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Approximately 350 million people have arthritis.

The stresses that develop on the knee when rising
from a seated position can be uncomfortably high
Existing solutions have high electric power
requirement which may not be available in
developing countries

Bi-Modal Bi-Stable Lid

DMA Test for the Bi-Stable Lid

Lateral Force < Vertical Force

Understanding Bi-Stability
A curved beam which conforms to the initial fabricated shape as
shown and described the equation will display bi-stable nature

A curved beam is bi-stable if two conditions

Q must be large enough
The second mode must be constrained

Source: Jin Qui A Curved Beam Bistable Mechanism, Journal of Microelectromehanical Systems, 2004

The boundary conditions are critical to be able to capture bi-stability!

The Bi-Stable Lid was simulated constraining the z-axis along the rim and x and y axes at the top
flat circular surface

What Boundary Conditions are viable to be applied to the chair?

3D Continuum ABAQUS Simulation

Pinned BC were applied at the junction of flap and top surface. Also, the central flat surface was constrained along
the X & Y axes

The 1 cosine curve does not work because it buckles into its second mode shape. Dampening or
prevention of this mode shape is one of the requirements for bi-stability.
To address this, a central stiffener was added which prevents the second mode from occurring

1 cosine curve

Cosine Curve with Central Stiffener

Flap Needed for Lateral Actuation!

Critical Force for various profiles



1 cosine

2 cosine

1 tin-lid

Wmax (N)

Wmin (N)


2 tin-lid




Since the critical values are lower for the cosine curve with central stiffener, it is the most suitable profile!

Parametric Studies

Poissons Ratio doesnt significantly influence the nature of the curve

The inclusion of additional stiffeners did not significantly alter the bi-stable curve


To physically test the model, a prototype made-of material Vero-white (E=3 GPA), having a scaled up
length of 125 mm were 3D printed.

Bell Crank Actuation

A bell crank was chosen to provide the force transfer from the armrest to the bi-stable mechanism
Integration of Bell Crank Actuation with the BMBSM is difficult to simulate in FEM tools as one is a rigid member (bell
crank) and the other is a deformable member (bi-stable mechanism)

Equivalent Pseudo-Rigid Body Simulation in Adams

The bi-stable mechanism with bell crank is modeled as an equivalent rigid model in Adams. The
spring behaves in the same manner as the bi-stable mechanism would

Equivalent Rigid Body Simulation in Adams

Complete Chair

Having analyzed the problem and arrived at a suitable design configuration, the bell crank and bi-stable
mechanism was integrated into a chair frame.

Testing the Chair Prototype

Nonlinear finite element simulation of an intriguing bi-modal bistable metallic lid
Forces to switch from one stable state to the other are and vice
versa are different as are the modes of actuation
Novel application of the lid in the design of a chair that eases rising
from it

Thank You

Any Questions?