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Cooler Than Ever.

DUAL-STAGE

3,000

COMPRESSOR

TON CAPACITY

SMALLER
FOOTPRINT

The AquaEdge 19XR is bigger and better than ever, combining the best of chiller design in one
compact unit. This low-profile powerhouse features a dual-stage compressor for high-capacity cooling,
as well as a semi-hermetic motor, eliminating the release of heat into the mechanical room. The unit
also uses R134a refrigerant, allowing for a smaller footprint, which in turn makes for easier installation
and service. With a capacity of up to 3,000 tons, this versatile chiller has the power to cool even the
largest of spaces.

AquaEdge 19XR
Water-Cooled Chiller

Consider these Carrier components to get the most out of your system design:

Carrier Custom 39CC


Air Handler

ActivAIR 36IB
Induction Beam

Airstream 42 Series
Room Fan Coil

input #1 at www.csemag.com/information
Contact your Carrier expert or visit carrier.com/commercial.
Carrier Corporation 12/2015. A unit of United Technologies Corporation. Stock symbol UTX.

Integrated Facility
Management Control

Helping you
solve safety.
For Life.

Complex projects such as healthcare and manufacturing facilities require complex


fire, life-safety and communications solutions. By staying up to date with new
technology, you can design systems that better protect critical assets, simplify
code compliance and maximize efficiency.
We created the Architect & Engineer Resource Center to provide you with the latest
fire and life-safety technology and ideas. Youll find an interactive solutions map,
white papers, technical manuals, tools, videos and more. Its part of the service
and support Tyco SimplexGrinnell provides to architects and engineers.

Discover new fire and life-safety technology and solutions at the


Architect & Engineer Resource Center: www.TycoSimplexGrinnell.com.

input #2 at www.csemag.com/information

All the capabilities you want...


and some you may not have considered!

Custom Designed and Built


Power Control Systems
With mission-critical data and life safety at stake, why would you try to
make do with a standard catalog power control system? Why would
you settle for a less than optimal solution?
Dont compromise. Insist on a powerful, flexible, fully-integrated
Russelectric Power Control System... custom-designed and built
with your specific needs and wants in mind. Russelectric will custom
tailor a power control system that not only provides all the operating,
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and easy to use because it is based on your way of doing things. And
because Russelectric specializes in custom systems, we can often
suggest features and capabilities you never even considered.

1-800-225-5250

russelectric.com

An Employee-Owned Company / An Equal Opportunity Employer

input #3 at www.csemag.com/information

JUNE 2016

COVER STORY
32 | Noise and vibration control
in building design

ON THE COVER: The MGM Cotai gaming complex is a JBA


Consulting Engineers project in China encompassing the full
gamut of acoustics and noise-control practices including
room acoustics, sound isolation, HVAC noise control, transportation noise, and other aspects of acoustical engineering.
From potential transportation noise outside to room-to-room
isolation, public space environments, and entertainment
spaces, acoustics is integral to the overall building design.
Courtesy: JBA Consulting Engineers/MGM

DEPARTMENTS
07 | Viewpoint

27 | Codes & Standards

Hows business?

NFPA 99: Electrical


changes to the 2015 edition

11 | Research

Five electrical, power findings 77 | Digital Edition


Exclusive
identify changes, struggles
How secure is the Internet
of Things?
13 | Career Smart
Three tips to mull over when
starting a project

79 | Advertiser Index

14 | MEP Roundtable

80 | Future of
Engineering

High-performance medical
and educational building
design

21 | Codes & Standards


NFPA 99: A fire and life
safety perspective

Regulation of commercial,
industrial fan efficiency

The acoustical environment in a


buildinggood or badis the
result of design. For optimal
occupant comfort and facility
functionality, attention to noise
and vibration issues should be
included early and throughout
the building design and construction process.
TIMOTHY CAPE, CTS-D, and MICHAEL SCHWOB, PE

FEATURE
40 | Applying combined
heat and power systems
Cogeneration systems, often
referred to as combined heat and
power (CHP) systems, generate
both electricity and thermal energy. As they become more common in the United States, engineers must understand the
nuances and design strategies for successful application.
RODNEY V. OATHOUT, PE, CEM, LEED AP

ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES
Use the icons to identify topics of interest.
AUTOMATION & CONTROLS

HVAC

COMMUNICATIONS

LIGHTING

ELECTRICAL

PLUMBING

FIRE, SECURITY & LIFE SAFETY

CONSULTING-SPECIFYING ENGINEER (ISSN 0892-5046, Vol. 53, No. 5, GST #123397457) is published 11x per year, monthly except in February, by CFE Media, LLC, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite
#250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Jim Langhenry, Group Publisher /Co-Founder; Steve Rourke CEO/COO/Co-Founder. CONSULTING-SPECIFYING ENGINEER copyright 2016 by CFE Media, LLC. All rights reserved. CONSULTINGSPECIFYING ENGINEER is a registered trademark of CFE Media, LLC used under license. Periodicals postage paid at Oak Brook, IL 60523 and additional mailing offices. Circulation records are maintained at CFE Media, LLC, 1111
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negligence, accident or any other cause whatsoever.
www.csemag.com

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

Upcoming webcast

online now csemag.com

 Your questions answered:


HVAC: Cooling systems
 Three ways to use grooved
couplings to accommodate thermal movement in riser piping
 A practical approach to BIM/VDC workflow
 Managing the complexities of natatoriumsparts one and two.

Exceptional. Dedicated. Driven.


These are a few of the words used to describe
the 2016 Consulting-Specifying Engineer
40 Under 40 winners. Read about this years winners at
www.csemag.com/40under40.

Continuing Education

CONSULTING SPECIFYING

2016

Consulting-Specifying Engineers Product of the Year


(POY) contest is the premier award for new products
in the HVAC, fire/life safety, electrical, and plumbing
systems engineering markets. The annual reader-choice
program was created to provide Consulting-Specifying
Engineers readers with information about the top new products in their fields.
See the finalists and cast your vote here: www.csemag.com/votePOY.
Voting is open through June 30.

Pure Power
Pure Power is a quarterly publication for engineers and contractors involved in electrical control systems, emergency
building systems, fuses, circuit breakers, surge-suppression
devices, motor controls and drives, wiring and electrical distribution systems, power monitoring devices, UPS, and lighting
systems. Feature articles for June include:
 Putting COPS into context
 Designing medium-voltage electrical systems
 Planning, designing resilient, efficient data centers
 The nine major steps of designing generator fuel systems.

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

 Critical Power: Backup power


systems

Design engineers have many factors


to consider when designing a backup
system for a facility. Safety, maintainability, code compliance, and economics play crucial roles in determining
the topology of a backup system for
a critical facility. Specific requirements
for backup power vary based on building occupancy type, facility use, and
critical function. When designing generator systems, for example, engineers
must ensure that the generators and
the building electrical systems that
they support are appropriate for the
specific application.

Read this exclusive content online


at www.csemag.com/archives:

webcasts

Thursday, June 30, 2016,


at 11 a.m. PT/1 p.m. CT/2 p.m. ET

Web-exclusive
content

Vote for the 2016 Product


of the Year finalists

Register for upcoming


and on-demand webcasts at
www.csemag.com/webcast.

Register for continuing education on


education
a variety of topics,
including critical power, smart buildings, HVAC systems, fire and life
safety, lighting design, and many more.
Click on individual courses for complete details:
www.csemag.com/education.
Consulting-Specifying Engineer is on
Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn, Twitter,
and SlideShare. Follow ConsultingSpecifying Engineer, join the discussions, and receive news and advice
from your peers.
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input #4 at www.csemag.com/information

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or sign-up for a facility tour at:
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input #5 at www.csemag.com/information

Editors Viewpoint

1111 W. 22nd St. Suite 250, Oak Brook, IL 60523


630-571-4070 Fax 630-214-4504

CONTENT
CONTENT SPECIALISTS/EDITORIAL
SPECIALISTS/EDITORIAL
AMARA
AMARA ROZGUS,
ROZGUS, Editor-in-Chief/Content
Editor-in-Chief/Content Manager
Manager
630-571-4070
630-571-4070 x2211,
x2211, ARozgus@CFEMedia.com
ARozgus@CFEMedia.com
EMILY
GUENTHER,
Associate
Content
Manager
AMANDA
PELLICCIONE,
Director
of Research
630-571-4070
x2220, EGuenther@CFEMedia.com
APelliccione@CFEMedia.com
AMANDA
PELLICCIONE,
DirectorDirector
of Research
MICHAEL
SMITH, Creative
APelliccione@CFEMedia.com
630-779-8910,
MSmith@CFEmedia.com

Amara Rozgus,
Editor-in-Chief

MICHAEL
SMITH,Production
Creative Director
ELISA
GEISHEIMER,
Coordinator
630-779-8910,
630-571-4070
x2213,MSmith@CFEmedia.com
EGeisheimer@CFEMedia.com
ELISA GEISHEIMER, Production Coordinator
630-571-4070 x2213, EGeisheimer@CFEMedia.com

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD


EDITORIAL
ADVISORY
BOARD
ANIL AHUJA,
PE, LEED AP, RCDD,

President,
CCJM
ANIL AHUJA,
PE,Engineers,
LEED AP,Chicago
RCDD,
President,
CCJM Engineers,
Chicago
PETER
ALSPACH,
PE, LEED AP
BD+C,
Principal,
Engineer,
Seattle
PETER Mechanical
ALSPACH, PE,
LEED Arup,
AP BD+C,
Principal, Mechanical
Engineer,
Arup, Seattle
JERRY BAUERS,
PE,
National
Program
Executive,
JERRY
BAUERS,
PE,
Outcome Construction
ServicesExecutive,
LLC, Kansas City, Mo.
National Program
Outcome
Construction
Services
LLC,AP
Kansas
City, Mo.
MICHAEL
CHOW,
PE, LEED
BD+C,
Principal,
Metro CD
Engineering
LLC,AP
Columbus,
MICHAEL
CHOW,
PE, LEED
BD+C, Ohio
Principal, Metro CD
Engineering
LLC, Columbus, Ohio
TOM
DIVINE, PE,
Senior
Electrical
TOM
DIVINE,Engineer,
PE,
Smith
Seckman
Reid Engineer,
Inc., Houston
Senior
Electrical
Smith Seckman
ReidJR.,
Inc.,PE,
Houston
ROBERT
J. GARRA
CDT,
Vice President,
Electrical
ROBERT
J. GARRA
JR., Engineer,
PE, CDT,
CannonDesign,
Grand
Island,
N.Y.
Vice President, Electrical Engineer,
CannonDesign,
N.Y.C X A,
JASON
GERKE, PE, Grand
LEED Island,
AP BD+C,
Mechanical
Engineer,
GRAEF,
Milwaukee
JASON
GERKE,
PE, LEED
AP BD+C,
C X A,
Mechanical
Engineer,
GRAEF, PE,
Milwaukee
JOSHUA
D. GREENE,
Vice President,
JensenD.
Hughes,
Framingham,
Mass.
JOSHUA
GREENE,
PE,
Vice President,
JensenGRILL,
Hughes,
Framingham,
Mass.
RAYMOND
PE,
FSFPE,
Principal,
Arup,
Washington,
D.C.
RAYMOND
GRILL,
PE, FSFPE,
Principal,
Arup, PE,
Washington,
DANNA
JENSEN,
LEED APD.C.
BD+C,
Vice President,
ccrd,
WSP Co.,
Dallas
DANNA
JENSEN,
PE,a LEED
AP BD+C,
ViceWILLIAM
President,
ccrd, a WSP
Co., Dallas
KOFFEL,
PE, FSFPE,
President,
Koffel Associates
Inc.,FSFPE,
Columbia, Md.
WILLIAM
KOFFEL, PE,
President,
KoffelPE,
Associates
Inc.,AP
Columbia,
Md.
WILLIAM
KOSIK,
CEM, LEED
BD+C, BEMP,
Independent
Consultant,
Oak
Ill. BEMP,
WILLIAM
KOSIK, PE,
CEM, LEED
APPark,
BD+C,
Independent
Consultant,PE,
OakLEED
Park, AP,
Ill.
KENNETH
KUTSMEDA,
Engineering
Design
Principal, Jacobs,
Philadelphia
KENNETH
KUTSMEDA,
PE, LEED
AP,
Engineering
Design PE,
Principal,
Philadelphia
KEITH LANE,
RCDD,Jacobs,
LC, LEED
AP,
President,
Lane Coburn
& Associates,
KEITH LANE,
PE, RCDD,
LC, LEEDSeattle
AP,
President, LAUE,
Lane Coburn
& Associates,
JULIANNE
PE, LEED
AP BD+C,Seattle
BEMP,
Senior
MEP
Engineer,
Center
for
Sustainable
Energy,
JULIANNE LAUE, PE, LEED AP BD+C, BEMP,
Mortenson
Construction,
Minneapolis Energy,
Senior MEP
Engineer,
Center for Sustainable
Mortenson
Construction,
Minneapolis
KENNETH
L. LOVORN,
PE,
President, Lovorn
Engineering
Associates,
KENNETH
L. LOVORN,
PE, Pittsburgh
President, Lovorn DAVID
Engineering
Associates, Pittsburgh
LOWREY,
Chief Fire Marshal,
Boulder
(Colo.) Fire Rescue
DAVID
LOWREY,
Chief Fire
Marshal,MAR,
Boulder
MICHAEL
PE,(Colo.)
LEEDFire
AP, Rescue
Vice President,
Environmental
Design
MICHAEL
MAR,Systems
PE, LEED
AP, Inc., Chicago
Vice President, Environmental
Systems
Design Inc., Chicago
BRIAN MARTIN,
PE,
Electrical Engineer,
CH2M, Portland,
Ore.
BRIAN MARTIN,
PE,
ElectricalG.Engineer,
Portland,
DWAYNE
MILLER,CH2M,
PE, RCDD,
AEEOre.
CPQ,
Chief Executive
JBA Consulting
Engineers,
Las Vegas
DWAYNEOfficer,
G. MILLER,
PE, RCDD,
AEE CPQ,
Chief Executive
JBA Consulting
Engineers,
Las Vegas
RODNEYOfficer,
V. OATHOUT,
PE, CEM,
LEED AP,
Principal,
Regional Engineering
RODNEY
V. OATHOUT,
PE, CEM,Leader,
LEED AP,
DLR
Group,
Overland
Park,
Kan.
Principal, Regional Engineering Leader,
DLR
Group,
Overland
Park,
Kan.
SYED
PEERAN,
PE,
Ph.D.,
Senior SYED
Engineer,
CDM Smith
Inc., Boston
PEERAN,
PE, Ph.D.,
Senior Engineer,
CDM
Inc.,LEED
Boston
GREGORY
QUINN,
PE,Smith
NCEES,
AP,
Principal,QUINN,
Health Care
Market Leader,
GREGORY
PE, NCEES,
LEED AP,
Affiliated
Inc.,Market
Madison,
Wis.
Principal,Engineers
Health Care
Leader,
Affiliated
Inc.,
Wis.
BRIANEngineers
A. RENER,
PE,Madison,
LEED AP,
Associate,
Chicago
BRIAN A.SmithGroupJJR,
RENER, PE, LEED
AP,
Associate,
SmithGroupJJR,PE,
Chicago
RANDY
SCHRECENGOST,
CEM,
Austin
Operations
Group Manager
and
RANDY
SCHRECENGOST,
PE, CEM,
Senior
Mechanical
Austin
Operations
GroupEngineer,
Manager and
Stanley
Consultants,
Texas
Senior
MechanicalAustin,
Engineer,
Stanley Consultants,
Texas
GERALD
VERSLUYS, Austin,
PE, LEED
AP,
Health Care
Operations
GERALD
VERSLUYS,
PE,Manager,
LEED AP,
TLC Engineering
for Architecture,
Brentwood, Tenn.
Health Care
Operations Manager,
TLC Engineering
for Architecture,
Brentwood,
Tenn.
MIKE WALTERS,
PE, LEED
AP,
Wis.
Principal,
Fovea LLC,PE,
Madison,
MIKE WALTERS,
LEED AP,
Associates,
Campus Energy
Market
Leader,
JOHN
YOON,
PE, MEP
LEED
AP ID+C,Verona, Wis.
Lead Electrical
Engineer,
Engineers
Inc., Chicago
JOHN
YOON,McGuire
PE, LEED
AP ID+C,
Lead Electrical Engineer, McGuire Engineers Inc., Chicago

Hows business?

ne of the most difficult and


exciting things we do at
Consulting-Specifying Engineer
is track industry trends. The information comes from our own proprietary
research, Google Analytics data, external research reports, conversations
with engineers, feedback from editorial
advisory board members, discussions
with manufacturers, and a smattering of
other resources.
The most interesting, however, is conversations with consultants who are working every day to make buildings more
efficient, to design new systems, or to
resolve their clients challenges. In short,
the most helpful details come from you
directlythe engineer or building professional working, on average, more hours
than youd care to. Recent research shows
that respondents to an internal audience
study indicate that 42% are working 41
to 50 hours/week, and 21% are working
more than 50 hours/week. Based on the
fact that youre working so much, Im sure
you have a lot to share.
An example: A senior electrical engineer specializing in health care facilities
recently told me (after Id tried to reach
him about 20 times) that he hadnt
seen his family in a couple of weeks.
Hed been on the road visiting clients,
launching an office in a location new to
his firm, and hiring staff to support the
new offices efforts. I was happy to hear
that business was booming for him and
his engineering company, and his anec-

www.csemag.com

dotes supported the data that show that


the hospital and health care industry is
still going strong, albeit slightly changed
due to new requirements and restrictions on patient care.
Another story: There arent enough
fire protection engineers to go around,
a fact that has been considered by engineering schools across the United States
and around the world. The principal
and owner of a fire protection engineering firm on the East Coast has emailed
and texted me from across the globe. I
never know where or when to find him,
as hes always in the Middle East, Asia,
or some other far-flung location. The
work he does is vital, and while some
U.S. business is down, international
business is doing well.
While frequent flier miles and hotel
perks are nice, there are many of our
junior audience members who dont
ever leave the office. They create
designs and write specifications to help
support a larger project; however they
dont interface with the client or the
construction trades. They need to better
understand the big picture and obtain
education to expand their knowledge of
the tools at their fingertips.
So hows business? Whether youre at
the top of the ladder at your firm or just
a few years into your career, Id like to
hear how things are going. This will give
Consulting-Specifying Engineer valuable
anecdotal information to serve you better.
Keep the phone calls and emails coming.

