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Averaged-Circuit Modeling of Line-Commutated

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Sina Chiniforoosh1, Ali Davoudi2, and Juri Jatskevich1

1

1

{sinach, jurij}@ece.ubc.ca; 2davoudi2@uiuc.edu

Abstract Dynamic average-value models (AVM) for linecommutated rectifier circuits are generally formulated in a

state-space form and hence are straightforward to implement in

state-variable-based simulation languages. In nodal-analysisbased languages, however, developing AVMs requires additional

effort to reformulate the models and interface them with the

external circuit networks. This paper proposes an averagedcircuit model for representing three-phase line-commutated

rectifier in nodal-analysis-based simulation languages. The

model derivation and its interface with the network are

presented. The proposed model is verified against a detailed

switch-level implementation of the system.

I.

INTRODUCTION

models of line-commutated converters, where switching of all

devices is implemented in detail, may be readily built in both

the state-variable- [1]-[2] and nodal-analysis-based [3]-[5]

simulation languages. It is therefore possible to develop

models of larger systems from a number of smaller

subsystems/modules that can be used for the simulation of

systems transients. However, the use of detailed switching

models leads to significant increase of the required computing

time, which in turn limits the size of the system that can be

practically simulated. Moreover, the switching models are

discontinuous and hence difficult to use for extracting the

small-signal characteristics of various modules for the systemlevel analysis.

The above challenges have led to development of the socalled dynamic average-value models (AVMs) which

approximate the original system by neglecting or

averaging the effects of fast switching within a prototypical

switching interval. These models are computationally efficient

and could run orders of magnitudes faster than the original

switching models enabling efficient simulation of systems

transients. Additionally, since AVMs are time-invariant, they

can be linearized about any desired operating point for smallsignal analysis, i.e., obtaining local transfer functions.

Dynamic average-value models for line-commutated

rectifiers are generally developed using two main approaches,

i.e., analytical [6]-[8] and parametric [9]-[11]. Regardless of

the approach, the final model is typically formulated in the

state-variable-based programs, where the discretization of the

differential equations is done at the system level, is

straightforward. However, in nodal-analysis-based programs

(the EMTP-type programs [3] and its many variants) the

discretization is done at the component level making modeling

approaches more challenging. Consequently, developing

AVMs for representing line-commutated rectifiers in the

nodal-analysis-based programs requires additional effort to

reformulate the models and interface them with the external

circuit networks. This has not yet received the needed

attention in the literature.

In this paper, an averaged-circuit model is developed for

representing three-phase line-commutated rectifiers in a nodalanalysis-based program. The final model is developed in the

form of an averaged equivalent circuit for the switching

rectifier and is interfaced with the external ac circuit-network

using the so-called indirect method of interfacing [12], [13].

II.

solution approach is based on discretizing the differential

equations for each circuit component using a particular

integration rule. The EMTP [3] uses an implicit trapezoidal

rule for discretization and formulating the network nodal

equation that has the following general form

GVn = I h .

(1)

vector I h includes the so-called history current sources and

independent current sources injected into the nodes. The nodal

voltages Vn are unknown and calculated by solving (1) at

every time step.

Line-commutated rectifiers repeatedly introduce changes

into the topology of the circuit. As shown in Fig. 1 (a),

representing converters by detailed switching models makes

the overall circuit-network time-variant and repeatedly

changes the G matrix. In a typical algorithm accounting for

topological changes [14], [15], at each time step, possible

changes in the topology of the network are detected.

Whenever a change is detected, the network conductance

2318

network for the instant of switching is recalculated using

interpolations/extrapolations. This imposes a burden on the

overall solution.

!"

Ldc

Lc

ebs

rdc

S3

vab_s

=>?

S4

S5

S6

Rload

vdc

Lc

ecs

i qs = i qs ,com + i qs,cond ,

#

progrmas: (a) embedded switching models; (b) interfaced AVMs.

switching form the system. However, the AVMs are generally

nonlinear and typically include inter-dependant current and/or

voltage sources that relate the ac and dc ports of the converter

circuit. Moreover, for the purpose of derivation, the ac

variables are normally transformed to an appropriate qd

reference frame. Hence, the ac ports of the AVMs are

represented in qd coordinates, whereas the external ac

network is normally represented in abc phase coordinates,

which additionally complicates replacing of the switching

models with their AVMs. The approach developed here is

based on interfacing the AVMs with the external circuit

network as shown in Fig. 1 (b).

III.

=>?

