model node.
b. Select the source.1 item under the Model node in the Model manager window, hold down the Ctrl
key, and then select the heatsink.1 item.
c. Hold down the left mouse button, drag both highlighted items into the assembly.1 node of the tree,
then release the left mouse button.

Note
You can also create assemblies by highlighting source.1 and heatsink.1 in the Model
manager window, then right-clicking one of the highlights, going to Create, then finally
selecting Assembly..

2. Edit the assembly and define its bounding box.


a. Select the assembly.1 node in the Model manager window, and then click the Edit object button
( ) to open the Assemblies panel.
b. Click the Meshing tab.
c. Select the Mesh separately option and enter the Slack parameters shown in Figure 7.6: Slack Values
and Mesh Controls in the Separately Mesh Assembly (p. 170).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

169

Non-Conformal Mesh
Figure 7.6: Slack Values and Mesh Controls in the Separately Mesh Assembly

This creates a bounding box region that is 0.05 m larger than the assembly on four sides. Since
Min Y is already at the bottom of the cabinet, no slack value can be provided for it. A larger
slack value of 0.15 m has been provided in the Max Z direction to resolve the wake region. Note
that a smaller Max X and Max Z grid size has been specified within the assembly compared to
the global max grid size. This helps to refine the mesh within the separately meshed assembly.
d. Click Done to set the properties of the assembly and close the panel.
The new model is shown in Figure 7.7: The Source and Heat Sink in a Separately Meshed Assembly (p. 171).

170

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Generate a Non-conformal Mesh


Figure 7.7: The Source and Heat Sink in a Separately Meshed Assembly

7.12. Step 9: Generate a Non-conformal Mesh


ANSYS Icepak can now mesh assembly.1 separately. The non-conformal mesh will limit the clustering
to a region inside a bounding box slightly larger than the source-heatsink assembly.
1. Generate a non-conformal mesh for the model.
Model Generate mesh
a. In the Mesh control panel, keep the Max element size for X set to 0.02 m, for Y set to 0.01 m,
and for Z set to 0.05 m.
b. Under the Global tab, make sure the Mesh assemblies separately option is checked.
c. Click Generate to create the mesh.

Note
Make a note of the number of elements, shown in the Mesh control panel, as well
as the face alignment range, displayed in the Message window.

2. Examine the mesh.


a. Click the Display tab.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

171

Non-Conformal Mesh
b. Turn on the Cut plane option.
c. In the Set position drop-down list, select Y plane through center.
d. Turn on the Display mesh option.
The mesh display plane is an -  plane cut through the center of the cabinet as shown in Figure 7.8: Non-conformal Mesh (p. 172). Note the clustered mesh lines extending from the heat sink
all the way across the domain in both the  and  directions only within the bounds of the assembly. The total number of cells is about 107000.
Figure 7.8: Non-conformal Mesh

3. Turn off the mesh display.


a. Deselect the Display mesh option.
b. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.

7.13. Step 10: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model yourself as well.
File Save project

172

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 11: Calculate a Solution

7.14. Step 11: Calculate a Solution


1. Retain the same Number of iterations (300) in the Basic settings panel.
2. Start the Solution.
Solve Run solution
a. Specify non-conformal as the solution ID.
b. Click Start solution to start the solver.

Note
The monitor point that you already created is automatically used for the new solution.
Your residuals plot may look similar to Figure 7.9: Residuals Plot for the Non-Conformal Mesh (p. 174).
Note that the number of iterations is less than that of the solution using the conformal mesh. The
exact number of iterations required for convergence may vary on different computers.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

173

Non-Conformal Mesh
Figure 7.9: Residuals Plot for the Non-Conformal Mesh

7.15. Step 12: Examine the Results


In this step, you will examine the maximum and minimum temperatures of the source and heat sink in
the new version of the model.
Report Summary report
1. Define a report that displays temperature data for the assembly.
a. Retain the same temperature report of the source and the heat sink, as used in the version without
the assembly.
b. Click Write to generate a summary report.

174

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 13: Summary


Note that the reported temperatures (Figure 7.10: Report summary data for the Non-Conformal
Mesh (p. 175)) are very close to that obtained in the solution with the conformal mesh.
Figure 7.10: Report summary data for the Non-Conformal Mesh

2. Click Done to close the Report summary data panel.


3. Click Close to close the Define summary report panel.

7.16. Step 13: Summary


In this tutorial, you generated both a conformal and a non-conformal mesh for a simple source-heatsink
geometry and compared the two sets of results. You found an approximate 20 percent reduction in
the number of cells for the non-conformal mesh with a negligible change in the temperature data. In
the process, you learned how to use slack values to create an appropriate bounding box for your separately meshed assembly.
We repeat some of the tips and best practices found in this tutorial for your convenience:
1. Best Practices
a. Reduce mesh counts and consequently decrease run times by creating separately meshed assemblies
that require a different mesh density. Also select suitable slack values that improve the convergence
rate while avoiding mesh bleeding.
b. Increase slack values for faces with a wake region if using a separately meshed assembly. Do this to
capture the wake more accurately.
c. Use the Problem setup wizard for guided problem setup. Edit the problem setup if needed using
the

Basic parameters panel.

d. Create monitor points of relevant quantities (temperature, pressure, or velocity) to help judge convergence alongside residuals.
2. Tips and Tricks
a. Copy similar objects then edit the copied objects to the desired specifications to eliminate redundant
work. This is faster than creating every object individually.
b. Initialize the solution with reasonable values to achieve faster convergence.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

175

176

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 8: Mesh and Model Enhancement Exercise


8.1. Objective
The objective of this exercise is to lead you through the decision making process involved in improving
a model. The inferences from the exercise should help you make appropriate modeling choices during
your next thermal modeling project.

8.2. Prerequisites
You should be familiar with:
ANSYS Icepak modeling objects
Basics of meshing
Non-conformal meshing

8.3. Skills Covered


In this tutorial, you will learn the following skills and be able to apply these skills in your own ANSYS
Icepak projects:
Basic meshing techniques
Non-conformal meshing
Checking for and avoiding intersections between objects and assemblies
Use of object separation setting
Eliminating mesh bleeding
Nested non-conformal meshing

8.4. Training Method Used


This tutorial uses a troubleshooting approach. You are provided with a model with potential for improvement. You will be given 15 minutes to try your hand at improving the model (you are not expected to
complete all the improvements in this short time). This will help you familiarize yourself with the issues
associated with the model. Then, an approach for improving the model is delineated in the form of
step-by-step hints. Feel free to explore the software interface as you work through these steps.

8.5. Loading the Model


Unpack and load the model named meshing-tutorial-start.tzr.
Rename it to any other name of your choice.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

177

Mesh and Model Enhancement Exercise

8.6. A 15 Minute Exploration


Without making any changes, the model results in about 700,000 elements. It is possible to reduce this
mesh significantly without compromising accuracy. You are allowed to modify, delete, or add objects
as long as the physics being modeled stays unchanged. You may want to refer to the power and material specifications to justify model changes. Non-conformal meshing is one of the techniques that will
help you accomplish this task.
Work with this model for as long as you prefer within the allocated 15 minutes then stop and proceed
to the next set of instructions.

Hint
Start by generating the mesh without making any changes. View mesh cut planes at various
orientations and locations to identify causes that result in unnecessary mesh clusters in noncritical regions. Then modify the model in order to tackle the issues you notice.

8.7. Step-by-Step Approach


Save the model you have been working on to another name. (You may be revisiting this model to compare
notes with the suggested approach)
Reload the model you had unpacked earlier (meshing-tutorial-start").
Save it to another name of your choice.
Generate the mesh without modifying the model. You will see a mesh count of about 700,000 elements.

Note
Ensure the mesh type is Mesher-HD.

Create mesh cut planes in different orientations to identify the root cause for such a high mesh count.
One such cut plane (Z plane through center set position) is shown in Figure 8.1: A Mesh Cut Plane View
of the Given Model When Meshed Without Modifications (p. 179).
Figure 8.1: A Mesh Cut Plane View of the Given Model When Meshed Without Modifications (p. 179) shows
that the high mesh count is due to grid bleeding from the heat sink and the components cooled by it.

Note
You can use non-conformal assemblies to avoid mesh bleeding in ANSYS Icepak.

178

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Modification 1: Non-Conformal Mesh of the Heat Sink and Components


Figure 8.1: A Mesh Cut Plane View of the Given Model When Meshed Without Modifications

8.8. Modification 1: Non-Conformal Mesh of the Heat Sink and Components


1. Create an assembly containing the heat sink and the components cooled by it (green colored objects).
Name it HS-asy.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

179

Mesh and Model Enhancement Exercise

Tip
Inside the graphics window, hold the Shift key, then click and draw a box around the group
of objects you would like to assemble.
If you have trouble selecting the heat sink objects, you can make the mesh and some objects
invisible.
You can also select the objects in the Model manager window by selecting heatsink.1
and then holding down Shift and clicking all objects with HS_component in their name.

2. Mesh the non-conformal assembly with nonzero slack values.


a. Select Mesh separately under the Meshing tab of the Assemblies panel for this assembly (HS-asy)
and specify appropriate slack values (we recommend 1 mm on all sides as in Figure 8.2: Slack Values
for HS-asy (p. 181)). Furthermore, it is usually best practice to have 2-3 cells within the slack region.
You can verify the number of cells within a slack region by examining the mesh in that area.

180

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Modification 1: Non-Conformal Mesh of the Heat Sink and Components


Figure 8.2: Slack Values for HS-asy

Tip
Use the Case check macro to ensure that no problematic assembly intersections exist.
In the Macros menu, select Case check Automatic Case Check Tool. Click Apply
for each case and note that there are no errors. Click Close when finished.

b. Generate the mesh again.


c. Observe the decrease in element count. The mesh count should be around 300,000 elements compared
to the previous 700,000 element count.
Figure 8.3: Comparison Between the Non-Conformal Mesh and the Conformal Mesh (p. 182) shows
the difference between the non-conformal mesh and the conformal mesh you have generated.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

181

Mesh and Model Enhancement Exercise


Notice that in the non-conformal mesh, mesh bleeding is minimal. In the conformal mesh, the mesh
bleeds throughout the cabinet, resulting in a much higher overall mesh count.
Figure 8.3: Comparison Between the Non-Conformal Mesh and the Conformal Mesh

8.9. Modification 2: Non-Conformal Mesh for the hi-flux-comps Cluster


1. View cut planes of the mesh to see if you have any more unnecessary mesh bleeding. Figure 8.4: Mesh
Bleeding After 1 Non-Conformal Region (p. 183) shows one such cut plane.
This time the unwanted meshing bleeding originates from the clusters of components named hi-fluxcomp (red colored objects).

182

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Modification 2: Non-Conformal Mesh for the hi-flux-comps Cluster


Figure 8.4: Mesh Bleeding After 1 Non-Conformal Region

2. Create a non-conformal mesh around the cluster of components named hi-flux-comp.


Even though you are only interested in isolating the hi-flux-comp objects, there are two cylindrical
objects very close to it. You have two choices.
Avoid the cylinders by using zero slack value. This may be too small and create a small gap between
the interface and the cylinders, which is not recommended because it can lead to cells with high aspect
ratios.
Include the cylinders to the assembly. This is the suggested approach.
3. Create a non-conformal assembly named hfc-asy that includes the objects with the names hi-fluxcomp, Tab, Die, or cylinder-comp. See the objects highlighted in Figure 8.5: Objects for Assembly hfcasy (p. 184). Note that the Tab and Die objects are physically contained within the hi-flux-comp objects.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

183

Mesh and Model Enhancement Exercise


Figure 8.5: Objects for Assembly hfc-asy

4. Edit the hfc-asy assembly and specify the slack settings as shown in Figure 8.6: Slack Settings for Assembly
hfc-asy (p. 185):

184

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Modification 2: Non-Conformal Mesh for the hi-flux-comps Cluster


Figure 8.6: Slack Settings for Assembly hfc-asy

5. Generate the mesh again.


6. Compare to the previous mesh and notice you have eliminated mesh bleeding originating from the hiflux-comp cluster (Figure 8.7: Mesh Bleeding Reduction due to Modification 2 (p. 186)).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

185

Mesh and Model Enhancement Exercise


Figure 8.7: Mesh Bleeding Reduction due to Modification 2

7. Repeat cut plane viewing. Figure 8.8: Mesh Bleeding from the Boards (p. 186) shows a cut plane view after
creating the two separate mesh regions. You can still eliminate the mesh bleeding emanating from the
boards.
Figure 8.8: Mesh Bleeding from the Boards

186

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Modification 4: Separation Tolerance and Minimum Gap Settings

8.10. Modification 3: A Super Assembly


Reduce the mesh bleeding you see in Figure 8.8: Mesh Bleeding from the Boards (p. 186) by first creating
a separately meshed assembly of everything inside the enclosure: all model objects excluding the cabinet and the cabinet openings. Remember to mesh the assembly separately and use a slack value of 1
mm on all faces. Generate a mesh as you have previously. Notice that the mesh no longer bleeds beyond
the enclosure. Consequently, the mesh count (170,000 elements) is significantly lower than it was previously (300,000 elements).
Figure 8.9: Cut Plane View of Recursive Embedded Mesh (p. 187) shows the resultant Y-center cut plane
of the mesh.
Figure 8.9: Cut Plane View of Recursive Embedded Mesh

This method of creating a super assembly containing sub-non-conformal assemblies is called "nested
non-conformal meshing" or "recursive embedded meshing".

8.11. Modification 4: Separation Tolerance and Minimum Gap Settings


Revisiting the Separation Setting
By default, ANSYS Icepak accepts all minimum gap changes. We shall revisit these changes now.
In the Mesh control panel, set all the Minimum gap settings to 1e-4 m (Figure 8.10: Minimum gap
Settings (p. 188)).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

187

Mesh and Model Enhancement Exercise


Figure 8.10: Minimum gap Settings

In the Misc tab, deselect Allow minimum gap changes.


Generate the mesh.
The pop-up message as shown in Figure 8.11: Separation Warning (p. 189) will appear.

188

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Modification 4: Separation Tolerance and Minimum Gap Settings


Figure 8.11: Separation Warning

This warning appears because the gap (think of it as a tolerance setting for the mesher) distance is
larger than 10% of the smallest feature in the model.
When there are objects smaller than the mesher tolerance, those objects will not be meshed correctly.
However, note that the minimum gap setting is a useful tool designed to avoid unnecessary meshing
in regions with inadvertent geometry misalignments (without modifying the geometry) or regions that
do not require physical modeling.
Look for the name of the object featured in the warning and its dimension.
The warning is about the die objects, which are 0.0004 m in width.

Note
Due to possibly different meshing priorities, you may get a warning for the object Airgap
first as the objects thickness is equal to the minimum gap settings. Select Change value
and mesh if that warning appears.
These objects are power generating components, which are thin conducting plates. The warning is
about the width of the packages.
The surface area of the dies is a critical parameter affecting the temperature prediction for the component. This cannot be simplified. Selecting Continue, dont change would essentially ignore the
small geometry of the dies during meshing.
Hence accept the suggested change in the minimum gap setting. The resultant mesh count is significantly lower than the mesh count of the original model.

Note
It is also possible to use a separation distance larger than the recommended 10%
value. Values of up to 50% (of the smallest dimension) may be used in cases where
reducing the mesh count is critical.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

189

Mesh and Model Enhancement Exercise


You will now get a separation warning about the tabs. You cannot change the geometry of the tabs,
so accept the suggested change in separation settings again.

Note
You may get a message in the text window such as "16 values were modified by less than
minimum separation values to eliminate small gaps". The mesher is modifying the geometry
itself to get rid of problematic small gaps due to misalignments. In this exercise, the
modifications are negligible and thus do not cause a problem.

8.12. Additional Exercise: Local Mesh Refinement and Comparisons


Between the Non-Conformal and Conformal Meshes
Refine the mesh locally for regions with higher gradients and therefore with greater resolution requirements.

Tip
The size of the first cells from critical heat-dissipating surfaces should be less than 1 mm
for a first cut analysis.
View the mesh cut plane on the wall of the enclosure object, the PCB, and the critical heat generating
components to see if you are fulfilling the above requirement.
Use the Object params control in the Local tab of the Mesh control panel to specify mesh refinement
near all the important surfaces mentioned above. The Object params panel allows localized, per-object
mesh control. For an example, enter 0.001 for the Element height of the enclosure object. A similar
approach can be taken for the pcb object.(Figure 8.12: Per-object Meshing Parameters (p. 190)).
Figure 8.12: Per-object Meshing Parameters

190

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Conclusion
Generate the mesh to verify your changes.
Now compare the conformal and non-conformal meshes.
Deselect the Mesh assemblies separately option in the Mesh control panels and generate the mesh.
The difference between the mesh with this check button selected and deselected is the effect of nonconformal meshing.
Problem setup, solution, and post-processing are beyond the scope of this exercise and are therefore not
explored.
Compare the suggested approach to meshing with the approach you were attempting during the initial
15 minute period of this tutorial.

8.13. Conclusion
You have significantly reduced the mesh count of a model through successive modifications to the
mesh. Consequently, the computing time and cost of the solution is much lower. Using approximate
object choices and enhanced meshing strategies, you have improved both the model and the mesh.
The approach delineated in this exercise can help reduce significant run time without compromising
the physics being modeled. Use the techniques you have learned in this tutorial to improve your meshes
in other projects.
We repeat some of the tips and best practices found in this tutorial for your convenience:
1. Best Practices
a. Maintain 2-3 cells within a slack region.
b. Identify problematic areas within your mesh by visually inspecting it.
c. Reduce the cell count by eliminating mesh bleeding and choosing appropriate minimum gap values.
d. Eliminate mesh bleeding by creating separately meshed assemblies.
e. Use the Case check macro to avoid intersections between different objects and/or assemblies.
f.

Choose suitable slack values to avoid mesh bleeding while adequately reducing mesh count.

g. Ensure that the size of the first cells from critical heat-dissipating surfaces is less than 1 mm for a first
cut analysis.
2. Tips and Tricks
a. Make objects temporarily invisible or inactive when the objects obstruct your view in the graphics
window.
b. Select appropriate minimum gap values to avoid unnecessary meshing in regions with inadvertent
geometry misalignments or in regions where physical modeling is unneeded.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

191

192

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 9: Loss Coefficient for a Hexa-Grille


9.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to define trials, run parametric solutions, and post-process the results.
Often, there is a need to calculate the loss coefficient of grilles that have certain hole patterns. The
purpose of the problem is to determine the minor loss coefficient of a grille that has hexagonal holes.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Define a parameter to optimize the design.
Define trials.
Define primary and compound functions that you want to report.
Calculate parametric solutions.
Report and plot parametric results.

9.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS Icepak and that you have
solved or read the tutorial Finned Heat Sink. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not
be shown explicitly.

9.3. Problem Description


The model includes a cabinet that is 160 mm in length with inlet and outlet openings at the two ends
(with cross sectional area of 7.363 mm x 12.7 mm), and four symmetry walls at the other sides. The
model also includes a part of the hexa-grille placed at the center of the channel in the streamwise direction, as shown in Figure 9.1: Problem Specification (p. 194). The grille has one full hexagonal hole at
the center and four quarter hexagonal holes placed around it. This pattern was selected because it
forms a periodic region and is sufficient to calculate the loss coefficient. The solution obtained from
this run can be replicated to form the solution for the entire domain.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

193

Loss Coefficient for a Hexa-Grille


Figure 9.1: Problem Specification

9.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Copy ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/loss-coefficient/loss-coefficient.tzr to your working
directory. Replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed
on your computer system.
2. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.
3. Click Unpack in the Welcome to Icepak panel.
The File selection panel appears.
4. In the File selection panel, select the packed project file loss-coefficient.tzr and click Open.
The Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog appears.
5. In the Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog, select a directory where you would like
to place the packed project file, enter a project name in the New project text field, then click Unpack.

9.5. Step 2: Build the Model


This tutorial uses an existing model. ANSYS Icepak displays the model in the graphics window, as shown
in Figure 9.2: Loaded Model (p. 195).

194

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 9.2: Loaded Model

Save the problem to a new project file.


This enables you to expand on the problem without affecting the original file.
File Save project as
1. In the Project text box, enter the name loss-coefficient-new.
2. Click Save.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

195

Loss Coefficient for a Hexa-Grille

9.6. Step 3: Define Parameters and Trials


You will first define a summary report of data at the openings. Next, you will specify a parameter, the
Reynolds number, and trials to vary the Reynolds number. You will also define primary and compound
functions to be reported. Primary functions are reported directly from ANSYS Icepak, such as the static
pressure or mean velocity at the inlet. Compound functions are composed of one or more primary
functions, such as the loss coefficient.
1. Define the report that displays average velocity and pressure data at the inlet and outlet openings.
Solve Define report

Note
The loss coefficient K is obtained by dividing the total pressure differential through the
domain by the average dynamic pressure,

   

 .

a. In the Define summary report panel, click New.


b. In the Objects drop-down list, select cabinet_default_side_maxx and click Accept.
c. In the Value drop-down list, select UX.
d. Repeat steps (a) and (b), then select Pressure in the Value drop-down list.
e. Repeat steps (a) through (d) for cabinet_default_side_minx.

196

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Define Parameters and Trials

f.

Click the Close button to accept the settings and close the panel.

2. Define a velocity parameter at the inlet opening in terms of the Reynolds number (

).

Note
The velocity at the inlet opening in terms of the Reynolds number (), which is customarily used in loss-coefficient plots in lieu of velocity, is calculated as  =    , where
the kinematic viscosity = 1.84e-5 kg/m.s, and the hydraulic diameter of the duct Dh =
9.322e-3 m.
a. Select the inlet opening, cabinet_default_side_minx, in the Model manager window, and then click
the Edit object button ( ) to open the Openings panel.
b. Click the Properties tab.
c. Select X Velocity and set the value to $Re*1.84e-5/9.322e-3.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

197

Loss Coefficient for a Hexa-Grille

d. Click Done to set the properties of the opening. This opens the Param value panel.
e. Set the Initial value of Re to 10, and click Done to close both the Param value and the Openings
panels.

3. Define six trials according to the different values of the Reynolds number.
Solve Define trials
a. In the Parameters and optimization panel, ensure you have selected Parametric trials and All
combinations in the Setup tab.

198

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Define Parameters and Trials

b. Click the Design variables tab, enter the following values for the Reynolds number in the box next
to the Discrete values field: 10 50 100 500 1000 1750.
Click Apply to accept the changes.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

199

Loss Coefficient for a Hexa-Grille

Note
Parameters values can also be exported/imported by clicking the Export or Import
button in the Setup tab of the Parameters and optimization panel. Clicking Export
or Import opens a file selection dialog box and overrides any existing data.

c. Click the Trials tab to review the trials. Ensure the Trials across top option at the bottom of the tab
is not selected, and click Reset to select Values instead of Numbered in order to use the base names
as values.

200

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Define Parameters and Trials

d. Do not close the panel yet. Proceed to the next step.


4. Set the parametric trials and define primary and compound functions.
a. While you are still in the Parameters and optimization panel, click the Setup tab.
b. Verify that the Parametric trials and All combinations options are selected.
c. Click the Functions tab.
d. Define four primary functions (Pstat_in, Pstat_out, Uave_in, and Uave_out).

Note
These functions represent static pressures and average velocities at the inlet and
outlet, respectively.
i.

Under Primary functions, click the New button to open the Define primary function panel.

ii. In the Define primary function panel, enter Pstat_in for the Function name.
iii. Select Report summary from the Function type drop-down list and cabinet_default_side_minx
Pressure from the Item drop-down list and retain the selection of Max.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

201

Loss Coefficient for a Hexa-Grille


iv. Click Accept to accept the changes and close the panel.

v. Repeat steps (i) through (iv) for the following three functions:
Function
name

Function type

Item

Max/Mean

Pstat_out

Report summary

cabinet_default_side_maxx
Pressure

Max

Uave_in

Report summary

cabinet_default_side_minx UX

Mean

Uave_out

Report summary

cabinet_default_side_maxx UX

Mean

Important
All function names are case-sensitive.

5. Define five compound functions (Pdyn_in, Pdyn_out, Ptot_in, Ptot_out, and Kfact).
a. Under Compound functions, click the New button to open the Define compound function panel.
b. In the Define compound function panel, enter Pdyn_in for the Function name.
c. Next to Definition enter 0.5*1.1614*$Uave_in*$Uave_in.

d. Click Accept to accept the changes and close the panel.


e. Repeat steps (a) through (d) for the following four functions:

202

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Generate a Mesh


Function name

Definition

Pdyn_out

0.5*1.1614*$Uave_out*$Uave_out

Ptot_in

$Pstat_in+$Pdyn_in

Ptot_out

$Pstat_out+$Pdyn_out

Kfact

($Ptot_in-$Ptot_out)/$Pdyn_out

6. Click Done to close the Parameters and optimization panel.

9.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


For this model, you will generate the mesh in just one step. The resulting mesh will be sufficiently fine
near object faces to resolve the flow physics properly.
Model Generate Mesh
1. Generate the mesh for the model.
a. Keep all the defaults in the Mesh control panel.
b. Click Generate in the Mesh control panel to generate the mesh.
2. Examine the mesh.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

203

Loss Coefficient for a Hexa-Grille


a. Click the Display tab.
b. Select the Cut plane option.
c. In the Set position drop-down list, select Y plane through center.
d. Select the Display mesh option.

Note
The mesh display plane is an X-Z cut plane through the center of the cabinet as shown
in Figure 9.3: Mesh on the X-Z Plane (p. 204).
Figure 9.3: Mesh on the X-Z Plane

e. Deselect the Cut plane check box. Select the Volume check box.
f.

In the Object display options group box, select Selected object.

g. In the Model manager window, click block.1. View the volume mesh of the hex structure (Figure 9.4: Volume Mesh of Object block.1 (p. 205)).

204

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 9.4: Volume Mesh of Object block.1

3. Deselect the Display mesh option to turn off the mesh display.
4. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.

9.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


Note
Basic parameters panel as described below, you can instead
Instead of accessing the
use the Problem setup wizard for guided problem setup by double-clicking Problem
setup in the model manager window. See 2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings of
the Finned Heat Sink tutorial for more instruction regarding the Problem setup wizard. You
must still use the same settings described in this tutorial for the Problem setup wizard.
1. Confirm that ANSYS Icepak solves for only the flow variables (velocity/pressure) and that the flow regime
is laminar.
Problem setup

Basic parameters

a. Keep the default selection of Flow (velocity/pressure) under Variables solved.


b. Keep the default selection of Laminar for the Flow regime.
c. Click Accept to close the panel.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

205

Loss Coefficient for a Hexa-Grille

2. Increase the Number of iterations to 500.


Solution settings

Basic settings

a. Enter 500 in the Number of iterations field.


b. Click Accept in the Basic settings panel.

206

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings

3. Confirm under-relaxation factors are correct.


Solution settings

Advanced settings

a. Make sure the Precision for the solver is Double.


b. Click Accept in the Advanced solver setup panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

207

Loss Coefficient for a Hexa-Grille

9.9. Step 6: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the project you saved and continue your analysis in a future
ANSYS Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will
simply overwrite your project file when it saves the model.)
File Save project

208

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Examine the Results

9.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution


Start the calculation.
1. Solve Run optimization

Note
Alternatively, you can click the
button in the Model and solve toolbar to display the
Parameters and optimization panel.

2. Make sure Allow fast trials (single .cas file) is not selected in the Setup tab.
3. Click Run in the Parameters and optimization panel.

9.11. Step 8: Examine the Results


As ANSYS Icepak starts performing the trials, the Parametric trials panel opens, displaying all the
function values defined previously, as well as parameters and running times for each trial. You can also
open the Parametric trials panel by selecting Show optimization/param results from the Report
menu.
Report Show optimization/param results

Plot the loss coefficient, Kfact, against the Reynolds number, Re.
1. In the Parametric trials panel, click the Plot button to open the Selection panel.
2. In the Selection panel, select Re as the

axis variable, and click Okay.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

209

Loss Coefficient for a Hexa-Grille


3. In another Selection panel, which automatically opens up, select Kfact as the y axis variable, and click
Accept.
This displays the plot Kfact vs Re, as shown in Figure 9.5: Kfact vs Re Plot (p. 210)
Figure 9.5: Kfact vs Re Plot

9.12. Step 9: Summary


In this tutorial, you have used the parameterization feature to calculate the loss coefficient of a grille
as a function of a varying Reynolds number (Re). You also defined other functions, such as static pressures
and velocities at the inlet and outlet, for ANSYS Icepak to report as functions of the varying Reynolds
number. The results show that the loss coefficient decreases with an increasing Reynolds number. More
explicitly, the loss coefficient decays into an asymptote as the Reynolds number increases.
We repeat some of the tips and best practices found in this tutorial for your convenience:
Best Practice
Use the Problem setup wizard for guided problem setup. Edit the problem setup if needed using the
Basic parameters panel.
Tips and Tricks

210

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Summary
Use the Parameters and optimization feature to perform a parametric analysis of your system.
Create your own independent variable, such as a varying Reynolds number, in the Design variables
tab of the Parameters and optimization panel.
Define your own customized quantities for ANSYS Icepak to report in the Functions tab of the Parameters and optimization panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

211

212

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 10: Inline and Staggered Heat Sinks Comparison


10.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to use the check-box (boolean) parameter control for design variables,
and how to assign primary functions, in order to determine whether an inline or a staggered pin fin
heat sink performs better in a single model. You will compare the resulting maximum temperatures on
the package. Non-conformal meshing will also be used to reduce the cell count, required memory, and
run time. In addition, you will generate particle traces during the post-processing of the results.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Define a check-box parameter (design variable).
Define different values for a design variable.
Run and report parametric trials.
Clip a plane cut to align it with the sides of a heat sink assembly.
Display particle traces coming from the fan and the opening.

10.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS Icepak and that you have
solved or read the tutorial Finned Heat Sink. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not
be shown explicitly.

10.3. Problem Description


The model includes the package assembly, containing a BGA package object (compact conduction
model), inline or staggered assemblies consisting of the respective heat sink objects, PCB object,
spreader plate, a fan at the exit, and an opening at the inlet of the wind tunnel. The model geometry
is shown in Figure 10.1: Problem Specification (p. 214).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

213

Inline and Staggered Heat Sinks Comparison


Figure 10.1: Problem Specification

10.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Copy the file
ICEPAK_ROOT /tutorials/heat_sink/heat_sink2b.tzr to your working directory. You
must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed
on your computer system.
2. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Section 1.5 of the Users Guide.

Note
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel will open automatically.

214

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


3. Click Unpack in the Welcome to Icepak panel.

Note
The File selection panel will appear.

4. In the File selection panel, select the packed project file heat_sink2b.tzr and click Open.

Note
The Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog will appear.

5. In the Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog, select a directory where you would like
to place the packed project file, enter a project name in the New project text field, then click Unpack.

10.5. Step 2: Build the Model


Note
This tutorial uses an existing model. ANSYS Icepak will display the heat sink model in the
graphics window. To view all components, expand all the assemblies of the model in the
Model manager window.

Note
You can rotate the cabinet around a central point using the left mouse button, or you can
translate it to any point on the screen using the middle mouse button. You can zoom into
and out from the cabinet using the right mouse button. To restore the cabinet to its default
orientation, select Home position from the Orient menu.
Save the problem to a new project file.

Note
This will allow you to expand on the problem without affecting the original file.
File Save project as
In the Project name text box, enter the name heat-sink-new.
Click Save.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

215

Inline and Staggered Heat Sinks Comparison

10.6. Step 3: Define Design Variables


Note
For both heat sinks, you will define the HeatSink parameter, which will activate/deactivate
heat sinks parametrically.
1. Define the HeatSink parameter for the Inline heat sink.
a. Select the Inline assembly in the Model manager window, and then click the Edit object button
( ) to open the Assemblies panel.

216

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Define Design Variables

b. Right-click the Active check box to open the Active parameter panel.
c. Select ON if variable is equal to this objects name.
d. Enter $HeatSink in the Variable field.

Caution
Note that all function names are case sensitive.

e. Click Accept in the Active parameter panel to accept the changes and close the panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

217

Inline and Staggered Heat Sinks Comparison


f.

Click Update in the Assemblies panel to open the Param value panel.

g. In the Param value panel, enter Staggered for the Initial value of HeatSink, and click Done to
close the panel.

Note
The word Active in the Assemblies panel became green. Also, note that the Inline
assembly in the Model manager window is moved to the Inactive node.

h. Click Done in the Assemblies panel to close the panel.


2. Define the HeatSink parameter for the Staggered heat sink. Repeat the above steps for the Staggered
assembly:
a. Select the Staggered assembly and open its Assemblies panel.
b. Right-click the Active check box.
c. Enter $HeatSink in the Variable field.
d. Click Accept.
e. Click Done to exit the Assemblies panel.

Note
You do not have to specify the initial value of $HeatSink again.

10.7. Step 4: Define Parametric Runs and Assign Primary Functions


You will first define values for your design variable. Next, you will review parametric trials and define
primary functions to be calculated and reported.
Solve Run optimization

Extra
Alternatively, you can click the

button.

1. Define parameter values.


a. In the Parameters and optimization panel, click the Design variables tab.
218

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Define Parametric Runs and Assign Primary Functions


b. Next to Discrete values, after "Staggered" type in "Inline". Make sure to separate the two
with a space.
c. Click Apply to accept the changes.

2. Review trials.
a. Click the Trials tab.
b. Make sure that the Order for Staggered is 1, and for Inline is 2.
c. Select tr_HeatSink_Staggered as the Restart ID for the tr_HeatSink_Inline trial as shown in the
image below. This allows the second trial to use the first trials solution data to converge its own
solution more quickly.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

219

Inline and Staggered Heat Sinks Comparison

3. Define a primary function.


a. Click the Functions tab.
b. Click the New button in the Primary functions group box.

220

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Define Parametric Runs and Assign Primary Functions

c. In the Define primary function panel, enter Tmax next to Function name.
d. In the Value drop-down list, select Maximum temperature of objects.
e. In the Object drop-down list, select the 700_BGA_40X40_5peripheral_p1.50 object in the Package
assembly, and click Accept.

f.

In the Define primary function panel, click Accept to save the changes and close the panel.

g. Click Done in the Parameters and optimization panel to close the panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

221

Inline and Staggered Heat Sinks Comparison

10.8. Step 5: Generate a Mesh


For this model, you will not generate a mesh in advance. Meshing will be automatically performed for
each design trial during the parametric trials.
Model Generate Mesh
1. Set the Mesh type to Mesher-HD.
2. In the Global tab, ensure that the Mesh assemblies separately option is selected.
3. Keep all other defaults in the Mesh control panel. Your panel settings should resemble those in Figure 10.2: Mesh control Panel Settings (p. 222).
Figure 10.2: Mesh control Panel Settings

4. Click Close in the Mesh control panel to close the panel.

222

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 6: Physical and Numerical Settings

10.9. Step 6: Physical and Numerical Settings


Note
Instead of accessing the
Basic parameters panel, you can instead use the Problem setup
wizard to define your problem setup by double-clicking Problem setup in the model
manager window. See 2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings of the Finned Heat Sink
tutorial for more instruction regarding the Problem setup wizard. You must still use the
same settings described in this tutorial for the Problem setup wizard.
1. Define basic parameters.
Problem setup

Basic parameters

a. In the Radiation box, select Off.


b. In the Flow regime box, select Turbulent and the Zero equation turbulence model.
c. In the Natural convection box, ensure the Gravity vector check box is not selected.
d. Your Basic parameters settings should resemble those in Figure 10.3: Basic parameters Panel Settings (p. 224). Click Accept when you are done.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

223

Inline and Staggered Heat Sinks Comparison


Figure 10.3: Basic parameters Panel Settings

2. Define basic settings.


Solution settings

Basic settings

a. Set the Number of iterations to 300.


b. Set Energy to 1e-8.
c. Click Accept in the Basic settings panel to accept the settings and close the panel.
3. Define advanced settings.
Solution settings

Advanced settings

a. Set Precision to Double.


b. Click Accept in the Advanced solver setup panel to accept the settings and close the panel.

224

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Calculate a Solution

10.10. Step 7: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the project you saved and continue your analysis in a future
ANSYS Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will
simply overwrite your project file when it saves the model.)
File Save project

10.11. Step 8: Monitor Points


Observe that monitor points have already been defined as shown in Figure 10.4: Monitor Points (p. 225).
The monitor point for the 700_BGA_4 package object is set for temperature monitoring, and the Xmax
opening object is set for velocity monitoring. You can set up your own monitor points by dragging and
dropping an object into the Points node.
Figure 10.4: Monitor Points

In addition to the residual plot, the monitor plot will display temperature at the center of the BGA
package object during the solution process and provide another indication of convergence as the
temperature settles on a fixed value.

10.12. Step 9: Calculate a Solution


1. Open the Parameters and optimization panel.par
Solve Run optimization

Note
You can click the

button in the Model and solve toolbar.

2. Click the Setup tab, and make sure that options Parametric trials and All combinations are selected.
Deselect Allow fast trials (single .cas file).
3. Click Run in the Parameters and optimization panel, to start the calculations.

Note
As ANSYS Icepak starts calculating solutions for the model, the Solution residuals window,
displaying convergence history, and the Temperature Point monitors window will open.
Also, the Parametric trials panel will open displaying the function values, as well as
parameters and running times for both trials, as shown in Figure 10.5: The Parametric
trials Panel (p. 226). The Parametric trials can also be opened by selecting Show optimization/param results from the Report menu.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

225

Inline and Staggered Heat Sinks Comparison


Figure 10.5: The Parametric trials Panel

10.13. Step 10: Examine the Results


The results from tr_HeatSink_Inline will be examined in this section.
1. In the Orient menu, select Orient negative Z.
2. Display velocity vectors on a plane cut at the exit region of the heat sink.
Post Plane cut

Extra
You can also open the Plane cut panel by clicking the

button.

a. In the Name field, enter the name cut_velocity.


b. In the Set position drop-down list, select Vertical - screen select.
c. Select a point in the graphics window between the fan and the heat sink assembly.
d. Select the Show vectors option, and click Parameters to open the Plane cut vectors panel.
e. Set the Arrow style drop-down list to 3D arrow heads.
f.

In the Plane cut vectors panel, in the Color levels group box, select This object from the Calculated
drop-down list.

g. Your Plane cut vectors panel should resemble that in Figure 10.6: Plane cut vectors Panel (p. 227).

226

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 10: Examine the Results


Figure 10.6: Plane cut vectors Panel

h. Click Done in the Plane cut vectors panel to accept the changes and close the panel.
i.

In the Orient menu, select Isometric view.

Note
The graphics window is updated, as shown in Figure 10.7: Velocity Vectors at the Exit
Region of the Heat Sink (p. 228)

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

227

Inline and Staggered Heat Sinks Comparison


Figure 10.7: Velocity Vectors at the Exit Region of the Heat Sink

3. Move this plane cut through the model.


a. While holding down the Shift key, click and hold down the middle mouse button on an edge of the
plane cut.
b. Drag the plane cut through the model in the graphics display window as shown below:

228

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 10: Examine the Results

4. Clip the plane cut to align it with the sides of the heat sink assembly.
a. In the Orient menu, first select Orient positive X, then Scale to fit.
b. In the Plane cut panel (that was already opened), select Enable clipping, then click Max Y in the
orange region under Clip to box.
c. Click the top edge of the assembly in the graphics window.
d. In the Plane cut panel, click Min Z in the orange region under Clip to box.
e. Click the left edge of the assembly in the graphics window.
f.

In the Plane cut panel, click Max Z in the orange region under Clip to box.

g. Click the right edge of the assembly in the graphics window.


h. Click the Update button.

Note
The graphics window will be updated, as shown in Figure 10.8: Clipped Plane
Cut (p. 230)

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

229

Inline and Staggered Heat Sinks Comparison


Figure 10.8: Clipped Plane Cut

5. Display particle traces in a forward direction.


a. In the Orient menu, select Isometric view.
b. In the Plane cut panel, deselect Show vectors and Enable clipping and select Show particle traces.
c. Click Parameters next to Show particle traces to open the Plane cut particles panel.
d. Select Speed from the Color variable drop-down list.
e. In the Display options group box, keep the default selection of Uniform, and enter 50.
f.

In the Style group box, ensure the Trail check box is selected. For Width, enter 3.

g. In the Color levels group box, select This object from the Calculated drop-down list. Your settings
should match those in Figure 10.9: Plane cut particles Panel (p. 231).

230

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 10: Examine the Results


Figure 10.9: Plane cut particles Panel

h. Click Done to update the graphics window.

Note
The graphics window will display the particle traces in the forward direction, as shown
in Figure 10.10: Forward Particle Traces (p. 232)

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

231

Inline and Staggered Heat Sinks Comparison


Figure 10.10: Forward Particle Traces

6. Display particle traces at the opening (Xmax).


a. In the Orient menu, select Orient negative Z.
b. In the Plane cut panel, deselect Active and click New.
c. In the Name field, enter the name opening-velocity.
d. In the Set position drop-down list, select Vertical - screen select.
e. Select a point in the graphics window near the opening (Xmax).
f.

Select the Show particle traces option, and click Parameters to open the Plane cut particles panel.

g. Select Speed from the Variable drop-down list.


h. In the display options group box, keep the default selection of Uniform, and enter 70.
232

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 11: Summary


i.

In the Style group box, keep the default selection of Trail. Type 3 for Width.

j.

In the Color levels group box, select This object from the Calculated drop-down list.

k. Click Done in the Plane cut particles and Plane cut panels to close the panels and update the
graphics window.
l.

In the Orient menu, select Isometric view.


Figure 10.11: Opening Particle Traces

10.14. Step 11: Summary


In this tutorial, you have used the optimization tool to determine whether an inline or a staggered pin
fin heat sink performs more effectively in this particular model. The resulting maximum temperature
on the package was found to be higher in the case of the staggered heat sink.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

233

Inline and Staggered Heat Sinks Comparison


We repeat some of the tips and best practices found in this tutorial for your convenience:
1. Best Practice
a. Use the Problem setup wizard for guided problem setup. Edit the problem setup if needed using
the

Basic parameters panel.

b. Create monitor points of relevant quantities (temperature, pressure, or velocity) to help judge convergence alongside residuals.
2. Tips and Tricks
a. Select a preceding trial's name as the Restart ID for another trial to speed up the convergence.
b. Drag a plane cut through the model by pressing Shift while clicking the middle mouse button on
the edge of the plane cut.

234

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 11: Minimizing Thermal Resistance


11.1. Introduction
Heat sink optimization is crucial in a variety of industrial applications. Usually, the challenge is to minimize the thermal resistance (or to maximize the heat transfer) and the amount of material used for the
heat sink. The objective of this tutorial is to minimize the thermal resistance for the big heat sink, while
keeping the maximum temperature in the entire system below 70C and ensuring that the total mass
of the heat sinks does not exceed 0.326 kg.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Set up an optimization problem.
Define design variables.
Define primary, compound, and objective functions.
Set up an optimization problem and publish variables to Workbench for use in ANSYS DesignXplorer.

11.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with ANSYS Workbench but familiar with the menu
structure in Icepak and that you have solved or read the tutorial Finned Heat Sink.

11.3. Problem Description


The model comprises an FR-4 board (FR-4.1) of 20.32 cm 30.48 cm and 1.59 mm thick with several
components placed on the board (Figure 11.1: Problem Specification (p. 236)). Two grilles are placed at
the upstream and downstream of the board with the free flow area ratios of 60% and 50%, respectively.
There are also two components (block.1.3 and block.1.3.1) dissipating 5 W each.
There is a CPU (block.1) dissipating 50W and a heat sink (heatsink_small) is placed on the top of it.
Between the heat sink and the CPU, there is a thermal interface material (TIM_1) with a thermal conductivity of W/mK. These components and three small power caps (power_cap_1.1, power_cap_1.1.1
and power_cap_1.1.2), dissipating 1 W each, form a non-conformal assembly (hs_assembly_1).
On the other side of the board, there are printed circuit boards racks, dissipating 20 W each, and a
parallel plate heat sink (heatsink_big) is placed on the top of the chips. Similar to the case of the small
heat sink, there is a thermal interface material (TIM_2.1 and TIM_2.1.1) between the large heat sink
and the chips with the same thermal conductivity. These components together form a non-conformal
assembly (hs_assembly_2).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

235

Minimizing Thermal Resistance


Figure 11.1: Problem Specification

11.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Copy ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/optimization/optimization.tzr to your working directory.
Replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed on your
computer system.
2. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak Users Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.
3. Click Unpack in the Welcome to Icepak panel.
The File selection panel appears.
4. In the File selection panel, select the packed project file optimization.tzr and click Open.
The Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog appears.
5. In the Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog, select a directory where you would like
to place the packed project file, enter a project name in the New project text field, then click Unpack.

236

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Define Design Variables

11.5. Step 2: Build the Model


This tutorial uses an existing model. ANSYS Icepak will display the model in the graphics window. To
view all components, expand all the assemblies of the model in the Model manager window.

Note
You can rotate the cabinet around a central point using the left mouse button, or you can
translate it to any point on the screen using the middle mouse button. You can zoom into
and out from the cabinet using the right mouse button. To restore the cabinet to its default
orientation, select Home position from the Orient menu.
Save the problem to a new project file (this enables you to expand on the problem without affecting
the original file).
File Save project as
1. In the Project name text box, enter the name optimization-new.
2. Click Save.

11.6. Step 3: Define Design Variables


The large heat sink needs to be optimized in terms of the number of fins and fin thickness. Therefore,
you will define the following design variables for the large heat sink: fin count (in the range from 2 to
18) and fin thickness (in the range from 0.254 mm to 2.032 mm).
1. Define the finCount and finThick design variables for the heatsink_big and specify their initial
values.
a. Expand the hs_assembly_2 node in the Model manager window.
b. Select the heatsink_big in the Model manager window and click the Edit object button (
open the Heat sinks panel.

) to

c. Click the Properties tab.


d. Under the Fin setup tab, type $finCount next to Count, and press Enter on the keyboard to
open the Param value panel.

Important
All function names are case-sensitive.

e. In the Param value panel, enter 15 for the Initial value of finCount, and click Done to close the
panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

237

Minimizing Thermal Resistance

f.