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

VENTILATION

SOLUTIONS

HIGH-PERFORMING
V E N T I L AT E

W I T H

HOSPITAL
Enhanced IAQ can
reduce hospitalacquired infection
rates and improve
patient recovery. 1

E N E R GY

S AV IN GS
u

Reduce HVAC loads


Decrease HVAC energy
costs up to 40%
Generate annual HVAC
energy savings
Maximize ROI
with short payback

Up to one-third of all
hospital-acquired
infections are
airborne.2 Ventilation
reduces this risk.

M. Ramaswamy, Farooq Al-Jahwari, Saif M. Masoud Al-Rajhi, IAQ in HospitalsBetter Health through Indoor Air Quality Awareness, Texas A&M University, 2010, https://oaktrust.library.tamu.
edu/bitstream/handlle/1969.1/94139/ESL-IC-10-10-88.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.

Dan Pollock, Surgical Suite: Creating the Optimal Environment, Trane, October 2009, https://www.trane.com/content/dam/Trane/Commercial/global/markets/healthcare/Surgical_Suite.pdf.

Read our white paper on deficient


IAQ in hospitals and schools:
http://bit.ly/1TpSBoZ

RenewAire.com
800.627.4499

FOR

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APPLICATION

BUILDINGS PAY OFF


R E N E WA I R E

E R V s

SCHOOL
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RETURNS

WELLNESS

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u

Children in
classrooms with
higher ventilation
rates score better
in math and reading. 3

Standardized test
scores can
increase by 10%
when ventilation
rates are doubled.4

Frequently Asked Questions about Improved Academic Performance, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), https://www.epa.gov/iaq-schools/frequently-asked-questions-about-improvedacademic-performance#IAQIAP_Maintenance.

Frequently Asked Questions about Improved Academic Performance, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), https://www.epa.gov/iaq-schools/frequently-asked-questions-about-improvedacademic-performance#IAQIAP_Maintenance.

Lower C0 2 levels
to improve
cognitive function
Boost productivity
Reduce acute
and chronic
health problems
Reduce absenteeism

R ENE WA I R E E V E RY WHE RE
input #6 at www.csemag.com/information

FACILITIES
IN
AND

COME

ALL SHAPES
SIZES.

So why settle for one product that


attempts to fit all of them?

Its time to think about your boiler room in a different way. Were not talking about hydronic boilers, but
hydronic solutions. An integrated approach that gives you full control over your system, allowing you to pick and
choose the right components to maximize efficiency and minimize emissions. With full-condensing (up to 12,000
MBTU/hr) and non-condensing (up to 25,000 MBTU/hr) boiler options, we can customize a solution that fits your
needs. Call 800-250-5883 to locate a rep or visit us online at cleaverbrooks.com.

input #7 at www.csemag.com/information

2016 Cleaver-Brooks, Inc.

Critical lighting design issues


Other

LED fixture
specifications,
quality

Keeping up with
new/changing
technology

17%

21%

research

12%
15%

Costs,
budget
restrictions

18%
17%

Energy
conservation,
efficiency
Codes, regulations,
standards

Figure 1: Lighting engineers foresee


the constant need to keep up with new
or changing technologies as a critical challenge affecting the future of
lighting design. Source: ConsultingSpecifying Engineer 2015 Lighting and
Lighting Controls Study

$2.4 million:

Average total annual dollar amount


of HVAC and building automation/
control products specified for new
and existing buildings in 2015.
Source: Consulting-Specifying Engineer 2015 HVAC and Building Automation Systems Study

72%

of engineers reported
that local authorities having jurisdiction or fire officials have the most
input and impact on fire and life
safety design. Source: ConsultingSpecifying Engineer 2016 Fire and
Life Safety Study

40%

of design revenue was


spent on new construction projects in 2015, compared to 35% on
retrofits/renovations and 14% on
maintenance/operations. Source:
Consulting-Specifying Engineer 2016
Electrical and Power Study

More research
Consulting-Specifying Engineer covers several research topics each year.
All reports are available at
www.csemag.com/research.
www.csemag.com

2016 ELECTRICAL AND POWER STUDY:

Five electrical, power findings


identify changes, struggles

espondents to the ConsultingSpecifying Engineer 2016 Electrical and Power Study identified
five high-level findings impacting the
electrical and power industries today:
1. Electrical, power revenue: The
average engineering firm specifies about $2.8 million annually for
electrical and power systems in new
and existing building projects; 15%
of these firms specify $500,001 to
$750,000 in these systems, up from
only 8% in 2015.
2. Systems specified: Seven in 10
engineers currently specify circuit
breakers and fuses, emergency and
standby power, transformers, electrical distribution, and cable/wire systems or equipment. Renewable energy
systems have gained some popularity,
having been specified by 35% of engineers in 2015 to 42% in 2016.
3. Specifications: Twenty-nine percent of respondents always write per-

formance electrical or power specifications, and another 52% frequently


write this type of specification. The
regularity of writing open (proprietary) specifications has declined from
65% to 58% over the past year.
4. Building structures: The top
three building types for which
respondents specify, design, or make
product selections are office buildings (56%), industrial/manufacturing
facilities/warehouses (56%), and educational facilities (48%).
5. Critical issues: The constant
struggles with budgets/costs, the lack
of a skilled workforce, designing for
energy efficiency, and keeping up-todate on new technologies are affecting
the future of electrical or power system design.
View more information at
www.csemag.com/2016ElectricalPower.
Amanda Pelliccione is the research
director at CFE Media.

Highly important electrical or power system design factors


Product quality

78%

Service support

53%

Energy efficiency

43%

Manufacturer's reputation

43%

Previous experience with manufacturer

42%

Technical advantage

40%

Lifecycle cost

39%

Warranty

38%

Design support

37%

Initial product cost

34%

Figure 2: The most important factors to respondents selection of electrical or power


systems are product quality, service support, energy efficiency, and a manufacturers
reputation. Courtesy: Consulting-Specifying Engineer
www.csemag.com/research FOR MORE RESEARCH INFORMATION
Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

11

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input #8 at www.csemag.com/information

Career Smart
BY RICHARD D. MILLER, PE, LEED AP BD+C, FASHRAE,
Construction-Engineering Consultant, Las Vegas

Three tips to mull over when starting a project


Learn to communicate effectively throughout the life of a building project.

ou are a mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) consultant who just negotiated a
fixed-fee contract with a new architect
client and the number of conferences
to be attended was not addressed. The
architect schedules an initial sit-down
meeting to discuss the new construction project with the owner, general
contractor, and design team.
What possible benefit can be
achieved by having an in-person meeting? While it might seem like a waste of
time and money, this is a great opportunity to make one-on-one contact
with all the participants involved in the
project. Attending in-person conferences also allows you to network with
other professionals, which may lead to
additional work down the road.
During the kickoff meeting, the owner
will present the vision for the project and
the architect will present a preliminary
design to all of the attendees. Next, the
spotlight is on you to provide your input.
The architect will most likely ask you a
series of questions, including:
 What kind of system are you putting into the building?
 What is the tonnage?
 Where is the incoming power coming from?
 Is there enough available power
available to serve the building?
 What about gas, water, sewer, and
storm systems?

Rather than getting overwhelmed


with the questions, use the resources
www.csemag.com

that are available to youi.e., the


attendees, such as the civil engineerto
address certain questions directed to
you as you collect your thoughts.
Once the other attendees are finished
speaking, you are inspired to give a dissertation about the technical aspects of
the project including British thermal
units, gallons per minute, cubic feet
per minute, watts, Volts, amperes, and
variable air volume (VAV). You then
explain all of the equipment needed,
such as chillers, air handlers, pumps,
variable frequency drives (VFDs),
switchgear, transformers, domestic
water heaters, etc. As your grand finale,
you tell them what system will be
designed and the load capacity of the
combined systems.
Guess what? Most of what you just
said was unintelligible to the architect,
owner, and other consultants present.
After listening to you, the general contractor just rolled his eyes and saw dollar signs dancing in his head.
Dont shoot from the lip

There are alternative responses to


the proposed questions. For starters, remind everybody (especially
the architect) that you, too, are being
introduced to the project for the first
time, and that you are not a proponent of doing instant engineering
around a conference table. Rather than
toss around general concepts, evaluate what you heard and learned about
the project at the kickoff meeting with
your staff and follow up with everybody within a few days after you had a

chance to digest the scope of the project and can pose thought-provoking
questions for the design team.
Alternatively, shooting from the lip
at the meeting can have dire repercussions. The architect or owner may
come back and reference figures you
mentioned at the first meeting that
were just preliminary estimates. In
response, you mention that it was just
a preliminary estimate. Guess what
everybody conveniently forgot that
was a preliminary estimate and you
wind up being the bad guy. Unfair?
Yes, but true!
Here are three tips to have a financially viable and successful project:
 Take note of the number of conference meetings included in your
fixed-fee contract.
 Dont use technical jargon that is
best suited for your professional
staff.
 Take the time required to assess the
projects capacity and alternative
design options.
Following these guidelines will
enable you to avert wasting your time
and the time of others and establish
an effective line of communication
between you and the team for the duration of the project.
Richard D. Miller is a constructionengineering consultant located in Las
Vegas. His expertise is in the design, construction and management of projects
within private and public sectors.
Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

13

MEP Roundtable
Joseph A. DAl, PE,
LEED AP, CEM
Division Manager
RMF Engineering
Charlottesville, Va.

TG Davallou, LEED AP
Partner
Alfa Tech Consulting Engineers
San Francisco

High-performance
medical and educational
building design
The design of high-performance medical and educational
projects are challenging and need to meet specific standards,
codes, and trends.
CSE: Whats the No. 1 trend you see
today in the design of high-performance
campus projects?

Sean Donohue, PE, LEED AP


Director, Colorado Springs
Jensen Hughes
Colorado Springs, Colo.

Anthony B. Preteroti
Associate Vice President
CannonDesign
Grand Island, N.Y.

Teresa Rainey,
PE, LEED Fellow
Director of High-Performance
Design
EYP Architecture & Engineering
Washington, D.C.

14

Joseph A. DAl: While a clients focus


and vision can shift from reliability/redundancy to performance-based depending on
building type and use, the biggest push in
our practice today is energy optimization.
This trend is well beyond the campus office/
classroom/housing occupancies and is now
integrated into the critical-environment
sectors (health care, research and development, etc.). Historically, we have collaborated with owners focused on critical
environments function; energy was often
an afterthought. Today, each new project or
client challenges our engineering team in
a unique way to exceed baseline and prescriptive energy management. Whatever
the incentive is, energy efficiency is king.
TG Davallou: Were seeing energy efficiency and sustainability.
Sean Donohue: Were seeing the migration/implementation of a unified platform approach, using the campus existing information technology network and
information-management software to bring
multiple and diverse monitoring, control,
and operational systemssuch as fire/life
safety, physical security, logical security,
and building management/environmental
systemsinto a single, unified operational
system.

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

Anthony B. Preteroti: From an electrical


perspective, LED lighting is the top trend.
LED lighting offers a higher efficiency than
its fluorescent predecessors. LED drivers
often have inherent dimming capabilities,
offering more control and improved daylight-harvesting ability. New standards and
manufacturer options have made LED lighting a more viable, holistic solution.
Teresa Rainey: Our college/university clients are seeking design solutions that address
both sustainability and resiliency. Integrating renewable onsite generation capabilities reduces greenhouse gas emissions and
provides a level of grid independence that
enables continued operation if there is an
interruption in the utility grid. We are integrating end-use metering so our clients can
monitor energy and water, which provides
them the capability to reduce usage over time.
CSE: What other trends should engineers be aware of for high-performance
campus projects in the near future?
Donohue: Look for the growing trend
toward the use of varied information/
control-capable devices. The phrase Internet of Things (IoT) is the most common term
and essentially means that anything that can
be connected to the Internet or a network
will have the ability to upload and download
information. This will impact security and
operational controls of various systems that
www.csemag.com

are now coming together under a unified platform.


DAl: Aside from energy and sustainability, I see the next 5 years of our
practices trending toward a few key realities including integrated project design
and buildings as energy consumers and
generators. The slow but certain elimination of the contractor-only coordination process will drastically change the
owner-architect-contractor team relationship.
Its happening already, with increasing
numbers of construction manager at-risk
and construction manager design-assist
procurements as part of our process each
year. While the contractor-only coordination process has been a competitive
endeavor, the integrated design process
will stitch together the efforts of all the
project playersand the results may be
extraordinary.
Achieving higher levels of energy efficiency can often mean increased capital
costs. With input from all project players and agreement on precise scope, cost
estimation can be more accurate. Were
certainly facing an energy-management
crisis and well either muscle our way
through it with enormous national
power-infrastructure upgrades or well
leverage engineering abilities to reduce
or eliminate the power shortcoming.
Rainey: A trend we see is the development of intelligent building software,
IoT wireless sensor technologies, and
the cloud, which will enable building
systems to respond in real time to actual occupancy and space use, predictive
weather forecasting, and microclimate
occupant-comfort controls along with
many other capabilities to further drive
energy reduction while also ensuring
occupant comfort and well-being.
Preteroti: Look for addressable lighting control systems. As codes and standards become more stringent, they
require a system, like addressable lighting controls, to effectively meet the
www.csemag.com

Figure 1: The high-containment laboratory, engineered by a team from RMF Engineering


for the Virginia Department of General Services Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services, was accomplished using integrated design process principles. The heavily coordinated project is fully functional and maintainable. Courtesy: RMF Engineering

requirements of criteria such as demandresponse and receptacle controls. With


the widespread use of LED lighting,
these system types are more useful and
effective. Another trend to watch for is
resiliency. Campuses generally contain
services and facilities that require 24/7
operations, such as student housing,
research facilities, and medical centers.
Other major trends include shared services, outside campus partnerships, and
energy efficiency. A high-performance
building contains and creates environments serving multiple functions and
may even be shared among departments.
CSE: Please describe a recent
high-performance campus project
youve worked on.
Preteroti: Our firm currently is
designing the Emerging Technologies and Entrepreneurship Complex
(ETEC) at the State University of New
York at Albany campus, in conjunction
with the State University Construction
Fund. The 236,000-sq-ft facility will
house laboratory space for research,

classrooms, collaboration spaces, faculty offices, and private-partnership


suites. The facility has several sustainable goals including being net zero
ready, achieving 200 kBtu/sq ft/year for
labs and 38 kBtu/sq ft/year for offices,
and incorporating 13% renewable energy sources. Multiple gas generators will
provide backup and emergency power
with redundancies.
Still under client review are roofand site-mounted photovoltaics (PV),
LED lighting and an addressable lighting control system, high-efficiency
condensing boilers with N+1 redundancy, three magnetic-bearing watercooled chillers with N+1 redundancy, a
high-performance variable air volume
system, and air handling units with
full economizers that will be folded
together. An alternate geothermal heat
pump system will also be evaluated.
Davallou: We provided mechanical,
electrical, plumbing, and fire protection
engineering services for a new general
classroom facility that is approximately
100,000 sq ft. The project was designed
to a minimum LEED Gold standard.
Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

15

MEP Roundtable
Donohue: The project involved multiple buildings for a
medical-services campus. The buildings being constructed
were both inpatient and outpatient clinics and included a
long-term care facility. The new buildings communication
systems were to be network-based, using a dedicated darkfiber security network that is centrally controlled and monitored from a security operations center. The systems included
both physical security (video surveillance, physical access
control, intrusion, intercom communications, emergency
communication system, detection equipment) and life safety/
fire alarm systems.

and designed the daylighting, thermal comfort, and faade


thermal analysis through BIM.
DAl: Complicated renovations are a large part of our
business. Were currently involved in a project for a major
health care client to renovate patient-care areas to meet modern environmental and architectural standards. Complicating
the task even further is the notion that the renovations are to
be made while the client maintains full occupancy. The ability to create and phase all facets of the construction through
BIM has been invaluable to the project, and all team members
have contributed to this success.

CSE: Describe your experience working with the contractor, architect, owner, or other team members in creating BIM for such a project.

CSE: What unusual requirements do high-performance


campus projects have from an engineering standpoint?