S2

ias

S1

Lc

eas

!"

vas

!"

idc

2 3 idc

iqs,com =

iqs,cond =

ids,com =

3 vqs

[ (

4 Lce

2 3 idc

( )]

5

5

sin 6 + sin 6

2 3 idc

3 vqs

[ ( ) (

)]

[ ( )

)]

7

5 ,

sin 6 sin + 6

5

5

cos 6 cos 6

[sin (2 ) 4 sin + 2 ],

4 Lce

[ (

2 3 idc

( )]

5

7 ,

cos + 6 cos 6

where is the so-called commutation angle defined as

ids,cond =

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

A. State-Space Model

Let us consider the three-phase line-commutated rectifier

system depicted in Fig. 2. The dynamic average model for this

system is typically considered for Mode 1 where each

switching interval is divided into two sub-intervals, namely

commutation and conduction [16]. For the purpose of

derivation, the ac variables are represented in the so-called

qd converter reference frame in which the d-axis component

of the input voltage is identically zero [6]. Also, it is assumed

that the dc bus current does not change within a switching

interval [6]. Following the approach set forth in [6], the

dynamics of the dc bus may be represented by the following

state equation

3 3

3

vqs rdc + Lc e idc vdc , (2)

2 Lc e idc

3 vqs

(8)

B. Averaged-Circuit Model

Equations (2)-(8) represent a state-space average-value

model for the switching circuit of Fig. 2. This has been

illustrated in the block diagram of Fig 3. In this figure, the ac

and dc networks are connected through a nonlinear timeinvariant block which replaces the switching network of Fig.

2. The inputs to this block are the qd components of the ac

input voltage and the voltage of the dc bus. The outputs

include the dc-bus current and the qd components of the ac

phase currents.

Ldc + 2 Lc

didc

=

dt

= cos 1 1

x=

x (x , v , )

symbol has been used to denote the so-called fast average of

variables over the switching interval.

i

obtained by averaging the q- and d- component currents in the

commutation and conduction sub-intervals, and combining the

result:

= g (x , v

,

)

to the trapezoidal rule (as used in the EMTP) and interfaced

2319

steps due to limited space, the final equation is:

1

Req

idc (t ) =

3 3

v qs (t ) v dc (t ) + ih,dc (t ) ,

(9)

2 Lrec

,

t

(10)

where

Req = Rrec +

Rrec = rdc +

Lce ,

Lrec = Ldc + 2 Lc .

(11)

Here, the discretization time step is denoted by t .The socalled history term, ih, dc (t ) , is a function of the network

variables at the previous time step. In particular,

2R

ih, dc (t ) = 1 rec idc (t t )

Req

(12)

1 3 3

+

vqs (t t ) vdc (t t ) .

Req

Fig. 4, where the dc and ac sides have been represented by

inter-dependent current sources. The dc port includes a

Norton-equivalent conductance-current-source pair. The acside current sources are represented as nonlinear functions of

the dc bus current idc and ac input voltage vqs .

between the ac network and the input port of the AVM in each

phase. The resistor must be chosen sufficiently large to reduce

the interfacing error. The value of the compensating current

source at each time step is then calculated as

icomp _ x (t ) =

V x (t t )

,

rz

(13)

model with interfacing circuitry, which includes compensating

resistor rz and current source icomp is illustrated in Fig. 5.

L )

L )

(

,

L )

cause unfavorable numerical oscillations and convergence

problems. To mitigate this problem, the use of interfacing

circuitry has been proposed for the machine models in [13]. A

modified circuit includes a resistor rz and the so-called

compensating current source icomp . This circuit is inserted

illustrated in Fig. 5.

solution of the network at the previous time step. These

current sources are then transformed back to abc , and

injected into the ac network as iinj _ a , iinj _ b , and iinj _ c as is

+

conveniently interfaced with the ac network in abc phase

variables (coordinates). In particular, the values of the input

three-phase voltages are transformed into the converter

reference frame using the appropriate transformation matrix

[6]. The value of the dependent current source at the dc side is

then obtained as a function of vqs . Similarly, the values of the

the ac side being represented in qd variables, still makes it

challenging to implement this model directly in a nodalanalysis-based program wherein the external ac network is

represented in physical phase variables, i.e., abc . Similar to

interfacing the qd machine models with the abc networks

[12], [13], a simple solution is to introduce a time-step delay

between the dc and ac subsystems. This indirect interfacing

method has been used to interface all the qd machine models

in the PSCAD/EMTDC software [5]. Adopting this method,

the ac and dc subsystems become decoupled and the

dependent current sources turn into independent sources. The

values of these sources are calculated, similar to the history

sources, according to the solution of the network at the

previous time step t t . Also, since the solution of the

network at the previous time steps are readily available, the

transformation of the network variables between abc and qd

To demonstrate the effectiveness of the averaged-circuit

model formulated in the previous section, simulation studies

are carried out as follows. The detailed (switch-level) model

of the system (Fig. 2) has been implemented in

PSCAD/EMTDC [5]. The system parameters are given in the

Appendix. The averaged-circuit model is implemented using

an EMTP-type algorithm. Initially, at t = 0 , the system is at

zero initial conditions when the three-phase input source is

switched on. Then, at t = 0.02 s , the load resistance is

switched from its initial value, Rload = 2 , to Rload = 1 .