In the Heat sinks panel, under the Fin setup tab, type $finThick next to Thickness, and press
Enter on the keyboard to open the Param value panel.

g. In the Param value panel, enter 0.762 for the Initial value of finThick, and click Done to close the
panel.

h. Click Done in the Heat sinks panel to close the panel.


2. Specify the constraint values for the design variables.
Solve Run optimization

Extra
Alternatively, you can click the

238

button.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Define Design Variables


a. Turn on the Optimization option in the Setup tab. Then click on the Design variables tab.

The design variables that you had defined will be listed in the panel, and their initial values will
be shown in the Base value text box.
b. Select finCount from the list, then enter 2 for the Min value constraint, 18 for the Max value
constraint.
c. Select Allow only multiples, keep the default value of 1, and click Apply.
d. Select finThick from the list, then enter 0.254 for the Min value constraint, 2.032 for the Max
value constraint, and click Apply.
e. Make sure Allow only multiples is only activated for finCount, not finThick.
f.

Click Done to close the Parameters and optimization panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

239

Minimizing Thermal Resistance

11.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


For this model, you will not generate a mesh in advance. Meshing will be automatically performed for
each design trial during parametric trials.
Model Generate Mesh.
1. Make sure that the Mesh type is Mesher-HD and the Mesh assemblies separately option is turned on.
2. Make sure the Allow minimum gap changes is enabled in the Misc tab.
3. Click Close in the Mesh control panel to close the panel.

11.8. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


Problem setup

Basic parameters

1. Keep all the defaults in the Basic parameters panel.


2. Click Accept in the Basic parameters panel to accept the settings and close the panel.
Solution settings

Basic Settings

1. Make sure Number of iterations is 125.


2. Make sure the convergence criteria for Flow is 0.001, and for Energy is 1e-7.
3. Click Accept to close the Basic settings panel.

11.9. Step 6: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the project you saved and continue your analysis in a future
ANSYS Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will
simply overwrite your project file when it saves the model.)

11.10. Step 7: Define Primary, Compound, and Objective Functions


Note
The objective of this tutorial is to minimize the thermal resistance of the heat sink while
keeping the maximum temperature for the entire system below 70C and ensuring that the
total mass of the heat sinks does not exceed 0.326 kg. Therefore, you will define the following
primary functions: thermal resistance for the large heat sink (bighsrth), mass of the large
heat sink (bighsms), mass of the small heat sink (smlhsms), and global maximum temperature of 70C (mxtmp). You will also define a compound function, the total mass of the heat
sinks of 0.326 kg (totalmass). For the objective function, you will minimize the thermal
resistance of the large heat sink (bighsrth).
1. Go to Solve Run optimization to open the Parameters and optimization panel.

240

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Define Primary, Compound, and Objective Functions


2. In the Functions tab, define four primary functions.
a. Define the thermal resistance function for the large heat sink (bighsrth).
i.

Click the New button under Primary functions.

ii. In the Define primary function panel, enter bighsrth next to Function name.
iii. In the Function type drop-down list, keep the default selection of Global value.
iv. In the Value drop-down list, select Thermal resistance of heatsink.
v. In the Object drop-down list, select the heatsink_big object under hs_assembly_2, and click
Accept to save the changes and close the panel.
b. Define the mass function for the large heat sink (bighsms).
i.

Repeat step (a) for the bighsms as the Function name, Global value as the Function type,
Mass of objects as the Value, and heatsink_big as the Object.

c. Define the mass function for the small heat sink (smlhsms).
i.

Repeat step (a) for the smlhsms as the Function name, Global value as the Function type,
Mass of objects as the Value, and heatsink_small as the Object.

d. Define a constraint function as the global maximum temperature of 70C (mxtmp).


i.

Click the New button under Primary functions.

ii. In the Define primary function panel, enter mxtmp next to Function name.
iii. In the Function type drop-down list, keep the default selection of Global value.
iv. In the Value drop-down list, keep the default selection of Global maximum temperature.
v. Select Constraint and keep the default selection of Max value.
vi. Enter 70 in the text entry field and click Accept to save the changes and close the panel.
3. Define a compound function.
a. Under Compound functions, click the New button to open the Define compound function panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

241

Minimizing Thermal Resistance

b. In the Define compound function panel, enter totalmass for the Function name.
c. Next to Definition enter $bighsms+$smlhsms.
d. Select Constraint and keep the default selection of Max value.
e. Enter 0.326 in the text entry field and click Accept to save the changes and close the panel.
4. Define an objective function.
a. In the Parameters and optimization panel, select bighsrth from the Objective function drop-down
list.
b. Keep the default selection of Minimize value.

242

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Calculate a Solution

11.11. Step 8: Calculate a Solution


1. Open the Parameters and optimization panel, if it is not already opened.
Solve Run optimization

Note
Alternatively, you can click the

button in the Model and solve toolbar.

2. Set up the optimization process.


a. In the Parameters and optimization panel, click the Setup tab.
b. Verify that the Optimization option is turned on, and keep all the defaults for this option.
c. Deselect Allow fast trials (single .cas file).

Note
Due to the geometry change based on the fin thickness and fin count, the fast trials
option is not possible in this problem.

d. Select Sequential solution of flow and energy equations.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

243

Minimizing Thermal Resistance

3. Click Run in the Parameters and optimization panel to start the calculations.

11.12. Step 9: Examine the Results


As ANSYS Icepak starts calculating solutions for the model, the Optimization run window opens and
ANSYS Icepak displays the function values, design variables, and the running times for each optimization
iteration. In addition, the function values and design variables are plotted versus iteration number, as
shown in Figure 11.2: The Optimization run Panel (p. 245).

244

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 10: Optimization in DesignXplorer


Figure 11.2: The Optimization run Panel

Note
Each iteration takes three trials.

11.13. Step 10: Optimization in DesignXplorer


Start ANSYS Workbench.

Note
When ANSYS Workbench starts, the Toolbox and Project Schematic are displayed.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

245

Minimizing Thermal Resistance

Add an Icepak template by dragging the template from the Toolbar under the Component Systems node
into the Project Schematic. Perform a right mouse click on the Setup cell. select Import Icepak Project
and Browse to import the optimization-new project and launch Icepak.
The model appears in the graphics display window. Click the isometric toolbar icon (
isometric view of the model.

) to display the

Go to Solve Run optimization to open the Parameters and optimization panel. Click on Publish
to WB to display the Publish variables panel and select the green check marks to select all input and
output variables. Output variables for Workbench are primary and compound functions in Icepak. Click
Accept to save your specifications and click Done to close the panel.

246

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 10: Optimization in DesignXplorer

In Workbench, the Parameter Set is displayed. Double click the Parameter Set bar to display an outline
of all parameters and the table of design points.

From the Toolbox under the Design Exploration node, add a Response Surface Optimization template
by dragging the template into the Project Schematic.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

247

Minimizing Thermal Resistance

Perform a right mouse click on the Design of Experiments cell and select Preview to see a preview
of design points. Again, perform a right mouse click on the Design of Experiments cell and select
Update to run an optimization. The optimization data will provide information of the variable affected
the most by the different combinations.
Figure 11.3: Design of Experiments

Next double click on the Optimization cell to open it. Enter the objectives and constraints as shown
in the figure below. Click Update to run an optimization.

248

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 12: Additional Exercise


Figure 11.4: Optimization Constraints

To see the Candidate Points selected, click on Candidate Points in the Outline of Schematic. The
optimal fin count and thickness are determined.

11.14. Step 11: Summary


In this tutorial, you used the optimization tool to minimize the thermal resistance for the big heat sink.
The results show that ANSYS Icepak predicts the best (optimized) case has a fin count of 18 and a fin
thickness of 0.56 mm. In this case, the maximum temperature for the entire system is determined to
be 69.26C (with the constraint of 70C) while the total mass is 0.3146 kg (with the constraint of 0.326
kg). The objective function (thermal resistance) is predicted as 0.242C/W.
If we compare the results from DesignXplorer to ANSYS Icepak, you will find similar results. In addition
further parametric and direct optimization methods can be tried.

11.15. Step 12: Additional Exercise


You can also try to optimize the fin count and the fin thickness of both heat sinks and the free flow
area ratios of the inlet and exit grilles. A sample case may be as follows:
Design variables
Fin count for the large heat sink: 2-20
Fin thickness for the large heat sink: 0.254-2.032mm
Fin count for the small heat sink: 2-12
Fin thickness for the small heat sink: 0.254-2.032 mm
Free flow area ratio of the inlet grille: 30-80%
Free flow area ratio of the exit grille: 30-80%

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

249

Minimizing Thermal Resistance


Primary functions
Thermal resistance for the large heat sink (bighsrth)
Mass of the large heat sink (bighsms)
Mass of the small heat sink (smlhsms)
Maximum temperature for the entire system: 70C (mxtmp)
Compound function
Total mass of the heat sinks: 0.45 kg (totalmass)
Objective function
Minimize the large heat sink thermal resistance (bighsrth)

250

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 12: Radiation Modeling


12.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to model radiation in ANSYS Icepak. In this tutorial, you will learn how
to include the effects of radiation in a free convection environment with surface-to-surface (S2S), discrete
ordinates (DO) and ray-tracing radiation models.

12.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have worked on Sample Session and the tutorials Finned Heat Sink and
RF Amplifier in this guide.

12.3. Problem Description


Radiation heat transfer becomes significant at high temperatures and is typically more important for
natural convection problems as compared to forced convection problems in electronics cooling applications. ANSYS Icepak provides three different models to solve for radiation effects: surface-to-surface
(S2S), discrete-ordinates (DO) and ray-tracing. This tutorial involves a source with a heat sink placed on
a printed circuit board (PCB) and is being cooled with natural convection. We will first solve the model
without radiation, then use the surface to surface model followed by the discrete ordinates and the ray
tracing models and lastly compare the results of all these four cases.

12.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


Open a new project and name it hsink-rad.

12.5. Step 2: Build the Model


1. Open the Cabinet panel by double-clicking the Cabinet object in the Model manager window. In the
Geometry tab, enable the Fix values option to ensure the values are appropriately converted as we use
different units. Change all the units from m to mm. Then, input the following dimensions in the Geometry
tab of the Cabinet panel (Figure 12.1: Dimensions of the Cabinet and the Boundary Condition Specifications (p. 252)).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

251

Radiation Modeling
Figure 12.1: Dimensions of the Cabinet and the Boundary Condition Specifications

2. In the Properties tab of the Cabinet panel, define all the sides of the cabinet as shown above. The Min
y and Max y sides are defined as openings while all the remaining sides are stationary walls.
3. Click Done to close the Cabinet panel.
4. The printed circuit board (PCB), heat sink base and the fins of the heat sink will be constructed using
the block object in ANSYS Icepak.
5. Create the PCB.
a. First, create a block and rename it as PCB in the Info tab of the Blocks panel.
b. Specify the dimensions of the block in the Geometry tab as shown below in Figure 12.2: Dimensions
of the PCB (p. 253).

252

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 12.2: Dimensions of the PCB

c. Click Done to close the Blocks panel.


6. Create a new material and assign it to the PCB.
a. Right-click the Model node and select Create object and then Material. A new node called Materials
will appear.
b. Expand the Materials node until you reach material.1. Double-click material.1 to open the Materials
panel.
c. In the Properties tab of the Materials panel, choose Orthotropic from the Conductivity type dropdown list.
i.

Enter 40, 40, and 0.4 W/m-K for the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively.

d. Click Done to close the Materials panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

253

Radiation Modeling
e. In the Model manager window, double-click the PCB object we created to open the Blocks panel
again.
f.

In the Properties tab of the Blocks panel, select material.1 from the Solid material drop-down list
as shown in Figure 12.3: Specifying material.1 as PCB Solid Material (p. 254).
Figure 12.3: Specifying material.1 as PCB Solid Material

g. Click Done to close the Blocks panel.


7. Create the heat sink base.
a. Create a new block and rename it as hs-base in the Info tab of the Blocks panel.
b. Specify the dimensions of the block in the Geometry tab as shown below in Figure 12.4: Dimensions
of the hs-base (p. 255).

254

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 12.4: Dimensions of the hs-base

c. Click Done to close the Blocks panel.


8. Create the fins.
a. Create a new block and rename it as hs-fin.1.1 in the Info tab of the Blocks panel.
b. Specify the dimensions of the block in the Geometry tab as shown below in Figure 12.5: Heat Sink
Fin Dimensions (p. 256).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

255

Radiation Modeling
Figure 12.5: Heat Sink Fin Dimensions

c. Leave all the other properties as their default values. Click Done to close the Blocks panel.
d. Create the remaining fins by using the copy feature.
i.

Right-click the hs-fin1.1 object in the Model manager window and select Copy. The Copy block
hs-fin.1.1 panel opens.

ii. Set Number of copies to 8.


iii. Check the Translate option and set the X, Y and Z offset to 15, 0, and 0 mm respectively.
iv. Click Apply to close the Copy block hs-fin.1.1 panel and create the new fins.
9. Create a 75 W, 2D source.
a. Create a source using the Create sources button in the model toolbar.

256

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


b. In the Sources panel, specify the geometry and properties of the source according to Figure 12.6: Source at the Bottom on the Heat Sink (p. 257).

Note
Click Update for the panel to display a value of 0 m for zE.

Tip
Alternatively, you can use the snapping tools from the geometry window to align the
sources dimensions to those of the Min z side of the hs-base block object. The
snapping tools here are labeled by their respective faces, such as xS, xE, yS, yE, and
so on.

c. Click Done to close the Sources panel and complete the creation of the model.
Figure 12.6: Source at the Bottom on the Heat Sink

The final model should appear as shown in Figure 12.7: Schematic of the Model (p. 258).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

257

Radiation Modeling
Figure 12.7: Schematic of the Model

12.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


In order to generate a fine mesh on the heat sink and the neighboring regions while retaining a
coarser mesh in the remaining part of the model, create a non-conformal assembly enclosing all the
objects created and specify separate meshing parameters for this assembly.
1. Select the source (source.1), the base of the heat sink (hs-base), and all the fins (hs-fin1.1.x) in the
Model manager window together, then right-click and select Create and then Assembly.
2. Double-click assembly.1 in the Model manager window to open the Assemblies panel.
a. In the Meshing tab, click the Mesh separately button, and specify the slack values as well as the
max element sizes in each of the coordinate directions for the assembly as depicted in Figure 12.8: Meshing Parameters for assembly.1 (p. 259).

258

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Generate a Mesh


b. This refines the mesh inside the assembly and also prevents mesh bleeding by confining the fine
mesh to within the assembly.

Note
The units depicted in Figure 12.8: Meshing Parameters for assembly.1 (p. 259) are in
mm and m.
Figure 12.8: Meshing Parameters for assembly.1

c. Click Done to close the Assemblies panel.


3. Once the assembly creation is complete, open the Mesh control panel by pressing the Generate mesh
button.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

259

Radiation Modeling
a. Change the Mesh units to mm.

Note
Doing so affects the parameters in the Max element size box.

b. Input the Max element size specifications according to Figure 12.9: Global Mesh Control Parameters (p. 260).
Figure 12.9: Global Mesh Control Parameters

c. Keep all other parameters as their default values.


d. Make sure Allow minimum gap changes is checked under the Misc tab.
e. Press Generate to create the mesh.

260

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Solving the Model Without Radiation


f.

You can view the mesh using the Cut plane and Surface options available in the Display tab.

g. Once you have finished viewing the mesh, make sure you deselect Display mesh in the Display tab,
and click Close to close the Mesh control panel.

12.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Once the model is meshed, we will solve it for different situations, that is, with radiation off followed
by including the effects of radiation using both the surface-to-surface model as well as the discrete-ordinates and ray-tracing methods available in ANSYS Icepak 13 and later.

12.8. Step 5: Solving the Model Without Radiation


Note
Instead of accessing the
Basic parameters panel, you can instead use the Problem setup
wizard to define your problem setup by double-clicking Problem setup in the model
manager window. See 2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings of the Finned Heat Sink
tutorial for more instruction regarding the Problem setup wizard. You must still use the
same settings described in this tutorial for the Problem setup wizard.
1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. Under the General setup tab (Figure 12.10: Basic parameters Panel (p. 262)):
i.

Ensure that you have selected both Flow (velocity/pressure) and Temperature in the Variables
solved box.

ii. Because this is a natural convection problem select the Gravity vector check box.
iii. Choose Turbulent under the Flow regime group box and select the default turbulence model
Zero equation.
iv. Select Off in the Radiation box to disable radiation effects.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

261

Radiation Modeling
Figure 12.10: Basic parameters Panel

b. Under the Defaults tab


i.

In the Ambient conditions group box, set the Temperature and the Radiation temp to 40 C.

Note
Temperature is the temperature of the ambient fluid, and Radiation temp is the
temperature of the surrounding enclosure surfaces used for radiation calculations.

c. Under the Transient setup tab


i.

Enter a small velocity value for the Y velocity such as 0.01 m/s.

Note
In free convection flow problems, you should set a small initial velocity opposite
to the gravity vectors direction.

ii. Retain the defaults for all other settings in the Basic parameters panel.
d. Press Accept to close the Basic parameters panel.

262

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Solving the Model Without Radiation


2. Go to

Solution settings

Basic settings.

a. Change your settings to match the values in Figure 12.11: Basic settings Panel (p. 263).
Figure 12.11: Basic settings Panel

b. Click Accept to close the Basic Settings panel.


3. Go to

Solution settings

Advanced settings.

a. In the Advanced solver setup panel ensure that the Under-relaxation parameters for Pressure and
Momentum are 0.7 and 0.3, respectively.
b. Select Double from the precision drop-down list at the bottom of the panel (Figure 12.12: Advanced
solver setup Panel (p. 264)).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

263

Radiation Modeling
Figure 12.12: Advanced solver setup Panel

c. Keep all other default options in the Advanced solver setup panel.
d. Press Accept to close the Advanced solver setup panel.

12.9. Step 6: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.
File Save project

264

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Surface to Surface (S2S) Radiation Model

12.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution: No Radiation


1. Go to Solve Run solution to bring up the Solve panel.
a. Enter norad as the solution ID.
b. Click Start solution at the bottom of the panel.
c. Once the solution residuals have converged you can post process the results using plane cuts and
object faces. Note the maximum value of temperature for comparison with successive runs wherein
radiative heat transfer will be enabled in the model.

Note
You can check the maximum temperatures of each object by going to Report
Solution overview Create or by using the object summary report (Report
Summary report).

Figure 12.13: Temperature Results for the Model With Radiation Disabled

12.11. Step 8: Surface to Surface (S2S) Radiation Model


1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. In the Basic parameters panel, select On in the Radiation group box.


b. Make sure the Surface to surface radiation model is selected.
c. Click Accept to close the Basic parameters panel.
2. To model radiation effects go to Model Radiation form factors or use the radiation icon (
open up the Form factors panel.

) to

a. Under Participating objects, select all objects by clicking All and leave all other settings to their
default values.
b. Press Compute to calculate the view factors.
i.

You can display the view factors calculated in the text window by clicking each participating object
listed under Display object values. Select the object PCB displays the various form factors of
PCB in the graphics window (Figure 12.14: Form Factors of the PCB (p. 266)).
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

265

Radiation Modeling
Figure 12.14: Form Factors of the PCB

ii. After reviewing the view factors, select Dont recompute in the Form factor options group box.
iii. The settings for the view factor calculations setup are shown in Figure 12.15: Enabling Radiation
in ANSYS Icepak Model (p. 267).
c. Press Close to close the Form factors panel.

266

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Discrete Ordinates (DO) Radiation Model


Figure 12.15: Enabling Radiation in ANSYS Icepak Model

3. Go to Solve Run solution and start the solver with S2S as the solution ID.
4. Once the solution residuals have converged, make note of the maximum temperature (Figure 12.16: Temperature Results for the Surface to Surface Radiation Model (p. 267)).
Figure 12.16: Temperature Results for the Surface to Surface Radiation Model

12.12. Step 9: Discrete Ordinates (DO) Radiation Model


Next, we will run the discrete ordinates radiation model.
1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. Enable the Discrete ordinates radiation model option in the Radiation group box.
b. Press Accept to close the Radiation panel.
2. Start the solution again with DO as the solution ID.
3. Once the solution residuals have converged, make note of the maximum temperature (Figure 12.17: Temperature Results for the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model (p. 268)).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

267

Radiation Modeling
Figure 12.17: Temperature Results for the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model

12.13. Step 10: Ray-Tracing Radiation Model


Next, we will run the ray tracing radiation model.
1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. Enable the Ray tracing radiation model option in the Radiation group box.
b. Press Accept to close the Radiation panel.
2. Start the solution again with Ray as the solution ID.
3. Once the solution residuals have converged, make note of the maximum temperature.(Figure 12.18: Temperature Results for the Ray-Tracing Radiation Model (p. 268))
Figure 12.18: Temperature Results for the Ray-Tracing Radiation Model

12.14. Step 11: Examine the Results


Compare the maximum temperature between the runs where radiative heat transfer was enabled versus
the runs where it was not. You can clearly see that radiation is important in this model and there is a
significant difference in the maximum temperature in the field with and without radiation. Further,
there is reasonable agreement in the plane cut post processing objects obtained using the different
radiation models. Figure 12.19: Plane cuts on the Z = 20 mm plane for (a) radiation disabled (b) S2S ra-

268

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 11: Examine the Results


diation model (c) discrete ordinates radiation model and (d) ray-tracing radiation model (p. 270) compares
the temperature fields for all the four cases.

Note
In order to have the plane cuts located exactly at Z = 20 mm, go to the Plane location group
box of the Plane cut panel. Type 0.02 for the field PZ to set the plane at Z = 0.02 m, or 20
mm..

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

269

Radiation Modeling
Figure 12.19: Plane cuts on the Z = 20 mm plane for (a) radiation disabled (b) S2S radiation model
(c) discrete ordinates radiation model and (d) ray-tracing radiation model

270

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 12: Summary


Table 12.1: Maximum Source Temperature for Different Models
No radiation

82.45C

Surface to surface

74.97C

Discrete ordinates

76.23C

Ray tracing

75.55C

Because the first case assumes no heat is rejected through radiation, there is less heat transfer and
therefore a higher maximum temperature when neglecting radiation. The radiation models all produce
similar results.

Note
The actual values may differ slightly on different machines, so your values may not look exactly
the same.
In general, the surface to surface model is the fastest of the three radiation models in ANSYS Icepak.
Therefore, you should use it for a first cut analysis. However, you cannot use the surface to surface
model when CAD objects are present. Note that the discrete ordinates and ray tracing models are more
accurate and better suited for more complex geometries. With a large number of participating surfaces,
the surface to surface model and ray tracing model cost significantly more computationally than the
discrete ordinates model.

12.15. Step 12: Summary


In this problem you have learned how to model radiation in ANSYS Icepak. You first solved the model
without radiation and then used the surface-to-surface model followed by the discrete ordinates and
ray tracing methods and lastly compared the results of all four cases.
We repeat some of the tips and best practices found in this tutorial for your convenience:
1. Best Practice
a. Use the Problem setup wizard for guided problem setup. Edit the problem setup if needed using
the

Basic parameters panel.

b. Select the Allow minimum gap changes option in the Misc tab of the Mesh control panel to allow
ANSYS Icepak to avoid unnecessary meshing due to inadvertent misalignments in the model. This is
suitable for this tutorial but may not be in other projects.
c. Set a small initial velocity in an opposite direction to the gravity vector's direction when solving
natural convection problems.
d. Use the surface to surface radiation model for a first cut analysis, but switch to the discrete ordinates
or ray tracing radiation models for higher accuracy.
e. Use the discrete ordinates or ray tracing methods when using CAD objects or when you require a
higher fidelity solution than what the surface to surface model can provide.
2. Tips and Tricks

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

271

Radiation Modeling
a. Select the Don't recompute option in the Form factors panel to re-use form factors and save computational time.

272

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 13: Transient Simulation


13.1. Introduction
The purpose of this exercise is to demonstrate how to model and post-process transient problems.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Define a transient problem
Specify time-dependent parameters for objects
Group and copy modeling objects
Examine the results of a transient simulation, including animating results over time

13.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have worked on Sample Session and the first two ANSYS Icepak tutorials
of this guide (Finned Heat Sink and RF Amplifier).

13.3. Problem Description


The model involves a heat sink cooled by natural convection and heated by four heat sources attached
to the bottom. The power dissipated by each of the four sources varies with time and peaks at 100 W.

13.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Create a new project called transient.
Basic parameters, go to the Transient setup tab, select Transient under
2. From Problem setup
the Time variation group box. Then enter the Start and End times as 0 and 20 seconds, respectively.
3. Click Edit parameters and set the Time step increment to 1 s and the Solution save interval to 1. Click
Accept in the Transient parameters panel and then the Basic parameters panel to save the new time
parameters.

Caution
The maximum allowable time step varies for each problem. Choosing an excessively large
time step may result in an insufficient temporal resolution and consequently instability
and divergence of the solution. However, choosing an excessively small time step may
result in slow convergence without a significant increase in accuracy.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

273

Transient Simulation
Figure 13.1: Setting up the Model as Transient

13.5. Step 2: Build the Model


Construct the model according to the following specifications. The final model is shown in Figure 13.4: Schematic of the Model (p. 278).
Cabinet ( )
xS

0.05 m

xE

0.35 m

yS

0.1 m

yE

0.55 m

zS

0.05 m

zE

0.25 m

Open the Cabinet object panel, go to the Properties tab, under Wall type, change Min y and Max
y to Opening. Press Done and then Shift+I for an isometric view.
Plate (

274

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Object

Properties

Name: plate.1

xS = 0.1 m

xE = 0.3 m

Thermal model: Conducting thick

Geometry: Rectangular

yS = 0.2 m

yE = 0.4 m

Thickness: 10 mm

Plane: X-Y

zS = 0.12 m

Solid material: default


(Al-Extruded)

Blocks (

Object

xC

yC

zC

Height Radius

Name: block.1

0.15 0.25 0.13 0.06


m
m
m
m

0.02 m

IRadius

Properties

0.0 m

Block type: solid

Geometry: Cylinder

Solid material: default (AlExtruded)

Plane: X-Y

Radius2

IRadius2

Nonuniform radius

0.012 m

0.0

Make two copies of the tapered fin (block.1), offset by 0.05 m in the X direction (Number of copies
= 2 and Translate with X offset = 0.05 m). Select all three tapered fins, and make two copies of
this group with an offset of 0.05 m in the Y direction (Number of copies = 2, and Translate with
Y offset = 0.05 m). Remember to right-click the icon in the Model manager window to copy objects
or alternatively press Ctrl + c while the objects are selected. These tapered cones model a heat sink
with tapered cone fins.
Sources (

Create source.1, the first of four sources you will create, according to the specifications in the following
table:
Object

Specification

Name: source.1

xS = 0.12
m

xE = 0.18
m

Geometry: Rectangular

yS = 0.22
m

yE = 0.28
m

Plane: X-Y

zS = 0.12
m

Total power = 100


W

The 4 sources have a peak power of 100 watts each and a period of 20 seconds. The variation of
power is according to the following exponential curve,
 is the time.

=   , where  and  are constant and

In the Properties tab of the Sources panel, select Transient, click Edit, and enter 0 for Start time
and 20 for End time. To specify the variation curve, click Exponential and set a = 0.025 and b =
100. Click Update and Done, in the Transient power panel and then in the Sources panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

275

Transient Simulation
Figure 13.2: Defining Transient Power for the Sources

Now make one copy of source.1 with an offset of 0.1 m in the X direction. Select source.1 and
source.1.1, then make one copy of these two sources with an offset of 0.1 m in the Y-direction to
complete the construction of the sources.
Basic
To view the time-dependent power specified for the sources, go to Problem setup
parameters. Select the Transient setup tab and click View (next to Edit parameters) near the top
of this panel. This displays the time variation of the power specified using sources.

276

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 13.3: Viewing the Variation of Power on the Sources with Time

Tip
A time dependent power profile such as a piecewise linear curve can also be imported/exported by clicking Save All and Load All in the Transients panel. Clicking Load All will
open the Load all curves file selection dialog box and override any existing data. Select
the CSV file containing the curve data and click Open.
The final model should appear as that shown in Figure 13.4: Schematic of the Model (p. 278).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

277

Transient Simulation
Figure 13.4: Schematic of the Model

13.6. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


To generate a mesh for this model, go to Model Generate mesh and specify a global maximum
element size of 0.02 m in the X, Y and Z directions in the Max element size group box. Across from
Mesh parameters, select Normal and keep the default global mesh settings parameters. Then go to
the Options tab and select Init element height and enter 0.005. Then click Generate to create the
mesh. Once the mesh is generated, display and examine the mesh from the Display tab. Remember to
deselect the Display mesh option when you are done examining the mesh.

Note
The Init element height is the first elements height measured from the surface of the
solid into the fluid. This can be used in a relatively simple model as this one to increase
the boundary layer resolution. It is not recommended to be used for complex models
as this can create very large mesh counts.

13.7. Step 5: Physical and Numerical Settings


Note
Basic parameters panel, you can instead use the Problem setup
Instead of accessing the
wizard to define your problem setup by double-clicking Problem setup in the model
manager window. See 2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings of the Finned Heat Sink

278

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Calculate a Solution


tutorial for more instruction regarding the Problem setup wizard. You must still use the
same settings described in this tutorial for the Problem setup wizard.
Basic parameters. In the General setup tab, ensure Laminar is set for
Go to Problem setup
Flow regime, and select the default Gravity vector (X = 0, Y = -9.80665 m/s2, Z = 0). In the Transient
setup tab, give a small initial (global) velocity of 0.001 m/s in the Y direction to increase the convergence rate. Click Accept to accept the changes made and to exit this window.
Go to Solution settings
Basic settings and click Reset to examine the estimated Rayleigh
number. Set Iterations / timestep to 100. This number of iterations per timestep should be sufficient
for the solution to converge at each timestep. Press Accept to close the panel.
Go to Solution settings
Advanced settings and set the Under-relaxation factors to 0.7
for Pressure and 0.3 for Momentum. Press Accept to close the panel.
Figure 13.5: Basic settings Panel

Create a monitor point to observe the temperature of source.1 with respect to time by dragging and
dropping source.1 into the Points folder in the Model manager window.

13.8. Step 6: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak automatically saves the model for you before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.
File Save project

13.9. Step 7: Calculate a Solution


Go to Solve Run solution. In the Results tab, click Write overview of results when finished and
click Start solution.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

279

Transient Simulation
Figure 13.6: Convergence Plot (p. 280) shows the solution residuals for this exercise. Note that exact residuals and number of iterations may vary on different computers. Each dip corresponds to the convergence of an individual timestep, resulting in a total of 20 timesteps as you had initially specified.
Figure 13.6: Convergence Plot

13.10. Step 8: Generate a Summary Report


1. Go to Solve Define report.
2. In the Define summary report panel, select Specified.
3. Select All times in the Report time group box.
4. Select New, hold down the Shift key and select all blocks in the Objects drop down list. Click Accept.

280

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Examine the Results


5. Click Write to display the Report summary data panel shown in Figure 13.7: Define summary report
Panel (p. 281).
Note that the average temperature of the block objects starts at 20C and increases to about 27C by
the end of the 20 second duration.
Figure 13.7: Define summary report Panel

13.11. Step 9: Examine the Results


You can display the results of transient runs as still images or animations.
For still images, you can choose to display at a given time or a given time-step. To do so, after creating
post objects in the same manner as in a steady-state run, you can go to Post Transient settings
or click the transient settings icon (
) to open the Post-processing time panel. To display at a given
time-step, you can select Time step and click Forward or Backward to step through the time steps.
To display at a given time, you can select Time value, input the time to begin the display and the time
Increment, and select Forward or Backward.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

281

Transient Simulation
To view these images in this model, create the following post-processing objects:
Table 13.1: Object Face and Plane Cut Specifications
Object

Specifications

face.1

Object: all blocks and


plate.1

Description

Observation: The view shows the temperature distribution on


the faces of all the blocks and the base plate. You can clearly
see
the conduction of heat from the sources through the fins of
Show contours / Parametthe
heat
sink.
ers
Contours of: Temperature
Contours options: Solid fill

Shading options: Smooth


Color levels: Calculated /
Global limits
Post Transient settings:
Time step: 1 or Time
value: 0
Forward or Backward
cut.1

Set position: Z plane


through center
Show vectors / Parameters

Observation: The view shows air flowing from one opening to


the other. Also notice that the velocity distribution changes with
time.

Color by: Velocity magnitude


Transient: Same as the
above
Figure 13.8: Transient Temperature Contour and Velocity Distribution Results at Various Time Values (p. 283)
shows the resulting static images at various time values. Note that at time = 0 the solver uses the
solution initialization you had previously specified as the resulting velocity distribution. As time progresses, heat dissipated by the sources spreads throughout the heat sink. Consequently, the overall
magnitude of the velocities increases due to the stronger natural convection at higher temperatures.

282

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Examine the Results


Figure 13.8: Transient Temperature Contour and Velocity Distribution Results at Various Time
Values

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

283

Transient Simulation
To animate the above post objects, go to Post Transient settings to open the Post-processing
time panel. Click Animate to open the Transient animation window. To animate the current display
on screen, click Animate in the Transient animation panel. The animation can be played once, from
the start time to end time, or in the Loop mode.

Tip
In addition to animating the display in screen, you can also write the animation to a file in
MPEG, GIF, or other neutral formats to be played back later using a third-party software. To
do that, go to Post Transient settings, then click Animate to open the Transient animation panel. Select Write to file, then click Write to open the Save animation panel. Pick
a file format, give it a file name, and then click Save. This sequence saves the entire display
area with no scaling.
Alternatively, you can click the Options tab in the Save animation panel and modify the
Scale factor in the Save animation options panel. Also available in Save animation options
panel is Print region. Choose the default Full screen or Mouse selection. Choosing Mouse
selection allows one to draw a rubber band and select only a part of the screen. To do so,
choose Mouse selection, specify the file type and file name, then click Save in the Save
animation panel. With the cursor showing a square and the red prompt at the bottom of
the screen, draw a rectangular region with the left mouse to save it to the animation file.
You can examine how a variable changes over time at selected points using the History plot panel. To
open this panel, select History plot in the Post menu or click (

) in the post-processing toolbar.

In the History plot panel, enter 20 seconds for End time, click the Add point button and select
source.1 for the point. Click the Create button to display the plot shown in Figure 13.9: History
plot (p. 285).

284

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 10: Examine Transient Results in CFD-Post


Figure 13.9: History plot

13.12. Step 10: Examine Transient Results in CFD-Post


You can also postprocess results using tools in ANSYS CFD-Post. Go to the Post menu in Icepak and
select Write CFD Post File. Enabling this option writes out a data file (filename.cfd.dat) that can be
loaded into CFD-Post.
To launch CFD-Post for a Windows system, click Start>All Programs>ANSYS 15.0>Fluid Dynamics>CFDPost 15.0 or for a Linux system you can access CFD-Post using ~ansys_inc/v150/CFDPost/bin/cfdpost.
In ANSYS CFD-Post, select Load Results... in the File menu to display the Load Results File dialog box.
Select the filename.cfd.cas file that corresponds to the transient solution.

Tip
Refer to the ANSYS Icepak text window for the location and file name of the transient solution
you have just saved.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

285

Transient Simulation
Figure 13.10: CFD-Post

Once the results have been loaded into CFD-Post, there are several options to view and analyze a
transient solution.
1. Display time history similar to what is displayed in Icepak.
a. Go to Insert Text
b. Enter the text, Auto Annotation.
c. In the Definition tab of the Details view, enter Time into the Text String field.
d. Select the Embed Auto Annotation option.
e. In the Type drop-down list, select Timestep.
f.

286

Click Apply.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 10: Examine Transient Results in CFD-Post


Figure 13.11: Details of Auto Annotation

2. Create a contour.
a. Go to Insert Contour and create a new contour named TemperatureContours.
b. Update the settings for the Geometry tab of the Details view for TemperatureContours as
shown in Figure 13.12: Details of TemperatureContours (p. 288). Note that to select all of the blocks
as shown in the figure, you must click the ... button next to Locations, then you must press Shift

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

287

Transient Simulation
while selecting all of the block nodes in the panel that appears. Click Apply to create the contours
(Figure 13.13: TemperatureContours Display (p. 289)).
Figure 13.12: Details of TemperatureContours

288

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 10: Examine Transient Results in CFD-Post


Figure 13.13: TemperatureContours Display

3. Display temperature at different time steps.


a. Click the timestep selector icon (
) to display the Timestep Selector panel. Double-click a timestep
to view the corresponding temperatures. Figure 13.14: Timestep Selector Panel (p. 290) shows the selection of time 12.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

289

Transient Simulation
Figure 13.14: Timestep Selector Panel

Additional options available in CFD-Post can be found in Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post.

13.13. Step 10: Summary


In this tutorial, you set up and solved a transient model and used the animation technique to examine
the results over time. Results were also examined in CFD-Post.
We repeat some of the tips and best practices found in this tutorial for your convenience:
1. Best Practices
a. Use the Problem setup wizard for guided problem setup. Edit the problem setup if needed using
the

290

Basic parameters panel.


Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 10: Summary


b. Choose an appropriate time step to optimize the convergence rate while maintaining solution stability.
c. Select an appropriate amount of iterations per time step for adequate temporal convergence. Note
that an individual time step may require fewer iterations to converge than you specify.
d. Create monitor points of relevant quantities (temperature, pressure, or velocity) to help judge convergence alongside residuals.
2. Tips and Tricks
a. Copy similar objects then edit the copied objects to the desired specifications to eliminate redundancies. This may be faster than creating every object individually.
b. Set a small initial velocity in an opposite direction to the gravity vector's direction when solving
natural convection problems.
c. Post-process your transient simulation results at specific times in static images or through the entire
transient duration in animations.
d. Save your animations to a file in MPEG, GIF, or other neutral formats to be played back later using a
third-party software.
e. Load your results into ANSYS CFD-Post for even more post-processing capabilities.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

291

292

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 14: Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


14.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to create and modify a zoom-in model (system sub-model) in ANSYS
Icepak. You will begin in ANSYS Workbench and drag an Icepak template into the Project Schematic
window. You will import an Icepak TZR file, modify the model, and solve it according to the instructions
in this tutorial. The project will also include post-processing results in ANSYS CFD-Post.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Create an ANSYS Icepak analysis in ANSYS Workbench
Create a zoom-in model from a solved system level model
Run that model with more detail added
Merge the detailed system level model back into the system level model
Post-process results in CFD-Post

14.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with ANSYS Icepak and ANSYS Workbench, but
that you are generally familiar with the interface. If you are not, review Finned Heat Sink and the ANSYS
Icepak - ANSYS Workbench Integration Tutorial in this guide.

14.3. Problem Description


The objective of this exercise is to become familiar with ANSYS Icepaks zoom-in modeling capabilities.
You can solve detailed systems first with reasonable simplifications and then have more detailed subsystem models run from boundary conditions created from the region in question. For example, you
can simplify multiple packages as one plate with the total power of all packages. You can then solve a
system level model, resulting in a sub-region with the velocities and temperatures from the system
level model and have more detail on the board of interest. Essentially, you start with the most simplified
and all-encompassing system, then you progressively refine individual components of that system using
the results of the full, simplified system.
In this tutorial, you will run a simplified system level model of a slotted chassis, learn how to create an
ANSYS Icepak zoom-in model, run that model and then merge the detailed section back into the original
system.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

293

Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


Figure 14.1: Problem Specification

14.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Workbench.

294

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 14.2: ANSYS Workbench

2. Copy ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/rack/rack.tzr to your working directory. You must replace


ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed on your computer
system.
3. Drag and drop an Icepak template under Component Systems in the Toolbox window into the Project
Schematic window.
4. Right-click the Icepak Setup cell (A2) and select Import Icepak Project From .tzr.
5. Select Browse... and the File selection panel appears. Select the packed project file rack.tzr and
click Open.
6. The CAD model appears in the graphics window of ANSYS Icepak. Click the isometric toolbar icon (
to display the isometric view of the model.

14.5. Step 2: Build the Model


Note
Look at the specifications of the different components. The model has 10 pairs of plates
(Figure 14.1: Problem Specification (p. 294)). If you examine any pair of plates, plate.1.x represents the PCB and plate.2.x represents the components on that PCB. In actuality, each
PCB would have many components mounted on it. We are simplifying the model by repres-

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

295

Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


enting the components with a single plate. The thickness of these plates equals the average
height of the components. All the PCBs have the same configuration and the same components. The total power of the components in each PCB is 30 W, so each of the plates (plate.2.x)
dissipates 30 W.
Save the problem to a new project file while you are in ANSYS Workbench. This will allow you to expand
on the problem without affecting the original file.
File Save project
1. In the Project text box, enter the name rack-new.
2. Click Save.

Note
ANSYS Workbench will close Icepak to save the model, you will need to launch Icepak again
to continue.

14.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


For this model, you will generate the mesh in just one step. You will specify object-specific meshing
parameters to ensure that the resulting mesh is sufficiently fine near object faces to resolve the
boundary layers properly.
1. Go to Model Generate Mesh or use the toolbar shortcut (

) to open the Mesh control panel.

2. In the Mesh control panel, make sure Mesher-HD is selected as the Mesh type.
3. Set the Max element size for X, Y, and Z to 0.03 m if not already set.
4. Select the Normal option next to Mesh parameters.
5. In the Local tab, select Edit next to Object params (Figure 14.3: Object Parameters in the Mesh control
Panel (p. 297)). Specify the individual localized mesh settings for the following objects using the values
in the table:
Object type

Object name

Parameter

Requested Value

Opening

All openings

Y count

10

Plate

All plates

Low end height

0.003

High end height

0.003

Y count

Block

block.3

Tip
You can specify the parameters of multiple objects simultaneously by selecting all the
desired objects in the node tree of the Per-object meshing parameters panel then

296

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Generate a Mesh


making the required parameter specifications. Note that this can only be done to objects
of similar type and orientation.

Note
You can also set mesh parameters by right-clicking object in the Model manager window
and selecting Edit mesh parameters.
Figure 14.3: Object Parameters in the Mesh control Panel

6. Press Done to close the Per-object meshing parameters panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

297

Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


7. In the Settings tab of the Mesh control panel, Generate the mesh and then display and visually inspect
the mesh from the Display tab. Deselect the Display mesh option when you are done.
8. Examine the mesh quality by going to the Quality tab of the Mesh control panel. Click Close when you
are done.

14.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


1. Go to Solution settings
Basic settings and Solution settings
Verify that the following values are set for each parameter:
Basic settings

Specification

Number of iterations

200

Energy convergence criterion

1e-7

Advanced settings.

Advanced settings (Under-relaxation group


box)
Pressure

0.7

Momentum

0.3

2. Go to Problem setup
Basic parameters and make sure the Flow regime is Turbulent and
the turbulence model is Zero equation under the General setup tab. Also select Off in the Radiation
group box. Click Accept to close the panel.

Note
Basic parameters panel, you can instead use the Problem
Instead of accessing the
setup wizard to define your problem setup by double-clicking Problem setup in the
model manager window. See 2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings of the Finned
Heat Sink tutorial for more instruction regarding the Problem setup wizard. You must
still use the same settings described in this tutorial for the Problem setup wizard.

3. Now add two temperature point monitors for plate2.1 and plate2.2 into the Points folder to observe
the progress of the solution at the center of the objects. To do this, highlight both objects in the Model
manager window using the Ctrl key and the left mouse button, and then drag the objects into the
Points folder. The default monitored parameter is temperature.

14.8. Step 5: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak saves the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the project you saved and continue your analysis in a future
ANSYS Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will
simply overwrite your project file when it saves the model.)
File Save project

298

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results

14.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


1. Go to Solve Run solution menu and select Sequential solution of flow and energy equations in
the General setup tab (Figure 14.4: The Solve Panel (p. 299)).
Figure 14.4: The Solve Panel

Tip
When the gravity vector is not enabled in the solver, you have the opportunity to reduce
solve time if desired by selecting Sequential solution of flow and energy equations.
Since there are no buoyancy effects, there is no longer coupling of the Navier-Stokes and
energy equations. Thus, you can completely converge the flow equations and then use
that value in the energy equation instead of solving both on every iteration.

2. Click Start solution to run the solver.

14.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


1. After the solution has converged, create the following post processing objects with the settings specified
in the images:
Object face: face.1

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

299

Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench

Object face: face.2


Select all the fan objects for face.2.

Click Animate in the Object face particles panel to see the fluid streamlines animated according
to the steady-state velocity distribution.
Plane cut: cut.1

300

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results

Plane cut: cut.2

The post-processing objects face.1 and cut.1 should look similar to Figure 14.5: Object Face: face.1
(plate2.2 Temperature) (p. 302) and Figure 14.6: Plane Cut: cut.1 (Z Plane Through Center Velocity) (p. 303).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

301

Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


Figure 14.5: Object Face: face.1 (plate2.2 Temperature)

302

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Create a Zoom-In Model


Figure 14.6: Plane Cut: cut.1 (Z Plane Through Center Velocity)

2. Save all the post-processing objects created. Go to Post Save post objects to file. Save it with the
default file name post_objects to be used in the future.

14.11. Step 8: Create a Zoom-In Model


With a solution obtained for the main model, we can now zoom-in around one pair of PCB-components
plates, namely plate.1.2 and plate.2.2.
1. Go to Post Create zoom-in model. The Zoom-in modeling panel appears. The boundaries for the
zoom-in also appear in the ANSYS Icepak main window as a bold white box. By default this zoom-in box
is coincidental with the cabinet.
2. Resize this box by entering the values shown in Figure 14.7: The Zoom-in modeling Setup Panel (p. 304)
into the zoom-in window. Change Max Y to Outflow and both Min Z and Max Z to Wall. Note that the
zoom-in box now surrounds plate.1.2 and plate.2.2 and includes portions of some on the remaining
system level model objects (Figure 14.8: Zoom-in Box (p. 305)). There needs to be one outflow to comRelease 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

303

Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


pensate for slight differences in flow with a pressure differential. The wall objects are created since the
entire face on that side is created in a solid or on a solid surface.