Donohue: The most significant challenges were the coor-

dination of all the systems and structure to accommodate the


clients shifting physical structure and operational requirements. The process mandates strong leadership and adherence to stated objectives.
Davallou: We had a very good working relationship with
the team for the Mission College project. We coordinated

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input #9 at www.csemag.com/information

Rainey: When evaluating appropriate systems for a project,


the boundary moves beyond the building and considers interrelationships between other buildings on campus to understand the overall impact on energy and water consumption
and peak demand. We also develop a path for future projects
and/or adaptability for new technologies that will enable clients to achieve climate-based commitment goals.
Donohue: Integrated systems are sometimes at odds with
their individual stated objectives. As is often the dichotomy
between fire alarm and security, the former may be telling a
secured door to unlock. The entire system must effectively
communicate to prioritize and adapt between stated objectives, despite multiple operational platforms.
DAl: In the course of sustainability, benchmarking new
and renovated buildings that are served by campus utilities (district chilled water, heating hot water, steam, power)
can be a challenge. This stems from the fact that dollars are
often the stated final comparable when judging a buildings
achievement in energy efficiency. Campus clients are most
often the recipients of the best fuel-rate structures, and these
relatively low unit costs can often skew the real energy-saving
strides that, if expressed in units of energy, would show far
greater baseline-to-design improvements.
CSE: Describe the commissioning process for a campus project. At what point was your team brought in,
and what changes or upgrades were you able to implement on this campus?
Davallou: For Mission College, which was LEED Goldcertified, we had a third-party consultant for enhanced commissioning. There were comments regarding equipment
optimization and maintenance that were implemented in the
construction documents.
Donohue: The process involves the typical operational testing and commissioning of the individual systems.
However, the process expands to verification of the data

16

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

input #10 at www.csemag.com/information


Reznor_CSE.indd 2

05/03/2016 10:57:15 AM

MEP Roundtable
Today, each new project or client challenges our
engineering team in a unique way to exceed baseline and
prescriptive energy management. Whatever the incentive
is, energy efficiency is king. Joseph A. DAl
sharing and operational response,
based on the systems involved and the
expected responses required by the
master plan.
CSE: When working on monitoring and control systems in highperformance campus projects, what
factors do you consider?
Preteroti: Critical factors include
determining who is going to use,
operate, and maintain the system as
well as what their system knowledge
capabilities are. Other factors that
need to be considered include the

project and lighting controls budget,


the necessary codes that need to be
applied, and determining what systems will be interfaced or controlled
by the lighting system.
Davallou: We consider open protocol (no propriety) so all HVAC/
electrical systems can communicate
with each other. Other factors we consider include flexibility, future expansions, and user-friendly operations.
DAl: There can be a need to balance multiple factors to provide the
best solutions including sole-sourced
systems, the owners standards and
sequences, ongoing monitoring,

and maintaining the proper levels of


control reporting. Many of our owners have consolidated their controls
monitoring around a single vendor.
In most cases, this has occurred to
facilitate long-term management of
campus buildings.
Also, given our risk management
frameworks years of practice serving many larger institutions, we have
many clients who have not only created their own preferred sequences of
operation but also have created their
own controls, contracting arms, and
instrumentation-maintenance teams.
Working directly with these groups
has been a sharing opportunity, as
we have helped adapt client standards to new technology, assisted in
the creation of some new institutional
controls standards, and have had the
opportunity to benefit from our clients own experience. Also, not all

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facilities require the highest levels of


control or controls reporting. The idea
of simple, robust engineering by providing the appropriate level of control and understanding that not everything is possible in every situation are
hallmarks of thoughtful design.
CSE: Please explain some of the
codes, standards, and guidelines
you use. Which codes/standards
should engineers be most aware of
in their design of such projects?
Davallou: They should look for
California building code standards,
California Electrical Code, the Division of the State Architect standards,
the CALGreen code, and LEED Version 3 and Version 4.
Donohue: NFPA 101: Life Safety
Code and NFPA 99: Health Care
Facilities Code are two primar y

health care references. Some states


also adopt the American Society for
Healthcare Engineerings Facilities
Guidelines Institute guidelines. For
all projects, NFPA 72: National Fire
Alarm and Signaling Code is the
primary reference for fire alarm and
mass notification. Another excellent
resource is Designing Mass Notification Systems: A Pathway to Effective Emergency Communications,
2013 Edition by Wayne Moore, PE,
FSFPE. The International C o de
Council series of codes is also used
by a majority of municipalities across
the country.
CSE: How have the International
Building Code, Society for College
and University Planning (SCUP), The
Joint Commission, NFPA, ASHRAE,
and other organizations affected
your work on such projects?

input #12 at www.csemag.com/information

Donohue: The intent of unified codes


and standards is to provide a consistent
and predictable baseline of requirements.
The struggle comes when these different sources conflict with each other. It
is important to understand the applicability of each code or standard based on
the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ).
Always ask yourself who the AHJs are and
which standards they enforce.
Davallou: We havent seen much
effect. There are some differences
between ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 90.1:
2013Energy Standard for Buildings
Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings and the California Energy Commissions Title 24 energy efficiency
standards.
Read more at
www.csemag.com/archives about:
 Codes and standards
 HVAC
 Sustainable buildings/ energy efficiency.

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input #13 at www.csemag.com/information

Codes & Standards


NFPA 99: A fire and life safety perspective
NFPA 99: Health Care Facilities Code (2015 edition) covers a broad
range of criteria for health care facilities. This portion focuses on fire,
explosion prevention, and life safety.
BY ERIC BABCOCK, PE, Jensen Hughes, Armonk, N.Y.

ithin the regulatory world of health


care, there are numerous codes and
standards that organizations must
follow to have a compliant facility. These codes
and standards regulate doctors, administration,
patient records, infection control, occupant
safety, and building structure to name just a
few. To further complicate the matter, the standards, editions of those standards, and compliance waivers that are enforced or approved vary
depending upon if your organization is regulated
by a local city department of health, a statewide
health organization, the federal Centers for
Medicaid & Medicare Services (CMS), or any
of the various accreditation organizations.
Balancing and ensuring a facility or project
within a facility is compliant with the correct
standards is a critical component of compliance
management. To help with this compliance, well
review some of the fire and life safety components of NFPA 99: Health Care Facilities Code.
Before any direct discussion on NFPA 99
occurs, it is critical to understand thatjust as
it is with any code or standardNFPA 99 is not
applicable to any building unless is it directly
mandated by law or rule from a governing jurisdiction. And then, only the edition that was promulgated by the jurisdiction at that time governs
without additional laws or rules being passed
to supplement or change that implementation.
Therefore, the edition of NFPA 99 that would
be applicable to any one facility is regulated by
all of the aforementioned regulatory agencies.
Additionally, NFPA 99 is typically only a reference standard within another larger building
code, safety code, or regulatory standard. As a
reference standard, only the sections or portions
of NFPA 99 that are referenced are applicable.
For example, the 2015 International Building
www.csemag.com

Code references NFPA 99 relative to hyperbaric chambers and electrical systems while
NFPA 101: Life Safety Code references NFPA
99 relative to laboratories, anesthetizing locations, medical gas, essential electrical systems,
and hyperbaric facilities. Additionally, the CMS
standards (K-Tags) have similar references to
NFPA 99. This also holds true for Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) 4-510-1 medical military
facilities.
Therefore, while a global application of NFPA
99 may be considered by some as good practice,
it may not necessarily be required. The 2015 edition of both NFPA 99 and NFPA 101 are referenced here, although this is applicable to the 2012
edition that was recently approved by CMS.
It is very common for a life safety consultant
to be called into a health care facility after the
completion of a regulatory survey to assist with
the response to or correction of cited code violations. Upon arrival, the consultant is immediately
told that the facility has programs and policies
in place to assure the compliance with the life
safety code. And while this may be true, the web
of existing construction versus new construction, mixed occupancies, and reference standards begins to show itself, and its found that
many of the reference standard requirements go
unidentified or unenforced.
Fundamentally, NFPA 99-2015 is based on a
concept of risk management within an incredibly variable and complex health care facility. The
requirements espoused through NFPA 99 are
applied based on the risk category of the occupancy. The categories (1 through 4) are assigned
to a facility based on the risk to a patient. Category 1 is applied to activities, systems, or equipment whose failure is likely to cause major injury
or death of patients, staff, or visitors (NFPA 99

Learning
objectives
 List each code and standard
that relates to fire protection
in health care facilities.
 Make use of NFPA 99 to
design fire, explosion-prevention, and life safety systems.
 Compare requirements for
life safety systems in specialized facilities.

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

21

Codes & Standards


applicable activities, systems, or equipment must be identified and understood.
The first of these items for further examination is the storage and use of medical
gases (see NFPA 99 Chapter 5). Medical
gases that are commonly used within
health care facilities are oxygen, nitrous
oxide, medical air, carbon dioxide,

4.1.1). Categories 2 through 4 decrease in


this risk until an activity, system, or piece
of equipment holds no threat or impact
to patient, staff, or visitor safety.
In the health care occupancy areas
of hospitals, the vast majority of activities, systems, or equipment are held as
Category 1 risks; therefore, the majority of the referenced sections of NFPA
99 are applicable to these facilities. If a
facility would like to apply the reduced
requirements of categories 2 through 4,
then a documented risk assessment must
be performed validating the use of the
lesser categories. The entire facility does
not need to be classified as the same risk
category. The application of Category 1
requirements does not need to be associated with a defined risk assessment. It
can just be applied.
Once it is clarified that a project, facility, or area of a facility must follow the
Category 1 requirements, then the fire/
life safety requirements of each of the

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helium, nitrogen, and instrument air. The


hazards associated with these pressurized
systems include fire and explosion resulting from improper installation, handling,
use, and storage.
To mitigate these risks, NFPA 99 identifies numerous requirements based upon
the type of system. Medical gases are
most commonly used as part of a larger
piped-gas system where outlets
for these gases are provided in
each individual patient room
and there is a central common
supply. This central common
supply must be regulated. Specifically, the supply is regulated
by its location, contents, use
of the gases supplied from this
room, and the construction of
any physical enclosure. Central
supply rooms can only house
the gas cylinders, reusable shipping containers, and associated
accessories (5.1.3.2.3). The presence of any flammable or combustible materials (including the
cylinder protective wrapping
used during shipping) would be
a noncompliant condition and
could result in an inspection
violation. The room must also be environmentally regulated to stay within the
manufacturers recommended range, but
shall not be below 20F or above 125F.
The rooms physical construction is
required to have the following features:

on

iti

ed

ch

hi

s?

Whats applicable in a
regulatory overview

Figure 1: This identifies the different


jurisdiction pressures that a facility may
be subjected to along with some keys
code issues that must be balanced within a health care organization. All graphics courtesy: Jensen Hughes

22

 Have noncombustible or limitedcombustible finishes


 Be built with assemblies tested to
be 1-hour fire-resistance-rated
(openings rated at hours)

In addition to piped-gas systems, heath care


facilities must have portable cylinders of different
medical gases for patient care. These medical gases
are for direct patient care while in transport as well
as gases for medical equipment.

Medical gases

State

 Be lockable

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

 Provided with either natural or


mechanical ventilation in accordance with NFPA 99 Chapter 9
 Electrical equipment and devices
are protected from physical damage and installed as per NFPA 70:
National Electrical Code requirements.
 Cylinders are all arranged with a
compliant restraint system, and the
room shall allow access by delivery
vehicles and personnel for proper
system management.
Local fire codes may have additional
storage restrictions for oxygen and nitrous
oxide under the hazardous materials
requirements for oxidizing gases.
In addition to piped-gas systems, heath
care facilities must have portable cylinders of different medical gases for patient
care. These medical gases are for direct
patient care while in transport as well as
gases for medical equipment. The proper use and storage of these portable gas
cylinders is a separate area of NFPA 99,
Chapter 11. In Chapter 11, under section
11.3, the requirements for storage are
clearly indicated based on the amount of
cubic feet of gas being stored. The storage
of the nonflammable gases is dependent
on if the volume of gas is greater than or
equal to 3,000 ft, between 300 and 3,000
ft, or less than or equal to 300 ft. When
www.csemag.com

the gas volume is greater than or equal to


3,000 ft the storage shall comply with
the previously discussed requirements
of Chapter 5 (piped gases) relative to
construction and ventilation. When the
volume of gas is between 300 and 3,000
ft, it must be stored within a secured
noncombustible or limited-combustible
room and separated from any flammable
gases or combustibles.
The separation of combustibles varies
depending on if the storage area is sprinklered. When sprinklered, combustibles
must be kept 5 ft away from the gases.
When a storage area is not sprinklered,
a 20-ft minimum distance is required.
There is no minimum distance when the
gases are stored in an approved gas cabinet within a sprinklered storage room.
The most straightforward means of
compliance when an area must have this
volume of gas present is to provide a dedicated gas storage room of noncombustible or limited-combustible construction
without any other products or materials
present. These rooms are often upgraded and constructed of 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assemblies to ensure compliance with NFPA 101 requirements for
hazardous areas as well as local jurisdictional requirements. When the volume of
gas is less than 300 ft (this is commonly
referred to as 12 E-size cylinders), then
it is allowed to be stored outside of any
enclosure and readily accessible by staff
for patient care. Under all volume categories, the cylinders must be properly
restrained and maintained (see Table 1).
Essential electrical systems

Another commonly overlooked area of


life safety compliance is the proper distribution of equipment among the emergency power circuits. It is overlooked
because the architect or life safety professional that evaluates a project or building
is typically not an electrical engineer and
does not evaluate the electrical distribution. Chapter 6 of NFPA 99 identifies
that within the essential electrical system (Class 1), the emergency power must
be divided into three distinct branches:
emergency, critical, and life safety. It is
www.csemag.com

Table 1: Gas-storage requirements


Volume of gas

Storage requirements
(all cylinders must be restrained)

3,000 ft

As per piped-gas storage requirements


(1-hour enclosure with required ventilation)

3,000 ft > X > 300 ft

Noncombustible/limited-combustible secured
enclosure with separation from combustibles

300 ft

No enclosure required

Table 1: This summarizes the requirements of storage facilities containing nonflammable gases, based on the volume of gas present.

important that these emergency power


branches be clearly identified and that
the loads are not intermixed.
During an emergency, if the emergency
power must shed load, it is vital for the
building engineering department to quickly know which panels are controlling life
safety and critical loads versus normal
building emergency power loads. An intermixing of the loads within specific panels
could possibly prevent this load shedding
from occurringor the life safety and
critical loads could be incorrectly disconnected, risking occupant and patient safety.
As a quick summary, the life safety
branch is intended to supply the equipment associated with building egress
and life safety equipment as well as the
elevator lighting, control, communications, and signaling. The critical branch
is intended to provide power to items
directly related to patient care. This can
include task-specific lighting (patient
care), fixed equipment, or wall receptacles for equipment. A detailed listing can

to the higher concentrations of oxygen


and the captive nature of the occupants
of the chamber, the precautions and riskmitigating measures are just as important
as the integrated fire detection and suppression.
Hyperbaric chambers are regulated to
minimize the presence of combustible
materials and ignition sources. The interior finish of the chamber is required
to be a Class A finish when tested in
accordance with ASTM E84: Standard
Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, and
all furniture, mattresses, garments, and
textiles must meet their applicable classification or testing standard as indicated
in Chapter 14.
The lighting fixtures and electrical
systems used within a chamber must be
designed for the chambers use. In Class
A (multiperson) chambers, active fire
alarm and suppression systems consist
of flame-detection monitors that must
respond within 1 second of flame ini-

Another commonly overlooked area of life safety


compliance is the proper distribution of equipment
among the emergency power circuits.
be reviewed further in section 6.4.2.2.4.2
of NFPA 99. Read about NFPA 99 electrical system design on page 27.

tiation, a fixed water-deluge suppression


system, and an independent hand-line
extinguishing system.

Hyperbaric chambers

General fire protection

A rather specific area of health care


that holds an increased risk of fire and
explosion is in hyperbaric chambers. Due

Not all fire and life safety events in a


health care facility can be mitigated or
prevented as part of the system design.

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

23

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Codes & Standards


The health care facility also must have
a general fire protection methodology.
Most of the fire protection requirements
and methodologies that are presented
in NFPA 99 are required in the primary
building codes or NFPA 101. The items
mandated by those codes will not be fully
reiterated here.
NFPA 99 does, however, expand specifically on the concept of defend in
place. The building codes and NFPA 101

If these items are not


coordinated then response
to the fire could be delayed,
incorrect, or cause confusion
among the staff, which is

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unacceptable.
all have required compartmentation
smoke zonessuch that each floor is able
to have horizontal patient movement to
a protected zone. But these codes do not
specifically call out the defend-in-place
strategy. Section 15.7 of NFPA 99 (fire
detection, alarm, and communication)
as well as 15.8 (automatic sprinklers and
other extinguishing equipment) reference the concept of defend in place to
identify a rarely applied or enforced
design methodology for fire alarm notification zones and sprinkler system zones
to be designed and installed in accordance with the boundaries of the building smoke zones (15.7.4.3.1, 15.8.1.3).
NFPA 99 does not mandate this design
methodology as a requirement.
The appendix for both of these sections
highlights that the alarm notification and
sprinkler zones do not have to match the
smoke zones, provided the facility fire
plan addresses the differences between
the notification zones, sprinkler zones,
and smoke zones. If these zones are not
coordinated, it is important to know
where and how all of these zones intersect
and where they diverge. If a water-flow
alarm indicates a sprinkler activation in a
sector of a building, the emergency operators need to know what smoke zones are

affected and coordinate the required


patient movements. At the same time, if
there is a voice-communication system
present within the facility, the emergency
operator must be able to communicate
with the correct smoke zones. If these
items are not coordinated then response
to the fire could be delayed, incorrect, or
cause confusion among the staff, which
is unacceptable.
Finally, NFPA 99 provides requirements for prevention of fire events within
operating rooms. Operating rooms can
have a high quantity of flammable liquid
germicides and antiseptics. When these
are used in procedures using a laser, cauterization tools, or other heat-producing
equipment, it is vital to employ extra precautions to ensure accidental ignition
does not occur and risk the patient or
staff. The precautions include prevention
of any pooling of the liquids, allowing
proper time for evaporation of the liquid
after application, and removal of soaked
materials from the room (15.13.3.6).
Health care occupancies are one of the
most complex occupancies relative to
ensuring a safe environment. Doing so
requires knowledge and understanding of
numerous codes, standards, accrediting
agency rules/requirements, and the associated reference standards. To achieve full
understanding, an organization usually
employs the oversight by multiple departments and individuals. It also requires the
proper application and implementation
of the code and standards by the design
professionals constructing and renovating
these facilities.
Eric Babcock is director of the Armonk,
N.Y., Jensen Hughes office. Babcock is
experienced in the design, review, inspection, and commissioning of fire protection
systems and construction, including fire
sprinkler, fire alarm and life safety systems,
as well as the development of full building
code analyses for use by all engineering disciplines, architects, and interior designers.
He has consulted for private and public
hospitals and health care organizations
throughout the country in regards to NFPA
99 and NFPA 101 compliance.

Visit www.plantengineering.com
24

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

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Codes & Standards


NFPA 99: Electrical changes
to the 2015 edition
NFPA 99: Health Care Facilities Code (2015 edition) covers
a broad range of criteria for health care facilities. Electrical
engineers need details about the changes to the electrical
portion of the code.

 Make use of NFPA 99-2015


to design electrical systems
in health care facilities.
 List changes to the new
edition of NFPA 99, specifically Chapter 6, electrical
systems.

BY DANNA JENSEN, PE, LEED AP BD+C, WSP + ccrd, Dallas

s most health care design engineers


are aware, the 2012 edition of NFPA
99: Health Care Facilities Code underwent a major overhaul and complete restructuring as compared with previous editions. It
introduced a new Chapter 4, which establishes
risk categories and requires a risk assessment
to be performed for health care projects. This
changed NFPA 99 from being a performancebased design document to a risk-based code. In
addition, NFPA 99 was renamed in 2012 from
the Standard for Health Care Facilities to the
Health Care Facilities Code, which upgraded
it from a standard to a code, making it more
adoptable and enforceable.
Now that the industry has had time to digest
this major change and begin performing risk
assessments, it is time for yet another edition
to take effect. So what did the 2015 edition of
NFPA 99 change that design engineers need to
be on the lookout for? Luckily, the 2015 edition has continued to build on the risk-based
approach and there were no large structural
changes to this edition. However, numerous
technical changes have been made throughout
the document that one must be aware of.

