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Original Title: 1- Behaviour of Real Fluids

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A fluid is assumed ideal if it posses the following characteristics:

1.

2.

3.

4.

It is inviscid

It is incompressible

It has no surface tension

It always form a continuum

In civil engineering, surface tension problems are encountered only in the very low flows

over weirs or in hydraulic models. Compressibility phenomena are associated with surge

as in the case of water hammer.

The viscosity is the characteristics which differentiates so many aspects of real fluid

flows from ideal flows.

KNS2153/0910/RB

2. Viscous Flow

In Fig 2, fluids are both sandwiched between a fixed solid surface on one side and a

movable belt on the other.

a- Ideal Fluid

The force required to move the belt is negligible

The movement of the belt has no effect whatsoever on the ideal fluid,

which remains stationary.

b- Real Fluid

A considerable force is required to maintain belt motion, even at low

speed.

The whole body of fluid is deforming and continues to deform as long as

belt motion continues. Closer investigation will reveal that deformation

pattern consists in the shearing, sliding, of one layer of fluid over another.

The layer of fluid immediately adjacent to the slid surface will adhere to

that surface and, similarly, the layer adjacent to the belt adheres to the belt.

Between the solid surface and the belt the fluid velocity is assumed to vary

linearly.

KNS2153/0910/RB

If the speed of the belt increased, the pattern of linearly sheared flow will continue to

exist only up to a certain belt velocity. Above that velocity a dramatic transformation

takes place in the flow pattern.

Effect of a disturbance in a sheared flow

Consider a slowly moving sheared flow. If a small disturbance happened (a small local

vibration), the pathlines will be slightly deflected, bunching together at A and opening

out correspondingly at B. This implies that the local velocity at A, u A, increases slightly

compared with the upstream velocity u, while at the same time uB reduces. From

Bernoulli equation,

P

u2

P

u2

P u2

+

= A + A = B + B

rg 2 g rg 2 g rg 2 g

Therefore PB>PA. It can thus be reasoned that the disturbance will produce a small

transverse resultant force acting from B towards A. The lateral components of velocity

will also produce a corresponding component of viscous shear force, which acts in the

opposite sense to the resultant disturbing force. As long as the fluid is moving slowly, the

resultant disturbing force tends to be outweighed by the viscous force. Disturbances are

therefore damped out. As the rate of shear increases, the effect of the disturbance

becomes more pronounced:

The pressure differences (PA-PB ) increases with (uA2-u B2), so the deflection of the

pathline becomes more pronounced

The greater shear results in a deformation of the crest of the pathline pattern.

When the shear is sufficiently great, the deformation is carried beyond the point at

which the rectilinear pattern of pathlines can cohere. The flow disintegrates into a

disorderly pattern of eddies in place of the orderly patterns of layers.

KNS2153/0910/RB

Consider a rectilinear flow passing over a stationary flat plate, which lies parallel to the

flow. The incident flow has a uniform velocity, U. As the flow comes into contact with

the plate, the layer of fluid immediately adjacent to the plate decelerates (due to viscous

friction) and comes to rest. This follows from the postulate that in viscous fluids a thin

layer of fluid adhere to a solid surface. There is then a considerable shearing action

between the layer of fluid on the plate surface and the second layer of fluid. The second

layer is therefore forced to decelerate (it is not quiet brought to rest), creating a shearing

action with the third layer of fluid and so on. As the fluid passes further along the plate,

the zone in which shearing action occurs tends to spread further outwards. This zone is

known as a boundary layer. Outside the boundary layer the flow remains effectively

free of shear, so the fluid here is not subjected to viscosity-related forces. The fluid flow

outside the boundary layer may therefore be assumed to act like an ideal fluid.

The flow within the boundary layer may be viscous or turbulent, depending on the value

of the Reynolds Number. To evaluate Re we need a typical dimension and in boundary

layers this dimension is usually the distance in the x-plane from the leading edge of the

solid boundary. The Reynolds number thus becomes Rex=rUx/m.

The structure of the boundary layer is therefore as shown in figure 5.

KNS2153/0910/RB

Implications of the boundary layer concept

Different material exhibit different degrees of roughness. Does this have any effect on the

boundary layer?

In laminar flow, the friction is transmitted by pure shearing action. Consequently, the

roughness of the solid surface has no effect, except to trap small pools of stationary

fluid in the interstices, and thus slightly increase the thickness of the stationary layer

of fluid.

In a turbulent flow, a laminar sub-layer forms close to the solid surface. If the average

height of the surface roughness is smaller than the height of the laminar sub-layer,

there will be little or no effect on the overall flow.

Turbulent flow embodies a process of momentum transfer from layer to layer.

Consequently, if the surface roughness protrudes through the laminar region into the

turbulent region, then it will cause additional eddy formation and therefore greater

energy loss in the turbulent flow. This implies that the apparent frictional shear will

be increased.

KNS2153/0910/RB

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