Note
The coordinates for each of the zoom-in boundaries can also be specified by clicking the
Select button to the right of the appropriate text entry box and clicking the left mouse
button on the desired point in the graphics display window. You may want to orient your
view depending upon the coordinate being selected to ensure a more accurate selection.
The boundaries of the zoom-in model will be displayed in the graphics window as you
update them.
Figure 14.7: The Zoom-in modeling Setup Panel

3. Click Accept to create the zoom-in model. Since many of the parts in the zoom-in model extend out of
the zoom-in box, a warning message window should appear listing a set of objects that lie outside.
4. In the Objects overlapping dialog box, click the Resize button to resize these parts to fit into the zoomin model. ANSYS Icepak writes out a zoom-in model called IcepakProj.zoom_in. ANSYS Icepak reports
on the operations to construct the model and creates the profiles in the ANSYS Icepak messages window.

304

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Create a Zoom-In Model


Figure 14.8: Zoom-in Box

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

305

Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench

14.12. Step 9: Edit the Zoom-in Model


1. Drag and drop a new Icepak template into the same ANSYS Workbench Project schematic window,
then link a Results cell from the Toolbox window to this Icepak template (name it Zoom-in). The
Results cell should link to the Icepak Solution cell as shown in Figure 14.9: Project Schematic (p. 306).
Figure 14.9: Project Schematic

Note
Click Update Project in ANSYS Workbench to update the setup and solution data before
creating a new Icepak template. This will mesh and solve your Icepak model again.

2. Right-click the Icepak Setup cell (B2), select Import Icepak Project and Browse....
3. In the Select Folder file selection dialog, select the zoom-in model called IcepakProj.zoom_in. (It will
be in the same location as the folder for the system level model.) In the system level model we used a
single conducting thick plate to represent the components. We can now replace the plate.2.2 by the
individual components.
4. Double-click plate.2.2 to open the Plates panel and make the following changes:
a. In the Info tab, type Chip for the Name field.
b. In the Geometry tab, change your settings to match those in Figure 14.10: Plates Panel for Object
Chip (Geometry Tab) (p. 307).

306

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Edit the Zoom-in Model


Figure 14.10: Plates Panel for Object Chip (Geometry Tab)

c. In the Properties tab, type 3.0 W in the Total power field.


d. Click Done to close the panel.
5. Create nine additional components in an array.
a. Right-click Chip and select Copy.
b. Create two copies of Chip with a Z offset of -0.065 m.
c. Select and highlight all three Chip plates in the Model manager window.
d. Make three copies of the three plates with an Y offset set to 0.07 m in the same way you copied
the single chip.
e. View the geometry in isometric view (Shift+I).
f.

Delete two of the components (Chip.1.3 and Chip.4) and to form the pattern shown in Figure 14.11: Schematic of the Completed Zoom-in Model (p. 308).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

307

Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


Figure 14.11: Schematic of the Completed Zoom-in Model

14.13. Step 10: Mesh the Zoom-In Model


1. Go to Model Generate mesh, and set the Mesh type to Mesher-HD and the Mesh parameters to
Coarse.
2. In the Local tab, deselect the Object params check box.
3. While in the Global tab, change your mesh settings to those of Figure 14.12: Zoom-in Mesh control
Panel (p. 309).

308

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 11: Zoom-In Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 14.12: Zoom-in Mesh control Panel

4. Generate the mesh and then display and check the mesh quality from the Display tab. Make sure to
deselect the Display mesh option when you are done.

14.14. Step 11: Zoom-In Physical and Numerical Settings


1. Drag and drop the two chips nodes (Model manager window) in the corners of the top row (Chip.5
and Chip.2.3) into the Points folder in the Model manager window to monitor the temperature at the
centers of these two chips.
2. Delete the monitor point plate.2.2 brought in from the system level model since it no longer exists as
an object. Also delete any other monitor points beside Chip.5 and Chip.2.3.
3. Go to

Solution settings

Basic settings to change the maximum number of iterations to 300.

4. Solve the model by selecting Solve Run solution and by clicking Start solution under the General
setup tab.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

309

Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench

14.15. Step 12: Examine the Zoom-in Results


After the solution has converged, create the following post-processing objects and compare the results
with the system level models.
Object

Specifications

Description

face.1

Object: all chips

Object-face view of temperature on all chips

Show contours / Parameters

Observation: The temperatures are highest in the middle chips


toward the lower Z end of the chip array.

Contours of: Temperature


Contours options: Solid
fill
Shading options:
Smooth
Calculated: This object
face.2

Object: side_opening.miny

Object-face showing the flow pattern

Show particle traces /


Parameters

Animate the particle traces.

Variable: Speed
Particle options

Observation(s): The flow is relatively uniform along the lower


Y end of the model and ultimately speeds up near the high Y
and low Z end of the model.

Start time: 0; End time:


1
Display options: Uniform = 100
Style: Trail selected;
Marker: dot
Figure 14.13: Object Faces face.1 and face.2 (p. 311) shows the two object faces simultaneously.

310

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 13: Summary


Figure 14.13: Object Faces face.1 and face.2

14.16. Step 13: Summary


If you were to model all the components in the system level model, you would have ended up with a
cell count of about ten times the size of the zoom-in model. The simplifications at the system-level
enabled you to quickly solve the system-level model. The zoom-in model showed you the temperature
variation at the sub-system level, which was essential to identifying the correct locations of the hot
spots.
We repeat some of the tips and best practices found in this tutorial for your convenience:
1. Best Practices
a. Use zoom-in modeling when analyzing a complicated system to refine the individual modeling of
complex sub-systems.
b. Manage your project from ANSYS Workbench when performing zoom-in modeling.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

311

Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


c. Specify object-specific meshing parameters for local mesh refinement in regions with high gradients.
2. Tips and Tricks
a. Specify the parameters of multiple objects simultaneously by selecting all the desired objects in the
node tree of the Per-object meshing parameters panel then making the required parameter specifications. Note that you can only do this to objects of similar type and orientation.
b. Use the Problem setup wizard for guided problem setup. Edit the problem setup if needed using
the

Basic parameters panel.

c. Select Sequential solution of flow and energy equations in the Solve panel when you are not
considering the effects of natural convection. This reduces the solution time required by converging
the flow equations before the energy equation rather than simultaneous computation on each iteration.

14.17. Step 14: Additional Exercise 1


Set up this problem in a Workbench-based Icepak project. Then set up another Icepak component in
the same Workbench project schematic and replace the PCB plate with a detailed PCB object and postprocess the results in ANSYS CFD-Post.
You can then perform a comparison study in ANSYS CFD-Post by creating a third Icepak component.
This time, duplicate the first Icepak component and link this component to the available Results component. Post-process the results in ANSYS CFD-Post and compare them to the results containing the
PCB plate object.

14.18. Step 15: Additional Exercise 2


Perform this additional exercise to create a non-conformal mesh assembly surrounding the details of
the third PCB in the main model. Then, compare the results obtained using a non-conformal meshed
assembly to the results obtained using the main model with a conformal mesh and to the ones from
the zoom-in modeling approach with a conformal mesh.
1. Save the IcepakProj.zoom_in model with a new model name such as rack.zoom_in_merge. Doubleclick the Icepak component modules name (component B) and then enter rack.zoom_in_merge for
the module name.

2. Delete all the components within the model except all the plates which represents the PCB and the chips
and re-save the model. This version has all the unnecessary components for the system merge removed.)
3. Rename Icepak component module A as rack-merge-NC as shown:

312

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 15: Additional Exercise 2

4. Open the main model rack.


5. Use File Merge Project to import rack.zoom_in_merge into this model with all the details of the
chips.

Note
There will be two projects in the rack-new_files folder, IPK and IPK-1. Select IcepakProj
located at dp0/IPK-1/Icepak.

6. Deactivate the old components residing where the merged components are (plate.1.2 and plate.2.2).
7. Create a non-conformal assembly containing all the chips and the board. Use slack values between 3-5
mm in every direction for the assembly. These are good values to start without violating any of the nonconformal meshing rules.
8. Finally, mesh and run the model with a different Solution ID and compare the results to the previously
obtained ones. Verify that the results are very comparable.
Figure 14.14: Temperature Comparison: Zoom-in Model with Conformal Meshing vs. System with
Non-conformal Assembly (p. 314) shows a temperature comparison between the zoom-in model and
the system-level model with a non-conformal assembly. While the temperatures are slightly different,
the overall distribution (hot spots) stay the same.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

313

Zoom-In Modeling in ANSYS Workbench


Figure 14.14: Temperature Comparison: Zoom-in Model with Conformal Meshing vs. System
with Non-conformal Assembly

314

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 15: IDF Import


15.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates the IDF import capability of ANSYS Icepak.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Import IDF files.
Apply the various options offered in ANSYS Icepaks IDF import capability.

15.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS Icepak and that you have
solved or read the tutorial Finned Heat Sink. If you have not, review Sample Session in the Icepak Users
Guide.

15.3. Problem Description


Intermediate Data Format (IDF) is a data exchange specification between ECAD and MCAD for the design
and analysis of printed circuit boards. An IDF CAD model is generated by software such as Mentor
Graphics. Typical IDF models include a board file and a library file. The board file includes board layout
(board dimension and shape, location of the components), and the library file includes component information (size, power dissipation, junction to case and junction to board thermal resistance, etc.). ANSYS
Icepaks IDF import utility is designed to convert the IDF CAD data into an ANSYS Icepak model automatically. ANSYS Icepak imports the geometry as well as parameters such as power and material property
based on the availability of such information.
This tutorial does not involve generating a mesh, calculating a solution or examining results. These
steps will not be shown in this tutorial.

15.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak on a Linux System and Starting ANSYS Icepak on
a Windows System of the Users Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

315

IDF Import
2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
The New project panel appears.
3. Specify a name for your project.
a. In the Project name text box, enter the name idf-demo.
b. Click Create.

15.5. Step 2: Build the Model


To build the model, you will first import the board layout. The board and the associated library files
have to be chosen at this step.
File Import IDF file New
Figure 15.1: IDF Import Menu

1. In the IDF import panel, click the Browse button next to the Board file (ascii) field and select the file
brd_board.emn from your Icepak installation folder. Board files have the extension *.emn" or *.brd".
Note that the library file (brd_board.emp) is loaded automatically (Figure 15.2: IDF import Panel - Load
files (p. 317)).

316

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 15.2: IDF import Panel - Load files

2. Click Next and go on to the Layout options section (Figure 15.3: IDF import Panel - Layout options (p. 318)).
Import type as Detail
Board plane as XY - this is always detected automatically
Board shape as Rectangular
Board properties - Click Edit button to access the Board properties where you can enter details such
as number of trace layers, coverage, layer thickness, and so on. Layer properties refer to the average
properties of all internal layers. In this example, examine the defaults, and click Cancel to close the
Board properties panel.

Note
More advanced PCB models are covered in the introductory tutorial, RF Amplifier, and
the application tutorial, Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards, located in the
Icepak tutorials guide.

Drilled holes are for positioning purposes and usually are not important to the thermal physics of the
model. During the import, they can be ignored. By default, ANSYS Icepak leaves the Import drilled
holes check box deselected under Detailed options group box.
Select Make all components rectangular under the Detailed options group box to convert all
polygonal components to rectangular prisms.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

317

IDF Import
Figure 15.3: IDF import Panel - Layout options

3. Click Next to go to the Component filters section (Figure 15.4: IDF import Panel - Component filters (p. 318)). Components can be filtered either by size and power or by component type. For now, select
Filter by component type and Import all components. The other options will be explained in more
detail at the end of the tutorial.
Figure 15.4: IDF import Panel - Component filters

4. Click Next to go to the Component models section (Figure 15.5: IDF import Panel - Component models (p. 319)).
5. Select Model all components as and keep the default settings. The option Choose specific component
model will be discussed later in the tutorial.

318

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 15.5: IDF import Panel - Component models

6. Click Next to go to the Miscellaneous options section (Figure 15.6: IDF import Panel - Miscellaneous
options (p. 320)). Select Append Part Name to Reference Designator under the Naming conventions
group box.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

319

IDF Import
Figure 15.6: IDF import Panel - Miscellaneous options

7. Click Finish to complete the import.


8. Examine the summary of the IDF import that appears (Figure 15.7: IDF Import Summary (p. 320)). Click
Dismiss to close the panel.
Figure 15.7: IDF Import Summary

9. Examine the imported model (Figure 15.8: IDF Imported Model with All Components (p. 321)).
Observe:
the different types of blocks
the material properties of the PCB block (BOARD_OUTLINE.1)

320

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Component Filtration Alternatives


the power and resistance values of the network blocks, if any
Note that:
The components form into groups according to types automatically.
You can use the Edit feature under the
Groups node in the Model manager window to change
the properties for all the components in the same group simultaneously.
Check the text window for missing properties. Any missing values likely originate from the imported
files. You may ignore them in this tutorial since you will not actually run the solver, but you can define
them later if desired.
Figure 15.8: IDF Imported Model with All Components (p. 321) shows the ANSYS Icepak model with
components modeled as 3D objects (solid blocks or two-resistor network blocks). Appropriate
boundary conditions need to be applied before starting thermal analysis. In addition, you can review
power values by selecting the Power and temperature limits option in the Model menu.
Figure 15.8: IDF Imported Model with All Components

15.6. Step 3: Component Filtration Alternatives


1. If you choose Filter by size/power (Figure 15.9: IDF Import Panel - Components filters: Filter by
size/power (p. 322)), the size filter and/or power filter may be specified. Only those components that are
either larger than the specified size filter, or dissipate more than the specified power filter, are imported.
If these fields are ignored, all components are imported.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

321

IDF Import
Figure 15.9: IDF Import Panel - Components filters: Filter by size/power

2. If Filter by component type is chosen (Figure 15.10: IDF Import Panel - Component filters: Filter by
component type (p. 322)), the required components can be selected through the Component selection
panel (Figure 15.11: Component selection Panel (p. 322)); otherwise all the components are included
during the import. The Component selection panel contains reference designators for all components.
Figure 15.10: IDF Import Panel - Component filters: Filter by component type

After clicking Choose, you can choose individual components from the panel in the figure below:
Figure 15.11: Component selection Panel

322

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Component Models Alternatives

15.7. Step 4: Component Models Alternatives


1. The Model all components as option is available through both filtration mechanisms.
2. The Choose specific component model option is available when filtering by component type. ANSYS
Icepak allows the component property to be added if no thermal information is available from the IDF
file (IDF 2.0), or modify properties if it is available (IDF 3.0).
3. Under Choose specific component model, properties of required components can be loaded from an
existing file using the Load data from file option. The format for the file is:
Reference designat- Power
or
(W)

Rjc
(C/W)

Rjb
(C/W)

Figure 15.12: Set Component Property Using File (p. 323) shows a sample file. Objects not present in
the file are imported with data already present in the IDF file, or as solid blocks with no power
specification.
Figure 15.12: Set Component Property Using File

4. Component properties may also be edited manually by selecting the Specify values for individual
component types option. The components to be imported are listed under Selected components. The
component name is composed of the type and name and the number of copies, followed by a more
descriptive part name (Figure 15.13: Manual Selection of Component Models (p. 324)). To manually set
the component property, you can select the component in the Selected components list. Multiple selections can be made by pressing Ctrl, or Shift, along with the left mouse button. Then, you can choose
the model type: Rjc-Rjb (two resistors), 3d blocks, or 2d sources. Furthermore, you can specify the
power dissipation. For a two-resistor model, Rjc and Rjb values need to be specified as well. After inputting
your specifications, click Apply to complete the modification.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

323

IDF Import
Figure 15.13: Manual Selection of Component Models

15.8. Step 5: Summary


You have used the IDF import feature of ANSYS Icepak to import a board level model with all of its
components. You observed that the board properties and component properties (where specified) were
automatically updated in the ANSYS Icepak model. Last, you have explored the components filtration
and modeling alternatives that are available in the IDF import feature.

324

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 16: Modeling CAD Geometry


16.1. Introduction
Complex geometries are common in todays electronics cooling applications. Examples include complex
enclosure shapes, heat sink fins, grilles, and so on. Proper accounting of the geometry of these objects
is important for accurate prediction of flow and heat transfer. Modeling of these complex geometries
is possible by using the direct CAD modeling feature in ANSYS Icepak. The hex-dominant mesher is required for CAD geometry and thus used to create an unstructured mesh for these complex shapes.
This tutorial demonstrates how to use the hex-dominant mesher to create an unstructured mesh for
complex shapes in ANSYS Icepak.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Use a CAD object and create an unstructured mesh using the hex-dominant mesher.
Solve for flow and heat transfer in a model with CAD geometry.
Examine contours and vectors on object faces and on cross-sections of the model.

16.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with ANSYS Icepak, but that you are generally familiar with the interface. If you are not, review Sample Session in the Icepak Users Guide.

16.3. Problem Description


The cabinet contains a heat sink 1 with extruded fins having aerofoil cross section, mounted on a block
with a heat source placed between them. These objects are placed in a wind tunnel setup as shown in
Figure 16.1: Wind Tunnel Model with Heatsink Modeled as CAD Block (p. 326).

The heat sink used for this sample problem was obtained from the company Alpha, www.alphanovatech.com/cindexe.html#w.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

325

Modeling CAD Geometry


Figure 16.1: Wind Tunnel Model with Heatsink Modeled as CAD Block

16.4. Step 1: Creating a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak User's Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.

2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
The New project panel appears.

326

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model

3. Specify a name for your project.


a. In the Project name text box, enter the name shapes.
b. Click Create.

Note
ANSYS Icepak creates a default cabinet with the dimensions 1 m 1 m 1 m and displays
the cabinet in the graphics window.

16.5. Step 2: Build the Model


To build the model, you will first create the CAD block representing the heat sink. You will need to
import the required CAD file into ANSYS Icepak. ANSYS Icepak can import CAD files in IGES and step
formats.
1. Import the IGES/Step file into ANSYS Icepak
a. Go to Model CAD data.
b. Select Load in the CAD data panel and click Load IGES/Step file (Figure 16.2: CAD data Panel (p. 328)).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

327

Modeling CAD Geometry


Figure 16.2: CAD data Panel

c. Select w35-20.stp, located in the directory ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/CAD shapes, in the


File selection panel and click Open.

328

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model

d. The CAD model appears in the graphics window.


2. In the CAD data panel, select the surfaces to be used to create the CAD block.
a. In the Creation mode section of the CAD data panel, ensure the Selected option is selected.
b. Select Use CAD surfaces directly.
c. In the Create object section, select Blocks.
d. Drag a rectangular region around the displayed CAD model to select the surfaces to be used to create
the CAD block. Clicking the middle mouse button creates the block (F_4074 or a similar name) which
can be used in the ANSYS Icepak model. Click the middle mouse button again to skip material specification. Click None in the Families group box to deactivate the display of the CAD data.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

329

Modeling CAD Geometry

e. Click Close to close the CAD data panel.


3. Resize the default cabinet in the Cabinet panel.
Model

Cabinet

a. In the Cabinet object panel, click the Geometry tab.


b. Under Location, enter the Start / end coordinates shown in Table 16.1: Coordinates for the Cabinet (p. 330) :

Important
Note that the dimensions are in millimeters.
Table 16.1: Coordinates for the Cabinet
xS

-100 mm

xE

150 mm

yS

-5 mm

yE

20 mm

zS

-25 mm

zE

25 mm

c. Click Update to resize the cabinet.


d. In the Orient menu, select Isometric view to scale and orient the view of the cabinet to fit the
graphics window (Figure 16.3: Creating the Heat Sink CAD Block From a CAD File (p. 331)).

330

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 16.3: Creating the Heat Sink CAD Block From a CAD File

4. Edit the cabinet properties to specify the Min x and Max x sides as openings.
a. Select Opening from the drop-down menu under Wall type for Min x and Max x.
b. Select Edit to display the Openings object panel for Min x and specify the X Velocity to be 5 m/s.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

331

Modeling CAD Geometry

c. Click Done in the Openings object panel to apply the changes.


d. Click Done in the Cabinet object panel to close the panel.
5. Create a block at the base of the heat sink.
a. Click the Create blocks button (

332

) to create a new block.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


ANSYS Icepak creates a new solid prism block in the center of the cabinet. You need to change
the size of the block.
b. Click the Edit object button (

) to open the Blocks panel.

c. Click the Geometry tab.


d. Enter the Start / end coordinates for the Prism block as shown in Table 16.2: Coordinates for the
Block (p. 333).

Important
Note that the dimensions are in millimeters.
Table 16.2: Coordinates for the Block
xS

-30 mm

xE

30 mm

yS

-5 mm

yE

0 mm

zS

-25 mm

zE

25 mm

The block touches the cabinet on the Min Y face and the heat sink on the Max Y face. The Min
Z and Max Z faces of the block touch the cabinet.
e. In the Properties tab, select Solid for the Block type if not already selected. Under Thermal specification, keep default (Al-Extruded) as the Solid material.
f.

Click Done to modify the block and close the panel.

6. Create a source between the base block and the heat sink.
a. Click the Create sources button (

) to create a source.

b. Edit the source Geometry with the Start / end dimensions given in Table 16.3: Coordinates for the
Source (p. 333).

Important
Note that the dimensions are in mm.
Table 16.3: Coordinates for the Source
Shape

Rectangular

Plane

X-Z

xS

-10 mm

xE

10 mm

yS

yE

zS

10 mm

zE

-10 mm

c. Edit the source Properties and specify a Total power of 50 W.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

333

Modeling CAD Geometry

d. Click Done to modify the source property and close the panel.

Note
You will allow heat transfer from the base of the metal block by creating a wall, wall.1
on the Min y side of the block and the cabinet boundary.

7. Create a wall at the base of the metal block.

334

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


a. Edit the wall Geometry with Start / end dimensions given in Table 16.4: Coordinates for the
Wall (p. 335).

Important
Note that the dimensions are in mm.
Table 16.4: Coordinates for the Wall
Shape

Rectangular

Plane

X-Z

xS

-30 mm

xE

30 mm

yS

-5 mm

yE

zS

-25 mm

zE

25 mm

b. Edit the wall Properties to specify the boundary conditions of the wall.
i.

Select Heat transfer coefficient from the External conditions drop-down list.

ii. Click Edit to open the Wall external thermal conditions panel.
iii. Select Heat transfer coeff in the Thermal conditions group box.
iv. Input a Heat transfer coeff of 10.0 W/K-m2 and keep the default selection of Constant in the
Heat transfer coefficient group box. The Ref temperature is ambient.

Tip
By default, the ambient temperature is 20.0C. You can edit the ambient temperature in the Defaults tab of the Basic parameters panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

335

Modeling CAD Geometry


Figure 16.4: Specifying Boundary Condition for the Wall

v. Click Done in the Wall external thermal conditions panel and then in the Walls object panel
to apply the changes and close the panels.
The final model should correspond to the one shown in Figure 16.1: Wind Tunnel Model with Heatsink
Modeled as CAD Block (p. 326).

16.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


1. In order to mesh the heat sink properly, you need a fine mesh in that region. To reduce bleeding of the
fine mesh into regions which do not require fine meshing, you will create a separately meshed assembly
to isolate the regions and thus to reduce mesh count.
a. Select the heat sink (F_4074 or similar name) and source.1 from the Model manager window
and create an assembly called assembly.1.

336

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Generate a Mesh


b. The meshing parameters for this assembly are shown in Figure 16.5: Meshing Parameters for assembly.1 (p. 337).

Important
Note that the dimensions are in millimeters.
Figure 16.5: Meshing Parameters for assembly.1

Note
The slacks in the Min Z and Max Z directions can be specified by snapping with the
cabinet boundary in the respective directions. Note the use of Max element size in
each direction to control the mesh refinement in the assembly.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

337

Modeling CAD Geometry


c. Click Done to close the Assemblies panel.
2. Create another separately meshed assembly to enable a smooth transition of the fine mesh inside assembly.1 to the relatively coarse mesh in the outer region of the model. This smooth transition will
help reduce interpolation error due to highly dissimilar grid densities.

Tip
For a first cut solution, the maximum ratio of cells between the fine and coarse meshes
should be 10:1 at the interface between the two meshes. For models requiring more accuracy, such as in mesh independence studies, this max ratio should be 5:1. You can
visually inspect this ratio yourself by examining the displayed mesh.
a. Choose assembly.1, block.1, and wall.1 from the Model manager window and create assembly.2.
b. The meshing parameters for this assembly are shown in Figure 16.6: Meshing Parameters for assembly.2 (p. 339).

Important
Note that the dimensions are in millimeters.

338

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Generate a Mesh


Figure 16.6: Meshing Parameters for assembly.2

Note
There is a larger max element size in this assembly compared to that in assembly.1
to reduce the grid density.

c. Click Done to close the Assemblies panel.


3. Go to Model Generate mesh.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

339

Modeling CAD Geometry


a. Keep the default selection of Mesher-HD for the Mesh type and input the settings shown in Figure 16.7: Mesh control Panel Inputs (p. 340) below.

Important
Note that the dimensions are in millimeters.
Figure 16.7: Mesh control Panel Inputs

Note
When meshing models containing CAD blocks, you could select Hexa unstructured
or Hexa cartesian for the global Mesh type, but only Mesher-HD can be used to
mesh CAD blocks. Therefore, you must create assemblies with Mesher-HD as the
Mesh type around all the CAD blocks when the global mesher is not hex-dominant.

b. Click Generate to create the mesh.


4. The surface mesh on the heat sink and the mesh on the center Y plane is shown in Figure 16.8: Mesh
Near Heat Sink (p. 341). The relatively coarse mesh in the overall cabinet, the intermediate mesh in assembly.2 and the fine mesh in assembly.1 is clearly seen in the central y" plane view of the mesh
as shown in Figure 16.9: Y-Plane View of Mesh (p. 341).

340

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Generate a Mesh


Figure 16.8: Mesh Near Heat Sink

Figure 16.9: Y-Plane View of Mesh

Note
Closely examine the interface between the innermost mesh of assembly.1 and that
of assembly.2. The ratio of cells between the two meshes is less than 3. The next interface (between assembly.2 and the outermost region) has a ratio between 12 and
13. In practice, you should create another nested assembly for a smoother transition at
the outermost interface. For the sake of brevity in the tutorial, however, the current ratios
are sufficient.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

341

Modeling CAD Geometry

16.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Note
Instead of accessing the
Basic parameters panel, you can instead use the Problem setup
wizard to define your problem setup by double-clicking Problem setup in the model
manager window. See 2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings of the Finned Heat Sink
tutorial for more instruction regarding the Problem setup wizard. You must still use the
same settings described in this tutorial for the Problem setup wizard.
1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. In the General Setup tab, make sure that both the flow and the temperature fields are activated.

Note
This is a forced convection problem; therefore the natural convection as well as radiation effects can be ignored.

b. Select Off in the Radiation group box and ensure Gravity vector is deselected.
c. Choose Turbulent in the Flow regime group box. Keep the default turbulence model of Zero
equation.

342

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings

Note
Since you are modeling the problem without natural convection and thus without
the coupling of the energy and flow equations, allow ANSYS Icepak to solve the flow
and energy equations sequentially. Because the flow and energy equations do not
have to be solved together for every iteration, the convergence rate will increase
significantly.

d. Click Accept to save the settings and close the panel.


Basic settings, specify the number of iterations to be 300, the Flow
2. Under Solution settings
convergence to be 0.001 and the Energy convergence criterion to be 1e-14, as shown in Figure 16.10: Basic settings Panel (p. 344). Click Accept to save the settings and close the panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

343

Modeling CAD Geometry


Figure 16.10: Basic settings Panel

Note
A more stringent energy convergence criterion is required when the energy equation is
solved separately of the flow equations. You will also use a more appropriate multigrid
cycle scheme for the energy equation than the default, as shown in the next step.

3. Adjust the solver settings to account for the sequential solution of the flow and energy equations.
Go to

Solution settings

Advanced settings.

a. Make sure that the Under-relaxation parameters for Pressure and Momentum are 0.3 and 0.7,
respectively.
b. Input the following for Temperature in the Linear solver group box:
i.

Choose W from the Type drop-down list.

Tip
Refer to 34.5. Selecting the Multigrid Scheme of the Icepak Users Guide for more
information on multigrid cycle types.

ii. Enter 1e-6 for the Termination criterion and the Residual reduction tolerance.
c. Change Precision to Double.

344

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Save the Model


Figure 16.11: Advanced solver setup Panel

d. Click Accept to save the changes and close the panel.

16.8. Step 5: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak saves the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the job you saved and continue your analysis in a future ANSYS
Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will simply
overwrite your job file when it saves the model.)

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

345

Modeling CAD Geometry


File Save project

Note
You can click the save project button (

) in the File commands toolbar.

16.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


1. Go to Solve Run solution to display the Solve panel.
a. Select Sequential solution of flow and energy equations to solve the flow and energy equations
separately.
b. Click Start solution to start the solver.
ANSYS Icepak begins to calculate a solution for the model, and a separate window opens where
the solver prints the numerical values of the residuals. ANSYS Icepak also opens the Solution
residuals graphics display and control window, where it displays the convergence history for
the calculation.

Note
The actual values of the residuals may differ slightly on different machines, so your
plot may not look exactly the same as Figure 16.12: Residuals (p. 347).

346

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results


Figure 16.12: Residuals

c. Click Done in the Solution residuals window to close the panel.

16.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


The distribution of the different quantities on the CAD heat sink can be visualized using the object face
option, as in any other ANSYS Icepak object.
1. Click the Object face button (

) under the Postprocessing toolbar.

a. Choose the CAD block from the Object drop-down list


b. Click Show contours and then Parameters to open the Object face contours panel.
c. Keep the default selection of Temperature in the Contours of drop-down list.
d. Keep the default selection of Solid fill in the Contours of group box.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

347

Modeling CAD Geometry


e. Select Smooth in the Shading options group box.
f.

Keep the default selection of Calculated in the Color levels group box and choose This object from
the drop-down list.
Figure 16.13: Post Object Face Settings for CAD Block

g. Press Done in the Object face contours panel and then in the Object face panel to close the panels
and view the post-processing object.
This maps the color range to the temperature distribution on the heat sink. You can see the temperature on a given point using the surface probe tool.
Figure 16.14: Temperature Distribution on the Heat Sink (p. 349) shows the temperature distribution
on the heat sink.

348

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results


Figure 16.14: Temperature Distribution on the Heat Sink

2. Right-click face.1 in the Model manager window and deselect Active to deactivate the post-processing
object.
3. Click the Plane cut button (

) under the Post-processing toolbar.

a. Select Y plane through center from the Set position drop-down list.
b. Select Show vectors option.
c. Click Create and Done. Zoom in to display more details.
The velocity field around the heat sinks fins, visualized on the central Y plane, is shown in Figure 16.15: Velocity Field Around the Heat Sinks Fins (p. 350).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

349

Modeling CAD Geometry


Figure 16.15: Velocity Field Around the Heat Sinks Fins

16.11. Step 8: Summary


In this tutorial, you imported a CAD object and set up a problem. You then created an unstructured
mesh using the hex-dominant mesher. This forced convection problem was solved for flow and heat
transfer and the results were examined on object faces and plane cuts in the model.
We repeat some of the tips and best practices found in this tutorial for your convenience:
Best Practices
Use the hex-dominant mesher (Mesher-HD) whenever you have CAD geometries in your model. This
is required for CAD objects. For most geometries, Mesher-HD is also the preferred option.
Create nested assemblies for smooth transitions between meshes of highly different grid densities.
Have a max ratio of 10:1 cells between a coarse and a fine mesh for a first cut solution. For mesh independence studies, have a max ratio of 5:1 cells.
Create stringent energy convergence criteria when using the sequential solution scheme of the flow
and energy equations.
Tip

350

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Summary
Select Sequential solution of flow and energy equations in the Solve panel when you are not considering the effects of natural convection. This reduces the solution time required by converging the
flow equations before the energy equation rather than simultaneous computation on every iteration.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

351

352

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 17: Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards


17.1. Introduction
A printed circuit board (PCB) is generally a multi-layered board made of dielectric material and several
layers of copper traces. From the thermal modeling point of view, a PCB may be treated as a homogeneous material with bi-directional thermal conductivity, i.e. thermal conductivity value is different in the
normal-to-plane direction than that of the in-plane direction. This approach is reasonable as long as
the trace distribution is more-or-less uniform in any given layer. However, with the continuing challenges
to increase product functionality while decreasing product size, designers are compelled to place more
and more functionality on individual PCBs. As PCBs become more densely populated, their trace layers
are becoming more non-uniform and it is prudent to use locally varying thermal conductivity information
on the board.
PCBs often have large copper spread in the power and ground planes, this along with the presence of
vias (especially thermal vias) can be effectively used by the designer to spread heat from the package.
A detailed conductivity map of the pcb is required to simulate heat transfer, which is possible in Ansys
Icepak using the trace feature.
Conducting a computational heat transfer simulation for each individual layer is costly and impractical
for a system level model. In ANSYS Icepak, it is possible to import trace layout of the board and compute
locally varying orthotropic conductivity ( ,  ,  , and  ) on the board using a profile mesh size. The
supported file formats are (1) MCM, BRD and TCB files and (created using Cadence, Synopsys, Zuken,
and Mentor), (2) ANF files and (3) ODB++ files.
Ansoftlinks installation and licensing are required to create ANF files to be read by Icepak. Icepak can
read ODB++ files, but an Ansoftlinks license is required. To import MCM/BRD files, Cadence Allegro
must be installed.
In this tutorial, we will show :
How to import trace layout of a typical PCB in TCB format and solve two sample cases based on the trace
layout information.
How to use Model layers separately option for better accuracy.

17.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS Icepak and that you have
solved or read the tutorial Finned Heat Sink. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not
be shown explicitly.

17.3. Problem Description


A PCB board, library files and traces are imported to create the model. The model is first solved for
conduction only, without the components and then solved using the actual components with forced
convection.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

353

Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards

17.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak User's Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.

2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
The New project panel appears.
3. Specify a name for your project.
a. In the Project name text box, enter the name trace-import.
b. Click Create.

17.5. Step 2: Build the Model


To build the model, you will first import the board layout. The board and the associated library files
have to be chosen at this step and the trace file can be imported later.
File Import IDF file New
1. In the IDF import panel, select the board (A1.bdf ). Specify the model directory using Browse.
The associated library files are imported automatically.

2. Select Next to see your Layout options. Keep Detail for the Import type, XY for the board plane and
Rectangular for the board shape.

354

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model

Note
Because we import the trace information later, we do not need to edit the board properties
at this time.

3. Select Next to see the Component filtering options. Ensure Import all components is selected.

Note
You can filter certain components at this step by their size and power information, i.e.
you can ignore the small components or the ones dissipating low power. We will import
all of the components in this tutorial.

4. Select Next to see the Component models section. Select Model all components as. Keep the default
selection of 3d blocks and the default Cutoff height for modeling components as 3d blocks.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

355

Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards

Note
If you have thin components on your board, they can be modeled as 2D sources. In this
tutorial, we would like to model all the components as rectangular blocks.

5. Click Next to go to the Miscellaneous options section where you can specify the naming and monitor
options. Keep the default options and click Finish to start importing the files. This will take some time
depending on the speed of your machine.

356

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model

You have learned how to import board and library files, and in general you can import any IDF file
by using the procedure above.
The next step in building the model is to import the trace files. A pre-built board model named
A11" (see Figure 17.1: A11 Board Layout (p. 358)) will be used to demonstrate the trace file import.
This pre-built model was extracted from the previous board file (A11.brd), a number of small components were removed and a non-conformal assembly was formed.
a. Unpack A11.tzr file to your desktop and name the project A11".

Note
As mentioned earlier, the trace file (.brd, .tcb, .mcm, .anf, or .odb++) can either be
imported during the IDF file import or the trace layout information can be assigned
to the board after importing the IDF file.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

357

Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards


Figure 17.1: A11 Board Layout

b. Right click BOARD_OUTLINE.1 located in the board assembly in the Model manager window and
click Edit to display the Printed circuit boards object panel.
To import the trace layout, follow the procedures below.
i.

358

In the Geometry tab, select Ansoft Neutral ANF from the Import ECAD file drop down list
(Figure 17.2: Printed circuit boards [BOARD_OUTLINE.1] Panel (p. 359)).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 17.2: Printed circuit boards [BOARD_OUTLINE.1] Panel

ii. Select A1.anf from the Trace file panel. This process may take a few minutes depending on the
speed of your computer.

Note
A1.anf can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/traces/A1.anf. You
must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS
Icepak is installed on your computer system.

iii. Once the import process is completed, you can edit the layer information in the Board layer and
via information panel (Figure 17.3: Importing Trace Layout and Editing Layer Information (p. 361)).
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

359

Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards


The number of layers in the board will automatically be imported to ANSYS Icepak and you
will have to enter the thickness of each layer and the material type. In this tutorial, the metal
layers are pure Cu and the dielectric layers are FR-4.
iv. Enter the layer thickness as shown in Table 17.1: Thickness Information on the Board (Layer 1: Top,
Layer 7: Bottom layers) (p. 360).
Table 17.1: Thickness Information on the Board (Layer 1: Top, Layer 7: Bottom layers)
Layer

Thickness (mm)

Layer 1

0.04

Layer 2

0.45364

Layer 3

0.062

Layer 4

0.467

Layer 5

0.055

Layer 6

0.442

Layer 7

0.045

The grid density is specified By count: and By size:. To determine the optimal grid density
find the smallest trace width in the x and y directions. Review the via diameters and see that
the minimum via diameter is 0.254mm. The length of the PCB in the x-direction is 166.6mm
and 109.1mm in the y-direction. Divide the length of the PCB by the minimum via diameter
to determine the optimal grid density in the x and y directions. Select By count: and change
the number of rows and columns to 656 x 430.

360

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 17.3: Importing Trace Layout and Editing Layer Information

v. By default, the Model layers separately option is on when importing traces using a pcb object.
Click Accept to close the panel. In the Printed circuit boards [BOARD_OUTLINE.1] panel, click
Edit... across from Trace layers and vias to display the Board layer and via information panel.
The Model layers separately option is on. Click the Dont recompute metal fractions option
to turn it off.
vi. Via information (e.g., material, plating thickness, filled/un-filled, via diameter etc.) is imported
automatically (Figure 17.4: Vias Information (p. 362)), keep the default settings.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

361

Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards


Figure 17.4: Vias Information

vii. Click Accept to save your settings.

Note
The background mesh matrix (rows and columns) is used to compute the orthotropic conductivity on the board. The rows represent the division of the board in
the y-direction, the columns represent the division of the board in the x-direction
and the size field determines the divisions of the board and indicates the grid size
in each direction. The values of ,  ,  , and   on each cell are determined by
the local trace density and the direction. ANSYS Icepak does not include the trace
geometry in the physical model; however, the locally varying orthotropic conductivity is mapped from the background mesh to the physical model mesh. Once the
trace file is imported and assigned to the board geometry, the trace layers are
associated with the board and are moved (in translation and/or rotation) with the
board object.

viii.Press Done to close the Printed circuit boards object panel.

362

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


ix. Right click on the object BOARD_OUTLINE.1 and go to Traces from the menu.

Note
You can view the traces in three different ways, i.e. single color, color by layer,
or color by trace. Each of the trace layers can be viewed separately by switching
the visible option on or off in the layers part of the panel. (Figure 17.5: Displaying
Traces on the Board (p. 363)).
Figure 17.5: Displaying Traces on the Board

x. Select color by trace; the board traces are as shown in Figure 17.6: Trace Layout on the PCB with
the Color by trace Option (p. 364).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

363

Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards


Figure 17.6: Trace Layout on the PCB with the Color by trace Option

You can view the location of individual trace layers as shown in Figure 17.7: Displaying Trace
Layers (p. 364) by enabling the Display traces in 3D option in the Preferences panel.
Edit Preferences Display
After enabling Display traces in 3D option, select This project in the Preferences panel,
zoom in and display the positive Y view of your model.
Figure 17.7: Displaying Trace Layers

xi. View the fraction of metal traces based on the grid density entered above. Go to the Model menu
and select Show metal fractions. In the Show metal fractions panel, select BOARD_OUTLINE.1
across from Object with traces. The other fields will be automatically filled with the PCB information.

364

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 1: Generate a Mesh

Figure 17.8: Metal fractions display

Click Close to go back to your previous display.

17.6. Conduction Only Model (PCB Without the Components)


Follow these steps for a conduction-only model:

17.7. Step 1: Generate a Mesh


You will generate a mesh for each sample problem. First we will consider a board without any components.
1. Make all objects (including the openings) inactive except the BOARD_OUTLINE.1 object.
2. Select the cabinet and select Autoscale from the Edit window to make the size of the board and the
cabinet the same.
3. Go to the Properties tab of the Cabinet object panel, and select Wall from the Min z and Max z dropdown lists.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

365

Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards


4. Press Edit next to Min z to open the Walls object panel.
a. In the Properties tab, select Temperature from the External conditions drop-down list, and keep
the ambient temperature (20C).
b. Press Done to close the panel.
5. Press Edit next to Max z to open the Walls object panel.
a. In the Properties tab, specify a Heat flux of 20000 W/m2 in the Thermal specification group box.
b. Press Done to close the panel.

Note
The rest of the sides are insulated. The board will be simulated using a conduction-only
model.

6. Press Done to close the Cabinet panel.


7. Go to Model Generate mesh to open the Mesh control panel.
a. Make sure the Mesh type is Mesher-HD.
b. Specify a Max element size for X, Y, and Z as 5, 3, and 0.05 mm respectively, and a Minimum gap
for X, Y, and Z as 1, 1, and 0.01 mm respectively.
c. Keep all other defaults and click Generate.
8. Once the mesh has been created, Close the Mesh control panel.

17.8. Step 2: Set Physical and Numerical Values


1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. Since this is a conduction only model, toggle off the Flow option in the General setup tab.
b. Make sure Radiation is off and keep all other default values.
c. Press Accept to close the Basic parameters panel.
2. Go to

Solution settings

Basic settings.

a. Keep the default Number of iterations and set the Convergence criteria for Energy to 1e-12.
b. Click Accept to close the panel.
3. Go to

Solution settings

Advanced settings.

a. Input the following for Temperature in the Linear solver group box:
i.

Choose W cycle from the Type drop-down list.

ii. Enter 1e-6 for both the Termination criterion and Residual reduction tolerance.
366

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Examine the Results


b. Select Double for the solver Precision.
c. Press Accept to close the Advanced solver setup panel.

17.9. Step 3: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak saves the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.
File Save project

17.10. Step 4: Calculate a Solution


Go to Solve Run solution or click on the shortcut button (
A11656x430. Start the solver by clicking Start solution.

). Enter a Solution ID such as

17.11. Step 5: Examine the Results


1. Once the model has converged, Activate cut.1 if not already activated.
2. Edit cut.1 and make sure that Set position is Point and normal.
3. Make sure that PX, PY, PZ are 0, 0, and 0.78232, respectively and the NX, NY, and NZ are 0, 0, and 1,
respectively.
4. Press Done and view the model.
The mid-plane temperature distribution shows that the high temperature regions occur at the no-trace
areas and low temperature regions occur at areas with a high trace concentration. This is expected as
the copper content is directly proportional to the trace concentration. It is worth noting that if a compact
or detailed PCB were used in lieu of the traced PCB, one would obtain a fixed temperature for the entire
mid-plane and this fixed temperature would be different from the average temperature of the traced
PCB on the same plane.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

367

Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards


Figure 17.9: Temperature Distribution on the PCB (mid-plane)

Note
The spatially varying non-uniform conductivity of the board can also be viewed during post
processing. The conductivities in the three direction ,  , and   are available as postprocessing variables with plane cuts and object faces. Figure 17.10: K_X Distribution on the
PCB (mid-plane) (p. 369) plots   at the board mid-plane by selecting K_X from the Contours
of drop-down list from Plane cut contours panel of the cut.1 object. In the present case,
because the layers are modeled separately, there is a variation of the conductivities in the
board-normal direction.

368

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

PCB With the Actual Components Under Forced Convection


Figure 17.10: K_X Distribution on the PCB (mid-plane)

17.12. PCB With the Actual Components Under Forced Convection


Follow these steps for a model that has components:

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

369

Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards

17.13. Step 1: Generate a Mesh


1. In order to put the actual components back into the model, highlight all the components under the Inactive folder and drag them back into the Model folder. Highlight the two wall objects created for the
conduction only" model and drag them into the Inactive folder.
2. Click on the Cabinet and Autoscale it from the Edit window.
3. If not already defined, assign an X Velocity of -1.5 m/s in the Properties tab of the Openings panel for
the Max x side of the cabinet (the minus sign shows that the flow is in the negative x direction).
4. Open the Mesh control panel and choose X, Y, Z sizes as 9.5, 7, and 0.7 mm respectively.
5. Keep all other defaults and Generate the mesh.

17.14. Step 2: Set Physical and Numerical Values


1. Since we now have forced convection, go to Problem Setup
Basic parameters toggle on the
Flow button. Keep and choose Turbulent and Zero equation for the flow regime and press Accept to
close the panel.
Basic settings and make sure the Number of iterations is 300 and
2. Go to Solution settings
that the Convergence criteria are the same as the last mode, and press Accept to close the panel.
3. Keep the same Advanced settings as the previous case.

17.15. Step 3: Calculate a Solution


Click Solve Run Solution to display the Solve panel. Enter a different solution id for the forced
convection model (i.e., A11-conv). Enable Sequential solution of flow and energy equations and click
Start solution.

17.16. Step 4: Examine the Results


To display contours of temperature on the board, follow the procedures below.
1. Once the model has converged, deactivate cut.1 and go to Post Object Face.
2. Select BOARD_OUTLINE.1 from the Object drop-down list.
3. Turn on the show contours and click on Parameters button.
4. Keep the default selection of Temperature.
5. For Color levels, select This object from the drop-down list.
6. Press Done in the Object face contours panel and then the Object face panel to view the postprocessing
object.
This shows the temperature distribution at the top of the surface of the board (Figure 17.11: Top
Surface Temperature Distribution: PCB With Imported Traces in Forced Convection (p. 371)). There
are hot spots underneath the high heat flux components.

370

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Additional Exercise 1
Figure 17.11: Top Surface Temperature Distribution: PCB With Imported Traces in Forced
Convection

7. Deactivate the face.1 postprocessing object.

17.17. Summary
In this tutorial, you imported the board layout and trace files. Then you simulated the board using a
conduction only model using a grid density of 656 x 430. Postprocessing this model showed high
temperature regions occurring at the no-trace areas and low temperature regions occurring at areas
with a high trace concentration. Then you simulated the board with the components put back into the
model and simulated under forced convection..