Learning
objectives

National Electrical Code (NEC), with special


emphasis on Article 517, Health Care Facilities. In the past, there have been several contradictions or dissimilar language that led to

 Explain the language of


various electrical codes,
including NFPA 70.

NFPA 99 versus NFPA 70

In first reading through the changes highlighted in the NFPA 99 handbook, the authors
have made a concerted effort to bring some
consistency across the two major electrical
health care codes: NFPA 99 and NFPA 70:
www.csemag.com

Figure 1: The minimum number of receptacles as defined in NFPA 99 is shown.


All graphics courtesy: WSP + ccrd

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

27

Codes & Standards


confusion between the two NFPA codes.
However, the 2015 edition of NFPA 99
makes a discernible effort to bring the
two together to complement each other,
and now NFPA 99 matches much of the
wording in the 2014 version of NFPA 70
Article 517.
Why does NFPA have two different
codes that appear to cover the same
thing? While on the surface both codes
appear to cover health care electrical
systems, each serves a distinct purpose.
The main purpose of NFPA 99 Chapter
6 is to define the performance required
for electrical systems. Meanwhile, NFPA
70 Article 517s main purpose is to define
the ways systems are installed to achieve
NFPA 99s defined level of performance.
They are actually designed to complement each other with a distinction
between installation and performance.
However, it is hard to cover one topic
without the other, which is why there is
so much overlap between the two codes.
It can become a bit overwhelming when
you also include input from the other
health care codes and standards, such
as the Facility Guidelines Institute and

various state-specific department of


health services codes.
However, it is the job of an electrical
engineer to know these codes and how
to apply them. Having an understanding
of the intent behind each applicable code
is what enables an electrical engineer to
design the safest and most reliable systems. The design should meet or exceed
all required codes and should also take
into account the individual needs of the
particular health care facility.

Chapter 6, electrical systems


Risk-assessment changes

As previously mentioned, NFPA


99-2012 introduced the concept of a
required risk assessment to assign a
category level to the electrical systems
within a facility. In 2015, the code further clarifies the requirements of the risk
assessment. This edition adds section 4.2,
which doesnt require a risk assessment
when all Category 1 requirements are
followed.
According to the 2015 NFPA 99 Handbook, The reasoning is that if the highest level of safety prescribed by this code
is provided in a facility, then there is no

Figure 2: NFPA 99-2015 now depicts specific requirements on how to use a groundfault circuit interrupter (GFCI) device when used in an operating room.

28

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

need to conduct a risk assessment. This


means that if it is feasible to design your
electrical systems to comply with all
Type 1 essential electrical system (EES)
and Category 1 requirements, then you
can bypass the risk assessment. However, if your systems (or budget) cannot
be designed to the highest level even for
areas or spaces that officially could be
classified in a lower category level, then
a risk assessment must still be performed.
There are several areas in which NFPA
99-2015 includes redefined or reworded
sections to closer align to the way that
NEC 2014 is written. Probably the largest global change across the code is the
replacement of patient care room with
space. This revised term has two distinct impacts. First, it reflects a change
that was made in NFPA 70-2014 so the
two have now adopted the same language. Second, this section now allows
a single large room to be broken into
several smaller spaces and thereby
treated differently.
For instance, in a large room, there
may be more than one different service
being provided in separate spaces, such
as a labor and delivery room or trauma
room. Now, there are subcategories
under the definition of patient-care
space including a Category 1 or Category
2 space, both of which can be simultaneously happening in the same room.
This new wording further supports the
risk-assessment mentality adopted by
the code by requiring a closer examination of the risks to a patient based on the
actual procedure that will be performed
in any given portion of a room.
In addition to this, several other definitions have been updated in NFPA 99 and
now are consistent with NFPA 70. These
include ampacity, bathroom, ground-fault
circuit interrupter (GFCI), and coordination. Although these may seem like trivial
modifications, the change helps to make
things less interpretive between jurisdictions and aids the engineer in knowing
what to expect when working in several
different localities.
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Table 1: Existing-facility requirements


The next revision encountered in the
2015 NFPA 99-2015 is under the minimum quantity of receptacles required
for patient-care space in section
6.3.2.2.6.2 (see Figure 1 for additional
information on this requirement). The
actual quantities have not changed, and
both NFPA 70 and NFPA 99 now match,
but the following verbiage was added to
NFPA 99: They shall be permitted to be
of the locking or nonlocking type, single,
duplex, or quadruplex type, or any combination of the three. All receptacles shall
be listed hospital grade.
This modified language now coordinates with the language in NFPA 70-2014,
Article 517. What currently does not
match is the spaces or areas. NFPA
70-2014 still defines the required quantities based on critical care or general care,
whereas NFPA 99-2015 defines them by
Category 1 or Category 2, respectively.
However, both align with respect to the
required quantities, so perhaps the 2017
edition of NFPA 70 will revise those definitions to align.
Other hot topics

There were several contentious sections in Chapter 6 in the 2012 edition


of NFPA 99 that created quite a ruckus
among industry professionals. The main
ones were selective coordination, wetprocedure locations, and application to
existing systems. These same hot topics
remain largely unchanged in the 2015
version (despite several efforts to revoke
them); however, some were expanded on
for further clarification.
Regarding selective coordination,
the 2015 edition remains unchanged. It
requires overcurrent protective devices
(OCPD) serving the EES be coordinated to 0.1 seconds and beyond. This
differs from the requirements in NFPA
70 Article 700, which requires full selective coordination (meaning to 0.01 seconds and beyond). NFPA 99 relaxed this
requirement and it maintains that, for
health care applications, other factors
must be considered in the selection of
OCPDs, such as arc flash hazards, equipment damage, risk of fires, or extended
www.csemag.com

NFPA 99 section

Requirement

6.3.2.2.2.3

Two levels of ground: When existing construction does


not have a separate grounding conductor, the circuits
may still be used provided they are tested and meet the
specified performance for new systems.

6.3.2.2.4.2

Existing ground-fault circuit interrupter devices must be


listed. If not, they must be replaced with those that are
listed.

6.3.2.2.6.1

Existing receptacles in patient-care areas must be


hospital-grade type. If not, they must be replaced with
new hospital-grade devices.

6.3.2.2.6.2(F)

Existing pediatric locations must have listed tamperresistant devices or employ a tamper-resistant cover.

6.3.2.2.8.7

Existing facilities are exempt from providing special


protection for wet-procedure locations; however, there
must be a written inspection procedure and more
stringent testing than would otherwise be required.
This exception does not apply to operating rooms (ORs).
Special protection for ORs is required even for existing
facilities.

6.3.3.1.1.4

Grounding-systems testing in patient-care areas must


be performed in existing areas where it is altered or
replaced.

6.3.4
6.4.1.1.18.7

All administration, maintenance, and testing


requirements of 6.3.4.1 apply to existing systems.
The code prohibits a centralized computer from being
substituted for the alarm annunciation required for
the emergency power system, even in existing systems.
Therefore, if a system is currently setup that way, new
dedicated alarm systems must be installed.

6.4.2.2.6.2(C)

Existing receptacles or cover plates must have distinctive


color or marking.

6.4.2.2.6.3

Switching of emergency lighting is allowed as long as it


does not provide egress illumination in existing systems.

6.4.4

All of the administrative duties listed in 6.4.4 including


maintenance, testing, and record keeping are required
for both new and existing buildings.

6.5.4

Existing systems also require maintenance, inspection,


and testing for Type 2 systems similar to Type 1 as
defined in 6.5.4.

Table 1: NFPA 99-2015 Chapter 6 helps to identify common issues you are likely to
encounter in an existing facility and covers how you are expected to address them.

outages, and that the 0.1-second minimum coordination threshold provides


full OCPD coordination for the majority
of fault conditions that occur.
The 2012 edition also defined an operating room as a wet-procedure location
unless a risk assessment determines otherwise. It listed requirements for how to
serve the power to these wet locations
from either an isolated power supply system or GFCI protection. NFPA 99-2015
maintains this same language; however,
it expands on additional requirements
when GFCI protection is used in section

6.3.2.2.8.8. The code now specifies that


if you dont use an isolated power supply
system for an operating room and instead
choose to use GFCI, each receptacle shall:
n Be an individual GFCI device
n Be individually protected by a single GFCI device (see Figure 2).
This adds in the vital requirement that
if a GFCI trips, only one outlet is interrupted. Having the power interrupted
to more than one outlet could result in
Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

29

Codes & Standards


Clean exhaust

There were previously performance


requirements for Type 3 EES; however,
the use of this type of system was never
referenced elsewhere in the code. This
meant that no spaces were required to
be served from a Type 3 system, so the
committee deleted it altogether for the
2015 edition.

Fuel

Fuel cell system

Cle
an
ter

wa

Heat

Air

ac power

Figure 3: This depicts the basic concept of a fuel cell system.

the loss of power to multiple pieces of


equipment, causing a serious risk to the
patient.
Existing facilities

One of the goals of the 2012 edition was


to identify how the code is applicable (and
in what specific areas) to existing facilities. The 2015 edition continued with this
requirement with only a slight modification. NFPA 99 Chapter 6 helps to identify
common issues you are likely to encounter in an existing facility and covers how
you are expected to address them. Table
1 outlines these requirements. The only
change to this area for the 2015 edition
is that it removes the requirement to test
cord-and-plug devices and fixed electrical
equipment every 6 months. All required
testing is now based on installation and
failure rather than at regular intervals.

EES types

Another change in the 2015 edition


of NFPA 99 is that the term emergency
system is no longer used to refer to the
life safety and critical branches. Instead,
these two branches, along with the equipment branch, are now part of the EES as
described in 6.4.2.2. In addition, there is a
new section 6.4.2.2.1.5 (also applicable to

30

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

Type 2 systems under 6.5.2.2.1.4), which


states, For the purposes of this code,
the provisions for emergency systems in
Article 700 of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code, shall be applied only to the life
safety branch system.
This was added to the 2015 edition to
clarify the relationship between NFPA 99
and Article 700 of NFPA 70. It is intended that only the life safety branch of the
essential electrical system comply with
Article 700, not the critical and equipment branches. Details in NFPA 99 further modifies how Article 700 is applicable to the life safety branch, which
includes exceptions for complying with
capacity requirements, wiring for fire
protection (1-hour-rated cabling versus
2-hour-rated cabling) and emergency
lighting (battery backup), and selective
coordination (NEC 700.27). This addition should clear up any confusion for
inspectors or plans reviewers, who may
be more familiar with Article 700 of the
code than health care emergency systems, and help to bring some consistency
in the review of the EES.
The other notable change to the EES
requirements in the 2015 version is that
it does not contain Section 6.6 Essential
Electrical System Requirements Type 3.

Alternate sources of power

The final change in NFPA 99-2015 is the


new verbiage in section 6.4.1.1.7. The code
now allows fuel cell systems as a permitted
alternate source of power for all or part of
an essential electrical system. A fuel cell
converts the chemical energy of reactants
(a fuel and oxidant) to usable energy via an
electrochemical process (refer to figure 3).
NFPA 99-2015 further details that when
designing a fuel cell power system, all of
the following are applicable:
 The system must be installed and
meet all the requirements of NFPA
853: Standard for Installation of Stationary Fuel Cell Power Systems.
 There must be a fully redundant
(N+1) unit.
 The system still must conform to the
Level 1 requirements of assuming
and transferring all loads within 10
seconds of loss of normal power.
 There must be a continuous source
of fuel supply and the same quantity
of onsite fuel storage as required for
other alternate power sources.
 A connection for a portable diesel
generator is required of sufficient
capacity to supply the life safety and
critical branches.
These new provisions in the 2015 edition are included to allow the use of new
technologies while still ensuring the same
minimum level of safety. The hydrogen fuel
cell is an emerging technology that combines the advantages of batteries and diesel
generators and eliminates some of their disadvantages. Hydrogen fuel cells are quiet,
www.csemag.com

produce no emissions (only heat and clean


water), and require minimum maintenance.
However, fuel cell systems have some
major limitations when used as a health
care backup power supply that must be
considered. One potential issue is a concern associated with the safety of handling
and storage of hydrogen. Type 1 systems
require anywhere from 24 to 96 hours of
onsite fuel, so depending on the size of the
EES, storage of that quantity of hydrogen
may become a limitation.
In addition, another drawback is the
difficulty a fuel cell system can present
in assuming loads in 10 seconds. During start-up, hydrogen cannot be fed
fast enough and the fuel stack tends to
take more than 10 seconds to reach the
required output power. This problem can
be overcome by either running the system
continuously or by adding a battery system
to assist with start-up.
Probably the most limiting factor is
power density. Currently, the largest fuel

Probably the most limiting factor is power density.


Currently, the largest fuel cell backup power supply
system on the market is rated at 16 kW.
cell backup power supply system on the
market is rated at 16 kW. Since many
health care occupancies are designed
with systems starting at 500 kW and
range up to several-megawatt systems,
introducing a fuel cell system to support
the entire EES may not be feasible. It is
certainly a consideration for portions of
the system, however, to work toward net
zero designs and assist in potential U.S.
Green Building Council LEED certification points.
It is important for the design engineer to
be familiar with all of the requirements in
the code when designing health care facilities. There are additional electrical requirements peppered throughout the code, and
Chapter 10 specifically addresses electrical
equipment and some of the performance

criteria and testing requirements related


to electrical equipment. There also are
requirements within the gas and vacuum
systems (Chapter 5) and HVAC (Chapter
9) chapters. Having an understanding of
each area is what enables an electrical engineer to design the safest and most reliable
systems.
Danna Jensen is vice president at WSP +
ccrd. Most of her work consists of designing electrical distribution for hospitals; she
is the project manager of major hospital
projects, which includes knowledge of all
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Noise and vibration


control in building design

The acoustical environment in a buildinggood or badis the result of


design. For optimal occupant comfort and facility functionality, attention to
noise and vibration issues should be included early and throughout the
building design and construction process.
BY TIMOTHY CAPE, CTS-D, JBA Consulting Engineers, Atlanta; and
MICHAEL SCHWOB, PE, JBA Consulting Engineers, Las Vegas

Learning objectives
 Classify the various systems that may cause
noise or vibration in a building.
 Explain how to measure noise as it relates
to building occupants.
 Apply noise or vibration mitigation as needed.

uilding occupants have always


known (sometimes after the
fact, unfortunately) that the
acoustical environment can
be a key comfort factor, and
just as important as temperature and
light. Acoustics also can go beyond
comfort into the realm of artistic qual-

Diffuser noise
Reciprocating, centrifugal,
screw chillers

Variable air volume unit noise

Fan and pump noise

Fan instability, air turbulence


rumble, structure-borne vibration

Throb
8

Rumble
31.5

63

Whistle
and
whirr

Roar
125

250

500

1000

Hiss
2000

4000

8000

Octave midband frequency, hertz


Figure 1: This chart describes common mechanical noise sources along with related
subjective descriptive terms and frequency ranges. Courtesy: ASHRAE

32

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

itylike in performance spaces, music


practice environments, and recording
studios.
Noise and vibration in a building are
either caused by the building elements
directly, as in the case of mechanical
system noise, or allowed to affect the
building from outdoors, as in the case
of automobile or air traffic noise. Reverberation in enclosed spaces is also an
important acoustical parameter determined by room shape, finish selections,
the room size, and the number of people
in the space.
The responsibility for the acoustical
environment falls squarely on the building design team, requiring attention to
noise sources, such as mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems, as
well as architectural elements that both
enclose spaces and isolate noise.
Acoustical aspects of a building are
being formally recognized as a key factor in indoor environmental quality
as a part of certifications such as U.S.
Green Building Council LEED, BEAM
Plus, and other design guidelines, and
the building design process must incorporate appropriate attention to these
acoustical criteria.
www.csemag.com

Figure 2: The MGM Cotai gaming complex is a JBA Consulting


Engineers project in China encompassing the full gamut of acoustics and noise-control practices
including room acoustics, sound
isolation, HVAC noise control,
transportation noise, and other
aspects of acoustical engineering. From potential transportation
noise outside to room-to-room
isolation, public space environments, and entertainment spaces,
acoustics is integral to the overall
building design. Courtesy: JBA
Consulting Engineers/MGM

www.csemag.com

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

33

Noise and vibration control


The vocabulary of acoustics

Just as in architecture, MEP, and other


building trades, there is a large body of jargon that may not be understood by those
not in the particular trade. This is also
true of acoustics. We wont define all of the
acronyms and specialty terms here, but it is
important to have a good understanding of
what the broad common terms mean in the
context of acoustical design in a building.
Four key terms are discussed: noise,
vibration, reverberation, and speech
intelligibility. These are the basic acoustical human-comfort parameters, just as
temperature, humidity, and air movement are basic human-comfort factors
for mechanical system design.

NoiseThe simple definition of noise


is unwanted sound. Chillers, fans, powered air terminal units, pumps, and generators are sounds that are not welcome
in excess at any time by building occupants. Even human speech can be noise.
Desirable speech includes that between
people inside of offices, conference
rooms, and training rooms, for example.
Unwanted speech comes from others
outside of offices, conference rooms, and
training roomswhich makes it noise.
Noise also can come from an outdoor
sources, such as cooling towers and
electrical generators, as well as from
transportation or industrial sources like
nearby airports, roads, rails, or outdoor

operations, such as mining or steel processing.


Figure 1 relates some HVAC noise
sources to the subjective descriptions of
the noise as well as the general frequency ranges associated with these types of
sources and descriptive terms.
VibrationVibration from mechanical equipment propagates through the
building structure and then radiates
from building elements; it is called
structure-borne noise. It consists of
structural movement that either disturbs building occupants directly
(vibration of floor or table surfaces, for
example) or indirectly as airborne noise
radiating from a wall, floor, or ceiling.

