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Work: work is said to be done if the body displaces from one position to another by the

application of force.

For work to be done, the following conditions has to be satisfied

a) A force must be applied.

b) The applied force should displace the body.

The amount of work done is measured by the product of the applied force & the

distance through which it moves in the direction of force.

If a body displaces through a distance `s` by the application of force F then work

done is given by

F. s

Consider a body of mass m. Let F be a force acting on the body at A which takes

the body to B making an angle w.r.t horizontal. The component of displacement along

the direction of force F is scos.

Work done

B

S

F. s

= F s cos

When

0 the displacement of the body takes place

in the direction of force.

W = Fs

Note: 1) When

2) If s=0, W=0, i.e. no work is done.

3) Work done is a scalar quantity.

Units of work: The work done is said to be 1 joule when a force of 1 Newton moves a

body through a distance of 1 meter.

Work done by a constant force:

Consider a constant force F acting on a body which

takes the body from initial position x i to final position x f .

Then the total displacement

x

W

xf

xi

F.x

xi

xf

This is nothing but the area under the force position curve.

30

M.N.Sharath kumar

If a variable force acts on the body, then the total

curve can be divided into short segments

s1, s2 , s3..... . This displacement takes place by the

force F1 cos , F2 cos .....

The total work is given by

F1 cos

s1

F2 cos

s2

.....

Thus, the total work done by a varying force for a given displacement is equal to

the total area under the force curve & the displacement axis.

Power: It is defined as the time rate of doing work. It is measured by the amount of work

done in 1 second.

If W is the work done in `t` seconds then

Workdone W

P

time

t

Thus more the time, less the power & less the time more the power. Power is a scalar

quantity.

W

but W F.s

t

s

F. s

,

F

t

t

Wkt P

P

P

F.v

Power is the dot product of constant force & the velocity of the point application of the

force.

SI unit of Power: SI unit is watt (W). The power is said to be 1W if one joule of work is

done in one second. But we usually use the unit called as horse power.

1 HP = 746W

Energy: It is the capacity to do work by a body. It represents the total amount of work

that a body can perform. Its a scalar quantity. Thermal, nuclear, mechanical,

electrostatic are the different forms of energy. Mechanical energy is of two types:

a) Kinetic energy

b) Potential energy

Potential energy: It is the energy possessed by virtue of its position is known as potential

energy.

Expression for potential energy:

Consider a body of mass `m` be raised to a height `h` from the

ground. Due to its position, it possess potential energy. The work done

in

lifting the body is stored as potential energy in the body.

By definition

Work done = force displacement

Work done = F h

But the weight `mg` acting downwards is the force.

31

M.N.Sharath kumar

F = mg

Work done = mgh

Since the work done is nothing but the potential energy stored in the body.

P.E=mgh

This is the expression of potential energy possessed by a body placed at a height `h`

above the ground.

When a spring is compressed or stretched, it possess potential energy. Let the

spring be stretched through a distance `x` along its length from its mean position.

Then the P.E of a spring is given by

P.E

1 2

kx

2

Note: 1) P.E is independent of path.

2) It depends on the final position.

Kinetic energy: It is the energy possessed by the body due to the virtue of its motion. It is

measured by the amount of work that the body can do before coming to rest.

Let a body of mass `m` moving with a velocity v is brought to rest by applying a

F

. Let the

m

body travels a distance `s` before coming to rest. The work done is equal to F. s

2

u 2 2as

Consider v

constant force F . Then the uniform retardation produced in the body is a

0 v 2 2as

v 2 2as

v2

a

2s

But K.E=Work done before the body comes to rest.

K.E = F.s

=mas

v2

m .s

2s

1

K.E

mv 2

2

James Watt

32

M.N.Sharath kumar

Work Energy theorem: It states that the work done by a force acting on a body is equal

to the change in K.E of the body.

W K.E2 K.E1

1

1

mv22

mv12

2

2

1

W

m v22

v12

2

One can notice that

a) When Work done is + ve, K.E increases.

b) When Work done is ve , K.E decreases.

Principle of conservation of energy:

Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed but can be changed from one form

to another so that the total energy always remains constant.

Illustrations of conservation of energy:

A freely falling body:

Let a particle of mass `m` be at A at a height `h` from the ground. Let it fall freely

to B.

a) At point A the body is at rest. Since it is not moving its velocity is zero so K.E is also

zero.

