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You are on page 1of 6

Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force

which is directly proportional to product of their masses & inversely proportional to the

square of the distance between them.

Consider two particles of masses m1 & m 2 at a distance `d` apart. The force of

attraction F acting between them is

F

F

F

F

m1 m2

1

d2

m1m2

d2

mm

G 12 2

d

11

2

2

Its value is same for all pairs of particles. G 6.67 10 Nm kg

mm

Wkt F G 1 2 2 , if m1 m2

d

1kg , d= 1m

then F = G. Hence gravitational constant is equal to the force of attraction acting between

2 masses of 1kg each separated by a distance of 1m. Its dimensional formula is

3

M 1L T

Consider two bodies of mass m1 & m 2

separated by a distance r.

Let r12 = unit vector from A to B

r2

F12

F21

r1

F12 = gravitation force exerted by

Acceleration due to gravity: It is the force by which earth attracts a body towards its

centre.

OR

It is defined as the acceleration of freely falling body. It is denoted by `g`.

Let M be the mass of earth & R its radius. Let a body of mass `m` is situated on

the surface of earth. According to Newtons law of gravitation we have

GMm

R2

(1)

37

M.N.Sharath kumar

F = mg

(2)

From equations (1) & (2) we have

GMm

R2

GM

R2

mg

g

-2

g is independent of mass of the body. Its value is 9.8ms on the surface of earth.

If two bodies of different masses are allowed to fall freely from the same height

then, they both will reach the ground simultaneously.

Let `g` be the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of earth & g' at a point at

a height `h` above the ground. Then

GM

g' =

(1)

2

(R+h)

GM

But wkt g = 2

R

2

Or GM = gR

gR2

1 g' =

(R+h)2

2

gR

h

R

R 1

g'

Expanding 1

h

R

g1

h

R

we have

g'

g1

2h

R

h << R

Let `g` be the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of earth & g ' at a depth h

below the surface. Let M' be the mass of earth at that point of radius (R-h).

Assuming uniform density distribution, We have

38

M.N.Sharath kumar

M'

M

4 3

R

3

4

(R h)3

3

3

R h

M' M

R

GM'

Now g'

2

(R h)

G

2

(R

h)

g'

GM

Wkt

GM

R2

g'

.M

(1)

h)3

(R

R3

R h

R3

g

R

h

R

On simplification we have

g'

g1

h

R

i.e the value of `g` decreases with increase in depth & is zero at the centre i.e h=R

Earth rotates on its own axis with its angular velocity w. The acceleration due to

gravity at a place having a latitude is given by

g w2 Rcos

Case 1: At equator

0

cos0

1

g' g w2 R

90

Case 2: At poles

cos90

0

g' g

g'

Keplers I law: All planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits with the sun at

one focus of the orbit(Law of orbit).

II law: The line joining any planet & the sun sweeps equal area in equal intervals

of time.(Law of areas)

III law: The square of time period of revolution of any planet about the sun is

directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of the orbit.

39

M.N.Sharath kumar

T2 R3

This law is known as law of periods.

magnitude of external force applied to the magnitude of acceleration produced in it.

i.e. m = F/a

a) It is a scalar quantity.

b) It does not depend on size, shape & state of body.

c) It increases with increase in the velocity of the body.

Gravitational mass: It is the property of the body, which determines the gravitational

attractive force acting on it due to earth.

2

RE F

GME

a) It is a scalar quantity.

b) It varies from place to place.

Orbital velocity of a satellite: The velocity of a satellite in its circular orbit is known as

orbital velocity.

Consider a satellite of mass `m` moving around the earth with an orbital velocity

v0 in a circular orbit of radius r.

The centripetal force balanced the gravitational force

mv02

i.e

r

GMm

r2

v0

GM

r

GM

R h

2

Wkt GM gr

v0

gR2

R

v0

V0

if h

gR

Time period of satellite: It is the time taken by a satellite to complete one revolution

round the earth.

Circumference of orbit

orbital velocity

40

M.N.Sharath kumar

2 r

v0

2 (R

h)

GM

(R h)

3/ 2

2 (R

h)

GM

Escape velocity: The minimum velocity of projection of a body for which it escapes

from the gravitational attraction of earth is known as escape velocity.

The kinetic energy of the body is equal to potential energy of the body given by

GMm

R

1

mve2

2

2GM

Or ve

R

GM

But wkt g

R2

GM gr2

ve

11.2kms

ve

2

R

ve

2gR

gR2

Weightlessness: consider an artificial satellite of mass `m` revolving around the earth

with an orbital velocity v in an orbit of radius r. Then

Mm mv 2

G 2

r

r

2

GM v

r2

r

(1)

gravitational force as well as reaction force i.e

GMm'

r2

GMm'

r2

GMm'

r2

m' v 2

r

41

M.N.Sharath kumar

GM R

v2

r2

m'

r

2

v

Substitute the value of

from (1) we have

r

GM R

r2

m'

R 0

GM

r2

m'

If the ropes of the descending lift are broken, then the people inside the lift will

feel weightlessness.

42

M.N.Sharath kumar

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