CASE STUDY: Mitigating noise in a warehouse

recent project for a distribution warehouse operation included


several acoustical challenges in a large, open office space that
served the support staff. The space included stone and glass on
three sides, with little area for sound absorbing surfaces. The interior design
firm had carpeted floors and an acoustical tile ceiling in mind for the space,
but there were some creative twists in the design that presented some
interesting acoustical challenges.
Rooftop units
The first challenge: The space had to be heated and cooled using four large
rooftop units, housed on a lightweight built-up roof deck over the office area.
Adequate vibration isolation from the rooftop units was required to reduce
reradiated noise into the office areas below. This would have been less of a
challenge with a concrete structure; however, the facility had a metal roof
deck on metal joists. This type of lightweight building structure requires
careful analysis for successful vibration isolation.
Vibration isolators interact with the structure on which they restmore
flexible structures require higher static deflection isolators to be effective.
If the structure is too flexible, then it can become very expensive or even
impractical to isolate vibration from the units.
The key, in this case, was to work with the structural and mechanical
engineers to relocate the rooftop units as close to the major joists as possible,
so that we could reduce the roof deflection of each unit to less than 0.25 in.
This allowed the use of a vibration-isolation curb with a relatively high, but
attainable, 3-in. static deflection.
Terminal units
The next challenge was the fan-powered terminal units installed below
the structure and above the ceilings. Two aspects of these were a problem:
Fan noise propagating down the ducts, and noise radiated from the terminal
unit housings into the spaces below.
The engineering team was able to address the potential duct-borne noise
by working with the mechanical engineers to incorporate acoustically lined

34

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

ductwork between the fans and the supply diffusers and return registers. In a
couple of locations, duct silencers were required due to the short distances to
the first supply or return openings. Rerouting ductwork in some cases allowed
for the use of duct lining without a silencer, which is generally the preferred
solution for both financial and static pressure budgets.
The radiated noise from the terminal units proved more challenging. The
interior designers had in mind a slightly curved, more modern floating
ceiling, meaning there were large areas on ceiling tile with gaps that were
open to the structure aboveand to the terminal units.
The team worked with the mechanical engineers to search for quieter
terminal units, which was a challenge in itself because the way terminal
units are rated acoustically for radiated noise assumes the use of a closed
mineral-tile acoustical-ceiling plenum. In this case, an open-edge ceiling
with fiberglass tiles that do not isolate noise as well as the denser mineral
fiber tiles was used.
Engineers obtained the octave-band sound power data for various terminal
units and developed detailed predictions of the office-area noise based on
the ceiling conditions and the use of multiple terminal units over the space.
The final solution for the radiated noise problem was a combination of
selecting quieter terminal units and working with the interior designer to
configure an enclosed ceiling assembly that still appeared to be floating as
originally intended.
As a part of the ceiling design, the designer had to research and analyze
ceiling-tile options for the large 4x8-ft tiles that were desired. The consultants
found a supplier who could provide 2-in.-thick fiberglass ceiling tiles that
provided the sound absorption needed to reduce reverberation the large office
area. The fiberglass tiles included a sound-isolation membrane backing,
which provided the sound-transmission loss required to isolate the radiated
noise of the terminal units.
The results
The acoustical design was a long process that required deep coordination
with the mechanical engineer, structural engineer, and interior designer. That

www.csemag.com

Vibration in buildings is most often


caused by machines (i.e., mechanical
system fans, pumps, chillers, cooling
towers) and electrical system elements
(i.e., generators and transformers).
Other vibration sources can be human,
such as footfall noise on hard floors or
moving tables and chairs in a ballroom
above an office area. Vibration also can
be caused by external sources, such as
nearby trains or other heavy equipment
outside the building.
Perceptually, vibration may be lower
in frequency as compared with audible
sounds, usually being below about 20
Hz (cycles per second). Vibration also
can be in the audible frequency range of

roughly 20 to 20,000 Hz and radiate from


the structure as airborne noise.
Besides the human-comfort issues,
vibration can be a functional problem in
a building, ranging from disruption of
electron microscopes to wobbling ceiling-mounted video projectors.
Reverberation and speech intelligibilityReverberation is heard as sound
dies away in an enclosed space. Spaces
with hard surfaces will be more reverberant that ones with a large total area of
soft surfaces. The accepted and standard
method to measure the level of reverberation in a space is by measuring the
time required for sound to decay by 60
dB after the source sound has stopped,

defined as the reverberation time, and


denoted as RT60.
Nois e and re verb eration af fec t
speech intelligibility, which is a measure of how well words are heard
between a talker and a listener in a
given environment. We increase speech
intelligibility when we reduce reverberation and noise.
Reverberation is reduced when a space
has more absorptive surfaces, such as
acoustical tile ceilings, carpeted floors,
and fabric-wrapped fiberglass acoustical panels. The role of reverberation in
the acoustical environment is complex;
this article will focus more on noise and
vibration control.

Figure 4: The finished office had high transmission loss and


high-absorption 2x8-ft ceiling tiles in an enclosed floating
ceiling. Courtesy: JBA Consulting Engineers

process paid off in an acoustically comfortable and functional open-office


area with a great view. When the building was occupied, the design team
visited the site and made measurements in the office area. The team found
the background noise to be at appropriate design levels for an open-office
area, and without excessive reverberation.
The project is a great example of how cooperation between building trades
with the common goal of satisfied clients can be successful, albeit with a
lot of hard work.

www.csemag.com

Sound pressure level, dB re: 20 Pa

80

NC-35

70

NC-40
60

Office area (48 dBA)

50

40

30

20

31

63

125

250

500

1,000

2,000

4,000

8,000

16,000

Octave band center frequency, hertz

Figure 3: Background-noise-level measurements after construction


shows the background noise at the appropriate levels near NC 35,
with sound masking at appropriate levels. Low-frequency noise from
HVAC systems has been well controlled with noise-control treatments. Courtesy: JBA Consulting Engineers

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

35

Noise and vibration control


Identifying the scope of work
for acoustics

In any building or space design, the


scope of work for noise and vibration
as well as the related architectural elements should be determined early in
the design process. Just like waiting
to start the mechanical system design
during the contract-documents phase
after the building design is almost done
would be a disaster, waiting to address
acoustical issues too late in the process
can have similar consequences in terms
of both added cost and decreased occupant comfort.
Identifying the acoustical scope of
work should be done at the beginning of
the project when the architectural, MEP,
and other scopes of work are determined.
Almost any project can benefit from
attention to acoustics during design, but

some project types should include acoustical design as a matter of course. Typical facilities, such as office buildings,
hospitality developments, educational
facilities, conference centers, medical
facilities, and houses of worship, would
normally include an acoustical scope of
work. Museums, theaters, recording studios, secure government facilities, and
other specialty facilities also require special acoustical consideration.
The acoustical scope of work includes
a range of fundamental tasks that apply
to almost every project. This can generally be categorized into three basic
acoustic goals:
n Noise and vibration control: The
reduction of noise and vibration in
the building caused by either internal or external sources

Table 1: Room noise criterion


Recommended
NC or RC

Room types
Residences, apartments,
condominiums
Hotels/motels

Office buildings

Schools

Living areas

30

Bathrooms, kitchens, utility rooms

35

Individual rooms or suites

30

Meeting/banquet rooms

30

Executive and private offices

30

Conference rooms

30

Teleconference rooms

25

Open-plan offices

40

Classrooms and lecture rooms

25-30

Table 1: See the ASHRAE HandbookHVAC Applications for more recommendations


and information regarding the selection and use of NC and RC curves. Courtesy: JBA
Consulting Engineers

Table 2: Acoustical-sensitivity hierarchy


Acoustical
sensitivity
Special
High
Moderate
Low

Space examples
Recording studios, audio- and videoconferencing rooms, sleeping
spaces
Auditoriums, meeting spaces, huddle rooms, training rooms,
nonsleeping residential living spaces
Open offices, private offices, reception areas, dining areas, public
spaces, corridors
Storage, mechanical/machine rooms, electrical rooms, garages,
restrooms.

Table 2: By categorizing spaces into different acoustical sensitivity levels, the engineer can determine how much noise or vibration control is required. Courtesy: JBA
Consulting Engineers

36

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

n Sound isolation: Reducing the


transmission of unwanted sound
from one space to another
n Reverberation control: Controlling the amount of reverberation
in spaces to both reduce noise and
increase the intelligibility of speech
for occupants in spaces.
There are, of course, other special
goals that are variations or combinations of these three goals. One example
is creating functional open-office spaces, where the increasing background
noise and reducing the intelligibility of
speech can be the goal. Even these specialty goals involve parameters associated with the basic three noted.
All of these goals then need to be
related to the type of facility, the size
of the facility, and the specific spaces
or areas of the building that need to be
addressed to create the acoustical scope
of work for the project.
Designing for noise and
vibration control

With goals established and scope of


work defined, the design work begins.
At the beginning of a project, noiseand vibration-control goals can play
an important role in determining space
adjacencies. As the project design progresses, more detail is developed that
requires integration into the deliverables for each building trade, particularly architecture, interior design, and
the MEP trades.
In the early stages of a project, noise
and vibration criteria should be set so
that the goals are quantifiable and provide a basis for design. The most common criteria used for noise control is
the noise criterion (NC) curve, which
is commonly used for rating of air diffusers and other HVAC components.
An enhanced rating system called
room criterion (RC) also is recommended by ASHRAE, but it is still not
as common as NC. Both are defined
in detail in the ASHRAE Handbook
HVAC Applications.
www.csemag.com

Table 3: Space adjacencies


Acoustically sensitive space

Buffer space

Recording studios, audio- and videoconferencing rooms,


sleeping spaces
Auditoriums, meeting spaces, huddle rooms, training
rooms, nonsleeping residential living spaces

Corridors
Storage rooms
Data/telecom rooms
Prefunction areas

Noisy space
Mechanical rooms, rooftop units,
electrical rooms, generators, elevators,
copy rooms, gyms, nightclubs, restrooms

Table 3: Buffer spaceseither horizontal or verticalmay be used to separate quiet, sensitive spaces from noisy spaces.
Courtesy: JBA Consulting Engineers

ASHRAE has long-standing and


evolving recommendations for NC
curves to be used as design goals for
various common spaces. These have
been refined over the last 50 years
or so, and the ASHRAE list covers a
wide range of room types. A few of the
common space recommendations are
shown in Table 1.
Vibration criteria is tied to NC,
in that structure-borne noise radiated from building elements should
not produce audible sound beyond
the airborne NC for any given space.
Vibration isolation also is intended to
reduce vibration that can be felt but is
below the audible spectrum. To that
end, ASHRAE includes a definitive
and long-standing set of recommendations for selecting the type and performance of vibration isolators based on
the equipment being isolated and the
structure on which it is supported.
Noise and vibration control starts
with adjacencies

In a new building, a tenant buildout, or even a renovation, the most


cost-effective noise-control treatment
is changing space adjacencies early in
design. Significant time, money, and
aggravation can be saved by taking noise
control into account when planning
space adjacencies. Locating a conference
room or an office next to a mechanical room, for example, can have a huge
impact on the design and the cost of the
mechanical systems as well as architectural elements.
In this case, equipment can require
additional vibration isolation, perhaps
with the need for inertia bases for some
equipment. Piping and ductwork may
www.csemag.com

Table 4: Noise sources and treatments


Source type

Source examples

Path to building
occupants

Common
treatment options

Mechanical

Fans
Motors
Pumps
Chillers
Cooling towers
Condensing units
Terminal units
Ducts (air noise, duct
flexion, diffusers, and
registers)

Airborne
Structure-borne
Duct-borne

Electrical

Generators
Transformers

Airborne
Structure-borne

Space-adjacency selection
Vibration isolation
Equipment relocation
Flexible connections
Architectural isolation

Plumbing

Toilets
Drains
Supply piping
Pumps

Airborne
Structure-borne

Space-adjacency selection
Vibration isolation
Flexible connections
Architectural isolation

Occupant activities

Gyms
Copiers
Elevators
Nightclubs
Footfall
Audio systems

Airborne
Structure-borne

Space-adjacency selection
Vibration isolation
Enclosures
Architectural isolation

Transportation

Planes
Trains
Automobiles
Trucks
Motorcycles
Industrial equipment

Airborne
Structure-borne

Space-adjacency selection
Vibration isolation
Architectural isolation

Space-adjacency selection
Vibration isolation
Equipment relocation
Enclosures
Flexible connections
Acoustical duct liner
Silencers
Duct configurations
Architectural isolation

Table 4: Common treatments are listed for different types of noise sources. Note that
careful space-adjacency selection is an approach that benefits isolation from all of
these noise sources. Courtesy: JBA Consulting Engineers

require additional vibration isolation.


Ductwork may require rerouting with
additional acoustically lined ductwork
and silencers. Architecturally, special
(and costly) wall or floor/ceiling constructions may be required to reduce
airborne noise.
These costs may be unavoidable
based on the space configurations and
required adjacencies, but maybe not.
Considering noise control during space
planning can save the owner significant

design and construction costs, particularly if a noise problem is created that


isnt identified until after construction
is at or near completion.
To find potentially problematic adjacencies, start by looking at the spaces
that will comprise the building or tenant build-out and determine the acoustical sensitivity hierarchy as shown in
Table 2.
In addition to acoustically sensitive
spaces, noisy spaces and equipment also
Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

37

Noise and vibration control


must be identified. Noisy spaces can be
related to MEP systems, other machinery, or just an activity in a space.
Once the more acoustically sensitive
spaces and the noisy spaces are identified, the goal is to separate them as
much as possible with spaces that are less
acoustically sensitive. These less acoustically sensitive spaces are commonly
called buffer spaces. Dont forget that
both horizontal and vertical adjacencies
must be evaluated.
Table 3 shows some example adjacencies that could prove problematic and
the common buffer spaces that may be
used to separate sensitive spaces from
noisy spaces.
Identifying noise sources

A large part of the acoustical consultants work is identifying noise sources


and analyzing the path from those noise
sources to the building occupants. Noise
control is what happens in between.
A supply-air fan makes noise, and the
noise can propagate down the duct and
into a room via a diffuser, which also makes
noise, and through the air to an occupant.

treatments including the use of enhanced


construction of floor/ceiling assemblies,
partition design, and alternative door and
window materials and hardware.
Table 4 provides a summary of common noise sources, the path the noise
takes to building occupants, and common approaches used to mitigate the
noise.
Turning recommendations into
building designs

The primary goal of the acoustician


in the building design and construction
process is to assist the building team
with creating spaces that are comfortable and functional for the occupants.
There is no acoustical set of trade drawings that can be issued to a contractor to
make this happen. Instead, the acoustical goals are implemented via measurement (when possible), analysis, and the
development of recommendations for
the other building trades. The recommendations are then implemented in
each trades construction documents.
The process of acoustical analysis,
recommendation, and review is an

The primary goal of the acoustician in the building


design and construction process is to assist the building
team with creating spaces that are comfortable and
functional for the occupants.
That noise also can radiate through its
enclosure, through a wall or ceiling, and
through the air again to the same or another
occupant. The fans also produce vibration
that enters the structure; travels in the floor,
columns, and walls; and radiates yet again
through air to another building occupant.
All of these paths are addressed as part of
the acoustical design process.
There are some common noise- and
vibration-control treatments used to mitigate noise from the source to the receiver.
These may be specific to a trade (like the
use of duct-liner board in air ducts) or more
generally applicable, as in the case of selecting appropriate space adjacencies. Architectural elements also can act as noise-control
38

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

interactive task throughout design and


construction. The timing for these tasks
must allow for information to be provided to the acoustical team early enough
for recommendations to be developed,
communicated, and then incorporated
into the design package. The acoustical
team then reviews the design documents
after the recommendations have been
incorporated by each trade.
After the noise- and vibrationcontrol treatments noted above are
developed and recommended, they are
then incorporated into the design package. The acoustical input may appear
in a variety of contexts in the design
package including:

MEP drawings and specifications:


n Vibration-isolator schedules for
HVAC, electrical, and plumbing
equipment
n Maximum sound power requirements for air handling equipment
including inlet and outlet levels and
maximum casing-radiated noise
n Maximum NC ratings for diffusers
and registers
n In-line duct-silencer locations with
performance requirements including minimum sound attenuation,
maximum static pressure drop,
airflow rates, and maximum regenerated noise,
Architectural drawings and
specifications:
n Door type and hardware schedules
including gasket specifications
n Identification of acoustical absorptive treatments including acoustical
paneling and acoustical tile ceiling
drawings and specifications.
n Partition types with acoustical
details noted, such as caulking and
resilient supports as needed.
Structural drawings and specifications:
n Extent and type of acoustical
roof deck
n Slab configurations where slab
cuts may be required for vibration
reduction
n Provisions and specification of
HVAC curbs, housekeeping pads,
and inertia bases.
Timothy Cape is director of acoustics
at JBA Consulting Engineers. Michael
Schwob is technical advisor at JBA Consulting Engineers.
www.csemag.com

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Applying combined
heat and power systems
Cogeneration systems, often referred to as combined heat and power (CHP) systems, generate both electricity and thermal energy. As they
become more common in the United States, engineers must understand the nuances and design
strategies for successful application.
BY RODNEY V. OATHOUT, PE, CEM, LEED AP, DLR Group, Overland Park, Kan.

ombined heat and power


(CHP) systems are being
applied in commercial facilities
because of energy efficiency,
reliability, and return on investment (ROI). CHP equipment can be a key
element in a microgrid for a facility or group
of buildings in close proximity. The characteristics of a microgrid system include energy-generating equipment directly serving
consuming equipment through an onsite
electrical distribution system. The robust
nature of the onsite generating equipment
typically determines if supplemental energy
from a grid source is required.
Other examples of energy-generating
equipment found in microgrids include
generators, fuel cells, batteries, and renewables. The increasing use of microgrids in
the built environment can be attributed to
the advancement of cogenerating technologies like CHP. The onsite energy generation
reduces the reliance on electricity from the
grid, adding resiliency against power outages, brownout, and other disruptions
The most common type of CHP technology applicable for commercial projects is the topping cycle, where fuel is first

40

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

used to generate electricity or mechanical energy at the facility and a portion of


the waste heat from power generation
is then used to provide useful thermal
energy. The main components of a CHP
module include a prime mover, generator,
heat recovery, and electrical interconnection. The term prime mover is a generic
description used in this application for
the device that consumes the fuel and
powers the generator to produce electricity. The prime mover also produces thermal energy that can be captured and used
for other onsite processes that use steam
or hot water. There are several commercially available prime movers including
turbines, microturbines, reciprocating
engines, and fuel cells.
CHP systems are available in many
sizes and design variations, but the premise among these variations is the same. A
fuel source, most commonly natural gas, is
consumed by the CHP equipment, which
produces electricity and thermal energy.
A strategy for maximizing the ROI of
energy-efficient equipment is finding
applications that allow continuous operation at the peak-efficiency point and the

ability to consume all of the thermal energy generated by the CHP. Energy efficiency
for CHP systems is generated in two ways:
production of two energy sources with one
fuel and the added efficiency associated
with producing electricity onsite to avoid
transmission losses.
www.csemag.com

Learning
objectives
 Explain combined heat and
power (CHP) and how it can
be applied in commercial
buildings.
 Develop a strategy for
applying CHP equipment in
the built environment.
 Evaluate and calculate the
energy efficiency of the CHP
system.