17.18. Additional Exercise 1


Using this model, you can determine the joule/trace heating of the imported traces. This problem is
described in Tutorial Joule/Trace Heating.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

371

372

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 18: Joule/Trace Heating


18.1. Introduction
In the tutorial Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards (p. 353), you learned how to import a trace
layout of a typical PCB using the ANF format and also learned how to model the trace layers separately
for better modeling accuracy. In this tutorial, you will learn how to model resistive heating or Joule
heating of the imported traces in the PCB.
Since PCB traces have electrical resistance, they heat up as current flows through them. Modeling this
phenomenon will provide us with an accurate prediction of the temperature distribution in the PCB,
which can be important, for example, in evaluating the performance of the cooling system.

18.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have completed the tutorial Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit
Boards (p. 353) of this guide. This same model is used to determine the Joule/trace heating capability
in ANSYS Icepak.

18.3. Problem Description


The model in the tutorial Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards (p. 353) contains imported traces
and will be used in this tutorial. You will determine the Joule/trace heating capacity of the traces.

18.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Chapter 1 of the Users Guide.

Note
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel will open automatically.

2. Click Unpack in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.

Note
The File selection panel will appear.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

373

Joule/Trace Heating
3. In the File selection panel, select the packed project file Joule-heating.tzr (found in your Icepak
installation folder) and click Open.

Note
The project file can be found in your installation directory at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/Joule-heating/Joule-heating.tzr.

4. In the Location for the unpacked project panel, select a directory where you would like to place the
packed project file, enter a project name in the New Project text field, and click Unpack.

18.5. Step 2: Build the Model


This tutorial uses an existing model. Import the traces using A1.anf and change the thickness as described
below. Keep the default values for Grid density.

Note
A1.anf can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/Joule-heating/A1.anf. You must
replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed
on your computer system.
Table 18.1: Thickness Information on the Board (Layer 1: Top, Layer 7: Bottom layers)
Layer

Thickness (mm)

Layer 1

0.04

Layer 2

0.45364

Layer 3

0.062

Layer 4

0.467

Layer 5

0.055

Layer 6

0.442

Layer 7

0.045

You will work directly on the Joule heating capability in ANSYS Icepak
1. Select BOARD_OUTLINE.1 from the Model manager window.
a. Right click on the object BOARD_OUTLINE.1 and click on Traces in the context menu. You can
view the traces in three different ways and select Off to remove the display.
b. You can also view individual traces or nets by selecting Traces from the View menu and clicking on
Trace info. As you click on different areas in the graphics display window, the trace name and
number will appear. Click on the right or middle mouse button when you are done. In the steps below,
you will create a solid trace from one of these traces.

374

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model

c. Open the BOARD_OUTLINE.1 edit panel. In the Geometry tab, click the Edit button next to Model
trace heating. The Trace heating panel opens.
i.

In the drop-down list under Layers, select INT1_3. The list in the Display traces group box shows
available traces. You can filter the traces to view by setting an Area filter (the default in ANSYS
Icepak is 20% of the Largest trace area) and clicking the Filter button. In this example, use an
Area filter of 4124 mm2, as this will only show the significant traces.

Note
The trace area of a trace is the area interior to that trace. The Trace heating
panel lists the traces in each layer in order of descending area, see Figure 18.1: Trace
Heating Panel Selection and Options (p. 376).

ii. Before you create a solid trace of trace A3V3_151, you need to modify the Max angle filter and
the Min length filter to ignore the fine details in the trace geometry and reduce the mesh count.
If you have not done so already, select trace A3V3_151 and set the Max angle filter to 135 and
the Min length filter to 1.0 mm. These settings determine the creation and geometry of a trace
block modeling the trace.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

375

Joule/Trace Heating
Figure 18.1: Trace Heating Panel Selection and Options

iii. Click the Create solid trace button. ANSYS Icepak will create a polygonal solid block named
BOARD_OUTLINE.layer-3-trace-A3V3_151 that contains the trace information. (The actual
name may vary). Click Done to close the Trace heating panel.

Note
You can try reducing the Area filter to 1000 mm2 to check how many traces
appear. We are interested in the largest trace, trace A3V3_151.

d. Click Done in the Printed circuit boards panel to close the panel and view the model (Figure 18.2: Solid Block Created for Trace A3V3_151 (p. 377)). Note that the shaded object in the figure below is the
block you have just created for trace A3V3_151.

376

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 18.2: Solid Block Created for Trace A3V3_151

2. Select the polygonal trace just created from the Model manager window and open the Blocks panel.
a. In the Geometry tab of the Blocks panel, make sure there are approximately 115 vertices for the
trace, as shown in Figure 18.3: Polygonal Trace Block (p. 378).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

377

Joule/Trace Heating
Figure 18.3: Polygonal Trace Block

b. Go to the Properties tab.


i.

Make sure that the Solid material is tr_A3V3_151_sol_mat and then select Edit definition
in the drop-down list.
A. The Materials panel opens.
B. Make sure the Properties tab of the Materials panel looks like those in Figure 18.4: Trace
Materials Panel Properties Tab (p. 379).
C. Press Done to close the Materials panel.

378

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 18.4: Trace Materials Panel Properties Tab

ii. In order to activate Joule heating of the trace, press the Edit button for the Joule option. The
Joule heating power panel opens.
A. Click Add side two times to create two boundary conditions.
B. For the first boundary condition in the Boundary conditions group box, set Side to side93,
Boundary type to current, and specify the Current to 25.0 Amp.
C. For the second boundary condition, set Side to side113, Boundary type to voltage, and
the Voltage to 0.0 V.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

379

Joule/Trace Heating
Figure 18.5: Boundary conditions for the Trace Block

Note
You must manually check for current conservation.

380

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Generate a Mesh


Figure 18.6: Entry and Exit Sides for the Trace Block

Note
The side numbers are estimates as they may be slightly different for each
model.

D. Press Done in the Joule heating power panel and then the Blocks panel to close the panels
and view the model.

18.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


1. Create a non-conformal assembly for the trace.
a. Right-click the BOARD_OUTLINE.1.layer-3-trace-A3V3_151 object and go to Create and
then Assembly.

Note
The mesh priority of the trace block must be greater than the mesh priority of the
PCB.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

381

Joule/Trace Heating
b. Double-click the assembly you created to open the Assemblies panel.
i.

In the Meshing tab, select Mesh separately and input the Slack settings, Mesh type, Max element size, Min gap and Global specifications settings as shown in Figure 18.7: Mesh Settings for
the Trace Board (p. 382).
Figure 18.7: Mesh Settings for the Trace Board

Note
Ensure the Mesh type is Mesher-HD.

c. Press Done to close the Assemblies panel.


2. Go to Model Generate mesh to open the Mesh control panel.

382

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


a. Ensure that your settings match those in Figure 18.8: Mesh control Panel (p. 383).
Figure 18.8: Mesh control Panel

b. Click Generate to create the mesh.


c. Check the mesh quality for the trace and the overall model from the Display and Quality tabs.

18.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


1. Double-click the cabinet_default_side_maxx object in the Model manager window to open the
Openings panel.
a. In the Properties tab, ensure the X Velocity is -1.5 m/s.
b. Press Done to close the panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

383

Joule/Trace Heating
2. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

Note
Instead of accessing the
Basic parameters panel, you can instead use the Problem
setup wizard to define your problem setup by double-clicking Problem setup in the
Model manager window. See 2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings of the Finned
Heat Sink tutorial for more instruction regarding the Problem setup wizard. You must
still use the same settings described in this tutorial for the Problem setup wizard.
a. Since this is a forced convection problem, ensure that the Flow and Temperature check boxes and
the Turbulent option are selected. Select Zero equation as the turbulence model.
b. Click Accept to close the panel.
3. Go to

Solution settings

Basic settings.

a. Make sure the Convergence criteria for Flow is 0.001.


b. Set the Number of iterations to 200 and the Convergence criteria for Energy and Joule heating
to 1e-8.
c. Press Accept to close the panel.
4. Go to

Solution settings

Advanced settings.

a. Input the following for Temperature in the Linear solver group box:
i.

Choose W cycle from the Type drop-down list.

ii. Enter 1e-6 for both the Termination criterion and Residual reduction tolerance.
b. Make sure the Precision for the solver is Double.
Your settings should match those in Figure 18.9: Linear Solver Settings (p. 384).
Figure 18.9: Linear Solver Settings

384

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 6: Calculate a Solution


c. Press Accept to close the Advanced solver setup panel.

18.8. Step 5: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.
File Save Project

18.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


1. Click Solve Run Solution.
2. Click Start solution.
3. After your solution has converged, your residuals plot may look similar to Figure 18.10: Solution Residuals (p. 386).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

385

Joule/Trace Heating
Figure 18.10: Solution Residuals

18.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


Once the model has converged, create an object face.
1. Select the trace and show the temperature contours.
a. Go to Post Object face.
b. In the Object drop-down list, select the trace (BOARD_OUTLINE.1.layer-3-trace-A3V3_151).

386

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results


c. Select Show contours and click Parameters. In the Object face contours panel, select Temperature
in the Contours of drop-down list and select This object next to Calculated in the Color levels
group box. Click Apply.
d. Observe the trend of the temperature contour and how it varies from one side to other, and compare
the maximum temperature for the cases with and without trace modeling (Figure 18.11: Trace Temperature Contours with Forced Convection (p. 388)).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

387

Joule/Trace Heating
Figure 18.11: Trace Temperature Contours with Forced Convection

2. Now plot the electric potential of the same trace, Figure 18.12: Trace Electric Potential Contours with
Forced Convection (p. 389).

388

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results


Figure 18.12: Trace Electric Potential Contours with Forced Convection

a. Click Parameters to open the Object face contours panel.


b. Select Electric Potential from the Contours of drop-down list and press Apply.
c. Observe the contours.
Do you observe any similarity between the temperature and the electric potential contours?
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

389

Joule/Trace Heating
The temperature contours are closely related to the electric potential contours, which is a direct
result of Joule heating of the trace.
d. Press Done in the Object face contours and Object face panels to close the panels.

18.11. Step 8: Summary


In the previous tutorial, Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards, you learned how to import trace
layers for a PCB and how to model them with various degrees of accuracy and detail. In this tutorial,
you have learned how to filter traces by their geometry and to model the Joule heating or resistive
heating of desired traces in ANSYS Icepak. This method allows you to determine an accurate prediction
of the temperature distribution in a PCB.
We repeat some of the best practices found in this tutorial for your convenience:
Filter out traces too small to be thermally significant. This can reduce unnecessary meshing and computational time.
Check for current conservation manually.
Use the hex-dominant mesher when you are using imported trace data.

390

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 19: Microelectronics Packages - Compact models


19.1. Introduction
This tutorial is a case study of a board design. A card supplier is making two package type changes to
an existing commercial board. The objective of the thermal simulation project is to see if the selected
new packages are likely to function without overheating. In the event of over heating, what kind of
thermal management should be recommended?
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Perform a board level simulation with appropriate package models.
Determine if the selected new packages can function without overheating.

19.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have worked on Sample Session in the Icepak Users Guide and the first
two ANSYS Icepak tutorials of this guide.

19.3. Problem Description


A designer is to select packages for a new design at the drawing board level. Available information
about the board and packages is given. Determine cooling solutions in the event there is overheating.
Figure 19.1: Problem Specification

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

391

Microelectronics Packages - Compact models

19.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Copy the file ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/compact-package/compact-package-modeling.tzr
to your working directory. You must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where
ANSYS Icepak is installed on your computer system.
2. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak Users Guide.
3. Click Unpack in the Welcome to Icepak panel.
4. In the File selection panel, select the packed project file compact-package-modeling.tzr and
click Open.
5. In the Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog, select a directory where you would like
to place the packed project file, enter a project name, such as test-1, in the New project text field
then click Unpack.

19.5. Step 2: Build the Model


This tutorial uses an existing model. ANSYS Icepak will display the model in the graphics window as
shown in Figure 19.2: Layout of the board to be analyzed (p. 393). Available information about the board
and packages is shown in Table 19.1: Available Details for Objects in the Model (p. 393) and
Table 19.2: Available Information for 400 PBGA (p. 394). You will use these tables to edit existing objects
and as well as to create new objects.

392

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 19.2: Layout of the board to be analyzed

Table 19.1: Available Details for Objects in the Model


Object

Number of
Occurrences
in Model

Available Information

Power
(W)

PCB

1.6 mm thick, FR4 Material, six 1 oz. layers of Copper, 30% coverage for all layers

Heat Spreader for TO-220 packages

Al-Extruded

TO-220 Packages

DIP

None

0.5

400 PBGA (new package type to


the existing board)

See Table 19.2: Available Information for


400 PBGA (p. 394)

2.0

 = 2.5 C/W

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

1.5

393

Microelectronics Packages - Compact models


Object

Number of
Occurrences
in Model

Available Information

Power
(W)

232 PQFP (new package type to


the existing board)

232 leads, 40 mm X 40 mm Footprint, 2


mm height

3.5

Note
An ounce of Copper is actually the thickness of 1 ounce/sq.ft of plane copper sheet. Using
copper density this translates to a thickness of 0.035 mm.
Table 19.2: Available Information for 400 PBGA
Feature

Size (mm)

Overall package

26 x 26 x 2.15

Mold compound

Material/Conduct- Other info


ivity (W/mK)

Where to input this


info
Dimensions tab

0.8

Die/Mold tab

Die

18 x 18 x 0.4

Silicon material

Die/Mold tab

Die Flag

18 x 18 x 0.035
(equivalent)

80.0 (effective)

Die/Mold tab

Die Attach

0.05 mm thick

Not mentioned

Die/Mold tab

Substrate

0.4 mm thick

FR4

Substrate tab

Substrate
traces

0.035 mm thick

Copper

4 layers, top and


bottom 30% coverage intermediate
layers are 100%
(plane layers)

Substrate tab

Vias

Unknown

Not mentioned

Number of vias unknown

Substrate tab (use 0


for vias)

Solder Balls

Standard

Solder

20 x 20 count, full
array

Solder tab

Wire Bonds

Not mentioned

Usually Gold

Die/Mold tab

1. Create the PCB.


Create a PCB object by clicking the Create printed circuit boards button (
). Then edit the PCB
by clicking the Edit object button ( ) while the PCB object is selected in the Model manager
window. Enter the following in the Geometry tab:
Object type

Name

Shape/Type/Plane

Global Coordinates (m)


XS YS ZS XE YE ZE

PCB

pcb.1

X-Z

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.25 N/A 0.2

a. Go to the Properties tab. Enter the PCB thickness of 1.6 mm for Substrate thickness.

394

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


b. Change the default unit from microns to Cu-oz/ft2 for high and low surface thickness and for internal
layer thickness under the Trace layer parameters group box.
2. Enter the material information for the PCB found in Table 19.1: Available Details for Objects in the Model (p. 393). This information can be entered for the selected PCB object as shown in Figure 19.3: PCB Edit
Form with input based on PCB information in the Table with Model Object Details above (p. 395).
Figure 19.3: PCB Edit Form with input based on PCB information in the Table with Model
Object Details above

Now, you should see the PCB object overlapping the block called PCB. There is no more need for
this block.

Note
You recreated the PCB object geometry using coordinates of the imported PCB block.

3. Right-click the block named PCB and deselect Active to deactivate the block object.
4. Verify the material properties of the heat spreaders for the TO-220 devices.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

395

Microelectronics Packages - Compact models


a. Since the default solid material happens to be Al-Extruded, all three spreaders should have come
into the model with the correct material specifications. Check this information by editing the
spreaders.
5. Model the packages.
This model has four different types of objects. Based on the available information and our objectives,
we shall use different compact package modeling capabilities in ANSYS Icepak.
a. TO-220 type packages
i.

There are 9 TO-220 device blocks. Select them all at once by drawing a selection box around them
with Shift and the left mouse button (see Figure 19.4: Window Selecting Multiple Objects for
Simultaneous Edit (p. 396)). Press Shift+y to get a positive Y orientated view as in the figure.
Simultaneous selection can also be done in the Model manager window. Press the Ctrl key and
click to select several objects.
Figure 19.4: Window Selecting Multiple Objects for Simultaneous Edit

ii. You should see all TO-220 devices highlighted in the Model manager window. Note that only
TO-220 objects should be selected. If you see other objects highlighted (such as the Spreader
objects), deselect them by holding down the Ctrl key and clicking them in the Model manager

396

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


window. You can simultaneously edit all of the remaining objects at once by right-clicking on any
one of the selected TO-220 objects in the Model manager window.

Caution
You will not be able to edit the objects simultaneously if you still have the
spreaders selected.
A. Select Network for the Block type.
B. Keep the default selection of Two resistor for the Network type.
C. In order to assign the resistance, you need to identify a reference side. This is the purpose of
the board side" input. You want the resistance to be applied from the junction to the side in
contact with the spreader (Max Z side). You can accomplish this in two ways:
Designate Min Z as the Board side and assign the supplier provided resistance value (2.5
C/W from Table 19.1: Available Details for Objects in the Model (p. 393)) to Rjc.
or
Designate Max Z as the Board side and assign the supplier provided resistance value to
Rjb.

Note
Zero resistance means that there would not be any link and the resistance
values are infinite. For more information regarding the two-resistor model,
refer to Two-Resistor Model in the Icepak Users Guide.

D. Input 1.5 W for the Junction power.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

397

Microelectronics Packages - Compact models


Figure 19.5: TO-220 Properties Tab

iii. Click Done to finish the operation.


b. DIP type packages
i.

As you have done previously for the TO_220 objects, select all the DIP objects and simultaneously
edit them.

ii. Select default for Solid material (however, any material would work because you are not interested
in the temperature of the DIP packages).
A. Input 0.5 W in the Total Power field.
B. Click Done.

Note
DIP is the package type for which you have the least information. So you are
left with two options:
Try to get additional information from the supplier.
or

398

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Perform a tentative simulation with the available information. The options are
considered along with the following facts:
The DIPs contribute a lower heat flux than the other components in the board.
This is an existing design in which the DIPs have been known to run well below
their specified temperature even at max power.
Based on the above reasoning, it is easier to perform a tentative simulation
with the available power information than to obtain additional information
from the supplier. In this context the purpose of the DIP package modeling is
to appropriately account for air and PCB heating due to flow over the DIPs.
Accurate prediction of the DIP-package temperature is therefore not an objective.

c. PQFP type packages


Internal details are unavailable for the PQFP type package. But based on the exterior details
such as lead count, foot print size, and package height information, it is possible to construct a
compact model of a typical package for screening analysis.
i.

Go to the Libraries node by clicking the Library tab in the Model manager window. Right-click
Libraries and select Search packages.

Note
A package may also be created using either IC package macros or a package object.

ii. In the Search package library panel enter all known information about the package
(Table 19.1: Available Details for Objects in the Model (p. 393)) as the search criteria. Clicking the
Search button should return 1 the closest matching packages from the library. Pick the package
that is most similar in description to the 232-lead PQFP information available and select Create.
Figure 19.6: Package Search Criteria (p. 400) depicts the package search settings and results.

If search does not return a relevant package, click the package object icon to create a new package object. After entering the few
known values, you may enter reasonable values or leave the remaining parameters as default.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

399

Microelectronics Packages - Compact models


Figure 19.6: Package Search Criteria

iii. Go back to the Project tab and edit the newly created package object. Make sure that:
The Package type is QFP.
The Package thickness is 2.0 mm.
The Model type is Compact Conduction Model (CCM).

400

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


The Symmetry is Full.

Note
CCM is a compact model based on geometric simplifications that still preserve the
original heat transfer pathways of the package. It has been demonstrated 2 that
CCM is fairly accurate and boundary condition independent. Other options under
Model type are:
To model the package in full detail. This option is meant for package level modeling.
Using this in board or system design will create many more objects requiring
meshing and thus increase the mesh size.
To characterize junction-to-case and junction-to-board network resistances for a two
resistance compact model. We have used this for the PBGA package.

iv. Select the Die/Mold tab. (The Substrate and Solder tabs show blank interface since QFP type
packages do not have soldering or substrates.) Enter 3.5 W for Total power.
v. Use all other defaults under the Die/Mold tab. Click Done to close the tab.
vi. The package created is in an arbitrary location. You may use the Align face centers button (
)
to position the base center of the created package object with that of the 232PQFP block. The
dimensions of the package should match the dimensions of the 232PQFP block (select the block
to see its dimensions):

vii. Since there is no more need for the 232PQFP block, deactivate it.
viii.There is another 232PQFP block (232PQFP.1). Create a copy of the first package object and align
it with the remaining 232PQFP block. Note that this second package is offset from the first in
only the X direction by 70 mm. Deactivate the second 232PQFP" block (232PQFP.1). The dimensions of the second package should be:

d. PBGA type packages


You have fairly comprehensive information about the PBGA type package from the supplier (see
Table 19.2: Available Information for 400 PBGA (p. 394)). Using this information you can construct
a CCM or characterize to determine jc and jb to model it as a two-resistor network model as
shown here:
2

Karimanal, K.V. and Refai-Ahmed, G., Validation of Compact Conduction Models of BGA Under An Expanded Boundary Condition
Set", Proceedings of the ITHERM 2002, May 2002, San Diego, Ca, USA.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

401

Microelectronics Packages - Compact models


i.

Select all the blocks named 400-PBGA and edit all of them simultaneously.
A. Select Network as the Block type and Two resistor as the Network type.
B. Set the board side as Min Y.
C. Input the estimated jc (1.4 C/W) and jb (6.75 C/W) values in the Rjc and Rjb fields respectively.
D. Input a Junction power of 2.0 W.
E. Click Done to finish.

ii. Edit the Cabinet. In the Properties tab, you have the option to define the boundary condition
(Wall type) for each side of the cabinet. Set the Wall type for Min x and Max x as Opening.
iii. Press Edit for the Min x side to open the Openings panel.
iv. In the Properties tab of the Openings panel, assign an X velocity of 1.0 m/s.
v. Click Done to close the Openings panel.
vi. The Max x side opening should have the default settings (free opening).
vii. All other cabinet boundaries should be Default.

402

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Generate a Mesh

viii.Click Done in the Cabinet panel to confirm changes.


ix. You should see the openings on the min X and max X sides of the cabinet.

19.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


1. Click the mesh icon

a. Make sure Mesher-HD is selected as the Mesh type and Normal is selected for Mesh parameters.
b. Click Generate to create the mesh.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

403

Microelectronics Packages - Compact models


Figure 19.7: Mesh control panel

c. Evaluate your mesh from the Display and Quality tabs.


2. (optional) Create non-conformal assemblies around each package set to reduce mesh bleeding and
consequently reduce the mesh count. As a start, use 3 mm slack values for all sides of each assembly.
Resize the assemblies if necessary. With non-conformal assemblies, you can reduce the number of elements
in the mesh significantly. Display and compare the conformal and non-conformal meshes.

19.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


1. Go to Problem setup
setup tab.

Basic parameters and set the Flow regime to Turbulent in the General

Click Accept to close the panel.


2. Go to Solution settings
Basic settings panel and click Reset. Set the number of iterations to
200 in the Basic settings panel and close the panel by clicking Accept.

404

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 6: Calculate a Solution

19.8. Step 5: Save the Model


Save the model after the model building and meshing is complete.
File Save project

19.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


1. Define monitor points of temperature for the 232-Lead_PQFP_40mmX40mm package and DIP object.
A monitor point will be created to monitor the temperature change with iterations (Figure 19.8: Monitor
Point Definition (p. 405)).
Figure 19.8: Monitor Point Definition

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

405

Microelectronics Packages - Compact models


2. Go to Solve Run solution and select Sequential solution of flow and energy equations. Since
you have neglected gravity, there is no coupling between the flow and energy equations. Therefore,
sequential solution of the flow and energy equations is possible to speed up the convergence rate.
Figure 19.9: Solve panel

3. Click Start solution.

19.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


First observe the general temperature distribution pattern on the board.
1. Create temperature contours of pcb.1 by clicking the Object face icon ( ), selecting Show contours,
clicking Parameters, and selecting This object for the Calculated drop-down list. Figure 19.10: Temperature Contours on pcb.1 (p. 407) depicts the object face you have just created.

406

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results


Figure 19.10: Temperature Contours on pcb.1

Probe temperatures values at desired locations on the object face by using the Surface probe feature
(

).

Note the higher temperatures in the parts of the PCB under the PQFP packages.
2. Go to Report Network block values. The text window lists all the network block temperatures.
Network junction temperatures can also be obtained from the overview report.
3. The closeness of the PBGA objects relative to each other may be a potential cause for overheating. How
much of the problem is due to the ambient temperature of the air flowing past these components?
You can visualize the thermal boundary layer over the PBGA objects by taking an X-Y plane cut of
temperature contours over the PBGA blocks (Figure 19.11: Temperature Contour Plane Cut (Z plane
through center) (p. 408)). Note the higher temperatures in the wake region of the right-most block.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

407

Microelectronics Packages - Compact models


Figure 19.11: Temperature Contour Plane Cut (Z plane through center)

4. What is the cause for the relatively high temperatures of the TO-220 devices?
Are the heat spreaders too close? If so, the air flowing between the spreaders will overheat preventing
further heat dissipation to the air. You can find out if this is the case by creating XZ cut planes of
vectors and contours that cut across the spreader blocks. In Figure 19.12: Temperature Contour Plane
Cut (Y plane through center) (p. 409), the boundary layers of the spreaders do not interfere with each
other significantly. Therefore, their arrangement relative to each other is not problematic thermally.

408

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results


Figure 19.12: Temperature Contour Plane Cut (Y plane through center)

5. The highest temperatures are in the 400-PBGA blocks. Effective cooling solutions can be designed by
understanding heat flow pathways.
Generate a summary report of heat flow for the 400-PBGA blocks. By deselecting the check box under
Comb in the Define summary report panel, generate an itemization of the heat flow through each
side of the object. Figure 19.13: Summary Report for Object 400-PBGA (p. 410) shows the resulting
summary report.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

409

Microelectronics Packages - Compact models


Figure 19.13: Summary Report for Object 400-PBGA

19.11. Step 8: Summary


In this tutorial, you performed a board level simulation and determined cooling solutions in the event
there is overheating. In addition, you learned how to specify properties of PCBs, packages, and network
blocks to model your system more accurately than possible with only block objects.

19.12. Step 9: Additional Exercise


Post-processing showed that the components of 400-PBGA are the most critical objects since they are
the hottest. Here are some cooling ideas to set up and perform ANSYS Icepak simulations:
What if:
1. The flow is in the negative X direction?
2. The flow is in the negative X direction, and by judicious use of flow resistances, more flow is diverted
toward the PBGA objects (for the same overall flow rate)?
3. The bottom side of the PCB is not dissipating any heat as a result of lying on a domain boundary. On
the other hand, there seems to be plenty of space above the board. The main reason for the headroom
above the PCB is the height of the spreader blocks. While there is room to move up the spreader by a
little bit, more room can be gained if the spreader is longer in the X direction but shorter in its Y height.
What if both sides of the PCB are exposed to airflow by moving the PCB upward?
4. A heatsink is mounted on the PBGA blocks? Will it be possible to use a heatsink in contact with all PBGA
blocks? Are there any practical issues?

410

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 20: Multi-Level Meshing


20.1. Objective
The objective of this exercise is to use multi-level meshing to improve the mesh resolution and optimize
the mesh count of a model that has CAD objects. The procedure from this exercise should help you
make adequate modeling and meshing decisions during your thermal modeling projects.

20.2. Prerequisites
The trainee should be familiar with:
ANSYS Icepak modeling objects
Basics of meshing
Non-conformal meshing

20.3. Skills Covered


Basic meshing techniques
Non-conformal meshing
Multi-level meshing
Uniform mesh parameters option

20.4. Loading the Model


1. Unpack and load the model named HangingNode.tzr, found in the directory ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/HangingNode, where ICEPAK_ROOT must be replaced by the full path name of the directory
where ANSYS Icepak is installed on your system.
2. Go to File Save project as
a. Rename the project to any name of your choice.

20.5. Step-by-Step Approach


Without any modifications, the model results in about 650,000 elements. Note that this mesh count
results from using the non-conformal meshing technique, which reduces mesh bleeding and mesh
count. However, this mesh does not fully resolve the fine-level geometric features of the CAD objects.
You can reduce the mesh count and improve the mesh resolution on and around the CAD objects by
using the multi-level meshing technique. This procedure starts with a coarse background mesh and
resolves fine level features through a series of successive mesh refinements. By using multi-level

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

411

Multi-Level Meshing
meshing and the uniform mesh parameters feature, you can reduce the mesh count to approximately
500,000 elements and improve mesh resolution.

Note
Multi-level meshing allows for gradually increasing resolution of fine-level features. For more
information on multi-level meshing, see Meshing Options of the Icepak Users Guide.
Generate the mesh without modifying the model. You will see a mesh count of about 650,000 cells.

Note
The mesh count may differ slightly on different machines.

412

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step-by-Step Approach
Figure 20.1: Mesh of Flow Guide Without Multi-Level Meshing

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

413

Multi-Level Meshing
Figure 20.2: Mesh of Sheetmetal_HS Without Multi-Level Meshing

20.6. Modification 1: Multi-Level Meshing of the Fan_Guide


In the Meshing tab of the fan_guide.1 assembly, retain the slack and minimum gap values. However,
change the Max element size values to 4.0 mm.
In the Global tab, select Set uniform mesh params.
In the Multi-level tab, select Allow multi-level meshing and set Max Levels to 2.
Keep the default selection of Proximity size function and Curvature size function.

Note
For more information on various multi-level meshing options, see Global Refinement for
a Hex-Dominant Mesh of the Icepak Users Guide.

414

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Modification 2: Multi-Level Mesh of the Sheetmetal_hs_assy.1

20.7. Modification 2: Multi-Level Mesh of the Sheetmetal_hs_assy.1


In the Meshing tab of the Sheetmetal_hs_assy.1, retain the slack and minimum gap values. However,
change the Max element size values to 3.5 mm.
Select Set uniform mesh params.
In the Multi-level tab, toggle Allow multi-level meshing, keep Max Levels as 2 and set Buffer layers
to 1.
Keep the default selection of Proximity size function and Curvature size function.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

415

Multi-Level Meshing

20.8. Generate a Mesh


Generate a mesh with the modifications using the same settings as before.

416

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Generate a Mesh

Observe the decrease in the number of mesh elements in the Mesh control panel.
Display a cut plane of the mesh to examine the multi-level meshing around the fan guide.
Figure 20.3: Meshing Levels of the Fan Guide Objects (p. 418) shows a cut plane of the mesh through
the fan guide. Observe the various levels of meshing starting from level 0 and refining to level 2 near
the object interfaces.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

417

Multi-Level Meshing
Figure 20.3: Meshing Levels of the Fan Guide Objects

Display the mesh of the plate object guide_sweep-0_1.1 and the block object SheetMetal_HS.
Figure 20.4: Surface Mesh of guide_sweep-0_1.1 (p. 419) shows the surface mesh on the flow guide
for the plate object guide_sweep-0_1.1. Fine mesh resolution in some regions is necessary for
a body fitted mesh. This can be clearly seen in the figure.
Figure 20.5: Surface Mesh of SheetMetal_HS (p. 420) shows the mesh on and around the sheet metal
heatsink. It can be seen that the mesh resolution is fine in the fin region and coarser as we move
away from the heatsink.

418

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Generate a Mesh
Figure 20.4: Surface Mesh of guide_sweep-0_1.1

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

419

Multi-Level Meshing
Figure 20.5: Surface Mesh of SheetMetal_HS

20.9. Conclusion
Using multi-level meshing, we were able to improve the mesh resolution and instantly transition to
coarser meshes thus reducing the overall mesh count. Hence, this approach significantly reduces run
time while enhancing the accuracy of the simulation.
In addition, we repeat here some of the tips found in this tutorial for your convenience:
Use multi-level meshing for CAD objects.
Set the level of each object by right-clicking it in the Model manager window. Manually specified objects
can have more levels than the maximum number of levels specified.
Select multiple objects that require the same number of levels to set them simultaneously in the
Model manager window.
Specify the max element size in each of the principal directions to achieve the desired resolution.
For example, if you require a resolution of 1 mm and are using 2 levels, then your max element size
should be:

=
420

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Conclusion
Avoid applying multi-level meshing to the entire model by using non-conformal assemblies and then activating multi-level meshing in their individual Assemblies object edit panel (under the Meshing tab).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

421

422

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 21: Characterizing a BGA-package by Utilizing ECAD Files


21.1. Introduction
In Tutorials Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards and Joule/Trace Heating you learned how to
import trace layouts for a PCB. In this tutorial, you will learn how to import trace layouts on a BGA
package substrate by using TCB files.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Import trace layout of a BGA package substrate in TCB format.
Display traces using the Color by trace option.
Plot temperature contours on the wirebonds.
Determine junction-to-case resistance for the package.

21.2. Prerequisites
You should be familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS Icepak and should have solved or read the
tutorial Finned Heat Sink of this guide. Many basic steps found in the introductory tutorials will not be
mentioned here.

21.3. Problem Description


In this tutorial, you will see how to determine temperature profiles on the wirebonds of a BGA package
and junction-to-case resistance.

21.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak Users Guide.
2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
3. Specify a name for your project, such as BGA-package, and then click Create.

21.5. Step 2: Build the Model


To build the model, you will change the units, create the PCB, import the traces and resize the cabinet
to its proper size. Then you will create a wall object.
1. Change the default unit of length to millimeter.
Edit Preferences
a. In the Preferences panel, click Units, under the Defaults node. In the Category box, scroll down
and select Length, and under Units, select mm.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

423

Characterizing a BGA-package by Utilizing ECAD Files


b. Click Set as default, Set all to defaults, and then This project.
2. Create the package object.
a. Click the packages object button (

) in the objects toolbar.

b. In the Packages panel, click the Dimensions tab and select ASCII TCB from the Import ECAD file
drop-down list.
Figure 21.1: The Packages Panel (Dimensions Tab)

424

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


c. Select block_1.tcb in the Trace file panel and click Open.

Note
block_1.tcb can be found in the installation directory at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/BGA-package/block_1.tcb.

d. Keep the settings for the layers and vias as they are and click Accept in the Board layer and via information panel.
e. Click the Die/Mold tab and assign a die Power of 0.5 W.
f.

Click Done.

Note
If the Objects outside panel is displayed, click the Resize Cabinet button.

g. Click the Cabinet in the object tree and click the Autoscale button located in the edit window in
the lower right corner of the main menu.

Note
Click the Scale to fit icon (

) to refocus your model.

h. If the graphics window does not already display the traces by color, right-click the package object in
the object tree, choose Traces Color by trace to display the traces.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

425

Characterizing a BGA-package by Utilizing ECAD Files


Figure 21.2: Display of Traces

As can be seen in Figure 21.2: Display of Traces (p. 426), the wirebonds are lumped into polygonal
plates by ANSYS Icepak.
i.

Change the cabinet zS to -1.2 mm. If the Objects outside panel appears, click Move so that the
package is fully inside the cabinet.

j.

Create a PCB object and input the following in the Geometry tab:
Plane

X-Y

Specify by

Start / end

xS

-7.03 mm

xE

7.03 mm

yS

-7.03 mm

yE

7.03 mm

zS

-1.2 mm

zE

Note
If the Objects outside panel appears again, select Allow out to ignore the error. You
will fix the cabinet size later.

k. In the Properties tab, set the substrate thickness as 0.8 mm and then enter the following percent
coverage of copper for the layers:

426

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 21.3: Properties Tab of the Printed Circuit Boards Panel

l.

Click Update. Note that ANSYS Icepak updates the thermal conductivity information, plane and normal,
for the PCB object.

m. Press Done to close the panel.


n. Create a wall object with zero thickness in the Z direction. Name it Bottom. Enter the same dimensions
for the wall object as you did for the PCB object created previously as shown in Figure 21.4: Geometry
Window for Object Bottom (p. 427).
Figure 21.4: Geometry Window for Object Bottom

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

427

Characterizing a BGA-package by Utilizing ECAD Files


o. Edit the wall object and insulate it by keeping the heat flux as 0.0 in the Properties tab.
p. Make a copy of the wall and translate it in the Z direction by 2.95 mm and rename the new wall to
Top.
Select the object Cabinet in the Model manager window and then click Autoscale in the geometry
window so that all of the other objects are inside the cabinet.
We would like to specify the heat transfer coefficient on the top surface using the well-known
correlation in the literature, (Incropera et. al 1). In order to do that, you can follow the procedure
in Figure 21.5: Specifying the Heat Transfer Coefficient on the Top Wall (p. 428).
Figure 21.5: Specifying the Heat Transfer Coefficient on the Top Wall

Frank Incropera and David DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1981.

428

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Generate a Mesh

21.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


1. Click the Generate mesh button (

).

2. In the Mesh control panel (Figure 21.6: Mesh control Panel (p. 429)), enter 0.5 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.14
mm for the Max element size for X, Y, and Z, respectively. Change the Minimum gap values to 0.05
mm, 0.05 mm, and 0.01 mm for X, Y, and Z, respectively. In the Misc tab, deselect Allow minimum
gap changes and click Change value and mesh in the Minimum separation panels that appear.

Note
Ensure that Mesh type is Mesher-HD.

3. Click Generate.
Figure 21.6: Mesh control Panel

4. Click Close to close the panel once you have created the mesh.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

429

Characterizing a BGA-package by Utilizing ECAD Files

21.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Note
Instead of accessing the
Basic parameters panel, you can instead use the Problem setup
wizard to define your problem setup by double-clicking Problem setup in the Model
manager window. See 2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings of the Finned Heat Sink
tutorial for more instruction regarding the Problem setup wizard. You must still use the
same settings described in this tutorial for the Problem setup wizard.
1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. Deselect Flow (velocity/pressure) in the General setup tab.


b. Select Off in the Radiation group box and then click Accept to close the panel.

Note
Neglecting flow and radiation means that this is a pure conduction problem.

2. Go to

Solution settings

Basic settings.

a. Change the Number of iterations to 25 and the Convergence criteria for Energy to 1e-15.

Note
The absence of flow equations means the problem requires very few iterations to
converge. Since ANSYS Icepak is only solving for the energy equation, you require a
very stringent convergence criterion for the energy residual.

b. Click Accept to close the panel.


3. Go to

Solution settings

Advanced settings.

a. Input the following for Temperature in the Linear solver group box:
i.

Choose W from the Type drop-down list.

ii. Enter 1e-6 for both the Termination criterion and Residual reduction tolerance.

Note
These settings aid in convergence when ANSYS Icepak solves only the energy equation.

b. In the Precision drop-down list, select Double.


c. Click Accept to save your settings and close the panel.

430

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results

21.8. Step 5: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the project you saved and continue your analysis in a future
ANSYS Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will
simply overwrite your project file when it saves the model.)
File Save project

21.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


Go to Solve Run solution. Click Start solution.

21.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


1. When the model converges, plot the temperatures contours on the wirebond and view the variation/symmetry of the temperature profiles.
a. Go to Post Object face and choose the wirebonds under the package object.
Figure 21.7: Object face Panel

b. Select Show contours and click Parameters.


Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

431

Characterizing a BGA-package by Utilizing ECAD Files


c. Select This object from the Calculated drop-down list.
d. Click Done in the Object face contours and Object face panels to close the panels and view the
temperature contours.
Figure 21.8: Temperature Contours on the Wirebonds (Top View)

2. Go to the Report Summary report and click New twice.


a. Choose source_DIE1 under the node for package.1 for the first object and the wall object Top for
the second object.
b. Keep the default selection of Temperature under Value for both.
c. Click Write to create the Summary report.
Maximum die and maximum top wall temperatures are determined to be 131.2 and 127.7C, respectively. Note that these values may differ depending on your machine. The top wall represents the
case for the package. Therefore, junction-to-case resistance for this package is determined as:

 =

 
 

(21.1)

Where is the die power (0.5 W in this case). Substituting these values, we can calculate the junctionto-case resistance like so:

432

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Summary

 =

(21.2)

21.11. Step 8: Summary


In this tutorial, you learned how to import trace layers from a TCB file onto a BGA package substrate.
You then used this package in conjunction with a PCB and two walls to solve a conduction heat transfer
problem as well as to determine the junction-to-case resistance for the package.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

433

434

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 22: Zero Slack with Non-Conformal Meshing


22.1. Introduction
This tutorial compares the mesh of a non-conformal assembly with and without slack values around a
heat sink, package, and board. You will solve a model using zero slack values to determine the temperature distribution.
In this tutorial you will learn how to use zero slack values properly with a non-conformal mesh in ANSYS
Icepak.

22.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have reviewed Sample Session and the tutorials Finned Heat Sink and
RF Amplifier of this guide.

22.3. Problem Description


The model consists of a detailed heat sink, a BGA package, a block with traces, and fluid blocks. The
model setup is shown in Figure 22.1: Problem Schematic (p. 436).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

435

Zero Slack with Non-Conformal Meshing


Figure 22.1: Problem Schematic

The objective of this exercise is to illustrate the advantage of using zero slack values for non-conformal
assemblies. The model will be constructed using the default metric unit system.

436

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Import Traces

22.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Copy the file ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/ZeroSlack/ZeroSlack_Tut.tzr to your working directory. You must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is
installed on your computer.
2. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak Users Guide.
When ANSYS Icepak starts, the Welcome to Icepak panel opens automatically.
3. Click Unpack in the Welcome to Icepak panel.
The File selection panel appears.
4. In the File selection panel, select the packed project file ZeroSlack_Tut.tzr and click Open.
The Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog appears.
5. In the Location for the unpacked project file selection dialog, select a directory where you would like
to place the unpacked project file, enter a project name, such as zeroslack, in the New project text
field, and then click Unpack.

22.5. Step 2: Default Units


Make sure the default unit of length is mm.
Edit Preferences
1. In the Preferences panel, click Units under the Defaults node. In the Category box, scroll down and
select Length, and under Units, make sure mm has an asterisk next to it. If there is no asterisk next to
mm:
a. Select mm from the Units box.
b. Click Set as default.
2. Click Set all to defaults and click This project.

22.6. Step 3: Build the Model


This tutorial uses an existing model. The model contains existing package, board, and heatsink assemblies.

22.7. Step 4: Import Traces


1. In the Model manager window, expand the Board assembly to display the object pcb if it is not already
visible. Right-click pcb in the Model manager window and click Edit to display the Blocks panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

437

Zero Slack with Non-Conformal Meshing


2. In the Geometry tab, select ASCII TCB from the Import ECAD file drop-down list.

Important
You need to unzip BOARD_OUTLINE_1.zip or extract the TCB file within it before you
can import the TCB into ANSYS Icepak. You can find the ZIP archive in the installation
directory at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/ZeroSlack/BOARD_OUTLINE_1.

3. In the Trace file panel, select BOARD_OUTLINE.tcb. Deselect the Resize Block option because the
PCB was imported using an IDF file, so the dimensions are already correct. This process may take a few
minutes depending on the speed of your computer.

Note
The Resize Block option is necessary when the board size is not known or an IDF file is
not available.

4. Once the import is complete, you can edit the layer information in the Board layer and via information
panel. Enter the layer thicknesses as shown in the table below.
Layer

Thickness (mm)

1 M1 TOP

0.04

2 D2 DIELECTRIC_U3

0.45364

3 M2 int1

0.062

4 D3 DIELECTRIC_U4

0.467

5 M3 INT2

0.055

6 D4 DIELECTRIC_U5

0.442

7 M4 BOTTOM

0.045

5. By default, layers are lumped for each sub-grid. Therefore, the Model layers separately option is disabled
and will need to be selected.
a. Click Accept to close the Board layer and via information panel.
b. Then click Edit next to Trace layers and vias in the Blocks panel to re-open the Board layer and
via information panel.
c. The Model layers separately option is now available. Select the option.
6. The via information is imported automatically, so keep the default settings.

438

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Add Slack Values


7. Click Accept to save your settings.

Note
You can view the traces in four different ways: Single color, Color by trace, Color by layer,
or Color by net.
The meshing plates are placed at the location of the different layers; they are used to ensure
the mesh resolution is high enough at each layer.

8. Click Done to close the Blocks panel.

22.8. Step 5: Add Slack Values


You will add slack values to the assembly Heatsink.

Note
Non-conformal assemblies reduce mesh bleeding and lower the overall mesh count. This is
particularly useful for regions where a coarser mesh is sufficient.
1. Set the slack values for the heat sink assembly as shown in the figure below.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

439

Zero Slack with Non-Conformal Meshing

22.9. Step 6: Generate Mesh (with Slack Values)


Generate a mesh for the assembly Heatsink with slack values.
1. Go to Model Generate mesh to open the Mesh control panel.
2. Select Mesher-HD as the Mesh type if not already selected.
3. Make sure that the Min elements in gap is 2, the Min elements on edge is 1, and the Max size ratio
is 3.
4. Verify the local meshing parameters.

440

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Zero Slack


a. Go to the Local tab and click Edit next to Object params. You will see the following requested values
in the Per-object meshing parameters panel (scroll down to see the inside ratios):
Table 22.1: Object Parameters
Object type

Object name

Parameter

Requested

block

pcb

X count

25

Z count

assembly

Heatsink

all inside ratios

assembly

Board

all inside ratios

assembly

Package

all inside ratios

b. Click Done to close the Per-object meshing parameters panel.


5. Keep all other settings as default and click Generate.
6. Take note of the mesh count and view a cut plane of the mesh from the Display tab.

Note
The package is not well resolved and it is divided between the heatsink and board assemblies. Moreover, the mesh bleeds into the packages edges significantly because of the
nonzero slack values of the Heatsink assembly on the Min Z and Max Z faces. This prevents
you from creating a separately meshed assembly for the package because non-conformal
assemblies cannot intersect with each other in ANSYS Icepak. You can verify this by
changing the view to the positive X orientation.

22.10. Step 7: Zero Slack


Next, we will consider a board with non-conformal meshing with zero slack values.
Non-conformal assemblies with zero slack help in resolving specific objects without extending the mesh
to the rest of the cabinet. Also, zero slack non-conformal assemblies help to avoid intersections with
other non-conformal assemblies. In this tutorial, the use of zero slack non-conformal assemblies allows
us to have a separate non-conformal assembly for the package and to accurately resolve the mesh.