Finally, at t = 0.04 s , the load resistance is switched back to

2 . The resulting voltage and current at the dc bus, idc ,

vdc , as predicted by the detailed and average-value models

2320

predicted by the detailed and average-value models are

superimposed in Fig. 7. Studies of Figs. 6 and 7 are obtained

using the typical EMTP time step of 50 s . These figures

demonstrate a close match between the detailed and averagevalue models of the system.

Next, the effect of increasing the time-step size is

evaluated. For this purpose, the results of the previous study

(Figs. 6 and 7) as predicted by the AVM are chosen as the

reference solution (labeled as Ref in the following figures).

The same study is carried out with time-step of 500 s , and

the results are superimposed in Figs. 8 and 9. As seen in this

figure, the accuracy of the AVM remains very good even at

such a large time-step. This also demonstrates an order of

magnitude increase of the simulation efficiency.

@?

@?

[2]

[5]

[6]

[7]

@?

@?

[10]

[12]

[14]

[13]

=I

[9]

[11]

[8]

parameters:

e = 2 60 rad s

=I

System

[4]

APPENDIX

[3]

CONCLUSION

for representing three-phase line-commutated rectifiers in

nodal-analysis-based simulation programs such as EMTP. The

proposed AVM is conveniently interfaced with the external

circuit-network through its Norton-equivalent conductancecurrent-source. The AVM is continuous (does not switch) and

can execute with much larger time step, which improves the

simulation efficiency for the system-level transient studies.

The simulation results demonstrate an excellent match

between the detailed switch-level implementation of the

system and the proposed average model.

[1]

V.

[15]

[16]

2321

REFERENCES

Simulink Dynamic System Simulation Software, Users Manual,

MathWorks Inc., 2008. Available: http://www.mathworks.com.

Piecewise Linear Electrical Circuit Simulation (PLECS), User Manual,

Version 1.4, Plexim GmbH, 2008. Available: www.plexim.com.

H. W. Dommel, EMTP Theory Book, MicroTran Power System

Analysis Corp., 1992.

MicroTran Reference Manual, MicroTran Power System Analysis

Corp., 1997. Available: http://www.microtran.com.

PSCAD/EMTDC V4.0 On-Line Help, Manitoba HVDC Research

Centre and RTDS Technologies Inc., 2005.

P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk, and S. D. Sudhoff, Analysis of Electric

Machinery and Drive Systems, IEEE Press, 2002.

S. D. Sudhoff and O. Wasynczuk, Analysis and average-value

modeling of line-commutated converter-synchronous machine

systems, IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 92-99,

Mar. 1993.

H. Zhu, New multi-pulse diode rectifier average models for ac and dc

power systems studies, PhD Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic

Institute and State University, 2005.

I. Jadric, D. Borojevic, and M. Jadric, Modeling and control of a

synchronous generator with an active DC load, IEEE Trans. Power

Electronics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 303311, Mar. 2000.

J. Jatskevich, S. D. Pekarek, and A. Davoudi, Parametric averagevalue model of synchronous machine-rectifier systems, IEEE Trans.

Energy Conversion, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 9-18, Mar. 2006.

J. Jatskevich, S. D. Pekarek, and A. Davoudi, Fast procedure for

constructing an accurate dynamic average-value model of synchronous

machine-rectifier systems, IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 21,

no. 2, pp. 435-441, Jun. 2006.

D.A. Woodford, A.M. Gole, and R.W. Menzies, Digital Simulation of

DC Links and AC Machines, IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and

Systems, vol. PAS-102, no. 6, pp. 1616-1623, Jun. 1983.

A.M. Gole, R.W. Menzies, H.M. Turanli, and D.A. Woodford,

Improved interfacing of electrical machine models to electromagnetic

transients programs,

IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and

Systems, vol. PAS-103, no. 9, pp. 24462451, Sep. 1984.

K. Strunz, L. Linares, J. R. Marti, O. Huet, and X. Lombard, Efficient

and accurate representation of asynchronous network structure

changing phenomena in digital real time simulators, IEEE Trans.

Power Systems, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 586-592, May 2000.

L. R. Linares and J. R. Marti, A resynchronization algorithm for

topological changes in real time fast transients simulation, in Proc.

14th Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC02), Sevilla,

Spain, June 2002.

R. M. Davis, Power Diode and Thyristor Circuits, Cambridge at the

University Press, 1971.

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