Figure 1: The new Marriott AC Hotel in downtown San Jose, Calif., is a 7-story, 210-room lifestyle-branded hotel, situated within
walking distance from the famed HP Pavilion. The hotel will include various hospitality amenities on the first level, such as a
lobby, front desk, lounge, breakfast area and buffet, kitchen, fitness room, pool, and courtyard patio garden with a fire pit. The
hotel is designed to meet U.S. Green Building Council LEED Gold criteria through a variety of energy-saving technologies,
such as light harvesting, architectural louver sunshades, battery-based electric demand control system, onsite combined heat
and power (CHP) system, and variable refrigerant flow cooling and heating with smart controls in every room.
All graphics courtesy: DLR Group

www.csemag.com

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

41

Combined heat and power systems


One of the defining characteristics
of CHP systems is that thermal energy
produced can be up to five times greater
than the electricity generated. Other CHP
technologies have different thermal-toelectric ratios. For instance, a natural gas
drive engine produces about the same of
amount of thermal and electric energy.
CHP systems based on combustion turbine technology generally produce twice
as much thermal energy than electricity.
Therefore, facilities with significant and
continuous hot-water demands would be
good choices for applying CHP systems.
The design challenge is selecting the CHP
equipment with characteristics most suitable for the requirements of the facility and
providing the necessary auxiliary equipment to maintain operation as hot-water
demands naturally fluctuate.
Building applications

A specific facility type and equipment


performance are used to provide a basis
for the discussion. The process for application will remain as generic as possible to
ensure this technique may be applied with
other design parameters. Hospitality occupancy will be used as the model for applying CHP equipment in the built environment. Other facility types that also may be
good choices for applying this technology
include multifamily housing, prisons/jails,
health care, and industrial applications
with continuous hot-water demands. The

To domestic
hot water
system

project under consideration is a 210-room


full-service hotel with onsite commercial
laundry, three restaurants, and a lounge.
This example will study only how the CHP
can supplement the domestic hot-water
service. Clearly, there is an application for
a CHP system to serve as a hydronic heating system. Heating systems pose an added
complication to the analysis due to climate
and system operation issues.
The energy flow through the microCHP system includes 100% fuel coming
into the system, with 75% thermal energy,
20% electricity, and 5% exhaust exiting
the system. These values are based on
the higher heating value of the fuel. The
performance characteristics of this equipment are smaller than most CHP systems, thus, the term micro-CHP is used
to describe this unit. The micro-CHP
equipment is usually applied as multiple
units to maximize operating time near the
highest performance levels.
The CHP equipment considered for
this case study is based on a Stirling
cycle that uses natural gas as the fuel to
produce 6 kW of electricity and 35 kW
(120 kBtu/h) thermal energy at design
conditions. At these design conditions,
the equipment is rated at 95% efficiency
and the supply-water temperature for the
thermal energy is 160F. The electricity
production can vary by manufacturer.
The electricity produced in the example
is minimal as compared with the thermal
Cold water
HW recirc. pump

Other
CHP modules

CHP modules
Thermal storage tank

CHP circulation
pump

Figure 2: This simplified diagram shows how CHP equipment can be integrated into a
domestic hot-water heating system.

42

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

How to apply
CHP equipment

he following is a summary of an
approach recommended to apply combined heat and power (CHP) technology to
a commercial facility. Step-by-step guide
for applying CHP equipment:

1. Model the performance of the thermal


energy systems.

2. Model the thermal and electric performance of the CHP equipment.

3. Prepare a flow diagram and sequence


of operation for the thermal system in
the facility.

4. Prepare integrated system design


with CHP and traditional hot-watergenerating equipment.

5. Prepare a one-line diagram of the


electrical design.

6. Confirm emission regulation and electrical interconnection requirements.

7. Test combinations of CHP equipment


to maximize return on investment of
other design criteria.

8. Finalize the design.


9. Train the user.

energy and will be completely absorbed


within the facility, so utility interconnection is a minor issue. There are other
examples of cogenerating equipment
where the electrical production has a
much greater role in the overall design
decisions. The electricity generated by
onsite sources like CHP equipment play
an important role in the energy efficiency
story for this system.
Domestic hot-water use was profiled
for the facility. A majority of the morning and evening hot-water use is by occupants in the guestrooms. The laundry and
restaurants are primary hot-water users
during the daytime. There are other small
energy losses included in the hot-water
calculation, such as in the recirculation
pump and piping.
There are several assumptions included
in this hot-water-use profile, such as average hotel occupancy, hot-water consumption by guests, restaurant occupancy, and
laundry equipment performance. These
values can vary drastically depending on
the application, so it is important for the
engineer to identify the quantity and use
patterns for a particular application when
preparing the design calculation.
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input #18 at www.csemag.com/information

Combined heat and power systems


gated uses some type of thermal storage
equipment that can be used to satisfy the
thermal peaks and prolong CHP equipment operation.
Figure 2 shows a simple diagram of how
CHP equipment supplementing a domestic hot-water system can be organized.
The calculation to be solved as part of this
system design is the optimization of the
storage tank size, output of the CHP equipment, and consumption of the domestic
hot water by the facility. The financial
viability of the design requires the CHP
to operate at the most efficient point for
the maximum duration possible while
consuming all of the energy produced.
The CHP system is a closed loop that
preheats the domestic hot water through a
heat exchanger and thermal storage tank.
The discharge of the thermal storage tank
serves the domestic hot-water system.
Project specifics may require additional
storage tanks, conventional hot-water
generation, thermostat mixing valves, and
other traditional components.
The starting point for the system design
simulation was using a thermal storage
tank with a capacity approximate to the
size of the hot storage tank required by
the traditional calculation for the domestic hot-water system. This seemed like a
reasonable point to reduce or eliminate

0
150

the need for any additional hot-water storage. The final size of the thermal storage
tank will eventually be affected by heatexchanger performance, number of CHP
modules, and facility requirements.
Figure 3 shows the calculated thermal
storage-tank temperature with one, two,
and three CHP modules operating at 100%
performance using a 3,000-gallon tank
size. The optimized hot-water temperature for the CHP equipment is 130F, and
assumed approach temperature of the heat
exchanger is 4F. Therefore, the realistic
setpoint temperature of the thermal storage tank is 135F. Figure 3 predicts tank
values greater than 135F. Using those
assumptions, the CHP would modulate its
output as a response to achieving setpoint
temperature in the thermal storage tank.
The first point of the analysis is determining a reasonable combination of CHP
units, thermal storage tanks, and heat
exchangers that result in a stable operating condition. Once the stable combinations are determined, the lifecycle cost
analysis can be performed to select the
best course for the project. The equipment
combination identified with the optimal
cost of ownership can be compared with a
traditional domestic hot-water system to
determine the ROI.
Table 1 shows the power production for
the CHP module performance shown in
Figure 3. The values in Table 1 are theoretical electrical production values that
allow the thermal storage tank to naturally fluctuate.
Figure 4 shows how the thermal storage tank temperature varies based on hotel
occupancy. Figure 4 shows the calculated
thermal storage tank temperature with

0
100

Table 1: Theoretical daily


electricity production

Design strategy

The value of a CHP system in this


application is the electricity that is produced along with the thermal energy.
The efficiency of hot-water production
in CHP systems nearly approaches most
condensing-type water heaters. Maximizing the electricity production and consuming all of the thermal energy is the
value proposition for this system. The
criteria for electricity production include
maximum operating of the CHP equipment at the highest efficiency point.
There are a couple of obvious conclusions when analyzing the thermal requirements of the facility and the hot-water production of the CHP equipment. First, the
thermal production of one CHP unit is not
large enough to meet the thermal requirement of the facility. An approach for organizing the system may be installing enough
CHP capacity to meet the maximum thermal demand of the facility. This approach
would result in a large initial investment
and extended periods when a large part of
the installed capacity is dormant.
A second approach is to undersize
the CHP equipment as compared with
the thermal requirement, resulting in
maximum operating time but missing
out on additional thermal and electric
production. The solution to be investi-

Thermal storage tank temperature (F)

Calculated thermal storage tank temperature


250

0
200

One CHP module


Two CHP modules
Three CHP modules

50

10

15

20

25

Time of day
Figure 3: This figure highlights the expected thermal storage tank temperature at fullload operation of one, two, and three micro-CHP modules.

44

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

Number of
CHP modules

Power production
(kWh/day)

56,940

113,880

170,820

Table 1: This table shows the electricity production from one, two, and three
micro-CHP modules assuming the modules are operating at maximum capacity.

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Thermal storage tank temperature (F)

Combined heat and power systems


Calculated thermal storage tank temperature
180

95% occupancy

160

70% occupancy
50% occupancy

140
0
120
0
100
0
80

10

15

20

25

Time of day
Figure 4: This diagram highlights the expected thermal storage tank temperature
using one micro-CHP module at maximum capacity and varying the occupancy rate
of the facility.

varying hotel occupancy using one CHP


module operating at 100% performance
using a 3,000-gallon tank size. An important strategy when considering design
strategies for a CHP system intended to
supplement a domestic hot-water system
is the impact of hotel occupancy. Figure
4 suggests that using one CHP module
for lower hotel occupancy rates is a good
match because the electricity production
is maximized and the temperature of the
thermal storage tank remains reasonable.
There are several conclusions that can
be drawn from the data presented in
these figures. Based on the hot-water load
assumed, one CHP module could operate
24/7 to supplement the domestic hot-water
system. The data also suggests that three
CHP modules operating at 100% capacity
produce more hot water than necessary.
This conclusion is based on the very high
temperatures produced at 5 a.m. and that
the temperature of the tank at hour 23 is
much greater than hour 0, indicating an
anomaly in the modeling and suggesting
an unstable operating condition.
The overheating of the thermal storage observed in the three-module option
could be managed through modulation
of the system, but the small performance
increase available during peak periods is
overshadowed by the longer periods of
reduced operation. Therefore, it appears
46

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

that the two-module option with some


modulation in performance may be the
optimum selection for this application.
The heat exchanger and thermal storage tank have a lower price point than
the CHP equipment. Architectural and
structural limitations aside, there may be
a temptation to oversize the thermal storage tank and heat exchanger so the CHP
equipment can operate at maximum performance. This approach could be problematic because of the long periods where
the water temperature in the thermal storage tank would be in the range known to
promote Legionella (Legionnaires disease).
There are many factors associated with
the growth of Legionella bacteria including water temperature between 90 to
120F. The approach recommended is to
slightly oversize the CHP equipment as
compared with the thermal storage tank
to ensure the water temperature in the
thermal storage tank can be controlled at
setpoint with minimal, short-lived, temperature variation.
The daily power production for the twoCHP-module option with a fixed thermal storage tank temperature of 135F is
85,410 kWh. This results in 28,470 kWh
(33%) more electric production per day
as compared with the single-CHP-module
operation. The two-module option provides additional benefits of CHP equip-

ment redundancy and less reliance on the


traditional equipment for domestic hotwater production. Additionally, this power
production is important to the operation
of the facility, but is not large enough to be
concerned about returning power to the
grid. Exporting electricity to the utility
grid can be complicated and highly regulated in many parts of the United States.
The price paid for the exported power is
often greatly discounted from the purchase
price, which adds to the importance of
consuming all of the electricity produced
by the CHP onsite.
Energy efficiency

The analysis presented is a very specific


example and provides a methodology for
the calculations necessary to apply CHP to
a commercial building project. The technology considered has a large thermal-toelectric energy ratio. Therefore, the best
opportunities for application of this technology are projects with consistent hotwater requirements (either domestic water
heating, hydronic water heating, or both).
There are other technologiesfuel
cells, for instancewhere the thermalto-electric-energy ratio are comparable
with or dominated by electricity production. The approach for applying other
cogeneration technologies is similar but
has some distinct differences. The dependence on large hot-water use may not be
as important with cogeneration system
types with smaller thermal-energy production. Interconnection agreements and
net metering will be more important with
cogeneration systems that have higher
electricity production.
One of the key benefits of using CHP or
other cogeneration equipment is the value
of making electricity onsite. Gaining a
greater understanding of site and source
energy and leveraging the benefits is gaining popularity among high-performance
building designers. The full definition of
site and source energy can be found in
many locations including U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) Portfolio Manager website.
Source energy is defined as the energy
consumed at the site plus all of the losses in
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Combined heat and


transmission and distribution of the energy between the site and
where the energy is ultimately created, referred to as the source.
For natural gas, the difference between site and source
energy is very small, less than 5%, due to the modest losses
between the well head and the final consumption location. The
reality for electricity is much different. The disparity between
source and site energy varies throughout the United States and
is caused by many factors, including how the electricity is generated. The ratio between site and source energy can be smaller
in areas where electricity is produced by technologies different
than combustion of fossil fuels. Typically, the source energy
for electricity can be as high as 300% more than site energy.
The EPAs Portfolio Manager website provides information
on how these values are calculated and used in Energy Star
analysis. Using the example presented previously, the 85,410
kWh of electricity generated at the facility would require
approximately 256,230 kWh of capacity if generated by a utility source offsite. By creating the electricity onsite, there is
an opportunity to positively affect the overall efficiency of
electricity consumed, reduce the load on the grid, and reduce
the pollution created by generating the power.
The ROI calculation for most equipment is filled with
assumptions on important factors like fuel costs, equipment
costs, available incentives, and financial matrices. The following assumptions are intended to show the process and order
of magnitude for the ROI on the installation. This calculation
is based on a simple payback analysis with two micro-CHP
modules, 3,000 gallons of thermal storage, pumps, piping, heat
exchangers, electrical provisions, and other controls to form
a complete system.
This type of onsite power generation qualifies for incentives
in some areas of the United States. Many government agencies
use incentives in the form of rebates and favorable tax provisions to promote the use of emerging technologies. Table 2
provides the calculations with and without incentives.
Table 2 includes many assumptions that may not be valid in
some parts of the U.S. Of course, utility rates routinely fluctuate and maintenance costs can vary based on equipment, service rates, and other factors. The life expectancy is commonly
manufacturer-specific, but assuming 20 years of useful life
and the assumptions provided in Table 2, CHP equipment to
supplement domestic hot water, heating water, and electricity
production can be beneficial.
So far, this analysis assumes that the CHP system would be
supplemental to the traditional full-sized domestic hot-water
system. The performance and reliability of this equipment
suggest that the CHP system could be a major contributor to
the domestic hot-water production for the facility, justifying
smaller traditional domestic hot-water-generating equipment.
The ROI could be significantly improved if the cost difference between the full-sized domestic hot-water system and
a complimentary-sized system is included in the calculation.
The right column in Table 2 shows how the savings in tradi-

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input #21 at www.csemag.com/information

48

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

power systems
tional water-heating equipment affects
the analysis and ROI.
Cogeneration systems that include
equipment like CHP modules can be a
viable part of a high-performance building
design. This equipment can supplement
(or even provide all of) the domestic hotwater requirements of the facility. They
also can be used to satisfy the heatingwater component of a building. Facilities
with significant and continuous hot-water
or heating consumption are good candidates for applying cogeneration systems.
The efficiency for producing hot water is
comparable with traditional hot-watergenerating equipment, such as condensing boilers. The tangible benefit of a CHP
system is the electricity generated simultaneously with the hot water. The ROI for
the system is maximized when the CHP
modules and accessories are optimized
for prolonged electricity generation that
can be completely consumed onsite at the
highest efficiency level.

Table 2: Summary of return on investment


Description

No incentives

With tax and


other incentives

With incentives
and WH savings

Effective cost of electricity

$0.165/kWh

$0.165/kWh

$0.165/kWh

Cost of natural gas

$0.80/therm

$0.80/therm

$0.80/therm

$0

$26,500

$26,500

$90,000

$90,000

$90,000

$0

$0

($20,000)

Estimated incentives/
tax credit

Installed CHP cost


Water-heater equipment
savings (WH savings)
Annual maintenance cost

$1,200

$1,200

$1,200

Cost of additional gas used

$2,000

$2,000

$2,000

Value of electricity
produced

$11,500

$11,500

$11,500

Net savings per year


Simple payback

$8,300

$8,300

$8,300

10.8 years

7.7 years

5.3 years

Table 2: This summarizes the return on investment for a micro-CHP system with two
modules based on a series of fuel costs, construction costs, maintenance costs, and
incentives. WH savings is the anticipated savings in construction cost caused by
reducing the conventional water heating equipment by the amount produced by the
CHP equipment.

Rodney V. Oathout is the energy and


engineering leader and principal at DLR
Groups Overland Park, Kan., office. He is
a champion for integrated design, energy

efficiency, and human engagement in highperformance building design. He is a member of the Consulting-Specifying Engineer
editorial advisory board.

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A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Assessing, Addressing and Adapting:


How Energy Management is Paving the Road to Smart Cities
Today, nearly every function of our lives has a
technological component that resides in the cloud. This is
becoming true for buildings as well. Cloud-based energy
management platforms are one of the many technologies
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on a smaller scale smart campuses.

Laying the Groundwork:


Creating High Performance Buildings
Commercial buildings are some of the largest energy
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In essence, this creates a self-driving building. Like a car taking into consideration its mpg and rush hour
traffic, it uses both internal and external variables to get to its destination efficiently.
Powered by predictive analytics, an advanced management platform uses weather forecasts, occupancy
patterns, building characteristics, and energy pricing to come to the most efficient daily operating strategy.
The intelligent nature of the system allows it
to foresee opportunities for energy savings
and act upon them in real-time instead of
reporting consumption after-the-fact. The
cloud-based nature of the technology allows
it to scale across a portfolio of buildings.

