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GRAVITATION

Newtons law of gravitation:


Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force
which is directly proportional to product of their masses & inversely proportional to the
square of the distance between them.
Consider two particles of masses m1 & m 2 at a distance `d` apart. The force of
attraction F acting between them is

F
F

F
F

m1 m2
1
d2
m1m2
d2
mm
G 12 2
d

Where G is the proportionality constant known as universal gravitational constant.


11
2
2
Its value is same for all pairs of particles. G 6.67 10 Nm kg

The universal gravitational constant (G):


mm
Wkt F G 1 2 2 , if m1 m2
d

1kg , d= 1m

then F = G. Hence gravitational constant is equal to the force of attraction acting between
2 masses of 1kg each separated by a distance of 1m. Its dimensional formula is
3

M 1L T

Vector form of universal law of gravitation:


Consider two bodies of mass m1 & m 2
separated by a distance r.
Let r12 = unit vector from A to B

r2

F12

F21

r1

r21 = Unit vector from B to A


F12 = gravitation force exerted by

Acceleration due to gravity: It is the force by which earth attracts a body towards its
centre.
OR
It is defined as the acceleration of freely falling body. It is denoted by `g`.

Relation between g & G:


Let M be the mass of earth & R its radius. Let a body of mass `m` is situated on
the surface of earth. According to Newtons law of gravitation we have

GMm
R2

(1)

We have from Newtons second law of motion


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M.N.Sharath kumar

F = mg

(2)

Where g is the acceleration due to gravity.


From equations (1) & (2) we have

GMm
R2
GM
R2

mg
g

-2

g is independent of mass of the body. Its value is 9.8ms on the surface of earth.
If two bodies of different masses are allowed to fall freely from the same height
then, they both will reach the ground simultaneously.

Variation of `g` with altitude:


Let `g` be the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of earth & g' at a point at
a height `h` above the ground. Then
GM
g' =
(1)
2
(R+h)
GM
But wkt g = 2
R
2
Or GM = gR
gR2
1 g' =
(R+h)2
2

gR

h
R

R 1
g'
Expanding 1

h
R

g1
h
R

using binomial expansion and neglecting the higher order terms

we have

g'

g1

2h
R

h << R

i.e acceleration due to gravity decreases with altitude .

Variation of g with depth:


Let `g` be the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of earth & g ' at a depth h
below the surface. Let M' be the mass of earth at that point of radius (R-h).
Assuming uniform density distribution, We have
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M.N.Sharath kumar

M'

M
4 3
R
3

4
(R h)3
3
3
R h
M' M
R
GM'
Now g'
2
(R h)
G
2

(R

h)

g'

GM

Wkt

GM
R2

g'

.M

(1)

h)3

(R
R3

R h
R3

g
R

h
R

On simplification we have

g'

g1

h
R

i.e the value of `g` decreases with increase in depth & is zero at the centre i.e h=R

Variation of g with latitude:


Earth rotates on its own axis with its angular velocity w. The acceleration due to
gravity at a place having a latitude is given by

g w2 Rcos
Case 1: At equator
0
cos0
1
g' g w2 R
90
Case 2: At poles
cos90
0
g' g
g'

The value of g is maximum at a poles & minimum at equator.

Laws of planetary motion:


Keplers I law: All planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits with the sun at
one focus of the orbit(Law of orbit).
II law: The line joining any planet & the sun sweeps equal area in equal intervals
of time.(Law of areas)
III law: The square of time period of revolution of any planet about the sun is
directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of the orbit.
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M.N.Sharath kumar

T2 R3
This law is known as law of periods.

Inertial mass: It is a measure of inertia of the body. It is defined as the ration of


magnitude of external force applied to the magnitude of acceleration produced in it.
i.e. m = F/a
a) It is a scalar quantity.
b) It does not depend on size, shape & state of body.
c) It increases with increase in the velocity of the body.
Gravitational mass: It is the property of the body, which determines the gravitational
attractive force acting on it due to earth.
2

RE F
GME

a) It is a scalar quantity.
b) It varies from place to place.
Orbital velocity of a satellite: The velocity of a satellite in its circular orbit is known as
orbital velocity.
Consider a satellite of mass `m` moving around the earth with an orbital velocity
v0 in a circular orbit of radius r.
The centripetal force balanced the gravitational force

mv02
i.e
r

GMm
r2

v0

GM
r

If the satellite is at a height `h` above the surface then r = R + h

GM
R h
2
Wkt GM gr
v0

gR2
R

v0

V0

if h

gR

Time period of satellite: It is the time taken by a satellite to complete one revolution
round the earth.

Circumference of orbit
orbital velocity
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M.N.Sharath kumar

2 r
v0
2 (R

h)

GM
(R h)

3/ 2

2 (R

h)

GM

Escape velocity: The minimum velocity of projection of a body for which it escapes
from the gravitational attraction of earth is known as escape velocity.
The kinetic energy of the body is equal to potential energy of the body given by

GMm
R

1
mve2
2
2GM
Or ve
R
GM
But wkt g
R2
GM gr2

ve

11.2kms

ve

2
R

ve

2gR

gR2

i.e escape velocity of earth is 11.2kms

Weightlessness: consider an artificial satellite of mass `m` revolving around the earth
with an orbital velocity v in an orbit of radius r. Then

Mm mv 2
G 2
r
r
2
GM v
r2
r

(1)

Let there be an astronaut of mass m' inside the satellite. He is acted by


gravitational force as well as reaction force i.e

GMm'
r2

GMm'
r2

& R. The force is

R acts on the astronaut. This force is directed towards the centre

GMm'
r2

m' v 2
r
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M.N.Sharath kumar

GM R
v2
r2
m'
r
2
v
Substitute the value of
from (1) we have
r

GM R
r2
m'
R 0

GM
r2
m'

The reactionary force on the astronaut is zero. Hence he feels weightlessness.


If the ropes of the descending lift are broken, then the people inside the lift will
feel weightlessness.

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M.N.Sharath kumar