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Discretise domain into control volumes

Integrate governing equations over all control volumes

Choose profiles of between grid points to represent the

derivatives

Form algebraic equations and solve by iterative method.

Structured Grid

can be determined using

simple addition.

programming and the matrix of the

algebraic equation system has a

regular structure.

It is difficult to model complex

geometries using structured grid.

Unstructured Grid

be determined using simple

addition.

1. Ease of grid generation

for complex geometries

which resist structured

discretization.

2. Mesh refinement is easy at

local features of interest.

The advantage of flexibility is offset

by the disadvantage of the irregularity

of the data structure.

Development of Code

START

GRID

PRE-PROCESSOR

SOLVER

POST-PROCESSOR

STOP

Start.

Read the geometrical data from the files

generated by pre-processor.

Develop discretised equations.

Apply Gauss Siedel iterative method to solve

the equations.

Stop

MATHEMATICAL

MODELLING

equation is

S 0

xi xi

E

E

D p,i

b

Di

(1)

i

a

Ds , i

nb

Di S p V p 0

i 1

E

e s ,i

e

where

et ,i

Di i A

Expressing the total diffusion term as sum of primary and secondary

diffusion terms

Di D p ,i Ds ,i

(2)

n i

(3)

(4)

( E P ) Ai Ai

D p ,i i

dsi

Ai e

(5)

s ,i

(b a ) Ai Ai

Ds ,i i

( es ,i et ,i )

A

Ai e

(6)

s ,i

(7)

Ds ,i Di D p ,i

i

Ai Ai

Ds ,i

( ) ave ,i Ai ( ) ave ,i es ,i

dsi

dsi

Ai es ,i

(8)

( ) ave,i

START

P min(all i )

P E

k i

2

( )P

VP

nf

i , P P P ( ) P dr i

k A k

~ i ,P i ,E

i

2

k 1

i,P P ( ) P d r i

imax

,P P

min 1,

i,P P

imin

P

i min 1, , P

i,P

P

( ) P

i,P P

i, P P

i, P P

1 nf ~

k Ak

k

V P 1

( ) ave , i

( ) P ( ) E

STOP

nb

a P P

ai i b

i 1

where

ai Bi

i A i A i

dsi

A i es ,i

nb

Ds,i S P VP

i 1

Ds ,i

Ai Ai

i ( ) ave,i A i ( ) ave,i e s,i

dsi

dsi

A i es ,i

nb

aP

Bi

i 1

* nb = number of neighbors

Convergence Criteria

old 0.00001

max

iteration level

old = the value of the general variable at the same control volume but at previous

iteration level.

max = maximum absolute value of the general variable at the current iteration level

in the entire domain.

What are the limitations of a structured grid system?

What are the ways by which a complex geometry can be

modelled using a finite volume method?

Explain how body fitted coordinate system can be

implemented to represent curved boundaries?

Explain the difference between orthogonal and non-orthogonal

systems.

Unstructured grid system looks very similar to the ones used in

FEM. What is the main difference in the two approaches?

Can you use TDMA for solving discretized equations in

unstructured grid? Why is Gauss-Siedel method preferred?

Explain how the flux balance method in an unstructured grid is

different from that in a structured grid.

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