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MODELING OF DIFFUSION PROCESS USING

FVM With UNSTRUCTURED GRID

Finite Volume Method


Discretise domain into control volumes
Integrate governing equations over all control volumes
Choose profiles of between grid points to represent the
derivatives
Form algebraic equations and solve by iterative method.

Structured Grid

The neighbors of a grid point


can be determined using
simple addition.

The neighbor connectivity simplifies


programming and the matrix of the
algebraic equation system has a
regular structure.
It is difficult to model complex
geometries using structured grid.

Unstructured Grid

The neighbors of a grid point cannot


be determined using simple
addition.

Why Unstructured Grid?


1. Ease of grid generation
for complex geometries
which resist structured
discretization.
2. Mesh refinement is easy at
local features of interest.
The advantage of flexibility is offset
by the disadvantage of the irregularity
of the data structure.

Flow Chart Showing


Development of Code
START
GRID
PRE-PROCESSOR
SOLVER
POST-PROCESSOR
STOP

Algorithm for Solver


Start.
Read the geometrical data from the files
generated by pre-processor.
Develop discretised equations.
Apply Gauss Siedel iterative method to solve
the equations.
Stop

MATHEMATICAL
MODELLING

For steady state no flow process, the governing


equation is

S 0
xi xi

E
E
D p,i

b
Di

(1)
i

a
Ds , i

Integrating over a typical control volume


nb

Di S p V p 0

i 1

E
e s ,i
e

where

et ,i

Di i A
Expressing the total diffusion term as sum of primary and secondary
diffusion terms

Di D p ,i Ds ,i

(2)
n i

(3)

(4)

( E P ) Ai Ai
D p ,i i

dsi
Ai e

(5)

s ,i

(b a ) Ai Ai
Ds ,i i
( es ,i et ,i )

A
Ai e

(6)

s ,i

(7)

Ds ,i Di D p ,i

i
Ai Ai
Ds ,i
( ) ave ,i Ai ( ) ave ,i es ,i
dsi
dsi
Ai es ,i

(8)

Flow chart to compute

( ) ave,i

START
P min(all i )

P E
k i
2

( )P

VP

nf

i , P P P ( ) P dr i

k A k

~ i ,P i ,E
i
2

k 1

i,P P ( ) P d r i

imax

,P P
min 1,

i,P P

imin
P

i min 1, , P

i,P
P

( ) P

i,P P

i, P P
i, P P

1 nf ~
k Ak
k
V P 1

( ) ave , i

( ) P ( ) E

STOP

The Discretized Equation


nb

a P P

ai i b
i 1

where

ai Bi

i A i A i
dsi
A i es ,i

nb

Ds,i S P VP
i 1

Ds ,i


Ai Ai
i ( ) ave,i A i ( ) ave,i e s,i
dsi

dsi

A i es ,i

nb

aP

Bi
i 1

* nb = number of neighbors

Convergence Criteria
old 0.00001
max

= the value of the general variable at a particular control volume at current


iteration level

old = the value of the general variable at the same control volume but at previous
iteration level.

max = maximum absolute value of the general variable at the current iteration level
in the entire domain.

MODULE 6 Review Questions


What are the limitations of a structured grid system?
What are the ways by which a complex geometry can be
modelled using a finite volume method?
Explain how body fitted coordinate system can be
implemented to represent curved boundaries?
Explain the difference between orthogonal and non-orthogonal
systems.
Unstructured grid system looks very similar to the ones used in
FEM. What is the main difference in the two approaches?
Can you use TDMA for solving discretized equations in
unstructured grid? Why is Gauss-Siedel method preferred?
Explain how the flux balance method in an unstructured grid is
different from that in a structured grid.