Note
Currently, zero slack assemblies are unable to participate in radiation when a surface coincides
with the assembly interface.
1. Change the slack values for the heat sink assembly as shown in the figure below.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

441

Zero Slack with Non-Conformal Meshing

2. In addition, select the Mesh separately option in the assemblies Package and Board. Do not change
any other values in these assemblies. These other assemblies will have default slack values of zero. Figure 22.2: Package and Heatsink Assemblies (p. 443) shows the Package and Heatsink assemblies adjacent
to each other without intersection due to the zero slack values in the Z direction for both assemblies.

442

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 22.2: Package and Heatsink Assemblies

22.11. Step 8: Generate Mesh (with Zero Slack)


Generate a mesh with the same global mesh settings as in Step 6: Generate Mesh (with Slack Values) (p. 440) so that you can compare the mesh count. Observe that the mesh count is significantly less
than that of the mesh with slack values.

22.12. Step 9: Physical and Numerical Settings


1. In the Model manager window, go to

Solution settings

Basic settings and

Solution settings

Advanced settings, and verify that the following values are set:

Basic settings

Value

Number of iterations

200

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

443

Zero Slack with Non-Conformal Meshing


Energy (convergence criterion)

1e7

Advanced settings
Under-relaxation: Pressure

0.7

Under-relaxation: Momentum 0.3

Note

2.

Instead of accessing the


Basic parameters panel, you can instead use the Problem
setup wizard to define your problem setup by double-clicking Problem setup in the
Model manager window. See 2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings of the Finned
Heat Sink tutorial for more instruction regarding the Problem setup wizard. You must
still use the same settings described in this tutorial for the Problem setup wizard.
Go to Problem setup
Basic parameters and make sure the Flow regime is Turbulent
and the turbulence model is Zero equation in the General setup tab. Also, input a small initial
(global) X velocity of 1.5 m/s in Transient setup tab. Click Accept to accept the changes made
and exit the Basic parameters panel.

22.13. Step 10: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak saves the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.
File Save project

22.14. Step 11: Calculate a Solution


Go to Solve Run solution. Click Start solution.

22.15. Step 12: Examine the Results


After the solution has converged, create the following post-processing objects:
Object

Specifications

Description

cut.1 (plane cut)

Set position: Y plane through


center

Plane cut (X-Z) view of the velocity vectors in the X-Z plane.

Show vectors
face.1 (object face)

Object: pcb

Object-face view of temperature


on pcb.

Show contours / Parameters

Note the minimum and maximum temperatures as well as the


temperature distribution.

Calculated: This object


face.2 (object face)

Object: pcb
Show contours / Parameters
Contours of : K_X

444

Object-face showing the thermal


conductivity in the X direction,
K_X.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 13: Summary

22.16. Step 13: Summary


The zero slack feature in ANSYS Icepak alleviates some restrictions encountered when using non-conformal assemblies. Zero slack non-conformal assemblies not only reduce mesh count but also allow the
user to mesh specific objects separately. In this model, the zero slack capability allowed you to mesh
the package object separately.
Nonetheless, there are certain limitations of zero slack non-conformal assemblies that you must keep
in mind:
Surfaces of objects that are coplanar with a zero slack non-conformal interface cannot participate in radiation.
Zero slack assembly interfaces cannot touch 2D objects, such as fans, openings, grilles, conducting thin
plates, and so on.
Zero slack assembly interfaces cannot touch the sides of blocks with individual side specifications.
Always check that objects coplanar with a zero slack interface are correctly meshed.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

445

446

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 23: ANSYS Icepak - ANSYS Workbench Integration Tutorial


23.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to create and solve an ANSYS Icepak analysis in ANSYS Workbench. You
will model a geometry using both ANSYS DesignModeler and Icepak. You will then create a non-conformal mesh for the complex shapes. The project will also include postprocessing the results in ANSYS
CFD-Post and performing a static structural analysis in ANSYS Mechanical.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Manage a project using ANSYS Workbench
Import and modify CAD geometry in ANSYS DesignModeler
Create an ANSYS Icepak analysis through ANSYS Workbench
Postprocess results in ANSYS CFD-Post
Perform a thermo-mechanical analysis in ANSYS Mechanical

23.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with ANSYS Workbench and so each step will be
explicitly described.

23.3. Problem Description


The graphics board contains a heat sink with extruded fins having airfoil cross section, a PCB, capacitors,
memory cards and ports. These objects are placed in a setup as shown in the figure below.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

447

ANSYS Icepak - ANSYS Workbench Integration Tutorial


Figure 23.1: Problem Schematic

23.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Workbench.

Note
When ANSYS Workbench starts, the Toolbox and Project Schematic are displayed.

448

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model

23.5. Step 2: Build the Model


1. Add a Geometry template by dragging the template from the Toolbar under the Component Systems
node into the Project Schematic. Right-click the Geometry cell (A2) and go to Import Geometry. Click
Browse and select graphics_card_simple.stp to load the geometry. The file graphics_card_simple.stp can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/Workbench. You must replace
ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed on your computer
system.

Note
A green check mark in the Geometry cell indicates you have imported the geometry
successfully.

2. Double-click the Geometry (A2) cell to open DesignModeler as you need to edit the geometry first before
exporting into ANSYS Icepak.
a. Go to the Units menu and then select Meter as the desired length unit.
b. Click Generate to display the model.
c. Edit the geometry in DesignModeler using the Electronics option in the Tools menu. Select Simplify
and choose the appropriate simplification level and select bodies.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

449

ANSYS Icepak - ANSYS Workbench Integration Tutorial


i.

Select All objects for Selection Filter.

ii. Keep the Simplification Type as Level 2. Your settings should resemble those in Figure 23.2: Details
of Simplify1 (p. 450).
Figure 23.2: Details of Simplify1

iii. Click Generate.


Refer to the DesignModeler documentation for more detailed information on using the Electronics
options.

Note
The Electronics menu is shown only if the DesignModeler option Enable Electronics
Options is selected.

d. Close DesignModeler and return to ANSYS Workbench.


3. Drag and drop an Icepak template into the Project Schematic on top of the Geometry cell (A2) to
transfer the geometry into ANSYS Icepak.
4. Right-click the Setup cell (B2) and select Edit to launch ANSYS Icepak.
a. The CAD model appears in the graphics display window and has been converted into ANSYS Icepak
objects. Click the isometric toolbar icon (

) to display the isometric view of the model.

b. Rename the objects in the edit panel of each of the objects by going to the Info tab then changing
the Name field. Enter the specifications in Properties tab. Table 23.1: Object Properties (p. 451) shows
these specifications.

Note
You can rename the objects in the edit panel of each of the objects by going to the
Info tab then changing the Name field. To open the object edit panel, right-click the
object and select Edit. After editing the object, you can press Update to save any

450

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


changes and click a different object in the Model manager window to go to that
object without closing the panel.
Table 23.1: Object Properties
Object

New name

Solid material

Total power (W)

SERIAL_PORT

no change
needed

no change needed

no change needed

MEMORY1

MEMORY_1

Ceramic_material

MEMORY1.1

MEMORY_2

Ceramic_material

CAPACITOR

CAPACITOR_1

no change needed

no change needed

CAPACITOR.1

CAPACITOR_2

no change needed

no change needed

KB

no change
needed

no change needed

no change needed

HEAT_SINK

no change
needed

no change needed

no change needed

CPU

no change
needed

Ceramic_material

20

ALHPA_MAIN_PCB

PCB

Create material - PCB solid_material

no change needed

Conductivity type: Orthotropic


X = 20, Y = 0.4, Z = 20

Note
Edit the Solid material by selecting a material in the drop down list. To create a
Custom material, select Create material in the drop-down list and click the Properties
tab in the Materials panel. Enter the specifications above.

c. Resize the cabinet in the Cabinet object edit panel.


Model
i.

Cabinet

In the Cabinet panel, click the Geometry tab. Under Location, enter the following coordinates:
Table 23.2: Coordinates for the Cabinet (Specify by: Start / end)
xS = -0.19 m

xE = 0.03 m

yS = 0 m

yE = 0.02848 m

zS = -0.11 m

zE = 0 m

ii. Edit the cabinet properties to specify Min x and Max x sides as openings.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

451

ANSYS Icepak - ANSYS Workbench Integration Tutorial


A. In the Properties tab of the Cabinet object panel, select Opening from the drop-down list
under Wall type for Min x and Max x.
B. Select Edit to display the opening for the Max x object panel.
C. In the Properties tab, specify the X Velocity to be -2 m/s. Click Done in the Openings and
Cabinet panels to apply the changes and close the panels.
d. The final model should correspond to the one shown below.
Figure 23.3: The Final Model Display

23.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


1. Click the assembly toolbar icon (
) to create an assembly. Add the HEAT_SINK and CPU objects to
the assembly and rename it CPU_assembly.

Note
To add objects to an assembly, select one or more objects in the Model manager window
and drag them into the desired assembly node.

452

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Generate a Mesh


2. Go to the CPU_assembly edit panel and click the Meshing tab. Select the Mesh separately option and
enter the following slack values. Click Done to close the panel when finished.
Table 23.3: Slack Values
Min X = 0.005 m

Max X = 0.005 m

Min Y = 0.0016 m

Max Y = 0 m

Min Z = 0.001 m

Max Z = 0.005 m

3. Specify the overall mesh controls as shown in the Mesh control panel below.
Model Generate mesh

Note
For more information on how to refine a mesh locally, refer to Refining the Mesh Locally
in the Icepak Users Guide.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

453

ANSYS Icepak - ANSYS Workbench Integration Tutorial

Note
The Mesh units and Minimum gap values are in mm, and Set uniform mesh params
is selected in the Global tab.
Click Generate to create the mesh. You can check the mesh by going to the Display and Quality
tabs in the Mesh control panel. Click Close when you are done.

23.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Note
Instead of accessing the
Basic parameters panel, you can instead use the Problem setup
wizard to define your problem setup by double-clicking Problem setup in the Model
manager window. See Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings of the Finned Heat Sink tutorial for more instruction regarding the Problem setup wizard. You must still use the same
settings described in this tutorial for the Problem setup wizard.

454

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 6: Calculate a Solution


1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters in the Model manager window.

a. In the General setup tab, make sure that both Flow (velocity/pressure) and Temperature are selected.
b. Select Turbulent and Zero equation for the Flow regime and select Off in the Radiation group
box to neglect radiation modeling.
c. Click Accept to close the panel.
2. Go to Solution settings Basic settings and Solution settings Advanced settings in
the Model manager window and verify that the following values are set for each variable:
Basic settings

User input

Number of iterations

100

Flow (convergence criterion)

0.001

Energy (convergence criterion)

1e-7

Advanced settings (Under-relaxation)


Pressure

0.3

Momentum

0.7

23.8. Step 5: Save the Model


1. Go to File Save project.

Note
You can click the save icon (

) in the File commands toolbar.

The Save As panel appears.


2. Specify the name ice_wb for your project and click Save.
3. ANSYS Workbench will close ANSYS Icepak to save the model, you will need to launch ANSYS Icepak
again to continue.

23.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


1. Go to Solve Run solution to display the Solve panel.
2. Keep the default settings in the Solve panel.
3. Click Start solution to start the solver.
ANSYS Icepak begins to calculate a solution for the model and a separate window opens where the
solver prints the numerical values of the residuals. ANSYS Icepak also opens the Solution residuals
graphics display and control window, where it displays the convergence history for the calculation.
Note that the actual values of the residuals may differ slightly on different machines, so your plot
may not look exactly the same as the figure below.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

455

ANSYS Icepak - ANSYS Workbench Integration Tutorial

4. Once the solution converges, click Done in the Solution residuals window to close it.

23.10. Step 7: Examine the Results with CFD-Post


Note
The postprocessing of results can be done within ANSYS Icepak; however, you can also examine results in ANSYS CFD-Post. This section will describe how to transfer information to
ANSYS CFD-Post and use its postprocessing options, so you may close ANSYS Icepak.

456

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results with CFD-Post


1. After calculating a solution in ANSYS Icepak, a green check mark will be displayed in the Icepak Solution
cell in the Project Schematic. The green check mark indicates that all data is up to date. Select Results
under the Component Systems node in the Toolbox. Drag the Results component system on top of
the Icepak Solution cell (B3) to transfer the data.

2. Double-click the C2 Results cell to launch ANSYS CFD-Post. The model should appear in the display
window.
3. To generate contours, do the following:
a. Go to Insert Contour or click the Contour button
tour 1 and click OK.

to create a contour. Retain the name Con-

b. In the Geometry tab under Details of Contour 1:


i.

Keep the default selection of All Domains in the Domains drop-down list.

ii. Click the ... button next to Locations to display the Location Selector panel. Highlight all objects
containing "CPU", "PCB", or "HEAT_SINK" in the name as shown in Figure 23.4: Location Selector
Panel (p. 458). Click OK to close the panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

457

ANSYS Icepak - ANSYS Workbench Integration Tutorial


Figure 23.4: Location Selector Panel

Note
You can select multiple objects by pressing and holding either Shift or Ctrl while
clicking the objects.

iii. Select Temperature in the Variable drop-down list.


iv. Select Apply to display the contour map (Figure 23.5: Contour 1 (p. 459)).

458

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results with CFD-Post


Figure 23.5: Contour 1

4. To generate a 3D streamline, do the following:


a. Go to Insert Streamline or click the Streamline button
name Streamline 1 and then click OK.

to create the streamline. Retain the

b. In the Geometry tab under Details of Streamline 1:


i.

Keep the default selection of 3D Streamline in the Type drop-down list.

ii. Keep the default selection of All Domains in the Domains drop-down list.
iii. Select cabinet_default_side_maxx minx from the Start From drop-down list.
iv. Keep the default selection of Velocity in the Variable drop-down list.
v. Keep all other defaults and click Apply to display the streamline.
c. You can also animate the streamline. To animate the streamline, go to Tools Animation or click
the animation button

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

459

ANSYS Icepak - ANSYS Workbench Integration Tutorial


In the Animation panel that appears, select Streamline 1 and then click the play button (
Click the stop button (

).

) then the Close button when finished.

5. When you are done examining the results, close ANSYS CFD-Post and return to ANSYS Workbench.

23.11. Step 8: Thermo-Mechanical Structural Analysis


In addition to solving this problem in ANSYS Icepak, you can also perform a static structural analysis
using ANSYS Mechanical.
1. Select Static Structural from the Toolbox. Drag and drop this cell on top of the Icepak Solution cell
(B3).
2. Click the Geometry cell (A2) and drag and drop it on top of the Static Structural Geometry cell (D3).
You have now shared the geometry with the Static Structural component module as well as the Icepak
module from earlier.

3. Right-click the Setup cell (D5) and then click Update. Allow ANSYS Workbench to complete the update.
4. Double-click the Model cell (D4) to launch ANSYS Mechanical.
5. Expand the Imported Load (Solution) node in the Outline window then click the Imported Body
Temperature object.
6. Under Details of Imported Body Temperature, ensure that the Scoping Method is Geometry Selection.

460

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Summary

a. Click the Box Select button


entire model to select it.

. Hold down the Ctrl key and drag a box around the

b. Click the cell to the right of Geometry and then click Apply. You should have nine bodies now selected.
7. Select All from the Icepak Body drop-down list.
8. Click Solve.

23.12. Step 9: Summary


In this tutorial, you used ANSYS Workbench to manage a multi-stage project using ANSYS DesignModeler,
Icepak, CFD-Post, and Mechanical. In particular, you used DesignModeler to import and modify CAD
objects then shared the geometry with ANSYS Icepak. You then used ANSYS Icepak to determine temperature and flow results within the system. In CFD-Post, you post-processed the solution results from
ANSYS Icepak. Finally, you used Mechanical to perform a structural analysis of the system using the
temperature data from ANSYS Icepak. ANSYS Workbench allows you to integrate these software for
more control over the various aspects of your project.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

461

462

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 24: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


24.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates the use of ANSYS CFD-Post for post-processing results from ANSYS Icepak
analyses.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Create a workflow in ANSYS Workbench.
Postprocess ANSYS Icepak results in ANSYS CFD-Post.

24.2. Prerequisites
Familiarity with the ANSYS Workbench interface
Familiarity with the ANSYS Icepak interface
Figure 24.1: Quick Reference - CFD Post Interface

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

463

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.2: Quick Reference - Mouse Button Mapping (default) in CFD Post:

To adjust or view the mouse mapping options, go to Edit Options, then Viewer Setup Mouse
Mapping in ANSYS CFD-Post.

24.3. Problem Description


Figure 24.3: Problem Schematic - Graphics Card Model (two configurations) (p. 464) shows the ANSYS
Icepak model of a graphics card that contains a printed circuit board. The board components include
memory cards, capacitors, CPU, and serial connectors for peripheral devices. The CPU is cooled by a
heat sink. A fan and grille have been used to enhance the convective heat transfer within the system.
Two configurations, varying the positioning of the fan and grille, will be considered for CFD analysis.
Figure 24.3: Problem Schematic - Graphics Card Model (two configurations)

24.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Create a workflow by linking ANSYS Icepak and ANSYS CFD-Post in ANSYS Workbench.
a. Start a new ANSYS Workbench session.

464

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 1: Create a New Project


b. Drag an ANSYS Icepak component module from the Toolbox and drop it on the Project Schematic
window as shown in Figure 24.4: Creating an ANSYS Icepak Component (p. 465).
Figure 24.4: Creating an ANSYS Icepak Component

c. Rename the ANSYS Icepak component module as Parametric Setup as shown in Figure 24.5: Renaming the ANSYS Icepak Component Module (p. 465). To rename the title, double-click the title
Icepak or click the down arrow (

) and select the Rename option from the drop-down list.

Figure 24.5: Renaming the ANSYS Icepak Component Module

d. As shown in Figure 24.6: Linking the Results (ANSYS CFD-Post) Component to the ANSYS Icepak
Component (p. 466) and Figure 24.7: Final Project Schematic (p. 466), drag and drop a Results (ANSYS
CFD-Post) component module onto the Solution cell of the Parametric Setup to link the ANSYS
Icepak analysis to ANSYS CFD-Post. Rename the Results component module to CFD Post.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

465

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.6: Linking the Results (ANSYS CFD-Post) Component to the ANSYS Icepak
Component

Figure 24.7: Final Project Schematic

e. Save the project while in the ANSYS Workbench interface. Name the project as ice-cfdpost.
2. Open the project in ANSYS Icepak
a. Right-click the ANSYS Icepak Setup cell and import the packed ANSYS Icepak project file ice-cfdpost.tzr located in the project directory.

Note
ice-cfdpost.tzr can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/CFD-Post/icecfdpost.tzr. You must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed on your computer system.

466

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Calculate a Solution


b. The ANSYS Icepak interface will launch with the imported project for modeling and analysis.

24.5. Step 2: Parametric Trials and Solver Settings


1. Go to Edit Preferences Postprocessing and confirm that the Merge zones when possible for
CFD-Post data option is selected.
2. Go to Solve Run solution Results and verify that Create heat flux vectors in CFD Post is selected
and then click Dismiss.
3. Go to Solve Run optimization.
a. In the Design variables tab, review the parametric setup. Note the variable values for fanxC and
grille_xS.
b. In the Trials tab, note that two of the four trials will be considered for CFD analysis.
Figure 24.8: Solution Trials

24.6. Step 3: Calculate a Solution


1. Click Run in the Parameters and optimization panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

467

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


2. ANSYS Icepak will run two trials and automatically write out the results for post-processing in ANSYS
CFD-Post at the end of each trial.
3. Save the project by going to File Save project.
4. Close ANSYS Icepak by going to File Close Icepak.

24.7. Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


1. Open the results in ANSYS CFD-Post.
a. On the project schematic, double-click the Results cell to launch the ANSYS CFD-Post interface.
b. ANSYS CFD-Post automatically reads the most recent solution set (trial 004).
2. Create a Surface Group for the board and all the components.
a. Go to Insert Location Surface Group.
b. Name the group as BoardANDComponents.

c. Go to the Details view located on the lower left hand side of the screen (see Figure 24.1: Quick Reference - CFD Post Interface (p. 463)).
Figure 24.9: Details View for BoardANDComponents Surface Group

d. In the Geometry tab, click


i.

468

next to Locations to open the Location Selector panel.

As shown in Figure 24.10: Selection for the BoardANDComponents Surface Group (p. 469), hold
down Shift and the left mouse button to select all of the objects excluding the objects in the
Cabinet node. You may need to press the Ctrl key also to select the objects.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.10: Selection for the BoardANDComponents Surface Group

ii. Click OK to close the Location Selector panel and add the surfaces.
e. Click Apply in the Details view to apply the settings.
3. Create another Surface Group for the cabinet.
a. Go to Insert Location Surface Group and name the group CabinetSurfaces. Click Apply
in the Details view. CabinetSurfaces should now appear in the Outline tree view.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

469

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.11: Listing of Surface Groups under User Locations and Plots

b. As before, open the Location Selector panel, but this time select only the objects in the Cabinet
node (Figure 24.12: Selection for the CabinetSurfaces Surface Group (p. 470)). Click OK.
Figure 24.12: Selection for the CabinetSurfaces Surface Group

c. In the Render tab, apply the settings as shown in Figure 24.13: Rendering Details for the CabinetSurfaces Surface Group (p. 471) and click Apply.

470

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.13: Rendering Details for the CabinetSurfaces Surface Group

d. Deselect the object BoardANDComponents from the User Locations and Plots node in the Outline
tree view.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

471

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.14: Updated Model

e. Note that these newly create Surface Groups are listed under User Locations and Plots in the Outline
tree view.
4. Plot Contours of Temperature on the Surface Group BoardANDComponents.
a. Change the Units for this postprocessing session.
i.

Go to Edit Options Units.

ii. Set the System to Custom.


iii. Ensure that the unit for Temperature has been set to C.

472

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.15: Setting Units in CFD Post

iv. Click Apply and then OK to set the units and close the panel.
b. Go to Insert Contour and create a new contour object named TemperatureContours.

Note
The object TemperatureContours is listed under the User Locations and Plots
node in the Outline tree view.

c. For the contour TemperatureContours, update the settings for the Geometry tab of the Details
view as shown in Figure 24.16: Geometry Settings for TemperatureContours (p. 474) and click Apply.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

473

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.16: Geometry Settings for TemperatureContours

d. Go to the Render tab and deselect Show contour lines.


e. Click Apply to create the contour.
5. Modify the display of the default legend view.
a. Double-click Default Legend View 1 listed under the User Locations and Plots node (in the Outline)
to access the corresponding Details view.
b. Verify that your settings in the Definitions and the Appearance tabs match those shown in Figure 24.17: Settings for Default Legend View 1 (p. 475) and then click Apply.

474

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.17: Settings for Default Legend View 1

Figure 24.18: Modified Legend View

6. Plot Vectors, displaying heat flux on the Surface Group BoardANDComponents.


a. Deselect TemperatureContours in the User Locations and Plots node.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

475

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


b. Go to Insert Vector and create a new Vector object named HeatFluxVectors and click OK.
c. Modify the Geometry tab of the Details view as shown in Figure 24.19: Geometry Settings for HeatFluxVectors (p. 476).
Figure 24.19: Geometry Settings for HeatFluxVectors

d. Go to the Symbol tab and input 2.5 for the Symbol Size. Click Apply and then observe the updated
model.

476

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.20: Display of HeatFluxVectors

7. Plot Thermal Chokepoint, displaying regions of high heat flux on the Surface Group BoardANDComponents.
a. Deselect HeatFluxVectors in the User Locations and Plots node.
b. Go to Insert Contour and create a new Contour object named Chokepoint and click OK.
c. Open the Location Selector panel and select only the ALPHA_MAIN_PCB objects (Figure 24.21: Selection for Thermal Chokepoint (p. 478)). Click OK to close the Location Selector panel and add the
surfaces.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

477

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.21: Selection for Thermal Chokepoint

d. Modify the Geometry tab of the Details view as shown in Figure 24.22: Geometry Settings for
Chokepoint (p. 479) and click Apply.

478

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.22: Geometry Settings for Chokepoint

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

479

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.23: Display of Chokepoint

8. Plot Streamlines originating from the fan and colored by temperature.


a. Deselect Chokepoint and select TemperatureContours in the User Locations and Plots node.
b. Go to Insert Streamline and create a new Streamline object named StreamlinesFan and
click OK to access the Details view panel.
c. Modify the Geometry tab as shown in Figure 24.24: Geometry Settings for StreamlinesFan (p. 481)
and click Apply.

480

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.24: Geometry Settings for StreamlinesFan

d. Modify the Color tab as shown in Figure 24.25: Color Settings for StreamlinesFans (p. 481) and click
Apply.
Figure 24.25: Color Settings for StreamlinesFans

e. Modify the Symbol tab as shown in Figure 24.26: Symbol Settings for StreamlinesFan (p. 482) and
click Apply.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

481

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.26: Symbol Settings for StreamlinesFan

Figure 24.27: Display of StreamlinesFan

9. Create a Keyframe Animation of StreamlinesFan.


a. Go to Tools Animation and select Keyframe Animation.

482

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


b. Click the
button to insert a new frame called KeyframeNo1 as shown in Figure 24.28: Keyframe
Animation Panel (p. 483).
Figure 24.28: Keyframe Animation Panel

c. Right-click the background next to the model in the 3D viewer and select the View From +Y option
under Predefined Camera.
Figure 24.29: View From +Y

d. Add another keyframe called KeyframeNo2 to the Animation panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

483

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


e. Select the Animate Camera option on the Keyframe Animation panel (you may need to activate
the display of the lower half of the Animation panel using the drop-down arrow ).
f.

Similarly, update the display and add new frames as follows:


i.

View From -Z and add KeyframeNo3.

ii. View From +X and add KeyframeNo4.


iii. Isometric View (Y up) and add KeyframeNo5.
g. Click

to view the animation.

h. Click the Options button on the Animation panel to access the Animation Options panel.
i.

Set the Animation Speed to Slower from the drop-down menu by a factor of 20 and click OK.
Figure 24.30: Animation Options Panel

j.

Replay the animation and note that the animation is less choppy compared to the original one.

k. Close the Keyframe Animation panel.


l.

Deselect the TemperatureContours and StreamlinesFan objects under User Locations and
Plots.

10. Create a Plane object displaying temperature contours and velocity vectors.
a. Go to Insert Location Plane and create a plane named PlaneCut.
484

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


b. Modify the Details view for PlaneCut as shown in Figure 24.31: Details for PlaneCut (p. 485) and
click Apply.
Figure 24.31: Details for PlaneCut

c. Deactivate the display of the plane by deselecting PlaneCut and activate the contour display by
selecting TemperatureContours under User Locations and Plots.
d. Double-click TemperatureContours or right-click Edit to access the Details view. Update the
details as shown in Figure 24.32: Details for TemperatureContours (p. 485) and click Apply.
Figure 24.32: Details for TemperatureContours

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

485

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.33: Display of PlaneCut

e. Go to the Details view for the PlaneCut (do not activate the display of the PlaneCut) and make
the following modifications:
i.

Switch Method to XY Plane and click Apply.

ii. Use the scroll bar to change the Z location for PlaneCut.

f.

The plane cut can also be traversed across the domain using the animation tools in CFD-Post.
i.

Go to Tools Animation and select Quick Animation (default) and highlight the PlaneCut
object.

ii. Using the scroll bar, adjust the number of frames for the animation as shown in Figure 24.34: Quick
Animation Settings (p. 487) and click the

486

button.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.34: Quick Animation Settings

iii. The animation can be viewed on the screen or can be written out to an animation file by checking
the Save Movie option.
iv. Stop the animation by clicking the

button.

v. Click Close to exit the Animation panel.


g. Deactivate the display of the contours by deselecting the TemperatureContours object under
User Locations and Plots.
h. Go to Insert Vector and create a vector object named VelVectors.
i.

Modify the Details view for VelVectors to set the Locations to PlaneCut and click Apply.

j.

As before, use the Details view for the PlaneCut to manually traverse the plane displaying the
vectors across the domain.

k. Deactivate the display of the vectors by deselecting Velvectors under User Locations and Plots.
11. Create an Isosurface of 27C and 3 m/s.
a. Go to Insert Location Isosurface and create an Isosurface name HotSpots.
b. Modify the Details view for HotSpots to create an isosurface for 27[C] (Variable: Temperature,
Value: 27C).
c. Similarly, modify the Details to create an isosurface for 3 m/s (Variable: Velocity, Value: 3 m/s).
d. Deactivate the display of the isosurface by deselecting HotSpots under User Locations and Plots.
12. Create a Volume for values above 25C.
a. Go to Insert Location Volume and create a Volume named IsoVolume.
b. Modify the Details view for IsoVolume as shown in Figure 24.35: Details of IsoVolume (p. 488) and
click Apply.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

487

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.35: Details of IsoVolume

Figure 24.36: Display of IsoVolume

c. Deactivate the display of the volume by deselecting IsoVolume under User Locations and Plots.

488

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


13. Create a Chart of Temperature variation across a Line.
a. Go to Insert Location Line and create a Line named ForChart.
b. Modify the Details view for ForChart as shown in Figure 24.37: Details for Line ForChart (p. 489).
and click Apply.
Figure 24.37: Details for Line ForChart

c. Deactivate the display of the line by deselecting ForChart under User Locations and Plots.
d. Go to Insert Chart to create a Chart named TemperatureVariation.
e. Modify the Details for TemperatureVariation as follows:
i.

General tab: Set the Type to XY.

ii. General tab: Set the Title to Temperature Variation along Z axis.
iii. Data Series tab: Set Location to ForChart.
iv. X Axis tab: Set Variable to Z.
v. Y Axis tab: Set Variable to Temperature.
f.

Leave all other settings as their defaults and click Apply.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

489

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.38: Plot of TemperatureVariation Along ForChart

Note
The chart TemperatureVariation is added under the Report node of the Outline
tree.

14. Create an Expression and Variable that can be used for postprocessing.

490

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


a. Switch to the Expressions tab (located next to the Outline tab) and review the list of available expressions.
i.

Right-click in the white space and click New to create a new expression named VelocityRatio.

ii. Click Ok to access the Details view for VelocityRatio.


iii. Right-click the white space in the Definition tab to access the Functions, Expressions, Variables,
Locations and Constants which will be used to create the expression VelocityRatio.

iv. Create the expression as shown in Figure 24.39: Expression for VelocityRatio (p. 492) and click Apply.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

491

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.39: Expression for VelocityRatio

Note
Velocity is found under Variables, volumeAve()@ is found under Functions
CFDPost, and Cabinet is found under Locations Other.

b. Switch to the Variables tab and review the list of Derived, Geometric, Solution, and User Defined
variables.
i.

492

Right-click the white space and click New to create a new variable named VelRatio.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Comparison Study

ii. Click Ok to access the details view for VelRatio.


iii. Select Expression for the Method and selectVelocityRatio for the Expression.

iv. Click Apply to create VelRatio.

Note
VelRatio is listed under the User-Defined type of Variables.

c. You can now plot Contours, Isosurfaces, Vectors, Charts, and so on using the new variable VelRatio.

24.8. Step 5: Comparison Study


1. Open a new ANSYS CFD-Post session
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

493

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


a. Go to File Close CFD Post to close the existing ANSYS CFD-Post session.
b. In the ANSYS Workbench project schematic, right-click the Solution cell of the parametric setup
component to transfer the solution data to a new Results component, as shown in Figure 24.40: Creation of New Results Component (p. 494).
c. Rename the Results component to Comparison Study.
Figure 24.40: Creation of New Results Component

d. Double-click the Results cell of Comparison Study to launch a new ANSYS CFD-Post session.

Note
As before, ANSYS CFD-Post automatically reads in the most recent solution set (trial
004).

494

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Comparison Study


2. As shown in Figure 24.41: The Load Results Panel (p. 495), go to File Load Results to load an additional solution set. Navigate to the ~ice-cfdpost_files/dp0/IPK/Icepak/IcepakProj folder
to pick trial001.cfd.dat as the second solution set for the comparison study.

Note
The root directory ~ice-cfdpost_files refers to the project folder in which you
have saved the ANSYS Workbench project for this tutorial.
Figure 24.41: The Load Results Panel

3. Set up the display of the two solution sets.


a. Synchronize the camera and the visibility in the displayed views by selecting the corresponding features
from the Shortcuts Toolbar (located above the models in 3D viewer displays):
b. Rotate, Zoom, or Pan one of the displays and confirm that the other display follows suit.
c. Using the Shortcuts Toolbar, modify the display to a landscape view (switch from

to

4. As before, go to Insert Location Surface Group and create a Surface Group named BoardAndComponents.

Important
The Surface Group in this ANSYS CFD-Post session should include the board and component surfaces from both solution sets. Use the Location Selector to select all the objects
excluding the cabinet objects for each list. The easiest way to do this is to select all the
objects from both groups using Shift and the left mouse button, then deselecting the
cabinet objects from both groups using Ctrl and the left mouse button. Click Apply to
create the surface group.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

495

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.42: Display of BoardAndComponents

5. Deselect BoardAndComponents from User Locations and Plots.


6. As before, go to Insert Contour and create a new contour object named TemperatureContours
and set its Locations to the BoardAndComponents Surface Group. Set Variable to Temperature
and click Apply.
7. Update the display of the Default Legend View (each display will need to be updated individually) as
before.

496

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Comparison Study


Figure 24.43: Display of Legend View

8. Go to Insert Streamline and create a Streamline object named StreamlinesFans and edit the
Details as below:
a. Geometry tab: Select fan1_minx from both solution sets for Start From and set # of Points to 50.

Tip
Click the button ... next to Start From to select both fan1_minx objects more easily.

b. Color tab: Set Mode to Variable and select Temperature for Variable.
c. Symbol tab: Select Show Symbols and Show Streams. Set the Interval to 0.005 s.
d. Click Apply.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

497

Postprocessing Using ANSYS CFD-Post


Figure 24.44: Display of Streamlines Comparison

e. Perform a detailed comparison study using the various features (Isosurface, Plane, Animation etc.)
discussed earlier in this tutorial.

24.9. Step 6: Summary


In this tutorial, you learned how to import an ANSYS Icepak project from a TZR file in ANSYS Workbench.
You then learned how to use a solution that was solved in ANSYS Icepak and postprocess it in ANSYS
CFD-Post using various postprocessing options. You also learned how to compare parametric solutions
side-by-side in ANSYS CFD-Post.

498

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 25: High Density Datacenter Cooling


25.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to model a datacenter using ANSYS Icepak.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Use macros to create computer room air conditioning units (CRACs), server cabinets, power distribution
units (PDUs), and perforated floor tiles in the datacenter.
Organize the model using groups.
Include effects of gravity and turbulence in the simulation.
Define object-specific meshing parameters.
Create contours, particle traces, iso-surfaces to better understand the airflow patterns and temperature
stratification within the datacenter space.

25.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS Icepak and that you have
solved or read the tutorial Finned Heat Sink of this guide. Some steps will not be shown explicitly.

25.3. Problem Description


This tutorial considers a 1200 sq. ft. datacenter with a slab to slab height of 12 ft as shown in Figure 25.1: Geometry of the Datacenter Model (p. 500). The datacenter consists of a 1.5 ft underfloor
plenum and a 2 ft ceiling plenum. The CRACs discharge cold air into the underfloor plenum. The cold
air enters the main datacenter space mainly through the perforated floor tiles and returns back to the
air conditioning units as shown in Figure 25.2: Expected Airflow Path (p. 500). The cooling load, as summarized in Table 25.1: Size and Capacity of Heat Sources in Datacenter (p. 499) corresponds to the heat
output from the server cabinets and the PDUs.
Table 25.1: Size and Capacity of Heat Sources in Datacenter
Heat
Source

Size

Power

Server Cabin- 2 ft x 3 ft x 7
et
ft

3000
W

High Density

2 ft x 3 ft x 7
ft

7000
W

PDU

4 ft x 2 ft x 5
ft

3600
W

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

499

High Density Datacenter Cooling


Figure 25.1: Geometry of the Datacenter Model

Figure 25.2: Expected Airflow Path

25.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Icepak, as described in Starting ANSYS Icepak in the Icepak User's Guide.
2. Click New in the Welcome to Icepak panel to start a new ANSYS Icepak project.
3. Specify a name for your project such as datacenter and click Create.
ANSYS Icepak creates a default cabinet with the dimensions 1 m 1 m 1 m, and displays the
cabinet in the graphics window.

Note
You can rotate the cabinet around a central point using the left mouse button, or you
can translate it to any point on the screen using the middle mouse button. You can zoom

500

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Set Preferences


into and out from the cabinet using the right mouse button. To restore the cabinet to
its default orientation, select Home position in the Orient menu.

25.5. Step 2: Set Preferences


1. Go to Edit Preferences. The Preferences panel opens.
2. Go to Display in the Options node.
a. Select Float for the Color legend data format and enter 2 under Numerical display precision.
3. Go to Editing in the Options node.
a. Set the Default dimensions to Start/length.
4. Go to Object types in the Options node.
a. Turn off Decoration for all object types and update line Width to 2 for blocks, fans, openings, plates,
resistances and grilles.
Figure 25.3: The Preferences Panel - Object types

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

501

High Density Datacenter Cooling


5. Go to Units in the Defaults node.
a. Click Set all to Imperial.
b. Click This project to apply the preferences to this project.

25.6. Step 3: Build the Model


To build the model, you will first resize the cabinet to its proper size. Then you will create the features
of the datacenter, including CRACs (2), server cabinets (44), perforated floor tiles (44), raised floor (1),
dropped ceiling (1), return grilles (8), PDUs (2), cable trays (4), columns (2) and miscellaneous blockage
(1).
1. Resize the default cabinet.
a. Select the Cabinet in the Model tree and specify the following in the object geometry window:

b. Press Apply to resize the cabinet.


) to show a scaled-to-fit isometric view of the cabinet.

c. Click the Isometric view button (

Note
The walls of the cabinet are adiabatic and do not participate in radiation by default.
Radiation will not be considered for this analysis.

2. Create the raised floor.


a. Click the Create plates button (

).

ANSYS Icepak creates a free rectangular plate in the x-y plane in the center of the cabinet. You
need to change the orientation and size of the plate and its location within the cabinet.
b. In the object geometry window:
i.

Set the Name to raisedfloor.

ii. Change the Plane to xz.


iii. Enter the following dimensions:

502

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Build the Model

iv. Press Apply to resize and rename the object.


3. Create the first CRAC unit.
a. Go to Macros Data center components CRAC to open the CRAC panel.
b. Enter the dimensions as shown below in Figure 25.4: The CRAC Panel (p. 504).
c. Make sure the Flow direction is -Y.
d. Select Mass flow rate and input a value of 15.9 lbm/s.
e. Specify a Supply temperature of 55 F.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

503

High Density Datacenter Cooling


Figure 25.4: The CRAC Panel

Note
Mass flow rate has units of lbm/s.

f.

504

Press Accept to create the CRAC unit.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.5: The CRAC Unit in the Graphics Window

4. Set the per-object meshing parameters for the fans crac_intake and crac_exhaust.
a. Open the Mesh control panel by clicking the Generate mesh button (

).

b. In the Local tab, check Object params and press Edit.


i.

In the Per-object meshing parameters panel, Ctrl+left click crac_exhaust and crac_intake
to select both objects.

ii. Check the Use per object parameters option.


iii. Check the X count and Z count options and specify a Requested value of 4 for both options.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

505

High Density Datacenter Cooling


Figure 25.6: Per-object Meshing Parameters for the Fans

c. Click Done to close the Per-object meshing parameters panel.


d. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.
5. Create a new group for the CRAC unit.
a. Select all the CRAC objects by Shift+left clicking cracunit and then crac_exhaust in the Model
manager window.
b. Right click one of the selected objects and go to Create and then Group.
c. In the Create group panel, enter CRACs in the Name for new group text field.

d. Press Done to create the new group.


6. Create the second CRAC unit.
a. Expand the Groups node in the Model manager window.
b. Right click CRACs and select Copy.
c. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter CRACs.
d. Check Translate and set the Z offset to 10 ft.

506

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.7: The Copy Group CRACs Panel

e. Press Apply and Done to copy the CRAC unit and close the panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

507

High Density Datacenter Cooling


Figure 25.8: Two CRAC Units in the Graphics Window

f.

Now may be a good time to Save the project (

).

7. Create a row of server racks.


a. Go to Macros Data center components Rack (Front to Rear).
b. Input the dimensions as show below in Figure 25.9: The Rack (Front to Rear) Panel (p. 509).
c. Set the Flow direction to -X.
d. Specify a Heat load of 3000 W.
e. Specify a Volume flow of 450 cfm.
f.

Set the Number of racks to 11.

g. Under Create additional racks along select +Z.

508

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.9: The Rack (Front to Rear) Panel

h. Press Accept to create the server racks.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

509

High Density Datacenter Cooling


Figure 25.10: Row of Server Racks in the Graphics Window

Note
The volumetric flow rate input for the recirculation opening is converted by ANSYS
Icepak to a mass flow rate input to the computational stage of the analysis. For this
conversion, ANSYS Icepak uses the density specified for Air in the materials panel as
shown below.

510

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Build the Model

8. Create a new group for the server racks.


a. Select all the server rack objects by Shift + left clicking rack and then rack-opns.10 in the
Model manager window.
b. Right click one of the selected objects and go to Create and then Group.
c. In the Create group panel, enter RACKs in the Name for new group text field.

d. Press Done to create the new group.


9. Create a second row of server racks
a. Right click RACKs in the Groups node and select Copy.
b. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter RACKs.
c. Check Rotate and Translate in the Operations group box.
d. Set the Axis to Y and the Angle to 180.
e. Set the X offset to 7 ft.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

511

High Density Datacenter Cooling


Figure 25.11: The Copy Group RACKs Panel

f.

512

Press Apply and Done to copy the row of server racks and close the panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.12: Two Rows of Server Racks in the Graphics Window

10. Create a row of high density server racks.


a. Go to Macros Data center components Rack (Front to Rear).
b. Enter hdrack in the Name text field.
c. Input the dimensions as show below in Figure 25.13: The Rack (Front to Rear) Panel (p. 514).
d. Set the Flow direction to -X.
e. Specify a Heat load of 7000 W.
f.

Specify a Volume flow of 1000 cfm.

g. Set the Number of racks to 11.


h. Under Create additional racks along select +Z.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

513

High Density Datacenter Cooling


Figure 25.13: The Rack (Front to Rear) Panel

i.

Press Accept to create the high density server racks.

11. Create a new group for the high density server racks.
a. Select all the high density server rack objects by Shift+left clicking hdrack and then hdrackopns.10 in the Model manager window.
b. Right click one of the selected objects and go to Create and then Group.
c. In the Create group panel, enter HDRACKs in the Name for new group text field.
514

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Build the Model


d. Press Done to create the new group.
12. Create a second row of high density server racks.
a. Right click HDRACKs in the Groups node and select Copy.
b. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter HDRACKs.
c. Check Rotate and Translate in the Operations group box.
d. Set the Axis to Y and the Angle to 180.
e. Set the X offset to 7 ft.
f.

Press Apply and Done to copy the row of high density server racks and close the panel.
Figure 25.14: Two Rows of High Density Server Racks in the Graphics Window

13. Create a row of perforated tiles.


a. Go to Macros Data center components V2 Tile.
b. Set the Number of tiles to 11.
c. Enter the dimensions as show below in Figure 25.15: Tile Panel (p. 516).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

515

High Density Datacenter Cooling


d. Choose +Z.
e. Enter 0.35 for Uniform under % Open area.
Figure 25.15: Tile Panel

f.

516

Press Accept to create the tiles.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.16: Row of Tiles in the Graphics Window

14. Set the per-object meshing parameters for all the resistance objects.
a. Open the Mesh control panel by clicking the Generate mesh button (

).

b. In the Local tab, press Edit next to the Object params option.
i.

In the Per-object meshing parameters panel, Shift+left click tile and then tile.10 to select
all the resistance objects.

ii. Check the Use per object parameters option.


iii. Check the X count and Z count options and specify a Requested value of 4 for both options.
iv. Check the Y count option and specify a Requested value of 3.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

517

High Density Datacenter Cooling


Figure 25.17: Per-object Meshing Parameters for the Tiles

c. Click Done to close the Per-object meshing parameters panel.


d. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.
15. Create a new group for the perforated tiles.
a. Select all the tile objects by Shift+left clicking tile and then tile_open_bottom.10 in the
Model manager window.
b. Right click one of the selected objects and go to Create and then Group.
c. In the Create group panel, enter TILEs in the Name for new group text field.
d. Press Done to create the new group.
16. Create three more rows of perforated tiles.
a. Right click TILEs in the Groups node and select Copy.
b. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter TILEs.
c. Check Translate and set the X offset to 2 ft.
d. Press Apply and Done to copy the row of perforated tiles and close the panel.
e. Right click TILEs in the Groups node again and select Copy.
f.

In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter TILEs.

g. Check Translate and set the X offset to 14 ft.


h. Press Apply and Done to copy both rows of perforated tiles and close the panel.

518

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.18: Four Rows of Tiles in the Graphics Window

17. Create the ceiling plenum.


a. Click the Create plates button (

).

b. In the object geometry window:


i.

Set the Name to ceilingplenum.

ii. Change the Plane to xz.


iii. Enter the following dimensions:

iv. Press Apply to resize and rename the object.


18. Create a return grille.
a. Click the Create grille button (

).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

519

High Density Datacenter Cooling


b. Double click the grille.1 object in the Model manager window to open the Grille panel.
c. In the Info tab, enter ceiling-return under Name and enter CEILING-RETURN under Groups.
d. In the Geometry tab, set the Plane to X-Z and enter the following dimensions:

e. In the Properties tab, set the Free area ratio to 0.5.


f.

Press Done to apply the settings and close the panel.

19. Create two rows of return grilles.


a. Right click CEILING-RETURN in the Groups node and select Copy.
b. Set the Number of copies to 2.
c. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter CEILING-RETURN.
d. Check Translate and set the Z offset to 9 ft.
e. Press Apply and Done to copy the return grille and close the panel.
f.

Right click CEILING-RETURN in the Groups node again and select Copy.

g. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter CEILING-RETURN.
h. Check Translate and set the X offset to -14 ft.
i.