The Two Way Street:


Communicating with Utilities
Similar to a self-driving cars awareness of
other drivers, cloud-based platforms account
for other grid customers by serving as the
necessary link between a building and its
utility. This enables seamless, automatic
participation in demand response programs, which allow utilities to be more dynamic and efficient in their
energy production by closely matching supply to demand. This benefits both the customer and the grid.
By opening communication between buildings and utilities, were creating an intelligent network operating
toward a common goal and paving the way for smart cities.

Contact Carter Kohlmeyer at carterk@buildingiq.com | 888-260-4080 | www.buildingiq.com


input #25 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Achieving an Open Controller


Built on the Sedona Framework
Contemporary Controls has been a long-time supporter of a truly
open controller, one that utilizes an open protocol for network
communications, supports an open programming language for
implementing control strategies and provides a programming tool
that is available to systems integrators without restriction.
To address the need for an open programming language
Contemporary Controls created the Sedona Application Editor
(SAE), which is a free tool we provide that allows users to program
Sedona-compliant devices from any Sedona supplier.

BAScontrolZ

If you are new to programming controllers, be sure to download


the SAE. It allows users to try out the programming possibilities
without making a financial commitment to a controller. By using the
SAE, you have access to Sedona Framework, an open-source
programming language, and you get a free control-programming
tool that lets you emulate actual control applications, states
Joe Stasiek, Sales Manager.

Using BACnets open protocol and the open control


language provided by Sedona Framework, along with
the SAE, the BAScontrol Series becomes a truly open
controller. The new BAScontrolZ and the recently
released BAScontrol22 offer BACnet client and
server capabilities allowing the devices to respond
to commands from a head-end while commanding
attached BACnet MS/TP I/O modules from the Cube
I/O and RIB I/O families.
The BAScontrol20 offers 20 points of I/O while the
BAScontrol22 offers 22 points and a daisy-chained
Ethernet connection. The BASstat is a BACnet MS/TP
communicating thermostat for staged heating/cooling
RTUs and for fan coils.

BAScontrol22

The BAScontrol Series combines an open protocol


with an open control language, said Stasiek, The
devicescan be programmed using Niagara Workbench
or a Sedona programming tool like our SAE. And weve
developed more than 100 custom Sedona components
that allow users to do things like read and write wire
sheet data from web browsers or BACnet clients.
To learn more about Contemporary Controls products
visit the new website at www.ccontrols.com

Sedona Application Editor (SAE)


Download at: www.ccontrols.com/basautomation/sae.htm

www.ccontrols.com | 630-963-7070
input #26 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Firetrace: When traditional suppression approaches


just arent enough
Firetrace offers facilities that cant afford the interruption of a
fire, including hospitals, the more efficient option of controlling and suppressing fires before they have the opportunity to
become a disruptive event.
Typically, many facilities approach fire suppression in the
macro sense, with rooms and large areas covered by largescale suppression systems such as sprinklers. In many sectors
legislation means that this type of system is mandatory, and
theres no doubt that the macro approach has an important role
to play.
But consider the benefit of introducing a further tier of
protection where the detection and suppression take place
while the fire is still confined to the originating enclosure.
Firetrace Direct Low Pressure Systems do just that.
They take detection and delivery to each component within an
electrical equipment cabinet.
In the event of a component failure and fire, the proprietary
Firetrace Detection Tubing immediately above the heat source
softens, allowing the pressurized detection tube to burst and
deliver the selected fire suppression agent directly over the
heat source. The damage within the cabinet is often limited to
the failed component, meaning a much faster and less
costly repair.
Firetrace systems are available with a number of commercially
available suppression agents including 3M Novec 1230,
Chemours FM-200, ABC Dry Chemical, and CO2. For the
majority of electrical enclosures, Novec 1230 or FM-200 are
the most popular choices due to the non-conductivity and
non-corrosiveness of these agents, which require no cleanup.
Facilities worldwide are taking more aggressive steps against
fire incidents by looking closely at the most common sources of
fire and providing supplemental systems to help prevent these
disruptive and dangerous events.
Rather than replacing other legislated systems, Firetrace fire
suppression systems offer a prudent additional layer of defense
to safeguard facilities against lost time, expensive repairs and
devastating loss of life.

Firetrace International | info@firetrace.com | www.firetrace.com


input #27 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Greenheck introduces a new hybrid inline fan.


Greenhecks new Model EQB inline fans are designed to
quietly and efficiently exhaust, supply or recirculate clean air
in a building. Utilizing a patent-pending octagonal galvanized
housing, the compact yet rugged design of the EQB maximizes
air performance while reducing energy usage and sound.

Lower Sound Power, Better Sound Quality


The sound quality of a mixed flow fan is as beneficial to low
sound design as the reduced overall sound power. Compared
to centrifugal and axial fans that have dominant tones in the
low and mid-to-high frequency octave bands respectively,
Model EQBs mixed flow fan does not have a dominant tone.
A bystander would hear a more bland sound that is significantly
quieter than a centrifugal or axial fan, making the EQB ideal for
environments where quiet operation is required.

High Performance

With its mixed flow wheel, Model EQB is designed to deliver


extremely efficient performance up to 3 in. wg (747 Pa) and
up to 23,000 cfm (39,077 m3 /hr). This high efficiency level can
lead to lower annual operating costs and significant energy
savings for green building projects. In fact, Model EQB offers
higher efficiency and lower operating costs than square and
tubular centrifugal fans, with a lower initial cost than traditional
mixed flow fans.
To further enhance the fans performance, straightening
vanes are incorporated in the housing. These serve to convert
swirling airflow into a straight linear flow with a resulting static
pressure rise and energy savings.

Innovative Housing

Model EQBs octagonal housing is constructed of rigid


structural members and formed galvanized steel panels.
This design provides exceptional strength at significantly
lower cost than products with welded construction. The
EQB also offers universal mounting the housing is easily
field-rotatable for base or ceiling-mounted installation.

100

90

Sound Power, dB

A mixed flow wheel is a hybrid between an axial propeller and a


centrifugal wheel. The result is a design that combines the best
axial and centrifugal properties: highly efficient air movement,
increased pressure capabilities, extremely low sound levels,
and a steep fan performance curve.

80

70

60

62

125

250

500

1000

2000

4000

8000

Frequency, Hz
Typical Vane Axial

Typical Tubular Centrifugal

EQB

Low Operating Costs


With energy efficiency, time-saving installation,
easy maintenance, and competitive initial pricing,
the hybrid EQB fans total cost of ownership
is lower than traditional mixed flow inline fans.
For more information about this and other
Greenheck products, including specifications,
AutoCAD and 3-D Revit drawings, and for
access to CAPS specifying software,
visit greenheck.com.

Greenheck | Schofield, WI | Tel:715.359.6171 | greenheck.com


input #28 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Fire Protection designed to be


flexible and environmentally responsible
500 PSI 3M NOVEC 1230 Fire Protection Fluid From Janus Fire Systems
A recent survey showed that unplanned Data Center outage costs have increased to $8,851.00 per minute
or an average of $740,357.00 per incident, putting more emphasis on fire protection systems, which have
the highest degree of life safety, rapid fire extinguishment and design flexibility. When considering real
world conditions, Janus Fire Systems has taken a unique
approach with their 500 PSI (34.5 BAR) equipment design
allowing more efficient delivery of NOVEC 1230 to the
protected space. Increasing cylinder pressure affords
the designer significant flexibility outlined as follows;
Enhanced cylinder fill density
Longer and smaller pipe runs
Flexibility with selector valves
Retrofits of existing systems
Light wall welded seam cylinders
Enhanced Cylinder Fill Density: With 500 PSI (34.5 BAR) the maximum cylinder fill density can be used
more often than with lower pressure systems.
Longer Pipe Runs: 500 PSI (34.5 BAR) provides
flexibility where the piping network must be routed in
unique configurations. In addition, pipe diameters are
typically smaller.
Flexibility With Selector Valves: UL Listed and FMRI
Approved Selector/Directional valves ranging in
size from 1" (25 MM) thru 8"(200 MM) provide
capabilities of protecting multiple hazards from a central
storage bank.
Retrofits of Existing Systems: A number of Halon 1301
systems were installed using UL or FM recognized
software. Those systems are candidates for upgrades
with 500 PSI (34.5 BAR) Novec 1230.
Reuse of existing piping is a possibility; the Janus Design
Suite software licensed to Janus Distributors can be
utilized to verify suitability of the existing piping layout.
Light Walled Welded Seam Cylinders: UL listed and FM approved Novec 1230, 500 PSI (34.5 BAR) is
stored in light walled welded seam cylinders which have a greater space to weight ratio than their spun
sealed counterpart.

Contact Janus Fire Systems at 1-219-663-1600 or visit our website: www.janusfiresystems.com.


input #29 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Pottorff Innovates with Largest


Dynamic Curtain Fire Dampers in the Industry

Pottorff offers great performance and exceptional cost


savings with our VFD-10D Dynamic Curtain Fire Dampers.
These dampers employ curtain style blades for point-oforigin control of fire in static and dynamic HVAC systems
and may be installed horizontally or vertically with
fire-resistance ratings up to 2 hours. Available as Class
A, B or C type, this product line also features a model
with factory-installed integral mounting angle and a
thin-line model. These dampers are a cost-effective
alternative to multi-bladed fire dampers.

The largest dynamic curtain fire dampers in the industry


Pottorff is the ONLY manufacturer with a multiple
section vertical dynamic curtain fire damper
measuring 120" x 72" or 72" x 120" at 2000 FPM.
Pottorff is also the ONLY manufacturer with a single
section vertical dynamic curtain fire damper
measuring 36" x 48" at 4000 FPM.

Our Company - Founded in 1928, we are one of the most

respected suppliers of louvers, dampers and acoustic


products in the industry. Innovation, quality, performance
and service are what differentiate Pottorff from our
competition. We offer high quality products delivered
on-time and at competitive prices. In order to streamline
our product development and guarantee precision and
reliability we have in-house elevated temperature airflow, louver testing and acoustic testing laboratories.

When you need your products FAST, we offer our


Quick Ship service. Our experience, versatility and
ability to react quickly make us THE choice for your
HVAC and acoustic needs.

Our products include:


Air Control and Backdraft Dampers including
Industrial and Tunnel Dampers
UL Rated Fire, Smoke and Fire/Smoke Dampers
Ceiling Radiation Dampers
AMCA, FEMA Rated Louvers/Penthouses/Grilles
Access Doors and Panels
Actuators and Accessories
We also offer acoustic products including
Silencers Panels/Enclosures Acoustic Louvers
To reinforce our reputation for highquality products, Pottorff offers an
industry leading 5-year warranty
on our product line.
By backing up our products with
a 5-year warranty, we reinforce
the depth of our commitment to
providing customers quality products
the first time and every time, states Pat Cockrum,
President of Pottorff. Our reputation demands it
and our customers deserve nothing less.
For more information about our VFD line or other
products and warranty, visit www.pottorff.com
or call us for more information. 817-509-2300.

input #30 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

The Better/Best Balancing Valve


9527AB & 9529AB designed for high performance, quality and
efficiency with cost-effectiveness in mind.

1 Globe Valve Design is MORE accurate than


Ball Valve Design

2 Setting does NOT change or need to be re-calibrated


even after On/Off operation

3 Min. Flow less than 0.5GPM


9527AB (FNPT) & 9529AB (Solder)

Corrosion resistant DZR low lead brass construction


300WOG max. pressure
On/Off Capability
Integral Memory Stop
Ready-to-mount On/Off Wax Actuator available
NSF-61, NSF-372 & AB1953 Certified
Three functions integrated: Measuring (determination
of flow rate), Balancing (regulations of flow rate)
& Shutoff (isolation purposes)

Control: Globe valve with 360 degree stem rotation with the
design to achieve accurate regulating of flow. More accurate
and linear flow control when compared to a ball valve. Set
with adjustment tool or wrench.
Integral Memory Stop

Isolation: Spring loaded stem with memory stop.

Turn blue On/Off Cap clockwise to isolate, counter clockwise


to open. Stem automatically returns to memory position
without recalibration.

Memory: Built in memory stop with tamper resistant cover.


Actuation: Wax actuator can be added for on/off control.
Over 45 years serving in North American Market, our
commitment to quality and service is unsurpassed. It is
supported by the fact that products are designed and
manufactured in our plants, and we offer 24 hour turnaround
on orders, industry standard fill rates and a three year
warranty on all Red-White Valve Corp. products.
With Vaurien Actuator

www.redwhitevalvecorp.com | Phone: 949.859.1010


input #31 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Simple, Flexible and Sustainable Solutions


MACH-ProView - The Reliable Controls MACH-ProView is a
freely-programmable, six input, six output, touch-screen controller
designed to exceed the BACnet Building
Controller (B-BC) specification.
The controller supports industry
standard topologies such as Ethernet,
Power over Ethernet, Wi-Fi and
EIA-485, and the BACnet and
Modbus protocols.

RC-Reporter - RC-Reporter reads


building database files from any
BACnet Internet-connected building
configured with RC-Archive software.
Every BACnet Internet-connected
building, regardless of original vendor,
is available for analysis.
RC-Reporters point filtering and
querying allow users to quickly sort
through big-data, and effectively
extract valuable information.
The filtered information is then easily
linked to graphical components
which are dragged and dropped into a
report to display building performance
data such as line charts, bar charts,
pie charts, tables, exceptions,
correlations and profiles.
The reports that RC-Reporter
generates are freely customizable
using any web browser, and can be
easily shared using the built-in email
distribution scheduler.

info@reliablecontrols.com
877-475-9301
www.reliablecontrols.com

In addition to its onboard


temperature sensor the
MACH-ProView supports optional
humidity, occupancy and carbon dioxide sensing.
Router models allow the addition of one MACH-ProPoint
expansion module. The color 480 x 272 pixel, projective
capacitive touch (PCAP) LCD display provides an intuitive and
elegant interface to space and equipment parameters, and can
be configured in multiple color themes.
The MACH-ProView ships with an industry-recognized
5-year warranty.

RC-WebView - RC-WebView is a server-based application


that lets users access and control their portfolio of multi-vendor
BACnet IP-connected buildings with a single sign-on.
RC-WebViews
strength allows
multiple, multivendor BACnet
automation systems
to be joined
together into a
common Enterprise
Website. Alarm
management,
object searches,
object changes and
reporting span the entire enterprise instead of signing-on to each
system independently and executing repetitive tasks.
RC-WebViews Enterprise Schedules feature allows users to
create a hierarchy of events in a top-level or district-level
schedule that are automatically inherited or pushed down to
mid-level building schedules and to lower-level floor schedules.
Accurate, flexible, enterprise-wide scheduling of occupied
spaces and associated HVAC equipment and lighting can
significantly reduce energy consumption.

input #32 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Innovations in Ventilation: Why RenewAire ERVs are the


Lowest-Cost, Highest-Quality and Most Reliable Choice
Highest-Quality Indoor Air and Comfort
Deficient IAQ negatively impacts the health, cognitive function,
productivity and wellbeing of indoor occupants. Heres how
RenewAire ensures ideal IAQ:
Filtered outdoor air: RenewAire ERVs filter all incoming
outdoor air, which isnt done by exhaust-only systems.
Moderated temperatures/humidity: Unlike some other
options, RenewAire ERVs moderate temperatures and humidity
to create exceptional indoor comfort.

Deficient indoor air quality (IAQ) threatens all


structures, especially with improved air-sealing
methodologies. Ventilation systems enhance IAQ,
but whats the right choice in terms of cost, quality
and effectiveness? RenewAire ERVs are the best
ventilation option, and heres why:

Year-round operation in all extremes: In contrast to some


exhaust-only systems, RenewAire ERVs operate year-round,
even in extreme conditions.

Lowest Overall Cost


Other companies claim their ventilation systems are
inexpensive, but when you look at the big picture, a
RenewAire ERV has the lowest overall cost.
Heres how:
HVAC energy costs reduced by up to 40%: RenewAire
ERVs optimize energy efficiency by preconditioning
incoming outdoor air with heat and humidity thats
otherwise wasted by conventional systems.
Significant annual long-term HVAC energy savings:
Optimized energy efficiency reduces HVAC loads and
downsizes equipment, which minimizes capital and
operating costs. For example, when compared to
exhaust-only ventilation in a 2,000 square-foot home,
a RenewAire ERV generates $158 of annual savings.
Short payback and maximized ROI: Significant
HVAC energy savings, lower capital costs and
competitive pricing result in a short payback period,
thus maximizing ROI. For example, RenewAires most
popular commercial unit, the HE2XINH, has a net
present value of $32,000+ over 20 years.

Ultimate Reliability
RenewAire ERVs rarely break down due to
innovative design practices, expert workmanship and Quick
Response Manufacturing. Heres how our ERVs achieve
ultimate reliability:
Built to last: RenewAire ERVs last for 25+ years, and deliver
significant HVAC energy savings annually over their lifetime.
Best warranty with lowest claims: RenewAire offers an
industry-leading 10-year warranty on the static core.
Relevant everywhere:
RenewAire ERVs excel in
every home and building
type, every size project,
every geography and
every climate.

Renewaire.com | 800-627-4499 | renewairesupport@renewaire.com


input #33 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Innovative Cooling Building Solutions


Zone Conditioning VRF & High Efficiency DOAS

Introducing Reznor variable


refrigerant flow (VRF)

Reznor ventilation equipment Its the choice


among specifying engineers that want DOAS equipment
with BOTH high efficiency cooling AND heating. Select
DOAS equipment that efficiently does both.

ASHRAE 90.1 compliant
ASHRAE 189.1 compliant
ASHRAE 62.1 compliant ventilation air requirements
IEER > 12, Condensing Gas Heat (> 90%)
Tested to AHRI 920

Energy
recovery systems

The Reznor Z Series - a unique
energy recovery module with
an integral heat pump.

Hybrid ventilation
Heat pump & Desiccant
Energy Recovery
Cooling EER > 17 @ 95F /
78F ambient
Heating COP > 8 @ 10F ambient
Modulated ECM Supply & Exhaust Fans
No Heat pump Defrost Required

Fuel efficient VRF system


Easy to use selection software program
Easier Installation
Automated Commissioning Software
Longer pipeline connections
Faster, easier wiring connections
shield wire not required

Indoor - An array of indoor units


including cassettes, ceiling mounted, floor
mounted, wall mounted, duct systems, and
fresh air units.