P.E = mgh

Total energy = P.E + K.E

mgh

(1)

height (h x) from B.

At c, P.E = mg(h x)

If v1 is the velocity attained by the body at c then,

v12

v12

u 2 2gx

0 2gx

1

K.E

mv12

2

1

m 2gx

2

K.E = mgx

T.E = P.E + K.E

=mg(h-x)+mgx

=mgh-mgx-mgx

T.E mgh

(2)

c)At point B, let v 2 be the velocity of the body.

P.E at B is zero because h=0

v 2 u 2 2gs

33

M.N.Sharath kumar

v2

2gh

1

K.E

mv22

2

1

m 2gh

2

K.E = mgh

Total energy =P.E + K.E

= 0 + mgh

mgh

(3)

From equations (1), (2) & (3) it is clear that the total energy of a body remains constant

throughout its motion. Thus total energy is conserved.

AB is a smooth inclined plane of height H. Let l be the total length of plane & be the

angle between the inclined plane & horizontal.

a) At A, the body of mass m has only

P.E since it is at rest.

P.E = mgh

K.E = 0

T.E = P.E + K.E

= mgH + 0

T.E = mgH

(1)

b) As the body moves down, its velocity increases which in turn decreases the P.E

and height also decreases. Consider a point D along the path with velocity v1 . The

body is pulled down by acceleration due to gravity g & it can be resolved as gsin

along the direction of motion of particle and gcos perpendicular to gsin. Only

parallel component causes the motion of the body down the plane . If `x` is the

distance traveled then,

v12 0 2gsin .x

v12 2gsin .x

1

K.E at D

mv12

2

1

m.2gxsin

2

K.E = mgxsin

H

From le ADE sin

h

x

xsin

H h

K.Eat D mg(H h)

P.Eat D mgh

T.E mgH mgh mgh

34

M.N.Sharath kumar

T.E mgH

(2)

v2

2gsin .l

From

le

ABC sin

v2

K.E

H

l

2gH

1

mv 2

2

1

2gH m mgH

2

T.E = mgH+0

T.E mgH

(3)

From equations (1), (2) & (3) we see that the total energy is conserved.

Conservative forces: If the work done in moving a particle by a force depends on

initial & final positions of the particle but not on the path taken, then the force is said to

be conservative.

1) Work done by a conservative force along a circular path is zero.

2) The work done by a conservative force is completely recoverable.

Ex: Gravitational force, elastic force in a stretched or compressed spring, magnetic force

between 2 magnetic poles ,electrostatic force between 2 charges.

Non conservative force: A force is said to be conservative if the work done by or

against the force in moving a body depends on the path taken between initial & final

positions.

Ex: Frictional force, viscous force, tension in a rope.

Collisions: It is also even in which either of the bodies come in physical contact with

each other or one body is affected by the force exerted due

to other. In collisions, the total momentum of bodies is always conserved i.e. momentum

before collision is equal to momentum after collision.

Elastic collision: A collision is said to be elastic if both K.E & momentum are conserved.

The equations are

m1u1 m2u2 m1 v1 m2 v 2

1

1

1

2

and m1 v1

m 2 v22

m1u12

2

2

2

1

m 2u22

2

Inelastic collision: The collision is said to be inelastic when only momentum is conserved

but not the energy.

Ex: Collision between 2 automobiles, hammering a nail, bullet fired into a block. The

equation is given by

m1u1

m 2 u2

(m1

m2 )v

35

M.N.Sharath kumar

1

m1u12

2

1

m 2u22

2

1

(m1

2

m 2 )v 2

Co efficient of restitution: It is defined as the ratio of relative velocity of the body after

collision to its relative velocity before collision.

Let u1 & u 2 be the velocities of 2 bodies before collision & v1 & v 2 be the

velocities after collision. Then the co- efficient of restitution is give n by

(v1

(u1

v2 )

u2 )

u1

u1

(v1 v 2 )

(u1 u 2 )

u2

v1 v 2

u 2 v 2 v1

For a perfect inelastic collision e = 0

(v1 v 2 ) u1 u2

(v1 v 2 )

Or

0

u1 u 2

v1 v 2 0

Or v1 v2

i.e. body stick together after collision & move with a same velocity.

36

M.N.Sharath kumar

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