520

Press Apply and Done to copy the row of return grilles and close the panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.19: Two Rows of Return Grilles in the Graphics Window

20. Create two more return grilles.


a. Click the Create grille button (

).

b. Double click the newly created object to open the Grille panel.
c. In the Info tab, enter ceiling-return-crac1 under Name and select CEILING-RETURN from
the Groups drop-down list.
d. In the Geometry tab, set the Plane to X-Z and enter the following dimensions:

e. In the Properties tab, set the Free area ratio to 0.5.


f.

Press Done to apply the settings and close the panel.

g. Right click the vent ceiling-return-crac1 from the Model tree and select Copy.
h. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter CEILING-RETURN.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

521

High Density Datacenter Cooling


i.

Check Translate and set the Z offset to 10 ft.

j.

Press Apply and Done to copy the return grille and close the panel.

k. Right click ceiling-return-crac1.1 and Rename the object to ceiling-return-crac2.


Figure 25.20: Two CRAC Return Grilles in the Graphics Window

21. Set the per-object meshing parameters for the return grilles.
a. Open the Mesh control panel by clicking the Generate mesh button (

).

b. In the Local tab, press Edit next to the Object params option.
i.

In the Per-object meshing parameters panel, Shift+left click ceiling-return and then
ceiling-return.3 to select all the return grilles.

ii. Check the Use per object parameters option.


iii. Check the X count and Z count options and specify a Requested value of 4 for both options.

522

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Build the Model


Figure 25.21: Per-object Meshing Parameters for the Return Grilles

c. Click Done to close the Per-object meshing parameters panel.


d. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.
22. Create a PDU.
a. Go to Macros Data center components PDU to open the PDU panel.
b. Enter the dimensions as shown below in Figure 25.22: The PDU Panel (p. 524).
c. Set the PDU flow direction to +Y.
d. Set the Heat output to 3600 W.
e. Set the Percent open area on top and the Percent open area on bottom to 0.25.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

523

High Density Datacenter Cooling


Figure 25.22: The PDU Panel

f.

Press Accept to create the PDU.

23. Set the per-object meshing parameters for the grilles pdu_vent_in and pdu_vent_out.
a. Open the Mesh control panel by clicking the Generate mesh button (

).

b. In the Local tab, check Object params and press Edit.


i.

In the Per-object meshing parameters panel, Ctrl+left click pdu_vent_in and pdu_vent_out
to select both objects.

ii. Check the Use per object parameters option.


iii. Check the X count and Z count options and specify a Requested value of 4 for both options.
c. Click Done to close the Per-object meshing parameters panel.

524

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Build the Model


d. Click Close to close the Mesh control panel.
24. Create a new group for the PDU.
a. Select all the PDU objects by Shift+left clicking pdu_unit and then pdu_part4 in the Model
manager window.
b. Right click one of the selected objects and go to Create and then Group.
c. In the Create group panel, enter PDUs in the Name for new group text field.
d. Press Done to create the new group.
25. Create the second PDU.
a. Right click PDUs in the Groups node and select Copy.
b. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter PDUs.
c. Check Translate and set the X offset to 14 ft and the Z offset to 28 ft.
d. Press Apply and Done to copy the PDU and close the panel.
Figure 25.23: Two PDUs in the Graphics Window

e. Now may be another good time to Save the project (

).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

525

High Density Datacenter Cooling


26. Create blockages.
a. Click the Create blocks button (

).

b. In the object geometry window:


i.

Set the Name to piping and the Group to BLOCKAGE.

ii. Set the Type to Hollow.


iii. Enter the following dimensions:

iv. Press Apply to resize and rename the object.


c. Click the Create blocks button (

).

d. In the object geometry window:


i.

Set the Name to blockage and the Group to BLOCKAGE.

ii. Set the Type to Hollow.


iii. Enter the following dimensions:

iv. Press Apply to resize and rename the object.


27. Create columns.
a. Click the Create blocks button (

).

b. In the object geometry window:


i.

Set the Name to column1 and the Group to COLUMNS.

ii. Set the Type to Hollow.


iii. Enter the following dimensions:

526

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 3: Build the Model


iv. Press Apply to resize and rename the object.
c. Click the Create blocks button (

).

d. In the object geometry window:


i.

Set the Name to column2 and the Group to COLUMNS.

ii. Set the Type to Hollow.


iii. Enter the following dimensions:

iv. Press Apply to resize and rename the object.


28. Create cabletrays.
a. Click the Create blocks button (

).

b. In the object geometry window:


i.

Set the Name to cabletray1 and the Group to CABLETRAYS.

ii. Set the Type to Hollow.


iii. Enter the following dimensions:

iv. Press Apply to resize and rename the object.


c. Create three more cabletrays.
i.

Right click CABLETRAYS in the Groups node and select Copy.

ii. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter CABLETRAYS.
iii. Check Translate and set the X offset to 6 ft.
iv. Press Apply and Done to copy the cabletray and close the panel.
v. Right click CABLETRAYS in the Groups node again and select Copy.
vi. In the Copy group panel, check Group name and enter CABLETRAYS.
vii. Check Translate and set the X offset to 14 ft.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

527

High Density Datacenter Cooling


viii.Press Apply and Done to copy the cabletrays and close the panel.
Figure 25.24: The Completed Model

25.7. Step 4: Generate a Mesh


1. Click the Generate mesh button (

).

2. In the Mesh control panel, enter 2 ft, 0.5 ft, and 1 ft for the Max element size for x, y, and z, respectively.
Change the Minimum gap values to 1 in, 0.36 in, and 1 in for x, y and z, respectively.

528

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Create Monitor Points


Figure 25.25: Mesh Control Panel

Note
The units for the Minimum gap values are in inches.

3. Click Generate.
4. Use the Display and Quality tabs to view the mesh and check the mesh quality.
5. Click Close to close the panel once you have finished viewing the mesh.

25.8. Step 5: Create Monitor Points


Create two temperature monitor points for the CRAC fans exhaust fans by dragging crac_exhaust
and crac_exhaust.1 from the Model node to the Points node. ANSYS Icepak will automatically
monitor values at the centers of these objects. The default setting is to monitor Temperature. You can
also monitor Pressure and/or Velocity by double clicking the monitor point in the Points folder and
choosing which variables to monitor at that location.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

529

High Density Datacenter Cooling


Figure 25.26: Creating Monitor Points

25.9. Step 6: Physical and Numerical Settings


1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters.

a. In the General setup tab:


i.

Turn Off the Radiation.

ii. Select Turbulent and Zero equation for the Flow regime.
iii. Enable the Gravity vector.
b. In the Defaults tab:
i.

Select Mica-Typical from the Insulators section of the Default solid drop-down list.

ii. Select Paint-non-metallic from the Paint section of the Default surface drop-down list.
c. In the Transient setup tab:
i.

Set the initial Y velocity to be 0.5 ft/s (a non-zero initial velocity is recommended for problems
involving natural convection).

d. In the Advanced tab:


i.

Select the Ideal gas law (recommended for problems involving significant temperature differences).

ii. Check Operating density and keep the default value.


iii. Select Enable for Species and keep default values in the Species definitions panel.
iv. Press Accept to apply the settings and close the panel.
e. Set the RH value for the crac-intake fans.
i.

530

Select the crac-intake fans by Ctrl+left clicking crac_intake and then crac_intake.1 in
the Model manager window.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Calculate a Solution


ii. Right click and select Edit from the context menu.
iii. Select Species from the Options tab located within the Fans [*multiple*] Properties tab and
click Edit.
iv. In the Species concentrations panel, select RH from the concentrations list and enter 50.

v. Click Done to save your settings and close the panel.


vi. Click Done in the Fans [*multiple*] panel.
2. Go to

Solution settings

Basic settings.

a. Change the Number of iterations to 1000 and the Convergence criteria for Energy to 1e-6.
b. Click Accept to apply the settings and close the panel.
3. Go to

Solution settings

Advanced settings.

a. Set the Discretization scheme for Pressure as Body Force Weighted.


b. Set the Under-relaxation to 0.2 for Momentum and to 0.1 for Body forces.
c. Click Accept to apply the settings and close the panel.

25.10. Step 7: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the project you saved and continue your analysis in a future
ANSYS Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will
simply overwrite your project file when it saves the model.)
File Save project

25.11. Step 8: Calculate a Solution


1. Go to Solve Run solution.
2. In the Results tab, check Write CFD Post data.
3. Click Start solution.
ANSYS Icepak begins to calculate a solution for the model, and a separate window opens where the
solver prints the numerical values of the residuals. ANSYS Icepak also opens the Solution residuals
graphics display and control window, where it displays the convergence history for the calculation.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

531

High Density Datacenter Cooling


Upon completion of the calculation, your residual and monitor plots will look something like Figure 25.27: Solution Residuals (p. 532) and Figure 25.28: Temperature Point Monitors (p. 533). You can
zoom in the residual plot by using the left mouse.

Note
The actual values of the residuals may differ slightly on different machines, so your plots
may not look exactly the same as Figure 25.27: Solution Residuals (p. 532) and Figure 25.28: Temperature Point Monitors (p. 533).
Figure 25.27: Solution Residuals

532

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Examine the Results


Figure 25.28: Temperature Point Monitors

4. Click Done in the Solution residuals and Temperature Point monitors windows to close them.

25.12. Step 9: Examine the Results


The objective of this exercise is to consider the airflow patterns and identify problem areas such as hot
spots, stagnant zones, and recirculation zones through out the datacenter. You will accomplish this by
examining the solution using ANSYS Icepak's graphical postprocessing tools.
1. Display contours of temperature on the CRACs, Racks, and PDUs.
a. Click the Object face button (

).

b. Enter surface-temp-contours in the Name field.


c. In the Object drop-down list, expand the Groups node and Ctrl+left click CRACs, HDRACKs, PDUs,
and RACKs, and click Accept.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

533

High Density Datacenter Cooling

d. Check Show contours and click Create.


e. Click Done to close the panel.
Figure 25.29: Object Face Temperature Contours

534

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Examine the Results


2. Display animated contours of temperature on plane cuts in all 3 coordinate planes.
a. Right click surface-temp-contours under the Post-processing node in the Model manager
window, and make the object face inactive by unchecking Active in the context menu.
b. Click the Plane cut button (

).

c. Enter plane-temp-contours in the Name field.


d. Check Show contours and click Create to view a plane cut of the temperature contours.
Figure 25.30: Plane Cut Temperature Contours

e. Check the Loop mode option and click Animate to display a loop of the plane cut traversing from
the min z to the max z side of the datacenter.
f.

Click Interrupt on the progress bar to return to the Plane cut panel.

g. Repeat the above procedure for plane cuts in the Y-Z and X-Z planes by changing the Set position
to X plane through center and Y plane through center respectively.
h. Click Done to close the panel.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

535

High Density Datacenter Cooling


3. Display animated contours of temperature on an isosurface.
a. Right click plane-temp-contours in the Model manager window and make the plane cut inactive
by unchecking Active in the context menu.
b. Click the Isosurface button (

).

c. Enter iso-temp in the Name field.


d. Enter 90 in the Value field.
e. Check Show contours and click Create to view the isosurface of 90F.
Figure 25.31: Isosurface of 90F

f.

To view an a loop of isosurfaces from 90F to 80F:


i.

In the Animation group box, enter 90 for Start, 80 for End, and 10 for Steps.

ii. Check the Loop mode option and click Animate.


iii. Click Interrupt on the progress bar to return to the Isosurface panel.
g. Click Done to close the panel.

536

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Examine the Results


4. Display airflow patterns in the datacenter.
a. Right click iso-temp in the Model manager window and make the isosurface inactive by unchecking
Active in the context menu.
b. Click the Object face button (

).

c. Enter airflow in the Name field.


d. In the Object drop-down list, expand the Groups node and Ctrl+left click CEILING-RETURN,
HDRACKs, PDUs, RACKs, and TILEs, and click Accept.

e. Check Show particle traces and click Parameters.


f.

Set the Display options to Mesh points.

g. Set the End time under Particle options to 5.


h. Check Loop mode under Animation and set the Steps to 50.
i.

Click Apply to display the airflow patterns.

Note
ANSYS Icepak will take a few moments to generate the airflow patterns.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

537

High Density Datacenter Cooling


Figure 25.32: Particle Traces

j.

Click Animate to visualize the airflow patterns in a transient manner.

k. View the animated airflow patterns from various angles from the Orient menu.
l.

Press Interrupt to stop the animation.

m. Click Done in the Object face particles and Object face panels to close them.
n. Right click airflow in the Model manager window and make the particle traces inactive by unchecking Active in the context menu.
5. Report the volumetric flow rate distribution at the perforated floor tiles.
a. Go to Report Summary report to open the Define summary report panel.
b. Click New to get a new field to define the Summary report.
c. In the Objects drop-down list, expand the Groups node and select TILEs, and click Accept.
d. Select Volume flow from the Value drop-down list and deselect Comb.
e. Click New to get a new field to define the Summary report.
f.

In the Objects drop-down list select crac_exhaust and crac_exhaust.1, and click Accept.

g. Select Relative humidity from the Value drop-down list and deselect Comb.
538

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Examine the Results

h. Click Write to display the summary report.

i.

Click Done to close the Report summary data panel.

j.

Click Close to close the Define summary report panel.

6. Save (

) the project and Close ANSYS Icepak.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

539

High Density Datacenter Cooling

25.13. Step 10: Additional Exercise: Visualize and analyze the results in
ANSYS CFD-Post
In addition to using the postprocessing tools contained within ANSYS Icepak, you can also postprocess
using the advanced tools in ANSYS CFD-Post through ANSYS Workbench. See Postprocessing Using
ANSYS CFD-Post for details on how to use the features in ANSYS CFD-Post.

25.14. Step 11: Summary


In this tutorial, you learned how to model a datacenter using macros, and how to organize a model
using groups. You also learned how to use animated postprocessing objects to examine the results.

540

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 26: Design Modeler - Electronics


26.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to use ANSYS DesignModeler to convert a model for analysis in ANSYS
Icepak.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Use the Slice, Opening, Fan, and Simplify options in ANSYS DesignModeler.
Organize the model using Parts.

26.2. Prerequisites
Familiarity with the ANSYS Workbench interface
Familiarity with the ANSYS Icepak interface

26.3. Problem Description


You will convert an imported STEP file for use in ANSYS Icepak. Figure 26.1: Comparison of the Geometry
in ANSYS DesignModeler and ANSYS Icepak (p. 541) shows the geometry in ANSYS DesignModeler before
the conversion and in ANSYS Icepak after conversion.
Figure 26.1: Comparison of the Geometry in ANSYS DesignModeler and ANSYS Icepak

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

541

Design Modeler - Electronics

26.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Open ANSYS DesignModeler through ANSYS Workbench.
a. Start a new ANSYS Workbench session.
b. Drag a Geometry (ANSYS DesignModeler) component module from the Toolbox and drop it on the
Project Schematic window as shown in Figure 26.2: Creating a Geometry Component Module (p. 542).
c. Rename the Geometry component module to STEP Import and DME to Icepak Translation. To rename the title, double-click the title Geometry, or click the down arrow (
the Rename option from the drop-down list.
Figure 26.2: Creating a Geometry Component Module

d. Save the project (name the project as DME).


e. Double-click cell A2 to open ANSYS DesignModeler.

542

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

) and select

Step 2: Build the Model

26.5. Step 2: Build the Model


1. Go to the Units menu.
a. Ensure that you have Millimeter selected as the desired length unit.
2. Go to File Import External Geometry File and select DME.stp and press Open.

Note
DME.stp can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/DME/DME.stp. You must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed on your computer.

3. Click

to create the model.

Figure 26.3: Imported Model

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

543

Design Modeler - Electronics

26.6. Step 3: Add Shortcuts to the Toolbar


Add a few shortcuts to the toolbar to aid in your design process.
1. Go to Tools Options
2. In the Options panel, go to DesignModeler Toolbars.
3. Set Slice, Freeze, and Electronics to Yes.
Figure 26.4: Options Panel

4. Press OK to add the options to the toolbar.

Note
The Electronics drop-down menu in the toolbar contains several options:

You can also access the


You can also access the

544

option from the Create menu.


and Electronics options from the Tools menu.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak

26.7. Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


1. Check which bodies are already recognized as ANSYS Icepak objects.
a. Go to Electronics Show Ice Bodies. Only bodies with simple geometries recognized as ANSYS
Icepak objects will be visible.
Figure 26.5: Bodies Recognized as ANSYS Icepak Objects

Note
We will not have to make modifications to export these bodies into ANSYS Icepak.
b. Go to Electronics Show CAD Bodies. Only bodies with complex geometries not recognized as
ANSYS Icepak native objects will be visible.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

545

Design Modeler - Electronics


Figure 26.6: Bodies not Recognized as ANSYS Icepak Objects

Note
These are the bodies we will have to modify in order to export these bodies into
ANSYS Icepak.
c. Go to Electronics Revert View to return to the previous display.
2. Create a Slice for one set of fins.
a. In the Tree Outline, right-click Housing and select Hide All Other Bodies.

Note
Expand the node 54 Parts, 54 Bodies to see the Housing node.

b. Select

from the Shortcuts toolbar.

c. In the Details view, set the Slice feature name to FinsSlice1.


d. Select Slice by Surface for Slice Type.

546

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


e. Click the field to the right of Target Face and select the one of faces at the base of the fins, as shown
in Figure 26.7: FinsSlice1 Face Selection (p. 547) and click Apply.
Figure 26.7: FinsSlice1 Face Selection

Note
If you cannot select the face, try using the Model Faces selection filter ( ).

f.

Make sure Slice Targets is set to Selected Bodies.

g. Click the field to the right of Bodies and select the Housing body from the Tree Outline.
h. Click Apply and then
i.

Verify that the Details view for FinsSlice1 resembles Figure 26.8: Details View of FinsSlice1 (p. 547).
Figure 26.8: Details View of FinsSlice1

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

547

Design Modeler - Electronics


3. Likewise, create a Slice for the other set of fins.
a. Use the procedure described above on the other set of fins and name the second Slice FinsSlice2.

Note
The Housing should now appear in several parts in the Tree Outline. When selecting
Hide All Other Bodies, select all of the Housing nodes first.

Note
Make sure that the Bodies selection is the larger section of the housing containing
the fins as shown in Figure 26.9: FinsSlice2 Bodies Selection (p. 548).
Figure 26.9: FinsSlice2 Bodies Selection

4. Create Parts for the sliced fins.

Note
The Parts will become Assemblies in ANSYS Icepak.
a. Press +Y on the Triad (the axes) to get a clear view of the fins.
b. Select Box Select from the Shortcuts toolbar.

548

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak

c. Select the Bodies selection filter ( ).


d. Drag the bounding box around one set of fins, and rotate the model to make sure that all the fins
are selected as shown in Figure 26.10: Selecting a Row of Fins (p. 549) (you should have 13 bodies
selected).
Figure 26.10: Selecting a Row of Fins

e. Right-click anywhere in the Model View and select Form New Part.
f.

In the Details view, set the Part feature name to Fins1 and press Enter on the keyboard.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

549

Design Modeler - Electronics


g. Repeat steps a to f for the other set of fins, except name the part Fins2.
5. Simplify the Housing body between the parts Fins1 and Fins2.
a. Select the Housing body in the Tree Outline.

Important
Note that this Housing body is located outside the parts Fins1 and Fins2.
b. Go to Electronics Simplify.
c. In the Details view, rename the feature HousingSimplify and then press Enter.
d. In the Simplification Type field, select Level 1 from the drop-down list.

e. Click Generate to finish the simplify operation.


6. Create openings for the fan and the back panel.
a. Show all bodies again by right-clicking one of the objects in the Tree Outline and clicking Show All
Bodies.
b. Use the Single Select option now along with the Faces selection filter.
c. Go to the +Y view and select the face as shown in Figure 26.11: FanOpenings Face Selection (p. 551).

550

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


Figure 26.11: FanOpenings Face Selection

d. Go to the Y view.
e. While holding down the Ctrl key, select the face as shown in Figure 26.12: BackOpenings Face Selection (p. 551).
Figure 26.12: BackOpenings Face Selection

f.

Go to Electronics Opening.

g. In the Details view, click Apply in the Faces field. You should have 2 to the right of Faces.
h. Click Generate to finish creating the feature.
7. Create a Fan.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

551

Design Modeler - Electronics


a. Right-click the Fan body in the Tree Outline and select Hide All Other Bodies.

Note
If you cannot view the object correctly, press Zoom to Fit ( ).
b. Go to Electronics Fan.
c. In the Details view, set the Fan name to FanGeom.
d. Click the field to the right of Body To Extract Fan Data, select the entire fan body and click Apply.
e. Click the field to the right of Hub/Casing Faces and select the faces as shown in Figure 26.13: Hub/Casing Faces Selection (p. 552).
Figure 26.13: Hub/Casing Faces Selection

Note
You can select multiple faces by simultaneously holding down Ctrl and clicking the
objects.

552

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


f.

Click Apply and

Note
Although it may seem like there was no change, this step creates a fan object in ANSYS
Icepak. To confirm this, you can go to Electronics Show Ice Bodies and check if
the fan is present.

g. Add the fan to the Front-Panel part.


i.

In the Tree Outline, select the Front-Panel part and then simultaneous press Ctrl and click
the Fan object.

ii. Right-click the Fan object and select Form New Part.
iii. In the Details view, rename the Front-Panel Part to Front-Panel-Fan.
8. Perform a Simplify operation on the Housing.
a. Show all bodies again by right-clicking one of the objects in the Tree Outline and clicking Show All
Bodies
b. Go to Electronics Simplify.
c. In the Details view, set the Simplify feature name to HousingFrontBack.
d. In the field to the right of Simplification Type, select Level 1.
e. Click the field to the right of Select Bodies and select the front and the rear panels of the Housing
as shown in Figure 26.14: HousingFrontBack Bodies Selection (p. 554).

Tip
Again, simultaneously press Ctrl and click each panel in order to make both selections.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

553

Design Modeler - Electronics


Figure 26.14: HousingFrontBack Bodies Selection

f.

Click Apply and

9. Perform a Simplify operation on the PWB and the T0220 objects.


a. Select all the Housing, Fin, Panel, Opening, and Fan objects from the bottom of the Tree Outline
by holding down Shift and clicking the objects of interest as shown in Figure 26.15: Selection of
Housings, Fins, Panels, Openings, and Fans (p. 555).

554

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


Figure 26.15: Selection of Housings, Fins, Panels, Openings, and Fans

Note
Selecting Fins1, Fins2, Front-Panel, Rear-Panel includes the selection of all the
components inside of those nodes.

b. Right-click the selected objects and select Hide Body to view just the internal components.
c. Go to Electronics Simplify.
d. In the Details view, set the Simplify feature name to PWB_T0220.
e. In the field to the right of Simplification Type, select Level 1.
f.

Click the field to the right of Select Bodies and select the PWB and all the HS_AF0 and T0220_Case
objects.

Tip
You can either follow the steps immediately below to select the objects from the
Graphics window, or you can select them directly from the Tree Outline.
i.

Go to the +Z view.

ii. Make sure the Select Mode is Single Select.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

555

Design Modeler - Electronics


iii. Hold down Ctrl and select the objects as shown in Figure 26.16: PWB, HS_AF0, and T0220_Case
Bodies Selection (p. 556).
Figure 26.16: PWB, HS_AF0, and T0220_Case Bodies Selection

g. Click Apply. The Select Bodies field should now show 13 bodies selected.
h. Click

10. Add all the package objects to the Parts.


a. Change the Selection Mode to Box Select and make sure the selection filter is set to Bodies.

556

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


b. Select a package object as shown in Figure 26.17: Package Object Selection (p. 557). There should be
6 bodies selected.
Figure 26.17: Package Object Selection

c. Right-click the model and select Form New Part. All the bodies will be added to the part.
d. Name the part T0220_Case1.
e. Repeat steps a to e for the rest of the packages, except naming the parts T0220_Case2,
T0220_Case3, etc.
11. Perform a Simplify on the Coil.
a. Go to Electronics Simplify.
b. In the Details view, set the Simplify name to CoilAssembly.
c. In the field to the right of Simplification Type, select Level 1.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

557

Design Modeler - Electronics


d. Click the field to the right of Select Bodies and select the bodies as shown in Figure 26.18: Coil
Bodies Selection (p. 558). There should be 4 bodies selected.
Figure 26.18: Coil Bodies Selection

e. Click Apply and

12. Add the rest of the Coil bodies to the part.


a. Make sure the selection filter is set to Bodies.
b. Make the same selection as in the simplify operation. Notice that there are now 8 bodies instead of
4.
c. Right-click the model and select Form New Part.
d. In the Details view, set the Part name to CoilAssembly2.
13. Perform a Simplify on the Capacitors.

558

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


a. Go to Electronics Simplify.
b. In the Details view, set the Simplify name to Capacitors.
c. In the field to the right of Simplification Type, select Level 3.
d. Click the field to the right of Select Bodies and select the bodies as shown in Figure 26.19: Capacitors
Bodies Selection (p. 559). There should be 3 bodies.
Figure 26.19: Capacitors Bodies Selection

e. Click Apply.
f.

Set the Face Quality to Medium

g. Click

14. Form a part for the Capacitors.


a. Make sure the selection filter is set to Bodies.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

559

Design Modeler - Electronics


b. Make the same selection as the simplify operation. There should still be 3 selected bodies.
c. Right-click the model and select Form New Part.
d. In the Details view, set the Part name to Capacitors.
15. Form parts for the Heat Sink and Components.
a. Make sure the selection filter is set to Bodies.
b. Follow the same steps as before to create a part called BGAHS for the Heat Sink and Components
for the Components:
Figure 26.20: BGAHS and Components Parts Selections

16. Right-click a body in the Tree Outline and select Show All Bodies. Your model should look like Figure 26.21: Final Model in ANSYS DesignModeler (p. 561) and your Tree Outline should look like Figure 26.22: Final Tree Outline (p. 562).

560

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Edit the Model for ANSYS Icepak


Figure 26.21: Final Model in ANSYS DesignModeler

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

561

Design Modeler - Electronics


Figure 26.22: Final Tree Outline

Note
Some of your parts and bodies may be in a different order than what is shown in Figure 26.22: Final Tree Outline (p. 562).

17. Check if all the bodies have been converted to ANSYS Icepak objects.
a. Go to Electronics Show CAD Bodies.
b. Confirm that the view contains no bodies. This means all the bodies have been recognized by ANSYS
Icepak.
18. The model is now ready to use in ANSYS Icepak.

562

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Opening the Model in ANSYS Icepak

26.8. Step 5: Opening the Model in ANSYS Icepak


1. Go to File Save Project and then File Close DesignModeler.
2. In ANSYS Workbench, drag an ANSYS Icepak component to cell A2 to create an ANSYS Icepak component
module.
Figure 26.23: Creating an ANSYS Icepak Component Module

3. Double-click the Setup cell (B2) to open the model in ANSYS Icepak.
4. In the Model manager window, right-click the Model node and select Expand all to view the geometry
inside the assemblies.
5. Notice that the bodies have been successfully transferred into ANSYS Icepak.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

563

Design Modeler - Electronics


Figure 26.24: Final Model

26.9. Step 6: Summary


In this tutorial, you learned how to get a CAD model ready for ANSYS Icepak using ANSYS DesignModeler.
You used the slice, simplify, openings, and fan operations to convert the model.

564

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 27: CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


27.1. Introduction
This tutorial describes the procedure for setting up and running a CFD analysis for the ANSYS Icepak
geometry that was created as a part of the Design Modeler - Electronics tutorial located in the Icepak
Tutorial Guide.

27.2. Prerequisites
You should have the following before starting this tutorial:
Ability to perform basic project analysis in ANSYS Icepak
Familiarity with the ANSYS Icepak interface
Familiarity with the Design Modeler - Electronics tutorial which is located in the Icepak Tutorial Guide

27.3. Create a New ANSYS Icepak Project


Open a new, standalone Icepak session and click Unpack.
Figure 27.1: Options Available for a New Icepak Session

In the file selection panel, select the packed project file tut26-Icepak.tzr and click Open.

Note
The file tut26-Icepak.tzr can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/Avionics/tut26-Icepak.zip. You must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the
directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed on your computer system. You must extract the
files from tut26-Icepak.zip before importing the .tzr file.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

565

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.2: File Selection Panel

In the location for the unpacked project file selection dialog, select a location where you would like to
create the new Icepak project and click Unpack.
Note that the faces of the cabinet align with the outermost boundaries of the rest of the model.
Figure 27.3: Unpacked Model

566

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Create a Support for the Box and Resize Cabinet

27.4. Create a Support for the Box and Resize Cabinet


Click

to create a new block.

From the Model manager window, double-click block.1 to open the edit panel.
Using the Info tab, rename the block as Support and click Update.
In the Properties tab, set the block type to Hollow as shown in the below figure:
Figure 27.4: Block Type

In the Geometry tab, switch to Start / length, update the coordinates for the block as shown below and
click Done.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

567

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.5: Block Dimensions

Note
The zL dimension is in feet.

A warning message (see below) comes up indicating that the support block is outside the cabinet.
Click Resize cabinet to allow the cabinet to resize to include the support block within its extents.

568

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Create a Support for the Box and Resize Cabinet


Figure 27.6: Warning Message

From the Model manager window, double-click Cabinet and open the Cabinet edit panel.
In the Geometry tab, modify the cabinet dimensions as shown below and click Update.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

569

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.7: Updated Cabinet Dimensions

Using the Properties tab, set the Wall type for the cabinet sides as shown below and click Done.

Note
This setup will be used for a forced convection and a natural convection (fan failure) based
analysis.
Figure 27.8: Updated Properties Tab for Cabinet

570

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Set Up the Model for Non-conformal Meshing


Go to the Orient menu, select Scale to Fit to resize the view in the graphics window.
Save using the File menu and click Save project.

27.5. Set Up the Model for Non-conformal Meshing


Go to Orient menu and click Orient Positive Y.
Keeping the Shift key pressed, left click and drag the mouse to draw a window around the box as shown
below. Release the left click or Shift button to select the geometry fully enclosed within the box.
Figure 27.9: Select the Box Geometry

Right-click the selected items (in the Model manager window) and select Create assembly from the
menu items as shown below.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

571

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.10: Create an Assembly for the Box Geometry

In the Model manager window, expand assembly.1 by clicking the assembly node
(

).

Note in the Model manager window that the Fan is listed outside the Front-Panel-Fan assembly
node.

572

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Set Up the Model for Non-conformal Meshing


Select the Fan from the Model manager window and drag it to the Front-Panel-Fan assembly as
shown below.
Figure 27.11: Move the Fan to the Front-Panel-Fan Assembly

The updated Model manager window is shown below.


Figure 27.12: Updated Model manager Window

On the Model manager window, double-click assembly.1 to open the edit panel for assembly.1.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

573

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Go to the Meshing tab and then select Mesh separately. Modify the Slack settings and Max element
size inputs as shown below and then click Done.
Figure 27.13: Slack Settings and Max Element Size Inputs for assembly.1

Similarly, modify the slack values for the other assemblies as shown in Table 27.1: Slack Settings for the
Assemblies (p. 574).

Note
As you have done for assembly.1, select Mesh separately in the Meshing tab for each
of the assemblies in the table before entering the required inputs.

Tip
To facilitate the specifications, click Update in the Assemblies panel after each specification
and then click the next assembly object in the Model manager window. Doing this, you
do not have to close and re-open the Assemblies panel repeatedly.
Table 27.1: Slack Settings for the Assemblies

574

Assembly

Min X

Max X

Min Y

Max Y

Min Z

Max Z

assembly.1

Front-Panel-Fan

Rear-Panel

T0220_Case3

2.23

T0220_Case2

T0220_Case1

T0220_Case4

2.23

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Generate the Mesh


T0220_Case5

T0220_Case6

Coil

4.175

Components

4.175

Capacitors

2.271

4.175

BGAHS

4.175

Fins1

Fins2

Note
You have not meshed the Housing assembly separately. Furthermore, you have set a
few slack values to 0 for some assemblies. These are to avoid any assembly-assembly intersections, which ANSYS Icepak does not allow.

Save the project by going to File then selecting Save project.

27.6. Generate the Mesh


Go to the Model menu and click Generate mesh and set the Mesh type to Mesher-HD.
Change the Max element size and Minimum gap settings to those shown in Figure 27.14: Mesh Parameters (p. 576).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

575

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.14: Mesh Parameters

Click Generate.... The resulting mesh size should be between 500,000 and 600,000 cells. Observe in the
Message window that no mesh exists for the DIE_AF0 objects.
Right-click the Model node from the Model manager window and select Sort Meshing Priority.

576

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Generate the Mesh


Figure 27.15: Sorting the Model manager Window by Meshing Priority

From the Model manager window, expand the node for the assembly TO220_Case3. Note that DIE_AF0
is at the top of the list indicating that it has the least meshing priority.
While holding down the Shift key, select TO220_Case_0 and TO220_Case_1 from the Model manager
window. Drag and drop these above DIE_AF0 as shown in Figure 27.16: Modifying the Meshing Priority (p. 577). This automatically changes the respective meshing priority settings such that DIE_AF0 has a
higher meshing priority than the TO220_Case blocks do.

Note
For more information on meshing priority, see Controlling the Meshing Order for Objects
of the Icepak Users Guide.
Figure 27.16: Modifying the Meshing Priority

Similarly, update the meshing priorities of the other DIE_AF0 blocks for all the TO220_Case assemblies.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

577

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Go to the Model menu and click Generate mesh. Confirm that the Message window does not display
warnings for the meshing of the DIE_AF0 objects as it has earlier.

Note
From the messages printed in the Message window, remeshing is limited to the
TO220_Case assemblies only.

Use the Display and Quality tabs to visualize mesh refinement and assess mesh quality.
Save the project.

27.7. Power and Material Inputs


Using the Properties tab of the edit panel, update the solid material and power inputs for the blocks as
listed in Table 27.2: Material and Power Inputs (p. 578).
You do not need to change the settings for blocks not included in this list.

Tip
For objects that require similar material and power specifications, you can edit them simultaneously to speed up the process. From the Model manager window, select all of the
objects requiring the same material and power specifications, such as the DIE_AF0 objects,
while holding down the Ctrl key. Right-click one of the selected objects and select Edit
to open the shared object edit panel. You can now select the material and total power for
all of the selected objects simultaneously. Click Done after you change the settings.
Table 27.2: Material and Power Inputs
Node

Object name

Material

Total Power (
W)

TO220_Case3

DIE_AF0

Ceramic_material

T0220_Case2

DIE_AF0.1

T0220_Case1

DIE_AF0.2

T0220_Case4

DIE_AF0.3

T0220_Case5

DIE_AF0.4

T0220_Case6

DIE_AF0.5

Coil

Coil-2

Cu-Brass

Components

Component

Mold_material

Component.1
Component.2
Component.3
Capacitors

Capacitor
Capacitor.1
Capacitor.2

578

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Physical and Numerical Settings


BGAHS

BGA

Ceramic_material

27.8. Fan Inputs


Specify the fan curve and swirl inputs for the Fan object as shown below. Remember that the object Fan
is located in the Front-Panel-Fan node of the Model manager window.

Note
Orient the fan in the negative Y direction by selecting Negative in the Flow direction
group box.
Figure 27.17: Fan Curve and Swirl Inputs for the Fan Object

27.9. Physical and Numerical Settings


Set up the physical parameters of your model and the solver settings.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

579

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box

Problem Setup
Note
Instead of accessing the
Basic parameters panel, you can instead use the Problem setup
wizard to define your problem setup by double-clicking Problem setup in the Model
manager window. See 2.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings of the Finned Heat Sink
tutorial for more instruction regarding the Problem setup wizard. You must still use the
same settings described in this tutorial for the Problem setup wizard.
Modify the General setup tab for the Basic parameters (under the Problem setup node) as shown below.
Figure 27.18: Basic parameters/General setup

Set the options for discrete ordinates radiation model as below and click Accept.

580

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 27.19: DO Radiation Settings

Go to the Defaults tab and update the Ambient conditions as shown below.
Figure 27.20: Basic parameters/Defaults

Go to the Advanced tab, enable Solar loading and update the options for solar loading as shown below.
Click Accept.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

581

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.21: Solar load model parameters Panel

Solver Setup
Go to the Solve menu and click Settings Basic. Increase the Number of iterations to 500 and click
Accept.
Retain the defaults for the Parallel and the Advanced settings.
Create a monitor point at the centroid of the BGA. There are two ways to do so:
Method 1:
Drag and drop the BGA block from the BGAHS assembly node in the Model manager window to the
Points node as shown below.
Double-click the newly created monitor point and accept the default settings.

582

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 27.22: Creating a Point Monitor (Temperature) for the BGA Block - Method 1

Method 2:
From the Model manager window, as shown below, right-click the BGA block and click Add to Clipboard.
Right-click the Points node (see below) and select Paste from Clipboard.
The BGA point monitor will be added to the Points node.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

583

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.23: Creating a Point Monitor (Temperature) for the BGA Block - Method 2

Similarly, create monitor points for the opening objects Rear-Panel_18 and Rear-Panel_4, found
in the Rear-Panel assembly node. Modify the corresponding monitor point panels to enable velocity
and temperature monitoring during the solution process by selecting both Temperature and Velocity
check boxes for each of the rear panel monitor points.
Figure 27.24: Point Monitors (Temperature and Velocity) for the Openings Rear_Panel_18 and
Rear_Panel_4

584

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Calculate a Solution
Save using the File menu and click Save project.

27.10. Calculate a Solution


Go to the Solve menu and click Run solution to launch the Solve panel as shown below.
Click Start solution.
Figure 27.25: Run Solution

The solution should converge in about 150 iterations.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

585

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.26: Convergence and Point Monitor Plots

27.11. Examine the Results


Examine your results by creating postprocessing objects, such as temperature contours on the PWB and
Component objects.
Go to the Orient menu and click Orient Negative Z and then click Zoom in in the Orient menu to zoomin on the graphical display on the box.
As shown below, keeping the Shift key pressed, click and drag to draw a window that includes the PWB
and all the components on the board.
The selection will also include the support block and some of the Housing blocks (cylinder blocks at
the base of the housing).

586

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Examine the Results


Figure 27.27: Selection for Postprocessing

Right-click the selection on the Model manager window and choose Create Object Face(s)
Combined to create contours of temperature, the default variable, on the faces of the selected objects.
Click Done on the Object face panel.
Review the contours display (Figure 27.28: Display Contours of Temperature on Selected Objects (p. 588)).
Note that the hot spots are located on the capacitors and the components.
The max Y (west) side of the support block is directly exposed to solar radiation. This is confirmed by
the results. This side is warmer than the other sides of the support block.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

587

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.28: Display Contours of Temperature on Selected Objects

Right-click face.1 from the Post-processing node (in the Model manager window) and then deselect
Active to deactivate face.1.

588

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Examine the Results


Figure 27.29: Contours of Temperature on Selected Objects

Temperature contours on a clipped Plane Cut


Go to the Post menu and click Postprocessing units and set the units for Length to mm.
Go to the Post menu and click Plane cut.
In the Plane cut panel, select Point and normal for Set position. Change the coordinates of the point
and the normal vector direction according to Figure 27.30: Plane cut Panel Settings for cut.1 (p. 590). Click
Create.
Check Enable clipping and enter the extents for clipping as shown below (Figure 27.30: Plane cut Panel
Settings for cut.1 (p. 590)) and click Update.

Tip
You can also snap the extents of the clipping zone from the graphics window.

Review the contours display.


Use the scroll bar on the Plane cut panel or click the Animate button to traverse the plane cut across
the box.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

589

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Change the point and normal settings, in the Plane location group box, to visualize the contours in different orientations.
Click Parameters (adjacent to Show contours) to change the variable, color level settings, and so on.
Figure 27.30: Plane cut Panel Settings for cut.1

590

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Examine the Results


Figure 27.31: Plane Cut of Temperature Contours within Avionics Box

Create a field of velocity vectors on the clipped plane cut:


Go to the Orient menu and select Orient Negative Z and then click Zoom in in the Orient menu to
zoom in on the graphical display on the box.
In the Plane cut panel for cut.1, turn off the display of contours by deselecting Show contours. Enable
the display of vectors by selecting Show vectors.
Update the point and normal settings for the plane cut as below:

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

591

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.32: Updated Point and Normal Settings for cut.1

Click Parameters (adjacent to Show Vectors), set the Display options to Uniform (10000), select the
Project to plane option and click Apply then Update.
Figure 27.33: Updated Plane Cut of Velocity Vectors

Review the vectors display.

592

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Examine the Results


Use the scroll bar on the Plane cut panel and/or the Animate button to traverse the plane cut across the
box.
Update the point and normal settings to visualize the vectors in different orientations.
Right-click cut.1 from the Post-processing node and deselect Active to deactivate cut.1.
Streamlines from the Fan
Expand the Inactive node on the Model manager window, right-click face.1 and click Active to display
face.1 again.
Go to the Post menu and click Object face.
In the Object face panel (for face.2), using the drop-down menu select the Fan as the object.
Check Show particle traces and click Parameters.
Update the Parameters panel for the particle traces as below and click Apply.
Figure 27.34: Updated Settings for face.2

Review the streamlines display.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

593

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.35: Updated Graphical Display

Use the Animate button to visualize a dynamic 3D representation of the air flow beginning from the fan
and exiting out of the openings on the rear panel.
Adjust the steps input to modify the number of frames included in the animation.
Deactivate face.1 and face.2.
Power and Temperature Values
Go to the Post menu and select Power and temperature values to identify (and display) the objects
which fail for specified maximum temperature criteria.
Assume that the maximum temperature rating for the components in this setup is 85C.
In the Power and temperature limit setup panel, set the Default temperature limit to 85 C and click
All to default.
Click Show too hot to report (in the message window) and display (on the graphics window) the objects
that fail this criterion.
The graphical display will update for standard shape Icepak objects only. CAD objects will not be
highlighted in the graphics window but will be listed in the message window instead.

594

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Additional Exercises
Figure 27.36: Updated Graphical Display

Close the Power and temperature limit setup panel.


Save using the File menu and click Save project.

27.12. Additional Exercises


Setup for natural convection (fan failure)
From the Model manager window, double-click the object Fan to open its edit panel.
In the Properties tab, go to the Options sub-tab and check the Failed option.
Set the Free area ratio to 0.5 and click Done.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

595

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Figure 27.37: Updated Fan Setup for Failure Mode

Go to the Solve menu and select Settings Advanced and update the under-relaxation settings for
Pressure and Momentum to 0.7 and 0.3 respectively.
Go to the Solve menu and click Run solution, enter a unique Solution ID and click Start solution.

Note
The ID icepakcfd-tut2600 should not be used for the Solution ID as it has already
been used for the forced convection, steady-state simulation setup.

Postprocess the results as done previously.

596

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Setup for Transient Analysis Forced Convection Mode

27.13. Setup for Transient Analysis Forced Convection Mode


Note
This exercise considers a transient period of 24 hours for CFD analysis and hence will be a
highly intensive undertaking from a computational standpoint. For the sake of understanding,
you may choose to run the transient solution for a shorter time period.
Go to the Post menu and select Load solution ID, select icepakcfd-tut2600 and click Okay.
Go to the Problem setup menu and click Basic parameters Transient setup and set the Time variation
to Transient.
Set the Start time to 0 s and the End time to 86400 s (24 hours).
Click Edit parameters for Transient, set the Time step to 60 s and the Solution save interval to 30.
Based on this setting, the solver will write out the results every 1800 seconds (30 minutes) during the
solution process.
Click Accept to close the Transient parameters panel.
Figure 27.38: Basic parameters and Transient parameters Panel Inputs

Go to the Defaults tab.


Set the Ambient conditions for Temperature to 1 C.
Select the Transient option for Temperature and click Edit to open the Transient temperature panel.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

597

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Select the Piecewise linear type for specifying the time dependant variation of Ambient temperature.
Click the Text editor button and enter the Time (s) vs. Ambient temperature (C) inputs as shown in
Figure 27.39: Time Dependant Variation for Ambient Temperature (p. 598).
Figure 27.39: Time Dependant Variation for Ambient Temperature

Click Accept, Done, and Accept to close the Curve specification, Transient temperature and Basic
parameters panels respectively.
Go to Solve Settings Basic and set the Iterations / timestep to 200.
Go to the Solve menu and click Run solution, enter a unique Solution ID.
As shown below, set the Type to Restart and select the ID for the forced convection, steady-state simulation (icepakcfd-tut2600) with the Full data option.
Having an established flow field from the steady state analysis as a starting point will aid convergence
during the transient simulation.

598

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Setup for Transient Analysis Forced Convection Mode


Figure 27.40: Use of Steady State Simulation as the Starting Point for the Transient Simulation

Click Start solution.


Postprocess the transient simulation as you have done previously.
Use the Post menu and click Transient settings to march Forward/Backward in time (by Timesteps
or by increments of time) to get a time based variation for postprocessing objects such as Plane cut,
Object face and Isosurface. The marching can be done manually using the Forward/Backward buttons
(see below) or using the Animate option.
Figure 27.41: Post/Transient Settings

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

599

CFD Modeling and Analysis of an Avionics Box


Use the Post menu and click History plot to create a Time vs Variable value plot for a specified point
location within the computational domain.
Refer to the Transient Simulation tutorial located in the Icepak Tutorial Guide for more information on
set-up and postprocessing of transient simulations using ANSYS Icepak.

600

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 28: Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native


Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler
28.1. Introduction
This tutorial will help familiarize the user with the ANSYS Workbench (WB) and the ANSYS DesignModeler
(DM) interfaces. This tutorial uses a heat sink geometry to illustrate the various options that are available
with the simplify feature of the ANSYS DesignModeler - Electronics utility.

28.2. Prerequisites
Familiarity with integration of ANSYS Icepak into ANSYS Workbench
Familiarity with ANSYS DesignModeler interface

28.3. Tutorial Outline


Part 1: General Topics
Model Description
WB Project Schematic
DesignModeler
Import CAD model
Part 2: Model Conversion from CAD to Icepak:
Summary of Simplification
Simplification into Icepak objects - Level 0
Simplification into Icepak objects - Level 1
Simplification into Icepak objects - Level 2
Simplification into Icepak objects - Level 3

28.4. Part 1: General Topics


Model Description
Figure 28.1: Customized Heat Sink with all Detailed Features (p. 602) shows a customized heat sink which
cools multiple components of different heights. This CAD model contains many detailed features which
may not significantly affect the fluid flow and heat transfer behavior of the heat sink, such as through
holes for screws to mount on the PCB. Hence, for CFD analysis using Icepak, removing such thermally
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

601

Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


unimportant features at the beginning of the project can reduce model setup time and unnecessarily
fine meshing.
This simplification of CAD shapes offers the following benefits:
You can more easily observe the model features than in the full, detailed CAD model.
You can readily identify the features in the part that must be held constant and the portions where they
have freedom to conduct parametric trials or design of experiment studies to improve the thermal and
flow design.
You will have less CAD-to-Icepak conversion work to do.
You will have a better mesh with a lower mesh count.
Hence, we shall work with the defeatured CAD part shown in Figure 28.2: Defeatured customized heat
sink (p. 602)

Note
If you plan to perform a subsequent thermal stress analysis using the temperature data from
Icepak results, you should retain the features that affect the stress analysis rather than simplify them.
Figure 28.1: Customized Heat Sink with all Detailed Features

Figure 28.2: Defeatured customized heat sink

28.5. ANSYS Workbench Project Schematic


Start a new ANSYS Workbench session. For Windows, this can be done by going to Start All Programs ANSYS 15.0 Workbench 15.0.
602

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

ANSYS Workbench Project Schematic


Go to File Save and save the project as cust-hs.
Drag a Geometry component module from the Toolbox and drop it into the Project Schematic window
as shown in Figure 28.3: Create the Geometry Component (p. 603) below.
Figure 28.3: Create the Geometry Component

Rename the Geometry component module to STEP Import. To rename the title, double-click the title
Geometry or click the left mouse button on the down arrow and select the Rename option from the dropdown menu (highlighted in Figure 28.4: Rename the Geometry Component (p. 604) below).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

603

Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Figure 28.4: Rename the Geometry Component

Next, as shown in Figure 28.5: Create the Icepak Component (p. 604), select the Icepak component module
from the toolbox and drop it on cell A2 of the geometry component to establish the link between Geometry
(ANSYS DesignModeler) and ANSYS Icepak.
Figure 28.5: Create the Icepak Component

This completes the schematic representation of the project workflow. The updated Project Schematic is
shown in Figure 28.6: Updated Project Schematic (p. 605) below.

604

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

CAD Model Import


Figure 28.6: Updated Project Schematic

Save the project using File Save.

28.6. DesignModeler
In the Project Schematic, double-click cell A2 (Geometry) to open DM.
Go to Tools Options.
In the Options panel, click the Toolbars sub-node under the DesignModeler node.
Set Slice, Freeze, and Electronics to Yes.
Click OK to exit the panel.

28.7. CAD Model Import


Go to File Import External Geometry File, set file type to STEP (*.step;*.stp), select customheat_sink-simplified.stp and click Open.

Note
The file custom-heat_sink-simplified.stp can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/MCAD_heatsink/custom-heat_sink-simplified.zip. You must replace
ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed on
your computer system. You must also extract the contents of the zip folder before selecting
custom-heat_sink-simplified.stp.

This creates a new import operation in the tree outline.


Click Generate to complete the import operation.

Tip
The key F5 is the keyboard shortcut for Generate.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

605

Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Figure 28.7: Import Operation

Rotate the model and observe the various geometric features in the imported CAD body.

Note
Generating the model is necessary to implement the last operation performed on the
model. The Graphics window displays the changes.

Note the updated status of the individual cells (A2 and B2) on the Workbench Project Schematic.
Figure 28.8: Project Schematic Updated Cell Status

In Workbench save the project using File Save.

28.8. PART 2: Model Conversion From CAD to Icepak


Summary of Simplification
Simplification is the process of converting a CAD part into a geometric fit with Icepak primitive objects.
Table 28.1: Simplification Types in DM for CAD-to-Icepak Conversion (p. 607) summarizes the four simplify

606

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

ANSYS DesignModeler- Electronics


choices available in the DM Electronics utility. In addition to the simplification of CAD parts, you will
work with other DM tools that will be helpful in capturing the design intent in the Icepak model.
Table 28.1: Simplification Types in DM for CAD-to-Icepak Conversion
Simplification Type

Description

Level 0

A single bounding box block is created for each part.


All features and internal faces are ignored.

Level 1

Internal faces are recognized - Part is split at these faces.


Resulting bodies are approximated as cuboids or cylindrical blocks.

Level 2

Similar to Level 1, except that the resulting block shapes are polygonal extrusions wherever applicable.

Level 3

The CAD part is transferred as is.


Results in an STL, or standard Tessellation language, representation as an
Icepak CAD block or CAD plate.
Options for refinement of tessellation

28.9. ANSYS DesignModeler- Electronics


As shown in Figure 28.9: Accessing DesignModeler Electronics (p. 608) below, you can access the electronics utility from the main menu as well as from the shortcuts toolbar (recommended).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

607

Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Figure 28.9: Accessing DesignModeler Electronics

Go to Electronics Show Ice bodies. The Graphics window will go blank. Now, go to Electronics
Show CAD bodies. The Graphics window will show the heat sink geometry.

Note
Regular Icepak shapes (rectangular prisms, cylinders, uniform polygons) are recognized as
valid Icepak bodies automatically. The CAD bodies need to be converted to valid Icepak
bodies using the Electronics utility.

608

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Simplify - Level 0

28.10. Simplify - Level 0


Steps in DM:
From the shortcuts toolbar, change the geometry selection filter to Bodies.
Select the heat sink body from either the Tree Outline or from the Graphics window (click the heat sink
geometry).
Figure 28.10: Tree Outline

Go to Electronics Simplify.
Note that Simplify1 shows up in the Tree Outline and the Details view is populated with the
simplify form. Go to the Details view.
Click Apply in the Select Bodies row.
Go to the Simplify input field and then add the prefix L0_ to the existing name so that the feature is
named L0_Simplify1. Press Enter.
Set the Simplification Type to Level 0 using the drop-down list.
Click

to generate the model.

A single block (corresponding to extents of the Heat Sink geometry) should appear in the Graphics window.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

609

Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Figure 28.11: Simplification Type: Level 0

Steps in Workbench
Go to the Workbench Project Schematic.
Change the title below the Icepak module to Icepak-Simplify-Level0. To do so, double-click the
title or select the Rename option using the drop-down menu.
Double-click cell B2 (Setup for the Icepak module) to open Icepak.
Figure 28.12: Updated Project Schematic

Steps in Icepak
Observe that the Icepak model contains one Icepak block, the default object type for the DM Electronics
utility.

610

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Simplify - Level 0
Figure 28.13: Icepak Interface for Icepak-Simplify-Level0

Close the Icepak session.

Steps in Workbench
Go back to the Workbench Project Schematic. Select the link from the STEP Import module to the
Icepak-Simplify-Level0 module. Press the Delete key on the keyboard to delete the link and then
click OK to ignore the warning message that appears.
Figure 28.14: Updated Project Schematic

Save the project using File Save.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

611

Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler

28.11. Slice Tool in DM


Go to DM. In the Tree Outline, right-click the L0_Simplify1 feature and click Suppress. This will return
you to the original heat sink CAD geometry.
Change the Graphics window orientation to the positive-Z orientation by clicking the +Z arrow in the
global coordinate axes, as in Figure 28.15: Heat sink (p. 612) (a).
Observe that the fins on the left side are polygonal profiles extruded through the heat sink length.
Now rotate the model so that the top is just visible, as in Figure 28.15: Heat sink (p. 612) (b). Notice that
the right side contains rectangular pockets. To capture the heat sink features accurately, we will model
the left half with polygonal fit, and the right half with cuboidal fit.
Figure 28.15: Heat sink

From the shortcuts toolbar, click Slice.


In the Details view, set the Slice type to Slice by Surface.
Re-orient the model to expose the heat sink bottom as in Figure 28.16: Selection of Slice Surface (p. 613).
Select the median face (highlighted in green on the Graphics window) as in Figure 28.16: Selection of Slice
Surface (p. 613).

Note
The geometry selection filter is automatically set to Faces.

Click Apply on the Details view to confirm this selection as the target face for the slice operation.

612

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Slice Tool in DM
Figure 28.16: Selection of Slice Surface

Set the Slice Targets field to Selected Bodies (click the field to the right of Slice Targets). Select the
yellow bodies field (right box). The selection filter is automatically set to bodies. Select the heat sink body.
Click the Apply button to complete the selection.
Figure 28.17: Details View for Slice Operation

Click Generate to generate the slice feature.


Observe that the original heat sink is sliced into two bodies as in Figure 28.18: Updated Tree Outline and
Graphics Window (p. 613).
Figure 28.18: Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Window

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

613

Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Confirm that the left side of the heat sink is recognized as a valid Icepak body by going to Electronics
Show Ice Bodies. The right side of the heat sink becomes invisible with this selection.

Note
In the Tree Outline, the icon for a valid Icepak body (left half of heat sink) is similar to the
icon used for the corresponding primitive, a block in this case, in Icepak.
Figure 28.19: Show Ice Bodies, Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Window

Next, go to Electronics Show CAD Bodies and confirm that only the right hand side of the heat sink
is visible with this selection.
Figure 28.20: Show CAD Bodies, Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Window

Go to Electronics Revert View to make both bodies visible.


Or select Show All Bodies from any of the context menus (right-click within the Tree Outline or the
Graphics window) to also make both bodies visible.

614

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Simplify - Level 1
Figure 28.21: Revert View and Context Menus

As shown in Figure 28.22: Rename the Bodies After the Slice Operation (p. 615), right-click the names of
the bodies and rename the two bodies as CUSTOM-HEAT_SINK-SIMPLIFIED-LEFT and CUSTOMHEAT_SINK-SIMPLIFIED-RIGHT.
The key F2 can also be used for renaming the bodies.
Figure 28.22: Rename the Bodies After the Slice Operation

In the next section, we shall use different simplify operations on the child bodies (created as a result of
the Slice operation).

28.12. Simplify - Level 1


Steps in DM
In DM, set the geometry selection filter to Bodies.
Select CUSTOM-HEAT_SINK-SIMPLIFIED-RIGHT.
Start a new simplify operation using Electronics Simplify.
In the Details view, click Apply in the Select Bodies field.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

615

Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Rename the Simplify field as L1_Simplify2.
Set Simplification Type to Level 1.
Click Generate to generate the feature.
Observe the changes in CUSTOM-HEAT_SINK-SIMPLIFIED-RIGHT (see Figure 28.23: Updated Tree
Outline and Graphics window (p. 616)). The original body is replaced with several cuboidal child bodies.
A new part named CUSTOM-HEAT_SINK-SIMPLIFIED-RIGHT, containing the above cuboid bodies,
is created in the Tree Outline. This occurs whenever a body is fitted with multiple child bodies.
Figure 28.23: Updated Tree Outline and Graphics window

Steps in Workbench:
Go to the Workbench Project Schematic.
Create a new Icepak component as shown below. Rename the Icepak component to Icepak-SimplifyLevel1 and establish a link between STEP Import (A2) and Icepak-Simplify-Level1 (C2).
Figure 28.24: Updated Project Schematic

Save the project using File Save.


Double-click cell C2 (Setup for the Icepak module Icepak-Simplify-Level1) to open Icepak.

616

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Simplify - Level 1

Steps in Icepak:
Observe the Icepak model.
Notice that CUSTOM-HEAT_SINK-SIMPLIED-LEFT is automatically translated to a corresponding
polygonal block shape in Icepak.
Recall that Simplify operation is not required for regular Icepak shapes such as prisms, cylinders, uniform
polygons, and so on.
If you do not wish to apply the automatically recognized shape, you can use DM to simplify the CAD
geometry as required.
It is good practice to use simplification operations for all bodies that must be transferred to Icepak.
The part CUSTOM-HEAT_SINK-SIMPLIED-RIGHT shows up as an Icepak assembly with the same
name. Expand the assembly to view the contents on the Model manager window and the graphics window
as shown in Figure 28.25: Icepak interface for Icepak-Simplify-Level1 (p. 617).
Figure 28.25: Icepak interface for Icepak-Simplify-Level1

Close Icepak.

Steps in Workbench
Go back to the Workbench Project Schematic. Select the link from STEP Import to Icepak-SimplifyLevel1 module. Press the Delete key to delete the link and click OK to ignore the warning message that
appears.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

617

Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Figure 28.26: Updated Project Schematic

Save the project using File Save.

28.13. Simplify - Level 2


Recall that the Simplify - Level 2 feature is similar to Simplify - Level 1, except that the resulting block
shapes are polygonal extrusions whenever applicable.
The procedure for Simplify - Level 2 is identical to the procedures discussed above for Simplify - Level
0 or Simplify - Level 1, with the exception of the Simplification Type field, which must be set to Level
2.
For this project, only the body at the left of Figure 28.18: Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Window (p. 613)
has a meaningful polygonal shape. Since ANSYS Icepak automatically recognizes this shape as a polygon
block, the default shape, you do not need to define the simplification for this body explicitly.

28.14. Simplification into Icepak Objects Level 3


Go to DM. Suppress the Slice1 feature, which also suppresses L1_Simplify2. This brings back the
original heat sink geometry.Figure 28.27: Updated Tree Outline (p. 619) shows the updated Tree Outline.
Rename the heat sink part as CUSTOM-HEAT_SINK_SIMPLIFIED.

618

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Simplification into Icepak Objects Level 3


Figure 28.27: Updated Tree Outline

Set the geometry selection filter to Bodies.


Select the heat sink body and create a new Simplify operation.
In the Details view, click Apply in the select bodies field.
Rename the Simplify field as L3_Simplify3.
Set the Simplification Type to Level 3.
Observe that the facet quality is set to Very coarse. Keep this setting.
Click Generate to create the feature.
Toggle between Electronics Show Ice Bodies and Electronics Show CAD Bodies to confirm that
the entire heat sink geometry has been converted to a valid Icepak body. You should not see any objects
in the Graphics window after selecting Show CAD Bodies.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

619

Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Figure 28.28: Updated Tree Outline and Details View for L3_Simplify3

Steps in Workbench
Go to the Workbench Project Schematic.
Create a new Icepak component as shown below. Rename the Icepak component to Icepak-SimplifyLevel3 and establish a link between STEP Import (A2) and Icepak-Simplify-Level3 (D2).

620

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Simplification into Icepak Objects Level 3


Figure 28.29: Updated Project Schematic

Save the project using File Save.


Double-click cell D2 (Setup for the Icepak component Icepak-Simplify-Level3) to open Icepak.

Steps in Icepak
Examine the Icepak model.
Notice that the model is identical to the original CAD import.
Check the Icepak geometry information of the only block- note that the shape is set to CAD. This is an
Icepak CAD block.

Note
Since all the sides of this part were planar, the facet quality of very coarse was sufficient.
On the other hand, if the original CAD part contained more complex surfaces, such as bspline, torus, or partial or toroid cylinders, a finer resolution option might be required.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

621

Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler


Figure 28.30: Icepak Interface for Icepak-Simplify-Level3

Close Icepak.

Steps in Workbench
Go back to Workbench and save the project using File Save.

28.15. Conclusion
In this tutorial, you:
Learned how to use DM to convert a CAD part into an Icepak model
Became better acquainted with the different levels of simplification available within the DM Electronics
utility
Used the Slice feature multiple times in DM

622

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 29: Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak


Native Geometry Using ANSYS DesignModeler
29.1. Introduction
This tutorial describes procedures in ANSYS DesignModeler (DM) that enable you to work more efficiently
with assembly-level CAD models. The tutorial will discuss various aspects of model organization in DM
as well as illustrate the use of DM toward conversion of the CAD geometry to a native ANSYS Icepak
representation.

29.2. Prerequisites
To use this tutorial more effectively, you should have the following:
Completion of the tutorial Translation of MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler in the Icepak Tutorials
Familiarity with the ANSYS Workbench (WB) and DM interfaces
ANSYS Icepak - ANSYS Workbench Integration Tutorial in the Icepak Tutorials
Design Modeler - Electronics in the Icepak Tutorials
Familiarity with the conversion of CAD objects into Icepak native objects

29.3. Tutorial Outline


This tutorial covers the following topics:
Description of the model
Import of the CAD model
Studying of the CAD model
Organization and simplification of the imported CAD model

29.4. Model Description


This tutorial will consider a system-level electronics box (see figure below) for efficient conversion to
Icepak native geometry. The box consists of several parts such as the chassis, motherboard, CPU box,
fan system, memory, and so on.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

623

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Figure 29.1: Electronics Box Model

29.5. Getting Started ANSYS Workbench, Project Schematic


Start a new ANSYS Workbench session. For Windows, this can be done by going to Start > All Programs
> ANSYS 15.0 > Workbench 15.0.
Go to File Save and save the project as DME-Icepak-SystemLevel.
Go to Tools Options Appearance. Scroll down and select the Beta Options check box.
This tutorial requires the use of the Solid Extension feature, which is currently available as a beta feature
in DM.

624

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Getting Started ANSYS Workbench, Project Schematic


Figure 29.2: Turning On Beta Options

Drag a Geometry component module from the Toolbox and drop it into the Project Schematic window
as shown in Figure 29.3: Create the Geometry Component (p. 626).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

625

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Figure 29.3: Create the Geometry Component

Rename the Geometry component module to MCAD.


Select the Icepak component module from the Toolbox and drop it on cell A2 of MCAD to establish a link
between ANSYS DesignModeler and ANSYS Icepak.
Rename the Icepak component module to CFD.
This completes the schematic representation of the project workflow. Figure 29.4: Updated Project
Schematic (p. 626) shows the updated Project Schematic.
Figure 29.4: Updated Project Schematic

Save the project using File Save.

626

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Import of CAD Geometry

29.6. Getting Started - ANSYS DesignModeler


In the Project Schematic, double-click cell A2, of the MCAD component module, to open DM.
Go to Tools Options . Click the Units node and select Millimeter for the Length Unit.
While you are still in the Options panel, go to the Toolbars node. Set Slice, Freeze, Electronics, Analysis
Tools, Repair, Face Delete and Concept Modeling to Yes to make these utilities available in the Shortcuts
Toolbar as shown below.
Figure 29.5: Sample Layout for DM Shortcuts Toolbar

29.7. Import of CAD Geometry


In DM, go to File Import External Geometry File..., set file type to STEP (*.step;*stp), select
generic-electronic-box.stp and click Open.

Note
The file generic-electronic-box.stp can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/MCAD_board/generic-electronic-box.zip. You must replace ICEPAK_ROOT
by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed on your computer
system and unzip the file before importing it.

This creates a new import operation in the Tree Outline.


In the Shortcuts Toolbar, click Generate to complete the import operation.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

627

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Figure 29.6: Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Window

29.8. Initial Model Review


Observe the various geometric features in the imported CAD geometry.
Use mouse movements and context menu options (Hide Body, Hide All Other Bodies, Show Body,
and Show All Bodies) as needed.
In the Tree Outline, go to the 69 Parts, 69 Bodies node.
The description indicates that there are 69 Parts and 69 Bodies in this setup.
Expand the 69 Parts, 69 Bodies node and observe that although the node shows 69 parts, these are not
multi-body parts.
For all practical purposes, the DM geometry, at this point, does not contain any parts. With DM, this is
true for any newly imported CAD geometry.

Note
As a part of the import operation in DM, all the CAD parts from the original CAD model
are retained in the correct locations as DM Bodies. However, the organization of the
CAD assemblies (irrespective of the import source) cannot be preserved in DM.

628

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Initial Model Review


Figure 29.7: Tree Outline

Examine which objects are already recognized as compatible with Icepak native geometry.
1. Go to Electronics Show Ice Bodies. This feature displays only those CAD bodies that have been
recognized by DM as valid for translation to Icepak.
2. Since no simplify operations have been performed yet, only the simple shape bodies are recognized
as valid for translation to Icepak at this instance.
3. Figure 29.8: DM Bodies Compatible with Icepak Native Geometry (p. 630) shows the bodies that can be
directly converted to Icepak native geometry without simplification in DesignModeler.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

629

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Figure 29.8: DM Bodies Compatible with Icepak Native Geometry

4. Go to Electronics Revert View to return to the full model view.

Note
Using Show Ice Bodies also updates the icons for the Icepak-compatible bodies in the
Tree Outline.

29.9. CAD Geometry Information and Repair Utilities


Key Question: Is there a need to repair the imported MCAD geometry?
CAD-to-DM translation can return incomplete, corrupt, or disconnected geometry.
As shown below, the Analysis Tools and Repair utilities in DM can be used to fix incomplete or corrupt
geometry and connect disconnected geometry.

Note
The geometry used in this tutorial does not need any repair.

630

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Suppress Non-Essential Bodies


Figure 29.9: Repair and Analysis Tools Utilities in DM

29.10. Suppress Non-Essential Bodies


Key Question: Is it necessary to model all the bodies present in the CAD setup?
Objects like screws, bolts, nuts, washers, springs, and so on have negligible influence on the heat transfer
physics of a given problem and hence can be completely ignored for the CFD analysis.
From the Tree Outline, holding down the Ctrl key, click all of the screws, bolts, nuts, and washers to select
them simultaneously.
Right-click the selection and click Form New Part.
Rename the newly formed part to Fasteners.
Right-click Fasteners and click Suppress Part to deactivate the geometry for the rest of the analysis.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

631

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Figure 29.10: Create and Suppress Fasteners, Updated Graphical Display

Note
Generally, fasteners are non-essential for the CFD analysis. However, you must be careful
to include any heat spreading objects. Also, if combined thermo-mechanical analysis with
ANSYS Icepak and ANSYS Mechanical is planned, it is possible that some of the fasteners
are important for FEA purposes. In this case, you should include these fasteners in both
ANSYS Icepak and ANSYS Mechanical.

29.11. Functionality Based Grouping


Key Question: What functionality does the object serve? Can bodies be grouped by functionality?
The overall design of a product is usually conducted in terms of the different modules in the product,
each module performing a unique task. In the lifetime of a product, changes in design are likely to be
conducted in terms of the various functional modules.
For a system level setup, models can be quickly organized in terms of the functionality of the various
bodies.
Since ANSYS Icepak addresses the thermal and flow design aspects of the overall product design, it is
adequate to create DM parts that approximately correspond to the different functional modules. Often,
a functional module can be modeled by itself for detailed analysis.
Based on this understanding, create additional parts as shown below:

632

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Simple Shapes vs. Complex Shapes


Figure 29.11: Collapsed and Expanded Views for Newly Created Parts

Note
During the creation of parts, in case any objects are missed, create a separate part out of
those and then merge this part with the intended part. To merge multiple parts, which
can be a combination of suppressed and unsuppressed parts, hold down the Ctrl key while
selecting the parts that need to be merged, and then right-click the selection and select
Form New Part to complete the merging of the parts. Rename the newly formed part as
appropriate.

This completes the initial review and organization of the CAD model for efficient translation to native
ANSYS Icepak geometry.
Save the project using File Save Project in DM.

29.12. Simple Shapes vs. Complex Shapes


Key Question: Are all the bodies simple shapes? Are there any complex shapes?
Icepak primitive shapes are recognized as simple shapes for the DM-Icepak translation.
Level 0, 1, or 2 from the Electronics Simplify operation in DM can be used for the translation of simple
shapes to Icepak native geometry.
Simple shapes such as rectangular prisms, cylinders, and uniform polygons are automatically converted
over to Icepak (the default Icepak primitive is the solid block type).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

633

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Go to WB and double-click cell B2 (the Setup cell from CFD module) to open the Icepak interface.
In Icepak, right-click the Model node (from the Model manager window) and select Expand All.
In Icepak, go to the Orient menu and select the Isometric view and then Scale to fit to reorient the
graphics display.
Observe that the valid Ice bodies have been successfully converted to Icepak block objects.
Figure 29.12: Show Ice Bodies in DM (left) and Model with Same Objects in Icepak (right)

Save the project using File Save project in Icepak.


Go back to the DM interface.
Go to Electronics Show CAD Bodies. This feature displays only those CAD bodies that need additional
work (modification of CAD geometry and/or defeaturing of CAD geometry and/or use of Electronics/Simplify utility in DM).
Figure 29.13: Show CAD Bodies Updated Graphics Display for DM

The Level 3 Simplify feature is used only for complex shapes which cannot be modeled as Icepak primitive
shapes.
You must use the hex-dominant mesher (Mesher-HD) to mesh these shapes in Icepak.

634

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Typically, complex shapes require more meshing effort. You should investigate the possibility of approximating a complex-shaped CAD body by a simpler shape without noticeably affecting the heat transfer
physics.
Figure 29.14: Examples of Complex Shapes from Tutorial Geometry - Sheet Metal Heat Sink for
QFP1 Package and Flow Guide for Fan System

29.13. Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


In DM, on the Tree Outline, collapse all part nodes as shown below.
Figure 29.15: Updated Tree Outline/Parts, Bodies View

For the sake of clarity, it is useful to display only the part that is currently of interest and hide all other
parts and bodies.
A Periphery to Center Marching strategy will be employed to target the easily visible CAD bodies for
translation to Icepak native geometry progressively.
Translating

the Chassis geometry

In the Tree Outline, right-click the Chassis part and select Hide All Other Bodies so that only the
Chassis geometry is visible in the graphics display.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

635

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Figure 29.16: Retain Only the Chassis Geometry in the Graphics Display Window

Chassis:

DM Electronics/Opening
Observe the circular through-hole at the top of the chassis and the two grilles made of rectangular
and circular hole patterns on the side walls of the chassis. These will be represented as free openings
in Icepak.
Go to Electronics Opening.
From the graphics window, select the three chassis faces as shown below in Figure 29.17: Opening
Operation for Chassis Selection of Candidate Faces (p. 636).
Figure 29.17: Opening Operation for Chassis Selection of Candidate Faces

In the Details view for the opening operation, click Apply to accept this selection for the Faces field.
Click Generate to create the openings.
Observe the new entries in the Tree Outline. One new surface body and two new parts have been
created.
From the Tree Outline, right-click each of these newly created parts and surface body listings to rename them as shown below.

636

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.18: Newly Created Parts and Surface Body

Merge COVER_Inlet, HOUSING_Circ_Openings, and HOUSING_Rect_Openings with the


Chassis part.
To merge the parts, select all four parts, Chassis; COVER_Inlet; HOUSING_Circ_Openings;
and HOUSING_Rect_Openings, right-click and then select Form New Part. Rename the part as
Chassis.
Figure 29.19: Updated Tree Outline/Parts, Bodies View

Chassis:

DM Electronics/Simplify
On the Shortcuts Toolbar, set the Selection Filter to Bodies.
From the graphics display area, select the two Chassis bodies, as shown in Figure 29.20: Selecting
Chassis Cover and Housing (p. 637), by holding down the Shift key.
The same selection can also be made by expanding the node corresponding to the Chassis part
listing in the Tree Outline and selecting the bodies (using the Shift key) COVER and HOUSING.
Figure 29.20: Selecting Chassis Cover and Housing

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

637

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Go to Electronics Simplify and click Apply in the Details view to accept this selection.
In the Details view, set the Simplification Type to Level 1
Click Generate.
Observe the simplified representation of the Chassis on the graphics display.
Figure 29.21: Updated Graphical Display in DM

Chassis:

DM Suppress All Other Parts


Collapse the Chassis node on the Tree Outline.
From the Tree Outline, as shown below, select all the parts other than Chassis and Fasteners,
right-click the selection and click Suppress Body. The Fasteners part need not be selected as it is
already in a suppressed state.
The suppressing of all other parts allows the selective transfer of the (simplified) Chassis geometry
to Icepak.
Figure 29.22: Suppressing All Parts Other Than Chassis and Updated Tree Outline View

638

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak

Chassis:

Icepak Chassis Import


Go to the Icepak interface.
Go to File Refresh Input Data and click Replace model on the Refresh input data pop-up screen
(see below) to replace the existing Icepak model.
Also, since the earlier version of the Icepak geometry was meant for understanding purposes only,
at the prompt, do not save the current Icepak geometry (click Dont Save on the pop-up screen).
Figure 29.23: Replace the Existing Icepak Model

In Icepak, verify that only the Chassis assembly shows up in the Model manager window.
From the Model manager window, expand the Chassis assembly node to view the contents.
Verify, from the Model manager window and from the graphics display, that all the Chassis bodies,
surface bodies and solid bodies, have been correctly translated to corresponding opening and block
objects in Icepak.
Figure 29.24: Updated Icepak Graphics Display (p. 639) shows the isometric view of the Chassis
representation in Icepak:
Figure 29.24: Updated Icepak Graphics Display

Save the project using the File menu and select Save project in Icepak.
Go to File Close Icepak to close the Icepak interface.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

639

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler

Chassis:

WB Update Project Schematic


Go back to the WB interface and delete the link between the MCAD and the CFD modules as shown
in Figure 29.25: Delete Link Between MCAD and CFD Modules (p. 640).
Doing so preserves the simplified Chassis geometry representation in Icepak for separate analysis
despite any new changes to the MCAD module.
Figure 29.25: Delete Link Between MCAD and CFD Modules

Rename the CFD module as CFD-Chassis.


Drag a new Icepak component from the WB Toolbox and drop on cell A2 of the MCAD module to
create a new DM-Icepak link.
Rename the newly created Icepak module as CFD-Motherboard.

Note
This new link will be used to process the Motherboard part in DM for translation
to native Icepak geometry.
Save the project using File Save in WB.
Figure 29.26: Updated WB Project Schematic

Go back to the DM interface.


In the Tree Outline, right-click the Chassis part and select Suppress Part.
Next, as shown below right-click the Motherboard part and select Unsuppress Part to make only
the Motherboard part geometry visible on the graphics display and available for further processing.

640

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.27: Unsuppress Motherboard Part and Updated Graphics Display

Motherboard:

DM Electronics/Simplify
In the Shortcuts Toolbar, set the Selection Filter to Bodies.
Also, as shown in Figure 29.28: Set Select Mode to Box Select (p. 641), on the Shortcuts Toolbar, set
the Select Mode to Box Select. Note the change in the cursor display.
Figure 29.28: Set Select Mode to Box Select

Draw a box to include all the Motherboard part geometry. As shown below, the selected geometry
will be shaded solid (zero transparency).

Note
You can also select the Motherboard bodies by selecting the node Motherboard
from the Tree Outline.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

641

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Figure 29.29: Use Box Select to Select All the Geometry From the Motherboard Part

Go to Electronics Simplify and click Apply in the Details view to accept this selection.
In the Details view, set the Simplification Type to Level 0.
Click Generate.
Observe the simplified representation of the Motherboard part geometry in the graphics display.
You have successfully converted all the bodies from the Motherboard part to valid Ice bodies.
Go to Electronics Show CAD Bodies and confirm that the corresponding graphics display is empty.
Go back to Electronics Show Ice Bodies.
Figure 29.30: Simplified Representation of Motherboard Part Geometry

Motherboard:

Icepak Import Motherboard Geometry


Go back to the WB interface
Double-click cell C2 (the Setup cell for the CFD-Motherboard module) to open Icepak.
In Icepak, verify that only the Motherboard assembly is visible in the Model manager window.
From the Model manager window, expand the Motherboard assembly node to view the contents.
Verify that all the bodies from the Motherboard part in DM have been correctly converted to corresponding block objects in Icepak.

642

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


The isometric view of the Motherboard representation in Icepak is shown below.
Figure 29.31: Updated Icepak Graphics Display

Go to File menu and select Close Icepak to close the Icepak interface.

Motherboard:
WB Update Project Schematic
Go back to the WB interface and delete the link between the MCAD and the CFD-Motherboard
modules.
Drag a new Icepak component from the WB Toolbox and drop on cell A2 of the MCAD module to
create a new DM-Icepak link.
Rename the newly created Icepak module as CFD-QFP1.
This new link will be used to process the QFP-1 part in DM for translation to native Icepak geometry.
Save the project using File Save in WB.
Figure 29.32: Updated WB Project Schematic

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

643

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Translating

the QFP-1 Part Geometry

Go back to the DM interface.


In the Tree Outline, suppress the Motherboard part and unsuppress the QFP-1 part.
Figure 29.33: Updated Graphics Display in DM

QFP-1:

DM Electronics/Simplify
From the Tree Outline, expand the node corresponding to the QFP-1 part.
Observe that there are two bodies (SM-HEATSINK and QFP-1) listed under this part. Here, SMHEATSINK represents the sheet metal heatsink and QFP-1 represents the IC package.
Simplify the SM-HEATSINK body with a level 3 Simplify operation.

644

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


In the Details view for this Simplify operation, set the Facet quality to Fine. Click Generate to
complete the simplify operation.
Simplify the QFP-1 body using a level 0 Simplify operation. Click Generate to complete the simplify
operation.
Figure 29.34: Updated Tree Outline Listing and Simplified Representation for QFP-1 Part

Using cell D2 (the Setup cell for the CFD-QFP1 module) from the WB Project Schematic, open Icepak.
Verify that all the bodies from the QFP-1 part in DM have been correctly converted to corresponding
block objects in Icepak.
Double-click SM-HEATSINK from the Model manager window to access the Edit panel for this block.
Go to the Geometry tab and note that the geometry shape is set to CAD.
This will always be the case when the level for simplification in DM is set to Level 3.
Click Done to close the Edit panel for SM-HEATSINK.
The isometric view of the QFP-1 representation in Icepak is shown below.
Figure 29.35: Updated Icepak Graphics Display

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

645

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Go to the File menu and select Close Icepak to close the Icepak interface.

QFP-1:
WB Update Project Schematic
As before, delete the link between the MCAD and the CFD-QFP1 modules.
Link a new Icepak module named CFD-CPU-Box to MCAD.
Save the project using File Save in WB.
Figure 29.36: Updated WB Project Schematic

Translating

the CPU-Box Part Geometry

Go back to the DM interface.


In the Tree Outline, suppress the QFP-1 part and unsuppress the CPU-Box part.
Review the CPU-Box part geometry
From the Tree Outline, expand the node corresponding to the CPU-Box part.
As shown below, the CPU-Box part consists of four bodies.

646

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.37: Updated Tree Outline View and Graphics Display in DM (Iso and +Z views)

Display one body at a time using the Hide function. Since the bodies contain geometric features that
are important for thermal analysis, it is a good practice to examine them and determine how to
capture the features in the CFD model.
CPU_Socket: Observe that CPU_Socket contains a cavity in the center. When the CPU is mounted,
the air pocket in this cavity reduces the heat flow from the CPU to the PCB. It is important to capture
the effect of this air pocket. Simplification using the level 1 simplification scheme will not recognize
this cavity automatically. A new volume body will be created to model the cavity explicitly.
Figure 29.38: CPU_Socket Body

TIM: Note the small thickness of TIM between the heat sink base and the CPU case. To avoid unnecessary mesh refinement due to this small thickness, the TIM body will be set up as a contact resistance
plate in Icepak.

CPU-Box:

DM - Filling the Cavity Within CPU_SOCKET


Use the Hide All Other Bodies function so that only the CPU_SOCKET body is visible on the
graphics display.
Use Single Select again instead of Box Select.
Set the selection filter to Faces.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

647

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Using the Ctrl key, select all the inside faces that correspond to the cavity. The selected faces are
highlighted in green (see below) in the graphics display.

Note
You should have 8 faces selected in total. Rotate the model in order to select all of
the faces.
Figure 29.39: CPU_Socket Body Select Cavity Faces

Go to Tools Fill and click Apply in the corresponding Details view (see below) to accept the selection.
Click Generate.
Figure 29.40: Details View for Fill Operation

In the Tree Outline, select the newly generate body named Solid and verify that it accurately
represents the cavity within the CPU_SOCKET body.
Rename the body Solid to Socket_Cavity.

648

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.41: Body Representing Cavity in CPU_SOCKET

Merge the body Socket_Cavity with the CPU-Box part by selecting both of them in the Tree
Outline and then clicking Form New Part.
Figure 29.42: Updated Tree Outline Node CPU-Box

CPU-Box:

TIM as a Surface Body in DM (Plate in Icepak)


Hide CPU_SOCKET and Socket_Cavity. Show CPU and TIM again.
Figure 29.43: Updated Graphics Display

Select the Selection Filter to Edges.


Select any one of the short edges (corresponding to the thickness) of the body TIM.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

649

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Go to Tools Analysis Tools Entity Information to report the detailed information for the selected
edge in the Details view.
Note that the length of the edge, or the thickness of TIM, is 0.254 mm.
Suppress the TIM body.
Figure 29.44: Use of Analysis Tools to Find Out TIM Thickness

Reducing TIM into a 2D representation (surface body in DM and plate in Icepak) will leave a 0.254
mm gap, which must be filled by one of the neighboring objects (HEAT_SINK or CPU).
Hence, placement of the 2D TIM surface body on the CPU body will require extension of the
HEAT_SINK base by 0.254 mm.
The additional 0.254 mm of aluminum (the HEAT_SINK material) only marginally increases the
overall thermal resistance and hence is an acceptable approximation.
Alternatively, the placement of the 2D TIM on the HEAT_SINK body, which requires the extension
of CPU, or somewhere in-between, which would require the extension of both CPU and HEAT_SINK,
can also be considered.
Right-click the body CPU and select Hide All Other Bodies.
Go to the main menu and then select Concept Surface from Faces.
Select the top side of the CPU body (as shown below).
Click Apply in the Details view to accept this selection.
Click Generate.

650

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.45: Creation of Surface Body for TIM

Note that a new surface body named CPU shows up within the CPU-Box part in the Tree Outline.
Rename the new surface body as TIM_plate.
Figure 29.46: Updated Tree Outline View

CPU-Box:

DM - Extend Heat_Sink Body


Right-click the HEAT_SINK body and hide all other bodies.
Set the Selection Filter to Faces.
Select the bottom face of the HEAT_SINK body as shown below.
Go to Tools Solid Extension (Beta).
In the Details view, click Apply to accept the face selection.
Set the FD1, Offset field to 0.254 mm.
Click Generate.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

651

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Figure 29.47: Use of Solid Extension

Go back to the +Z view.


Right-click the CPU body and select Show Body.
Note that the gap (introduced due to the suppressing of the original TIM body) is now filled with
HEAT_SINK body material as shown in Figure 29.48: Before and After Use of Solid Extension (p. 652).
Figure 29.48: Before and After Use of Solid Extension

CPU-Box:

DM - Electronics/Simplify
From the Tree Outline, right-click the part CPU-Box and then select Show All Bodies. Right-click
the body TIM to suppress it again.
Go back to the +Z view.
Go to Electronics Simplify.
Using Box Select, select all the visible bodies from the graphical display. You should have 5 bodies
selected.
Click Apply in the Details view to accept the selection.
Set the Simplification Level to Level 1.

652

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Click Generate.
Figure 29.49: Level 1 Simplification for CPU-Box Part

From the Tree Outline, note the newly created parts.


Merge the newly created parts with the CPU-Box part as shown in Figure 29.50: Merge Newly Created
Parts into CPU-Box Part, Updated Tree Outline View (p. 653).
Figure 29.50: Merge Newly Created Parts into CPU-Box Part, Updated Tree Outline View

CPU-Box:

Icepak - Import CPU-Box Part Geometry


Using cell E2 (the Setup cell for the CFD-CPU-Box module) from the WB Project Schematic, open
Icepak.
Verify that all the bodies (except the TIM_plate body) from the CPU-Box part in DM have been
correctly converted to corresponding block objects in Icepak.

Note
The TIM_plate surface body is represented as a plate object in Icepak.

The isometric view of the CPU-Box part representation in Icepak is shown in Figure 29.51: Updated
Icepak Graphics Display (p. 654).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

653

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
The TIM_plate plate object has been highlighted using View Default shading Selected
solid feature in Icepak.
Figure 29.51: Updated Icepak Graphics Display

Go to the File menu and select Close Icepak to close the Icepak interface.

CPU-Box:
WB- Update Project Schematic
As before, delete the link between the MCAD and the CFD-CPU-Box modules.
Link a new Icepak module named CFD-Fan-System to MCAD.
Save the project using the File menu, click Save in WB.

654

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.52: Updated WB Project Schematic

Translating

the Fan-System Part Geometry

Go back to the DM interface


In the Tree Outline, suppress the CPU-Box part and unsuppress the Fan-system part.
Review the Fan-system part geometry
From the Tree Outline, expand the node corresponding to the Fan-system part.
Observe that the Fan-system part consists of two bodies:FLOW_GUIDE and NIDEC_D34776, the
fan.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

655

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Figure 29.53: Updated Tree Outline View and Graphics Display in DM (Iso view)

Fan-system:

DM - Electronics/Fan
Go to Electronics Fan.
Note that the Selection Filter has automatically switched to Bodies.
Observe the Details view.
In the Shortcuts Toolbar, set Select Mode to Single Select. Note the change in the cursor display.
For the Body to Extract Fan Data field, select the fan housing geometry from the graphics display
as shown in Figure 29.54: Electronics/Fan Selection of Body to Extract Fan Data (p. 656). Alternatively,
you can simply select NIDEC_D34667 from the Tree Outline.
Figure 29.54: Electronics/Fan Selection of Body to Extract Fan Data

Click Apply to accept the selection.


In the Details view, go to Hub/Casing Faces. This corresponds to the cylindrical faces of the fan bore
and the hub. These will be converted into the fan radius and hub radius in the corresponding Icepak
fan object.
While holding down the Ctrl key, select the two faces as shown in Figure 29.55: Electronics/Fan
Selection of Hub/Casing Faces (p. 657). The order of face selection does not matter.

656

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.55: Electronics/Fan Selection of Hub/Casing Faces

Click Apply to accept the selection.


Click Generate.
Go to Electronics Show CAD Bodies.
Observe that the NIDEC_D34667 fan geometry is no longer visible. This indicates that you have
successfully translated the fan geometry between DM and Icepak.
Figure 29.56: Updated Graphics Display in DM (Iso view)

Fan-system:

DM - FLOW_GUIDE - Simplification Strategy


Review the FLOW_GUIDE geometry.
The FLOW_GUIDE is a thin body with a thickness of 1 millimeter or less.
The top of the flow guide is planar and has an opening. The sides expand non-uniformly and with a
curvature. The final base sides are also planar.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

657

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
To minimize the mesh, the FLOW-GUIDE body will be represented using zero thickness plate objects
in Icepak.
The planar sides and the top opening will be modeled as simple Icepak objects.
The expansion has a complex shape which can only be modeled as a CAD plate.
To retain the exact flow volume within the FLOW_GUIDE, the plates will be constructed using inner
faces of the FLOW_GUIDE body.

Fan-system:
DM - FLOW_GUIDE Top Side
In DM, set the Selection Filter to Faces.
Select the inner face of the top side of the FLOW_GUIDE body as shown in Figure 29.57: Inner Face
of the Top Side of the FLOW_GUIDE Body, Electronics/Opening (p. 658).
Figure 29.57: Inner Face of the Top Side of the FLOW_GUIDE Body, Electronics/Opening

Go to Electronics Opening.
In the Details view, click Apply to accept the selection.
Click Generate.
Note that a new surface body named FLOW_GUIDE_1 has been created.
From the Tree Outline, merge this surface body with the Fan-system part.

658

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.58: Updated Tree Outline

Set the Selection Filter to Edges.


As shown below in Figure 29.59: FLOW_GUIDE Selection of Outer Edges for Inner Face of Top
Side (p. 659), select the four outer edges, highlighted in green, of the inner face of the top side of the
FLOW_GUIDE body. You should have 4 edges selected.
Figure 29.59: FLOW_GUIDE Selection of Outer Edges for Inner Face of Top Side

Go to the Concept menu and select Surfaces From Edges.


In the Details view, click Apply to accept the selection.
Click Generate.
Note that a new surface body named Surface Body has been created at the bottom of the Tree
Outline.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

659

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Figure 29.60: FLOW_GUIDE New Surface Body Created Using Surfaces from Edges

Rename Surface Body as Flow_Guide_Top_Face.


From the Tree Outline, merge Flow_Guide_Top_Face with the Fan-system part.
Figure 29.61: Updated Tree Outline

Fan-system:

DM - FLOW_GUIDE - Non-Uniform and Base Sides


Set the Selection Filter to Faces.
From the graphics display as shown below, select the inner faces of the non-uniform sides of the
FLOW_GUIDE body. You should have 4 faces selected.

660

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.62: Inner Faces of Non-Uniform Sides of FLOW_GUIDE Body

Go to the Concept menu and select Surface From Faces.


In the Details view, click Apply to accept the selection.
Click Generate.
From the Tree Outline, note that a new surface body named FLOW_GUIDE has been created within
the Fan-system part.
Rename this surface body to Flow_Guide_Non-Uniform-Face.
Go to the View menu and select Wireframe to better visualize the newly created surface body.
Figure 29.63: Newly Created Surface Body Flow_Guide_Non-Uniform-Face

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

661

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Using the same procedure, create surface bodies using the inner faces of the base sides of the
FLOW_GUIDE body.

Note
You should have had 2 faces selected.

After clicking Generate, rename the resulting surface bodies as shown in Figure 29.64: FLOW_GUIDE
Base Sides Newly Created Surface Bodies (p. 662).
Figure 29.64: FLOW_GUIDE Base Sides Newly Created Surface Bodies

Using the level 3 Simplify operation, convert the Flow_Guide_Non-Uniform-Face surface body
to a CAD plate representation in Icepak.
Set the Facet Quality in the Details view to Very Fine for this simplify operation. Click Generate
to complete the Simplify operation.
The surface bodies Flow_Guide_Base_Face1 and Flow_Guide_Base_Face2 are simple shapes
and hence are automatically recognized as plates in Icepak.
Go to Electronics Show CAD Bodies and note that only the original FLOW_GUIDE body is visible.
Suppress the FLOW_GUIDE body.
Go to Electronics Show Ice Bodies.
Go back to the Shaded Exterior and Edges view using the View menu.

662

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.65: Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Display

Fan-system:

Icepak - Import Fan-system Part Geometry


Using cell F2 (the Setup cell for the CFD-Fan-System module) from the WB Project Schematic,
open Icepak.
Verify that all the bodies from the Fan-system part in DM have been correctly converted to the
corresponding fan, opening, and plate objects in Icepak.

Note
The Flow_Guide_Non-Uniform-Face plate object has a CAD-type geometry.

The isometric view of the Fan-system part representation in Icepak is shown below.
The View Default Shading Solid feature is used to show the solid rendering of the Icepak
geometry:
Figure 29.66: Updated Icepak Graphics Display

Go to the File menu and select Close Icepak to close the Icepak interface.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

663

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler

Fan-system:

WB - Update Project Schematic


As before, delete the link between the MCAD and the CFD-Fan-System modules.
Link a new Icepak module named CFD-Memory to MCAD.
Right-click the white space in the Project Schematic window and select the Fit option to resize the
Project Schematic display.
Save the project using File Save in WB.
Figure 29.67: Updated WB Project Schematic

664

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Translating

the Memory Part Geometry

Go back to the DM interface.


In the Tree Outline, suppress the Fan-system part and unsuppress the Memory part.
Review the Memory part geometry.
From the Tree Outline, expand the node corresponding to the Memory part.
As shown below, the Memory part consists of several bodies.
Figure 29.68: Updated Tree Outline View and Graphics Display in DM (Iso and +Z views)

Note
The DIMM_SOCKET-1 surface bodies will not be used in the Icepak setup and hence
can be suppressed.
Suppress the four DIMM_SOCKET-1 surface bodies.
Figure 29.69: Updated Tree Outline View

Memory:

DM - Electronics/Simplify Level 1
From the Tree Outline, hide the DIMM_HS4 body and the two DIMM_TIMM bodies.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

665

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Use the level 1 Simplify operation to simplify the DIMM body and the two DIMM_SOCKET bodies.
Figure 29.70: Level 1 Simplification of DIMM, DIMM_SOCKET Bodies

From the Tree Outline, merge the newly created parts, as shown in Figure 29.71: Updated Tree Outline
View (p. 666), with the Memory part. Name the merged part Memory again.
Figure 29.71: Updated Tree Outline View

Rename the DIMM_8 body as DIMM_PCB and the remaining DIMM bodies as DIMM_IC as shown:

666

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak

Memory:

DM - Surface Bodies for DIMM_TIM


Select the two DIMM_TIM bodies.
Right-click the selection and click Hide All Other Bodies as shown in Figure 29.72: Updated Tree
Outline and Graphics Display (p. 668).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

667

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Figure 29.72: Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Display

The DIMM_TIM bodies will be modeled as contact resistance plates in Icepak and hence need to be
represented as surface bodies in DM.
Set the Selection Filter to Faces.
While holding down the Ctrl key, select the inner faces for the two DIMM_TIM bodies as shown in
Figure 29.73: Selection of Inner Faces for DIMM_TIM Bodies (p. 668). The inner surfaces are in contact
with: the casing tops of all the DIMM_IC bodies and the opposite side of DIMM_PCB. The design
intent is to model the contact resistances at these locations; therefore it is important to select the
two inner faces for this feature operation.
Figure 29.73: Selection of Inner Faces for DIMM_TIM Bodies

Use the Concept menu and select Surfaces From Faces to create corresponding surface bodies.
Click Apply in the Details view and then click Generate.
Note that two new surface bodies named DIMM_TIMM are now listed within the Memory part listing
in the Tree Outline.
Since the newly created surface bodies are simple shapes, they are automatically recognized as
valid Icepak plate objects.

668

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Rename these bodies to DIMM_TIMM_Plate1 and DIMM_TIMM_Plate2 respectively.
Suppress the two original DIMM_TIMM bodies.
Figure 29.74: Updated Tree Outline and Graphics Display

Memory:

DM - Recreate DIMM_HS4 and Simplify Using Electronics/Simplify


Level 3
Show the DIMM_HS4 body. Now the DIMM_HS4, DIMM_TIM_Plate1, and DIMM_TIM_Plate2
bodies are visible.
Go back to the +Z view and zoom in as shown in Figure 29.75: Updated Graphics Display and Zoomin +Z View (p. 670).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

669

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
Figure 29.75: Updated Graphics Display and Zoom-in +Z View

Note that there is a small gap between the DIMM_TIM_Plate surface bodies and the DIMM_HS4
body.
This gap equals the thickness of the original DIMM_TIM body, which is 0.0776 mm.
This gap can be measured using Analysis Tools /Distance Finder or Analysis Tools /Entity Information.
This gap will be removed by re-creating the heatsink.
Pick any thin edge of the DIMM-HS4 body and find its thickness using Analysis Tools /Entity Information.
It is 0.5 mm thick. Thus the total thickness from the outer surface of DIMM_HS4 to the
DIMM_TIM_Plate (nearest to the selected surface) is 0.5776 mm.
Set the Selection Filter to Faces.
From the graphics display, as shown below, select any outer face of DIMM_HS4.
From the Shortcuts toolbar use the Extended Selection feature (see Figure 29.76: Recreating the
Heatsink Geometry (p. 671)) and select Extend to Limits. This will select all the outer faces of Heat
sink.
Go to the Create menu and select Thin/Surface.
In the Details view, set the Selection Type to Faces to Keep.
Click Apply in the Details view to accept the face selection.
Make sure that 17 faces are selected.
Set the Direction field to Inward and the field FD1, Thickness (>=0) to 0.5776 mm.
Click Generate.

670

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.76: Recreating the Heatsink Geometry

Observe that the gap between the DIMM_HS4 body and the DIMM_TIM_Plate surface bodies no
longer exists.
Using the level 3 Simplify operation, simplify the DIMM_HS4 body for a CAD-type block representation
in Icepak.
Set the Facet Quality in the Details view to Very Fine for this Simplify operation. Click Generate
to complete this operation.

Memory:
Icepak - Import Memory Part Geometry
Using cell G2 (the Setup cell for the CFD-Memory module) from the WB Project Schematic, open
Icepak.
Verify that all the bodies from the Memory part in DM have been correctly converted to the corresponding block and plate objects in Icepak.

Note
The DIMM_HS4 block object has a CAD-type geometry.

The isometric view of the Memory part representation in Icepak is shown in Figure 29.77: Updated
Icepak Graphics Display (p. 672).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

671

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
The View Default shading Solid/Wire feature was used to display the solid rendering in
Icepak.
Figure 29.77: Updated Icepak Graphics Display

Go to the File menu and select Close Icepak to close the Icepak interface.

Memory:
WB Update Project Schematic
As before, delete the link between the MCAD and the CFD-Memory modules.
Link a new Icepak module named CFD-System to MCAD.
Right-click the white space in the Project Schematic window and select the Fit option to resize the
Project Schematic modules.
Save the project using File Save in WB.

672

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Translation of CAD Bodies to ANSYS Icepak


Figure 29.78: Updated WB Project Schematic

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

673

Translation of System Level MCAD Geometry to Icepak Native Geometry Using ANSYS
DesignModeler
System

Level Setup in Icepak

Go back back to the DM interface.


Unsuppress all of the parts except for Fasteners.
Go to the WB interface.
Using cell H2 (the Setup cell for the CFD-System module) from the WB Project Schematic, open
Icepak.
Verify that all the bodies from the DM setup have been correctly converted to corresponding block,
plate, fan, opening objects in Icepak.
Figure 29.79: Updated DM Tree Outline, DM Graphics Display, Icepak Graphics Display

Go to the File menu and select Close Icepak to close the Icepak interface.
Save the project using File Save in WB.
The MCAD-Icepak translation for this system level electronics box setup is now complete.
Exit out of WB using File Exit.

29.14. Summary
In this tutorial, the following features/capabilities have been discussed:
Use of ANSYS Workbench to integrate DM with Icepak
Import and organization of assembly level CAD models in DM
Use of DM for modification and simplification of imported CAD geometry
Translation of CAD geometry to Icepak primitive objects using DM Electronics

674

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 30: MRF Tutorial


30.1. Introduction
The purpose of this tutorial is to provide guidelines and recommendations for the Moving Reference
Frame (MRF) fan modeling technique in ANSYS Icepak. These guidelines and recommendations concern
the areas of
Problem Setup
Meshing strategy, and
Solver settings

30.2. Prerequisites
Familiarity with Icepak interface, and having a good understanding of basic problem setup and solution
procedure.
An Icepak 3D fan object may sometimes behave differently from real fan behavior. Typically this is due
to flow features like swirl and centrifugal spread resultant from the spinning fan rotor as well as the
rotor blade geometry. In an Icepak fan based setup, this swirl is estimated and calculated off a 2D annular flow face rather than off the physical surfaces of the blade.
The MRF approach allows for a more accurate representation of the internal geometry of the fan and
therefore results in a better modeling of the flow features. In Icepak MRF simulations, the actual blade
geometry is modeled as a CAD block object and a fluid cylinder rotates into contact with the surfaces
to create a spinning flow.
In this tutorial, you will use a previously built Icepak model of fan blades (Figure 30.1: A 3D Icepak Fan
Object Assembly (p. 676)a) and create the rotating MRF fluid blocks to create flow in the model. You
will learn the proper problem setup and solution settings for an MRF model, as well as a good meshing
technique to insure good results.
As an added bonus, a 3D Icepak fan object assembly (Figure 30.1: A 3D Icepak Fan Object Assembly
(p. 676)b) can be activated and run to see the difference in flow patterns and results.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

675

MRF Tutorial
Figure 30.1: A 3D Icepak Fan Object Assembly

30.3. Opening the Project


Start Icepak by either double clicking the shortcut on your desktop or by going to Start >> All programs
>> ANSYS 15.0 and selecting the independent ANSYS Icepak.
Once Icepak has launched, click on the Unpack button.

Note
In Icepak, models can be compressed into a specialized zip file with the extension tzr. This
is called packing a project. The essential files needed to properly re-build the model, including the mesh settings, are saved in this compressed file. A model has been previously
created to reduce the time needed to properly teach the MRF techniques in Icepak and
will be opened out of this packed file.

Download the file MRF_Tutorial.tzr and select this file to unpack. You will then be able to create a project
folder for this tutorial. Choose the location and name the project MRF_Practice.

Note
MRF_Tutorial.tzr can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT /tutorials/MRF/MRF_Tutorial.tzr.
You must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak
is installed on your computer system.

Once the model has opened, go to the Model node. Perform a right mouse click and select, Expand All
to open all model nodes.
Next, go to the Model menu and select CAD data. Click None under Families to turn off the CAD display.
Set the orientation to the isometric view to display the model geometry as shown below.

676

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Modifying the Geometry


Figure 30.2: Unpacked Model Geometry

30.4. Modifying the Geometry


Under the Inactive node in the Model tree, there are four assemblies. Two are remnants of the openings
used to create the inlet and exhaust grilles. The others are the MRF fan and Icepak 3D fan assemblies.
Select the FANS_CAD.1 assembly and activate it.

Note
You can activate the assembly by selecting it and then using the Ctrl A shortcut or by
right clicking and selecting Active.

An assembly containing the CAD fan blades (rotors), fan casing blocks, and fan tray cutout blocks should
appear.
Expand the FANS_CAD.1 assembly node on the Model tree to view the fan blade geometry.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

677

MRF Tutorial
Click on any object inside of the FANS_CAD.1 assembly and create two fluid blocks surrounding the fan
blades and cutting through the casing blocks using the information provided in Table 30.1: Fluid Block
Settings for MRF Setup (p. 678) below.
Table 30.1: Fluid Block Settings for MRF Setup
Name

Shape

Plane

Center

Height

Radius

Type

FluidA

Cylinder

Y-Z

xC:141.3 mm
yC:133.04 mm
zC:130.6 mm

20.0 mm

34.0 mm

Fluid

FluidB

Cylinder

Y-Z

xC:141.3 mm
yC:133.04 mm
zC:56.6 mm

20.0 mm

34.0 mm

Fluid

Note
If your current object selection is not inside of the assembly, the new fluid cylinders would
appear outside and have to be dragged into the assembly. This is saving this extra step.
Another time saver would be to create FluidA and then copy the object. You would just
need to change the name of the copy to FluidB and change the zC location.

As shown in Figure 30.3: Fluid Blocks Surrounding Fan Blade Geometry (p. 679), the fluid cylinder blocks
will be created at the bottom of the assembly list. This is because Icepak will, by default, give the newest
objects the highest meshing priority. The fluid blocks need to have a higher priority than the case blocks
but a LOWER priority than the fan rotor so that the rotor will be fully meshed. To automatically change
the meshing priority, highlight both these fluid cylinders in the Model tree, and drag them above the fan
blades (drop them on top of the upper most blade). The assembly should now look like Figure 30.4: Updated
Model Tree View (p. 679).
Double click on FluidA in the Model tree. Under the Properties tab, select Use rotation for MRF and set
a rotational speed of 6000 as seen in Figure 30.5: MRF Settings (p. 680). Repeat this for FluidB.

Important notes for MRF fan modeling technique:


Using the exact fan blade geometry is critical for the accuracy of the MRF fan modeling technique. If the
fan housing contains straightening vanes, these must also be modeled with their exact geometries.
The rotation rpm here refers to the rotation of the fan rotor and blades. The direction follows the right
hand thumb rule.

678

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Modifying the Geometry


Figure 30.3: Fluid Blocks Surrounding Fan Blade Geometry

Figure 30.4: Updated Model Tree View

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

679

MRF Tutorial
Figure 30.5: MRF Settings

30.5. Generating the Mesh


To start, go to the global mesh settings panel by clicking on the
isMesher-HD.

shortcut and ensure the mesh type

Set the Minimum gap values to 1 mm in all directions and update the dialog to look like Figure 30.6: Global
Mesh Settings (p. 681).

Note
HD meshing starts with a default hexa-unstructured mesh, and progressively uses other
element types (tetrahedral, etc.) in areas where geometric complexity does not allow for

680

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Generating the Mesh


a good mesh with hexa elements. This mesh mixing occurs automatically in the meshing
algorithm.

Note
Proper resolution of CAD objects requires more mesh. Resolving surfaces with curvatures
typically requires more mesh than planar faces.
Figure 30.6: Global Mesh Settings

Meshing the MRF Fans


To keep the mesh count as low as possible, change the Block type of the two rotor blocks (FAN70153_11.1
and FAN70152_11.1) to Hollow.
To restrict the finer mesh to the region immediately surrounding the fans, a non-conformal mesh should
be used. Double click the FANS_CAD.1 assembly and go to the Meshing tab. Select the Mesh separately

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

681

MRF Tutorial
option and fill out the slack and max element sizes as shown in Figure 30.7: Non-conformal Mesh Settings
for FANS_CAD.1 Assembly (p. 683).

Note
The positive slack values define the distance off the outermost surfaces of all objects in
the assembly. While ANSYS Icepak v13.0 does allow for zero slack specification, it is recommended to use a positive value in MRF cases to ensure good mesh transition from solid
surfaces into the fluid.

Turn on the Allow multi-level meshing option, ensure Proximity size function and Curvature size
function are selected. Also, turn on the Set uniform mesh params option.

Note
The Set uniform mesh params option will block off regions around complex geometries
and allow for a better mesh transition.

Click on the Edit levels button in the Multi-level tab and set the meshing levels as shown in Figure 30.8: Edit Levels Settings for FANS_CAD.1 Assembly (p. 684).

Note
Multi-level meshing allows the user to control the mesh sizing near the surfaces of CAD
objects without filling the entire non-conformal region with small elements. It is also known
as a hanging node mesh where a cell edge is split into two smaller edges as the mesh
gets closer to the surface. Thus each face is split into four smaller faces, and each cell into
eight smaller cells.

Note
In Figure 30.7: Non-conformal Mesh Settings for FANS_CAD.1 Assembly (p. 683), the max
sizes in all three directions are the largest elements. The levels value set per object is the
number of times that element size will be split in half. For example, with 4 mm being the
largest element, 2 levels would correspond to a refinement of 4/2 = 2 mm for the first split
and 2/2 = 1 mm for the smallest element on that object.

682

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Generating the Mesh


Figure 30.7: Non-conformal Mesh Settings for FANS_CAD.1 Assembly

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

683

MRF Tutorial
Figure 30.8: Edit Levels Settings for FANS_CAD.1 Assembly

You are now ready to generate the mesh. Go back to the global settings and click on the Generate button
near the top of the pop-up window. There should be about 742,000 elements in the model.

30.6. Examine the Mesh


Display the surface mesh on the rotors by selecting them in the Model tree and going to the Display tab
of the Mesh panel. Here, select Display mesh, Surface, Wire and Solid fill (object) as options. This will
show the mesh on the surface of the fan rotor as a colored surface with lines showing the individual elements as seen in Figure 30.9: Surface Mesh of Fan Rotors (p. 685).

Note
It is especially important to check the surface meshes of CAD objects. If too large of an
element is being used near the surface, you may see bad elements protruding away from
or into the surface.

684

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Examine the Mesh


Figure 30.9: Surface Mesh of Fan Rotors

Next, create a plane cut of the mesh through the center of one of the fan rotors on the z axis. The mesh
display should look similar to Figure 30.10: Mesh Display - Cut Plane Through Rotor Center (p. 685) (Switch
off the previous surface display).

Note
To do this properly, hit Shift-x to look at the x axis, select the Cut plane option in the
Display tab under meshing, click on the drop down menu next to Set position, select
Vertical - screen select and click on the center of either fan hub. This will draw a vertical
line through the selected point. Hit Shift-z to look at the plane through that line.
Figure 30.10: Mesh Display - Cut Plane Through Rotor Center

Save the project.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

685

MRF Tutorial

30.7. Solution Settings for MRF Fan Model


When running a MRF model, the zero equation turbulence model will not suffice as it does not properly
capture the swirl effects of the rotor blades. It is recommended that the Realizable two equation turbulence model be used.
Go to Problem setup Basic Parameters and under Flow regime change the turbulence model in the
drop down menu to Realizable two equation as shown in Figure 30.11: Modify Choice for Turbulence
Model (p. 686).
Figure 30.11: Modify Choice for Turbulence Model

Go to Solution settings Basic settings under the Model tree and set the Number of iterations to
1000 (adequate for this model).

686

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Solution Settings for MRF Fan Model


Also, set the flow convergence criteria to 1e-5 and input the changes as shown in Figure 30.12: Basic
Solution Settings (p. 687).

Note
When using MRF, the solver typically needs a larger number of iterations to completely
converge. When running the initial solution it is recommended that you set the number
of iterations to something on the order of 2000 or more to see where the convergence
finally occurs. You can lower the number of iterations in subsequent solutions with the
use of solution restart. It is also recommended to lower the convergence criteria to ensure
this convergence.
Figure 30.12: Basic Solution Settings

Point Monitors
When running any simulation you should also include a few temperature and a few velocity monitor
points to ensure that there is complete convergence. In a steady state problem, you can have greater
confidence in the solution convergence, when the monitor values do not change for an extended number
of iterations.
In an MRF problem, there should be multiple velocity point monitors between different blades and located
in the fluid. To do this, go the tree, right click the Points branch and select the Create at location option.
An easy method of creating such points is to first create a plane cut display of the mesh, as shown in
Figure 30.13: Easy Method to Snap Point Monitors to the Mesh Display (p. 688). Specify the monitor point
name and variable in the Create point panel. Finally use the Nearest option to snap the point to a grid

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

687

MRF Tutorial
location. The location of point monitors used in this tutorial are presented in Table 30.2: Location of Point
Monitors (p. 688).
Table 30.2: Location of Point Monitors
Point Monitor

Location (X, Y, Z) mm

Monitor

163.3, 159.0, 62.41

Velocity

172.7, 133.04, 93.6

Velocity

163.3, 133.04, 110

Velocity

mon_pt_1

172.7, 137.9, 135.3

Velocity

mon_pt_2

-232.6, 105.1, 98.5

Temperature

mon_pt_3

-232.6, 139.9, 79.99

Temperature

mon_pt_4

-219.5, 148.4, 26.85

Temperature

Solve the Model


Click on
in the shortcuts toolbar to bring up the Solve panel. Click on the Start solution button to
run the computations.
If the model is set up properly as per the instructions, then the residual plots and the monitor plots should
look like Figure 30.14: Residuals Plot (p. 689).-Figure 30.16: Velocity Monitors (p. 690)
Figure 30.13: Easy Method to Snap Point Monitors to the Mesh Display

688

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Solution Settings for MRF Fan Model


Figure 30.14: Residuals Plot

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

689

MRF Tutorial
Figure 30.15: Temperature Monitors

Figure 30.16: Velocity Monitors

690

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Post-processing the Results

30.8. Post-processing the Results


Create an object face with the
shortcut. Select all of the solid objects (blocks) other than those in
the fan assembly and select Show contours. Click on the Parameters button, leave the default contours
of Temperature, and change the color levels to Calculated This object. The temperature contour should
look similar to Figure 30.17: Surface Temperature Contours (p. 691).
Deactivate the temperature object face (right click and click on Active) from the Post node on the Model
tree.

Create a plane cut with the shortcut


and leave it at the default z plane through center location.
Select Contours of speed and set the color levels to be specified from 0 to 3 (velocities higher than 3 m/s
will show up as red). The MRF speed contour display should look similar to Figure 30.18: Contour of Speed
at Center of Z with MRF (p. 692).
Figure 30.17: Surface Temperature Contours

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

691

MRF Tutorial
Figure 30.18: Contour of Speed at Center of Z with MRF

30.9. BONUS SECTION: Comparing MRF to 3D Icepak Fans


Deactivate the FANS_CAD.1 assembly and activate the FANS_ICE3D assembly.
Go to Solution settings Basic settings and change the flow criteria to 1e-4.
Go to the Solve panel and make sure that the Solution ID is different than the once used for the MRF
run. It will take much less time to run this model. You can terminate the model once the residuals and
monitor points all level off.
Create the same speed contour as you did in the MRF run. The contour should resemble Figure 30.19: Contour of Speed at Center of Z with Icepak 3D Fan Object (p. 692). Compare this flow pattern to Figure 30.18: Contour of Speed at Center of Z with MRF (p. 692).
Figure 30.19: Contour of Speed at Center of Z with Icepak 3D Fan Object

692

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 31: Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude


31.1. Introduction
There are numerous methods for cooling electronics systems and the choice of technique is generally
a function of the design, application, reliability requirements and power dissipation. For avionic electronics, one common approach is to use ambient or chilled air ducted over the sealed chassis of the
system in a cold wall. Heat from the components conducts through the PCB to the card guides that
are clamped to the chassis and removed via the cold wall.
This technique also removes any risk to the actual electronics arising from dust, moisture etc in the
air flow, and thus increases the operating reliability.
Operating conditions of such equipment vary considerably due to the density variation of air from sea
level to cruising altitude. As the altitude increases, the density decreases, and consequently the mass
flow rates of the fan(s) are also reduced.
In this exercise a cold-wall cooled avionics unit will be modeled and the cooling efficiency evaluated
at both sea level and altitude.

This exercise assumes you have had already created some models in Icepak, and in particular have experience in meshing assemblies separately and also in setting up parametric simulations.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

693

Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude

31.2. Opening the Project


Unpack and load the model called avionics_box.tzr.

Note
The file avionics_box.tzr can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/Altitude/avionics_box.tzr. You must replace "ICEPAK_ROOT" by the full path name of
the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed on your computer system.
This is the basic cold wall geometry with two parametric runs defined. The first assumes a uniform
loading of 30 W per PCB, giving a total dissipation of 450 W for the cards. This is applied uniformly to
the card edges on both sides of the chassis.
An additional 30 W is applied to the front of the unit opposite the fan to represent any additional load
from additional equipment. The total power can be viewed in the Power and temperature limit setup
panel as shown below.
Figure 31.1: Total Power

Heat can only be conducted out of the unit, so the interior air is not modeled, and replaced by a hollow
block. Recall that within a hollow block no equations are solved, and no mesh is generated, so this
methodology reduces the problem down to a worst case scenario.
Next, you need to add two heat sinks to represent the finned cold walls on the sides of the unit.

694

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Adding the Fins

31.3. Adding the Fins


The easiest way to add the fins is to generate two heat sinks, one for each of the cold wall ducts. Create
the heat sink objects using the information in the figures below. Also name the objects as in the figures
shown below. Note that the first two figures refer to heat_sink_minx while the second two figures
refer to heat_sink_maxx.
Figure 31.2: Object Geometry Edit Panel for heat_sink_minx

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

695

Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude


Figure 31.3: Object Properties Edit Panel for heat_sink_minx

696

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Adding the Fins


Figure 31.4: Object Geometry Edit Panel for heat_sink_maxx

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

697

Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude


Figure 31.5: Object Properties Edit Panel for heat_sink_maxx

Create an assembly for each heat sink and choose to mesh each assembly separately and apply appropriate slack values. Slack values are displayed in Figure 31.6: Heat Sink Assembly Slack Values (p. 699).

Note
Rename your assemblies to match the heat sinks names as shown above.

698

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Modeling the effects of Altitudes


Figure 31.6: Heat Sink Assembly Slack Values

Tip
You could have also made the second heat sink by copying the first and then using the
alignment tools to re-position it.

31.4. Modeling the effects of Altitudes


In the Basic parameters panel, click the Defaults tab. Select Air as the Default fluid.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

699

Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude


Figure 31.7: Default Fluid

Go to the Advanced tab. Select the Altitude check box and ensure that the Update fan curves check
box is also selected. Enter $Elevation for the Altitude field. This creates a variable for altitude that
you will soon specify. Change the units to m. The Basic parameters panel should resemble that of
Figure 31.8: The Advanced Tab of the Basic parameters Panel (p. 701).

700

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Modeling the effects of Altitudes


Figure 31.8: The Advanced Tab of the Basic parameters Panel

The Param value panel will appear upon opening the Parameters and optimization panel. Enter
10000 in the text box. This assigns an initial value of 10 kilometers for the variable Elevation.

Select the Design variables tab and then the Elevation node in the Parameters and optimization
panel. Next to Discrete values, type 0, separated by a space before 10000 as shown in Figure 31.9: Assigning Variable for Altitude (p. 702).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

701

Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude


Figure 31.9: Assigning Variable for Altitude

Now edit the fan object (fan.1) in the model. At altitude the inlet temperature will be very different
from the same flow rate at sea level. Assign a parameter for the inlet temperature as shown in the Fans
panel of Figure 31.10: Assigning Parameters for Inlet Temperature (p. 703). Initialize the variable Flow_T
with a value of -5 after updating the fan object. The temperature parameter should take the values 20
and -5 C as shown in the Parameters and optimization panel of Figure 31.10: Assigning Parameters
for Inlet Temperature (p. 703). Apply these settings, and reset the trials. Check that the correct combination of parameters for sea level, and 10 Km for elevation have been assigned.

702

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Modeling the effects of Altitudes


Figure 31.10: Assigning Parameters for Inlet Temperature

In the Functions tab of the Parameters and optimization panel, create three functions, one to report
the global maximum temperature and the other two to calculate the pressure drop across each of the
heat sinks. Figure 31.11: Primary Functions (p. 704) and Table 31.1: Functions (p. 704) show the functions
names and specifications.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

703

Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude


Figure 31.11: Primary Functions

Table 31.1: Functions


Function
name

Function
type

Value

Object, Variable, Direction

maxTemp

Global value

Global maximum temperature

DP-1

Difference

object heat_sink_minx, Pressure, Low Z - High


Z

DP-2

Difference

object heat_sink_maxx, Pressure, Low Z - High


Z

Click Run to run the trials and then analyze the two simulations to compare results. Generate some
particle tracks from the fan through the system and display the object faces of the two heat sinks.
Create a summary report for both runs for the temperatures of the sources. Combine these into an
HTML report.
704

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Modeling the effects of Altitudes


Figure 31.12: Parametric Trials

Create particle traces with the


shortcut. In the Object face panel that appears, select object
fan.1 and select the Show particle traces option. Click the Parameters button and leave the default
settings. Change the color levels to Calculated This object. The particle traces should look similar to
Figure 31.13: Particle Traces (p. 705).
Figure 31.13: Particle Traces

Deactivate the temperature object face (right-click face.1 in the Model manager window and deselect
Active).
Create an object face to display temperature contours on the heat sink objects. The object face should
look similar to those in Figure 31.14: Temperature Contours on heat_sink_minx and
heat_sink_maxx (p. 706).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

705

Modeling an Airborne Electronics System at Altitude


Figure 31.14: Temperature Contours on heat_sink_minx and heat_sink_maxx

31.5. Summary
In this tutorial, you learned how to model the effects of altitude in ANSYS Icepak by using the Parameters
and optimization panel to create parametric variables.

706

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 32: Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


32.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how heat loss data can be transferred from Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak in
ANSYS Workbench. This tutorial involves an eddy current solver of Maxwell to calculate heat losses
which are then applied to ANSYS Icepak to simulate natural convection.
In this tutorial, you will learn how to:
Create a Maxwell and ANSYS Icepak coupling analysis in ANSYS Workbench.
Transfer heat loss data from Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak.

32.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with ANSYS Workbench and so each step will be
explicitly described. A Maxwell V17 license is needed to perform this tutorial.

32.3. Problem Description


A simple model is used in this tutorial to demonstrate multiphysics coupling. Heat flow is calculated
on the Stock object in Maxwell and is transferred to ANSYS Icepak.

32.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Start ANSYS Workbench.

Note
When ANSYS Workbench starts, the Toolbox and Project Schematic are displayed.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

707

Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial

32.5. Step 2: Build the Model


You will import an existing Maxwell project into Workbench. To import a Maxwell file,
Specify a name for your project (i.e.,. maxwell2wb) and save the Workbench project file. File>Save As...
Select the menu item File>Import in Workbench.
Change the file type to Maxwell Project File (*.mxwl) and browse to the location of the tutorial input file.
Select the file Ex_12_2__Maxwell _Icepak_Coupling.mxwl and open it. The file Ex_12_2_Maxwell_Icepak_Coupling can be found at ICEPAK_ROOT/tutorials/Maxwell.
Double click the Setup cell of the Maxwell3DDesign1 system to launch Maxwell.
In this step you will set the conductivity of the aluminum plate as function of temperature. This will
enable you to get the temperature from Icepak and recalculate the losses based on temperature dependent properties. To set temperature dependent properties,
Select the Stock object from the history tree, right click and select Assign Material.

708

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 32.1: Assign Material for Stock Object

In the Select Definition panel, select View/Edit Material....

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

709

Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


Figure 32.2: Select Definition Panel

In the View/Edit Material panel,


Enable Thermal Modifier

710

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model

Go to the Thermal Modifier column for bulk conductivity and select Edit.
In the Edit Thermal Modifier panel,
Set modifier as: if (Temp <=22, 1, 1/(1+0.0039*(Temp-22)))
Press OK.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

711

Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


Figure 32.3: Edit Thermal Modifier

Press OK to close the View/Edit Material and the Select Definition panels.
In this step, you will enable the temperature feedback
Select the menu item Maxwell 3D>Set Object Temperature.

712

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


In the panel enable the option Include Temperature Dependence and Enable Feedback.
Press OK.
Figure 32.4: Temperature of Objects Panel

Verify Maxwell settings.


Expand the Project Manager tree to view Analysis.
Double click on the tab Setup1.
In the Solve Setup panel, update the following:
General tab, Percentage Error: 0.1
Convergence tab, Refinement Per Pass: 50%
Solver tab, Adaptive Frequency: 200Hz
Click the OK button.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

713

Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial

Note
After entering the specifications, the Geometry and Setup cells in the Maxwell system
should appear as follows:

714

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 32.5: Maxwell 3D system

Validate the model.


Select the menu item Maxwell 3D> Validation Check.

Click the Close button.

Note
To view any errors or warning messages, use the message manager.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

715

Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


To start the solution process
Select the menu item Maxwell 3D> Analyze All

Calculate Ohmic losses in Stock.


Select the menu item Maxwell 3D> Fields>Calculator.

716

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model

Select Input>Quantity>OhmicLoss
Select Input>Geometry>Volume>Stock
Select Scalar>

integrate

Select Output>Eval
The Ohmic losses in Stock volume are around 8.72 Watts.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

717

Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial

Click Done to exit.


Close Maxwell.

718

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Select the menu item File>Close Desktop.

Note
After solving, the Maxwell3DDesign1 system should have green check mark in the
Solution cell. If not, select Update from the context menu of the Solution cell.

Save the project.


Return to Workbench project window.
Select the menu item File>Save.
In the project schematic, drag and drop a Geometry system on top of the Maxwell 3D Geometry cell.
Double click the Geometry cell to launch DesignModeler. Click Generate to create the objects.

Suppress Geometry
On the tree outline, right click on the coil_Section1 object and click Suppress Body.
Repeat this same procedure with the dummy object.
Figure 32.6: Suppress Bodies

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

719

Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


Simplify Geometry
Set the geometry selection filter to bodies and select the Coil object. Go to the Tools menu. Select Electronics> Simplify. Note that Simplify1 shows up on the tree outline and the Details view is populated
with the simplify form. Go to the Details view.

Click Apply across from the Select Bodies field.


Change the Simplification Type to Level 3. Ensure Selected Bodies is selected for the Selection Filter
and choose Fine for Facet Quality.
Figure 32.7: Simplify1 Coil Object

Click Generate.

Note
The coil object has now been converted into a simple shape and hence is automatically
recognized as a CAD block object in Icepak.

Next, simplify the Stock object using Level 2 for the Simplification Type. See the figure below.

720

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 32.8: Simplify2 Stock Object

Save the project in ANSYS DesignModeler and close the application.


Drag and drop an Icepak system on top of the Geometry cell to transfer the geometry. If necessary, do
a right mouse click in the Maxwell 3D Solution cell and select Update before transferring to Icepak.
Then, connect the Maxwell 3D Solution cell to the Icepak Setup cell as shown below.

Double click the Icepak Setup cell to open Icepak. You will see that the geometry has been imported.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

721

Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


Figure 32.9: Imported Geometry in Icepak

Resize the cabinet as shown in the figure below.

722

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


Figure 32.10: Resize Cabinet

Each side of the cabinet contains an opening. In the Cabinet panel, click the Properties tab and assign
Openings. Change the Min z and Max z Wall type to Opening.
Figure 32.11: Cabinet Properties

Change the material of Coil object.


In the Properties tab, specify the Solid material as Copper.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

723

Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


Figure 32.12: Coil Material

The material for the Stock object is Aluminum; therefore keep the selection of default for the Stock
object.

32.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


Open the Mesh control panel and enter the specifications as shown below, ensuring Multi-level
meshing is used. Keep the default settings for all other inputs.

724

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Figure 32.13: Mesh control Panel

Click Generate to mesh the model. Visualize the mesh at plane cuts and surface displays from the
Display tab.

32.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Go to Problem setup
Basic parameters. In the General setup tab, enable the Ray tracing radiation model for Radiation and keep the default inputs.
Enable the Gravity vector and make sure that gravity in the z-direction is -9.80665 m/
Under

Solution settings

Basic settings, keep the Number of iterations as 100.

Click Accept and close the Basic settings panel.


Go to

Solution settings

Advanced settings.

1. Make sure the Precision for the solver is Double.


2. Click Accept in the Advanced solver setup panel.
Go to the File menu, select EM mapping and Volumetric heat losses.
Select Stock_0, Stock_1, and Stock_2.
Retain the default Solution ID and Frequency (Hz) inputs.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

725

Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


Figure 32.14: Volumetric heat losses

Click Accept to close the panel.

32.8. Step 5: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak automatically saves the model for you before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.
File Save project
ANSYS Workbench will close ANSYS Icepak to save the model, you will need to launch ANSYS Icepak
again to continue.

32.9. Step 6: Calculate a Solution


1. Go to Solve Run solution to display the Solve panel.
2. Keep the default settings in the Solve panel.
3. Click Start solution to start the solver.

726

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 7: Examine the Results

32.10. Step 7: Examine the Results


1. After calculating a solution in ANSYS Icepak, a green check mark will be displayed in the Icepak Solution
cell in the Project Schematic. The green check mark indicates that all data is up to date.

2. Go to the Solve menu and select Define report. In the Define summary report panel, keep the default
specifications. Select New and select the Stock objects in the Objects drop-down list. For the Value,
select Heat flow. Click Accept. Click Write to display the Report summary data panel shown in Figure 32.16: Report summary data Panel (p. 728).
Figure 32.15: Define summary report Panel

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

727

Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak Coupling Tutorial


Figure 32.16: Report summary data Panel

32.11. Step 8: Summary


In this tutorial, heat losses are transferred from Maxwell to ANSYS Icepak using ANSYS Workbench. The
heat flow indicated in Figure 32.16: Report summary data Panel (p. 728) is 8.72 for the Stock which is
the same value calculated in Maxwell using the Fields calculator.

728

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 33: Icepak HFSS Coupling


33.1. Introduction
This tutorial demonstrates how to model an ANSYS Icepak HFSS workflow.
In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Perform an HFSS analysis.
Understand the volumetric and surface losses on a hybrid ring plate.
Compare losses in HFSS and ANSYS Icepak to validate the data transfer.

33.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have basic familiarity with the setup and solution of HFSS and ANSYS
Icepak simulation.

33.3. Problem Description


The hybrid ring plate is considered for understanding the effect of volumetric and surface losses on the
temperature prediction of the ring.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

729

Icepak HFSS Coupling


Figure 33.1: Problem Specification

33.4. Step 1: Create a New Project


1. Go to File menu and select Restore Archive to open the project, icepak-hfss-tutorial.wbpz.
This file is located at ICEPAK_ROOT /tutorials/HFSS/icepak-hfss-tutorial.wbpz. You
must replace ICEPAK_ROOT by the full path name of the directory where ANSYS Icepak is installed
on your computer system.

33.5. Step 2: Build the Model


1. A completed HFSS analysis is present in the project schematic. Perform a right mouse click on the Geometry cell (A2) and go to Transfer Data To New > Geometry. The geometry is directly shared from
HFSS Geometry using a DM connection.

730

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 2: Build the Model


2. Double-click the Geometry cell to open DesignModeler as you need to edit the geometry first before
exporting into ANSYS Icepak.
a. Click Generate to display the model.
b. Expand the node containing the parts and bodies. Suppress bodies Port, Port_1, Port_2 and Port_3.

c. Edit the geometry in DesignModeler using the Electronics option in the Tools menu.
Select Simplify and choose Level 3 simplification for Outer1.
Make sure to select Very Fine for the facet quality.
Click Generate.
Select Simplify and choose Level 2 simplification for the Substrate.
Click Generate.
Close DesignModeler and return to ANSYS Workbench.

Note
The Electronics menu is shown only if the DesignModeler option Enable Electronics
Options is turned on.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

731

Icepak HFSS Coupling


3. Drag and drop an ANSYS Icepak template onto the project schematic on top of the Geometry cell (A2)
to transfer the geometry into ANSYS Icepak. Connect the HFSS Solution cell to the Icepak Setup cell.

Make sure that the HFSS Solution cell is Updated after establishing the connection.

Note
Perform update again in the HFSS solution if needed.

4. Right click on the Setup cell (C2) and select Edit to launch ANSYS Icepak.
a. Resize the cabinet using the following dimensions.
Table 33.1: Cabinet Geometry
xS

-0.04

xE

0.04

yS

-0.03

yE

0.03

zS

-0.003

zE

0.003

b. Create openings for the flow inlet and outlet. Specify X velocity of 0.1 m/s for opening in min-x direction.

33.6. Step 3: Generate a Mesh


Update the mesh priority so Outer1 has higher priority than the Substrate. The Edit priorities option
can be found under the Model menu.

732

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 5: Volume/Surface Mapping

In the Mesh control panel, specify Mesher HD for this model as it contains CAD objects. Click Generate.

Note
The mesh count should be approximately 11K.

33.7. Step 4: Physical and Numerical Settings


Before starting the solver, you will first check that the proper flow regime is being modeled.
1. Go to

Problem setup

Basic parameters in the Model manager window.

a. In the General setup tab, make sure that both flow and the temperature fields are switched on.
b. Select Laminar for the Flow regime and turn Off the Radiation.
c. Click Accept to close the panel.
2. Go to Solution settings Basic settings and Solution settings Advanced settings in
the Model manager window and verify that the following values are set for each variable:
Basic settings
No. of iterations = 500
Flow = 0.001
Energy = 1e-7
Advanced settings
Discretization scheme = First order
Precision = Double

33.8. Step 5: Volume/Surface Mapping


1. Go to File EM Mapping Volumetric heat losses.
Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

733

Icepak HFSS Coupling

2. Select Outer1 and Substrate for which losses needs to be applied.


3. Click Accept.

734

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Examine the Results

33.9. Step 6: Save the Model


ANSYS Icepak automatically saves the model for you before it starts the calculation, but it is a good
idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well. If you exit ANSYS Icepak before you start
the calculation, you will be able to open the job you saved and continue your analysis in a future ANSYS
Icepak session. (If you start the calculation in the current ANSYS Icepak session, ANSYS Icepak will simply
overwrite your job file when it saves the model.)
File Save project

Note
Alternatively, you can click the

button in the File commands toolbar.

33.10. Step 7: Calculate a Solution


1. Solve the ANSYS Icepak model by updating in ANSYS Workbench or by clicking Solve in ANSYS Icepak.

Note
Solution completes approximately after 60 iterations.

33.11. Step 8: Examine the Results


Create a summary report for heat-flow of substrate in ANSYS Icepak.
1. Select Report Summary Report
a. Click New and select Substrate in Objects box. (Dielectric losses are predominant in Substrate).
b. Select Heat Flow for Value.
2. Click Write to obtain the heat-flow.
ANSYS Icepak reports 0.236681 Watts

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

735

Icepak HFSS Coupling

Evaluate volume loss for substrate in HFSS.


1. Open the HFSS application if not already open, select HFSS Fields Calculator
a. Under Input, select VolumeLossDensity under Quantity
b. Select Volume and Substrate under Geometry.
c. Select Integral under Scalar.
d. Click on Eval to report the total volume loss density of substrate.
2. HFSS reports 0.24353 Watts

Note
Heat flow value from HFSS can also be obtained from uns_out file.

736

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Examine the Results

Evaluate surface/conductor losses in ANSYS Icepak.


1. Open the electromagnetic mapping panel in ANSYS Icepak.
2. Un-check the bodies selection from Volume heat losses panel.
3. Click Accept.
4. Select File>EM Mapping>Surface heat losses option.
5. Select body Outer1 for which losses needs to be applied.

Note
Outer1 is selected as conductor losses are predominant in this body.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

737

Icepak HFSS Coupling

6. Click Accept.
7. Retain all other settings.
8. Enter new Solution ID and solve the ANSYS Icepak model.
Create a summary report for heat-flow from the openings of the cabinet.
1. Heat flow from cabinet boundaries represent surface heat loss as no other device is generating heat.
Select Report Summary Report
1. Select minx and maxx openings in the objects list.
2. Select Heat Flow for Value.

738

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Examine the Results

Click Write to obtain the heat flow.


ANSYS Icepak reports 0.710 Watts
Evaluate surface loss for Outer1 surface in HFSS.
Select HFSS FieldsCalculator
1. Under Input select SurfaceLossDensity under Quantity.
2. Select Surface and Outer1 under Geometry.
3. Select Integral under Scalar.
4. Click on Eval to report the total surface loss density of substrate.
HFSS reports 0.712 Watts.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

739

Icepak HFSS Coupling

Note
Heat flow value from HFSS can also be obtained from uns_out file.
Evaluate volumetric and surface losses in ANSYS Icepak
1. Open electromagnetic mapping panel in ANSYS Icepak.
2. Select Volumetric heat losses option.
a. Select the Substrate only to solve for which losses needs to be applied.

740

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 8: Examine the Results

3. Click Accept.
4. Retain all other settings.
5. Enter new Solution ID and solve the ANSYS Icepak model.
Comparison of Total Loss (Volumetric and Surface)
1. Create a summary report for heat-flow from the openings of the cabinet.
Heat flow from cabinet boundaries represent total heat loss as no other device is generating heat.
2. Select Report Summary Report
a. Select minx and maxx openings in the objects list.
b. Select Heat Flow in Values.
3. Click write to obtain the heat-flow.
4. ANSYS Icepak reports 0.952752 Watts.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

741

Icepak HFSS Coupling

5. Evaluate surface loss for Outer1 surface in HFSS.


HFSS reports 0.712 Watts.
6. Evaluate volume loss for Substrate in HFSS.
HFSS reports 0.24353 Watts

742

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Step 9: Summary

7. Summation of above losses equals to 0.95 Watts.

Note
Heat flow value from HFSS can also be obtained from uns_out file.

33.12. Step 9: Summary


In this tutorial, volumetric and surface losses are transferred from HFSS to ANSYS Icepak using the ANSYS
Workbench connection. A validation/comparison is performed between the data in HFSS with ANSYS
Icepak.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

743

744

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Index
A
Airborne Electronics System, 693
Avionics Box, 565

CAD file, 327


IDF, 315, 354
tcb file, 425
trace layer, 357, 437
individual side specification, 110

J
Joule heating, 373

B
BGA-package, 213, 423

C
CAD
geometry, 325
import, 327
CFD Post, 463
CFD Post in Workbench, 463
cold-plate, 131-132

loss coefficient, 193


loss coefficient vs Re, 209

Datacenter cooling
high density, 499
Design Modeler
electronics, 541
MCAD Geometry, 601
Dimensions tab, 424

Maxwell to Icepak, 707


MCAD Geometry
Design Modeler, 601
mesh exercise, 177
microelectronics, 391
modeling
radiation, 265
monitor point, 405
mouse conventions, 2
MRF, 675
multi-level meshing, 411, 414

Edit object panel, 6


Electronics
Design Modeler, 541

non-conformal
assembly, 136
mesh, 161, 169, 171
nested, 152

finned heat sink, 3, 17


Functions
compound, 240
objective, 240
primary, 240

object parameters, 297


obtaining support, 2
optimization run, 244
orthotropic material properties, 148

heat pipe, 145, 151


heat sink, 61
finned, 3, 17
inline or staggered, 213
heat transfer coefficient, 428
help
obtaining support, 2

I
Icepak in Workbench, 447
Icepak HFSS coupling, 729
import

param value, 237


parameterization, 99
parametric runs, 218
parametric trials
multiple trials, 117

radiation model
discrete ordinates, 251, 267
ray tracing, 268
rf amplifier, 49, 65

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

745

Index

S
search fan library, 62
summary report, 167
support
obtaining help, 2
System
Electronics, 693
System Level Geometry
Translation, 623

T
Thermal Resistance, 235
trace heating, 373
trace layer, 353
import, 357, 437
transient simulation, 273
Translation
MCAD Geometry, 623
typographical conventions, 1

W
Workbench
Icepak, 447
Maxwell to Icepak, 707

Z
zero slack, 182, 435, 441
zoom-in modeling, 293, 303

746

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.