Single units can operate from wired and
wireless controls
Single control can operate multiple units
BACnet and Modbus controls

Packaged
HVAC systems

P125 Series provides


recirculated conditioned air,
100% makeup air, or anything
in between.

-30F thru 125F
Operational Range
Digital scroll compressors
Dehumidification

Outdoor - Modular outdoor units can be

combined to provide higher capacity. At


part load conditions, only the primary unit
will operate (reducing energy usage). The
designated primary unit alternates at 8 hour
intervals (evens out equipment usage).

Up to 28.1 IEER
Rotating lead-lag function increases
equipment lifetime
Modular design quick, easy installation

Sensible heat ratio (SHR) < 0.7


4 or 6 row coils - Interlace coil

Independent Reheat Pump


Patent pending Algorithm

ECM condenser fans


Integrated Desiccant Energy Recovery
Payback analysis software

Reznor VRF systems can be used alone or


combined with Reznor DOAS or makeup air
equipment for for whole building solutions.

For more information contact your Reznor Sales Engineer


at 800-695-1901.

800-695-1901 | www.ReznorHVAC.com
input #34 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Rite-Hite: World Leader in Loading Dock Equipment,


Industrial Doors, Safety Barriers, HVLS Fans and Curtain Walls
Headquartered in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Rite-Hite
initially made a name for itself in 1980 when it introduced
the first automatic vehicle restraint the Dok-Lok.
The company has continued to create innovative
products based on customer needs ever since. Its
newest Dok-Lok, the SHR-5000, features a unique
shadow hook technology allowing it to work with
intermodal container chassis and guard against cargo
theft and tampering.

Rite-Hite is much more than the Dok-Lok, however.


Loading dock levelers, light communication systems,
safety barriers, and removable dock guards all
highlight Rite-Hites commitment to dock safety. All
can be programmed into a safe sequence of operation
through the companys Dok-Commander control panel.

include automated/robotic process protection doors and


fencing, mezzanine and rack safety barriers, and lightbased safety warning systems.
Several of Rite-Hites in-plant products have applications
beyond industrial facilities. HVLS fans cool buildings in
summer months by creating a gentle breeze while using
relatively little energy.
During winter, HVLS fans
mix (destratify) layers of
heated air allows those
same facilities to lower
temperature settings and
save on energy costs.
Industrial curtain walls
also have widespread
applications. Easier to
install or reconfigure than
traditional permanent walls,
curtain walls can be set up
to improve temperature and
humidity control, separate
sound and contain odor,
fumes and air particulates.

Rite-Hite also manufactures state-of-the-art loading


dock seals and shelters, designed to keep conditioned
air inside a facility, and bugs, dust and other potential
contaminants outside. Its marquee product, the
Eclipse, seals all four sides of a dock opening, using a
weighted head curtain and fabric corner pocket along
the top, GapMaster hooks on each side, and an
under-leveler seal.
In addition, Rite-Hite offers a wide range of leading
in-plant products, including several lines of industrial
doors. Perhaps best known are the FasTrax highspeed roll-up doors. Capable of operating at an industry
best 100 inches per second, they will automatically
re-set themselves onto their tracks if bumped off.
The FasTrax Clean model is designed for industries
with strict sanitary standards, such as food and
pharmaceutical. Other in-plant products from Rite-Hite
Rite-Hite Corporation
Email: info@ritehite.com
www.ritehite.com
input #35 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

PC-based Simulator Lets Personnel Train


on Switchgear Operation in an Office Environment
Simulators consist of a personal computer, an
industrial-grade PLC, and 2 or 3 touchscreen
monitors. The computer serves as the Simulator
control interface, allowing input of variables,
selection of views, and choice of simulation
scenarios. The PLC mimics the operation of the
customers Russelectric power control system,
running the same programs and responding in the
exact same manner as the system switchgear PLC.

Russelectric Training Simulators allow operations


and maintenance personnel to train on the automatic
(and manual) operation of Russelectric Power Control
Systems in the safety and comfort of an office
without interfering with the operation of the actual
system. Programmed to mimic the design and
performance of the customers Russelectric switchgear/system, Training Simulators help personnel
familiarize themselves with the system and its
operation; accurately diagnose a wide range of utility,
generator, and breaker problems; and assess the
impact of changes to programmable logic controller
(PLC) setpoints (such as kW values and time delays)
by seeing how the system responds.
By allowing personnel to run almost limitless failure
scenarios, Simulators are also a powerful tool for
developing and validating site operating/emergency
procedures. And when switchgear is upgraded, the
Simulator can be used to thoroughly test the modified
PLC and operator interface panel (OIP) logic before
downloading it to the online PLC system, dramatically
reducing live system testing time.

Two 24 color touchscreen monitors display the


switchgear OIP and the simulation controls. The
Advanced Simulators third touchscreen displays
an animated switchgear elevation (front view)
for simulated manual operation. In lieu of 3 touchscreens, an optional 4K ultra high-resolution monitor
configured in four quadrants displays the duplicated
OIP, simulation controls, switchgear lineup elevation,
and switchgear door details.

4K monitor displays (clockwise from top left) OIP, simulation


controls, switchgear elevation, and switchgear door details

Russelectric Training Simulators are available in


two versions: 1) The Training Simulator, which
facilitates training on the automatic operation of
Russelectric switchgear; and 2) The Advanced
Training Simulator, which simplifies training on
both automatic and manual switchgear operation.
View Russelectric Simulator videos at:
www.russelectric.com/simulator
info@russelectric.com
www.russelectric.com
input #36 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Tycos New Addressable Speaker Technology


Takes Safety and Value to a New Level
Tycos introduction of SIMPLEX TrueAlert
ES addressable notification technology has
been a revolutionary development in the
fire protection industry. While addressable
technology has been in use for years with
fire detection, its value is truly starting to
take hold on the notification side of fire alarm
systems with the continued evolution of
addressable solutions.
The latest advancement from Tyco the
industrys first addressable speakers with
individual device control goes even further.
It promises to take safety to the next level
and provide game-changing benefits for
engineers, architects, building owners and
contractors. This new innovation will be
displayed at the 2016 NFPA Expo in June in
Las Vegas.
Here are five key benefits that Tyco SimplexGrinnell can provide with the new addressable speakers.

1. More System Design and Expansion Flexibility: The wiring architecture of SIMPLEX TrueAlert
ES addressable speakers is extremely flexible providing easier, more efficient design; faster,
more cost-effective installation; and simpler system expansion. This makes addressable
speakers (and other addressable notification appliances) far easier for designers to work with
compared to conventional systems.

2. Targeted Messaging for Enhanced Emergency Communications and Response:

Addressable SIMPLEX TrueAlert ES speakers have the capability to deliver audio messages to
specifically targeted areas within a building. This targeted audio paging capability enables the
delivery of critical, event-specific information exactly where its needed.

3. Easier Testing and Maintenance, Less Disruption: Like the entire SIMPLEX TrueAlert ES family of
notification devices, the new addressable speakers provide revolutionary appliance self-testing
capability that reduces disruption and can eliminate the burden of after-hours testing.

4. Improved Audibility, Intelligibility and Aesthetics: SIMPLEX TrueAlert ES speakers provide a

high-quality audio output that improves audibility and intelligibility of messages and enables dual
purpose functionality. The new devices also feature a sleek, streamlined look that blends well with
the building or facility decor.

5. Lower Cost of System Installation and Ownership: Addressable notification technology can lower
the cost of fire alarm system installation and the cost of ownership over the life of the system.

For more information, visit tycosimplexgrinnell.com or simplex-fire.com.


input #37 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Continuing to Deliver the Comfort Zone of the Future


comfort and aesthetics in the field of
air distribution.
Currently, our engineers are working on
innovative new chilled beam applications, a
new air diffuser system and a new line of fan
coils. But our most recent release is a whole
new family of air handlers.

The AHU that Earns Its Name


One example of the way our innovation is
sparked by real market need is the new
RevolutionTFX range of air handler units.
Titus is headquartered in Plano, Texas

Solutions and Options


The Titus approach to innovation centers
around three propositions. The first is that the
best technical advances are based on solving
a real market need.
The second is that it must be compatible with
sustainability, which is why LEED certification
is a major consideration in our innovation
philosophy, and many Titus professionals are
LEED APs.
The third proposition is that our solutions
should offer an array of options. A range of
configurations means our customers can tailor
HVAC solutions to the needs of their clients
and end-users.

Innovation Driven by You


They say that nature abhors a vacuum, and
the same is true of innovation. By listening to
our customers, we maintain our position at
the forefront of development while staying
grounded in the realities of their project needs.
Thats how we led the industry for almost
seventy years, by promoting health, efficiency,

At the heart of this system is the ability to


generate up to 30,000 cfm of airflow. And
with 36 cabinet sizes, 34 segment options and
many component and design options, its easy
to configure an exact solution. This makes the
RevolutionTFX perfect for retrofit projects,
but also a winner when
it comes to new
installations of all kinds.
Theres no configuration
thats too big, too small or
too technical for your
budget. Now customers
who need a new air
handler solution can easily
configure one. We think
thats a bit of a revolution.
Jim Aswegan, Chief Engineer

By listening to our customers,


we maintain our position at
the forefront of development,
while staying grounded in the
realities of their project needs.

communications@titus-hvac.com | 972-212-4800 | www.titus-hvac.com


input #38 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Building it Better at Unison Comfort Technologies


Unison Comfort Technologies recently instituted
several innovations to its manufacturing of commercial
air handling units. Tracing a market legacy to 1981,
today Unison designs and manufactures units that
reduce energy consumption and building operational
costs, while improving indoor environmental quality.

Products. We design the interiors and select our


components to the highest level of quality, so its crucial
that the exterior of our products match that. This line
enables high-quality, scratch-free, just-in-time parts.
It is very precise and consistent.

Unison includes Innovent, manufacturing custom


commercial/industrial air handlers and Valent, manufacturing high-percentage outdoor air packaged rooftop
units. Precision Coils is also a business within Unison.

Eco-friendly Paint System


A new paint system at the Unison plant in Minneapolis,
MN, provides improved product quality through a more
aesthetic and long-lasting finish. It also speeds the
longer drying time associated with paints free of
Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) and low in Volatile
Organic Compounds (VOC). It will eliminate 340
pounds of volatile organic compounds and 510 pounds
of fine particulates annually. The business made these
changes to ensure a safer work environment for 350
employees, and for the North Minneapolis neighborhood.

New paint booth improves finish quality while reducing emissions.

Ongoing Investments in Quality

The new paint booth system and automated manufacturing line are major elements of an on-going initiative
to improve quality as well as increase capacity which
Unison has undertaken in the past several years.
A new plant in Sacramento, CA. also opened during
the expansion program.
As a business we want to build products in a way that
is healthy for our employees and the neighborhood
where we work. It is equally or more important that the
perceived quality and on-the-job reliability delivers the
promise of our Unison brand to consulting engineers,
contractors and building owners, said Schultz.

New automated line streamlines panel forming.

Automated Punch/Shear/Bend Line


Another innovation was deploying an automated
manufacturing line which processes blank steel sheets
into fully punched, sheared and bent panels. Quality
parts are a key benefit of the line. Often fit and finish
is how people judge quality, reflects Gene Schultz,
Director of Manufacturing for Unison Air Handling
Gene Schultz, Director of Manufacturing for
Unison Air Handling Products.

www.unisoncomfort.com | 612-877-4800
input #39 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Uponor Offers Industry-first PEX Pipe and ProPEX Fittings in 2"


and 3" for Commercial Plumbing and Hydronic Piping Applications

A first in the industry, Uponor PEX pipe and ASTM


F1960 ProPEX expansion fittings are now available
in 2" and 3" sizes, offering professionals the ability
to specify, design and install even more commercial
plumbing and hydronic piping systems with PEX.
This new offering is an ideal solution for engineers
and contractors who have been designing and
installing other piping materials such as steel,
copper, polypropylene or CPVC for commercial
projects. PEX is a much more durable, cost-effective
and high-performing solution for potable-plumbing
risers and distribution lines as well as for
transporting water to terminal units such as
chilled beams and fan coil units.
The pipe offering, which includes Uponor
AquaPEX for potable-plumbing applications and
Wirsbo hePEX oxygen-barrier pipe for hydronic
heating and cooling applications, is available in
various coil lengths and straight lengths to meet
any application need.
The ASTM F1960 ProPEX expansion fitting offering
includes a complete line of tees, elbows, couplings

and transition fittings as well as a flange adapter


kit. The offering also includes new PEX pipe cutting
tools and larger sizes of PEX-a Pipe Support (a steel
channel that enables hanger spacing similar to that
of copper for suspended-piping applications).
To align with this new offering, Milwaukee
Electric Tool is launching its new M18
FORCELOGIC ProPEX Expansion Tool that
expands 2", 2" and 3" Uponor PEX pipe for making
ProPEX connections. The new FORCELOGIC tool
complements Milwaukees current offering of
M12 and M18 ProPEX Expansion Tools for 38"
through 1" Uponor PEX pipe sizes.
Uponor PEX pipe and ProPEX fittings in 2" and 3"
is a game-changer for the commercial piping
industry. Now even more structures can benefit
from the great advantages Uponor PEX provides,
including greater durability, greater freezeresistance, flexibility for fewer fittings and fewer
potential leak points, a 25-year warranty and the
only fitting system in the industry that actually gets
stronger over time.

To learn more, call 800.321.4739 or visit


www.uponorpro.com/commercialpiping.
input #40 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

UV Resources Helps Boost HVAC Performance by 10-30%


Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation, or UV-C, is an incredibly effective and
affordable technology for keeping critical components of commercial
HVAC systems clean and operating to as-built specifications.
UV Resources has been a key driver in advancing this technology and
establishing modern sizing and efficacy software for its use.

Save 10-30%
HVAC system performance can begin to degrade within one year of
start-up. According to the 2015 ASHRAE HandbookHVAC
Applications, UV-C reduces mold, biofilm and coil pressure drop, as
well as coil-cleaning. It further states that UV-C can increase airflow
and heat-transfer coefficients and reduce both fan- and refrigerationsystem energy use. Savings of 10-30% have been reported once
capacity is restored. And, UV-C equipment costs an average of less
than $0.15 per cfm.

UV-C eliminates accumulated organic materials on HVAC/R


equipment to significantly improve airflow and heat-exchange
efficiency while providing cleaner, healthier, odor-free air.

Large air handler solutions


The RLM Xtreme fixtureless UV-C lamp system delivers
high-output ultraviolet energy to irradiate coils and destroy
mold, bacteria and viruses in demanding and high-volume
HVAC environments.

Packaged rooftop units


The X-Plus NEMA 4X design is ideal for hard-to-access
outdoor and indoor HVAC equipment up to 30 tons, including
rooftop package units, through-the-wall or fan coil units.
The flexible system helps improve heat transfer, reduce
energy use, lower odor and maintenance, and sustain
AHU capacity while improving IAQ.

Rapid Roi
For one commercial building owner, an independent audit
documented a 47% increase in airflow following the
installation of UV-C. The ultraviolet energy lowered energy
consumption enough for the project to pay for itself in just
three-monthsan impressive 90-day ROI.
Although UV-C is a relatively simple technology, many engineers and building owners are amazed that
something so simple can yield such significant savings.Learn more today!
Call UV Resources at 877-884-4822 or visit www.uvresources.com

877-884-4822 | info@uvresources.com
www.UVResources.com
input #41 at www.csemag.com/information

A DV E R T I S E M E N T

Pushing Expectations
Unlike conventional drives, Yaskawas
matrix technology employs a system
of 9 bi-directional switches that
are arranged in a matrix to
convert a three-phase AC
input voltage directly into
a three-phase AC output
voltage. It eliminates the
need for a rectifying circuit and a DC bus that are
used in traditional AC drive inverters. Matrix
technology reduces total harmonic distortion levels
to less than the IEEE compliance standard of 5%,
without the need for reactors and filters. The result
is a smoother current waveform that reduces stress
on the system power supply and infrastructure.
Additionally, reduced distortion improves
displacement power factor to 0.98 through the entire
load and speed range, reducing energy costs.
Yaskawa America, Inc. has been building packages
for the HVAC industry since 1988. Over that time,
we have worked rigorously to evolve our products
and exceed industry standards, while ensuring
an exceptional customer experience. Yaskawa
embraces the challenge of supplying an essential
product into a growing and changing market.

Z1000U HVAC
Matrix Drive

2016

Yaskawas latest offering, the


Z1000U HVAC Matrix drive,
provides extremely low harmonic
distortion in a space-saving
design, along with the same HVACspecific features as the standard
Z1000. This single component
solution achieves excellent low
distortion levels all by itself,
completely without the need for
additional countermeasures
such as passive filters or
multi-pulse arrangements.

Not only does the HVAC Matrix drive provide


outstanding harmonic performance, but being a
member of the Z1000 family, it provides the same
user experience for those already familiar with
commissioning and maintaining the standard Z1000.
Other features of the HVAC Matrix Drive include
the following:

Integrated input fusing to provide 100kA SCCR


Eco-Mode to achieve near across-the-line THD
Integrated C2 EMC filter
Embedded BACnet communications
(BTL Certified)
Multi-language LCD operator with Hand/Off/Auto
and Copy function
Internal real-time clock for event stamping
High carrier frequency
(low motor noise) capability
0-400 Hz output frequency

Available NEMA 1 or NEMA 3R models include


ratings of 1 to 100 HP (208V) and 7.5 to 350 HP (480V).
Z1000U is offered both as a stand-alone drive, as well
as in packaged Bypass and Configured solutions.

FINALISTS

1-800-YASKAWA (927-5292) or (847) 887-7318 | www.yaskawa.com | marcom@yaskawa.com


input #42 at www.csemag.com/information

ADVERTISEMENT

Douglas Lighting Controls Dialog Room Controller


Douglas Lighting Controls delivers lighting control
solutions by engineering easy to install, centralized
and decentralized digital lighting control systems for
schools, offices, commercial buildings, campuses
and sports complexes throughout North America.
Douglas systems include relays panels, controllers,
occupancy/vacancy sensors, daylight sensors and
wall switch stations. Each system is built to order in a
production facility, where products are tested to
ensure quality.
The Dialog Room Controller offers system for
decentralized lighting control. Take control easily with
the Dialog Room Controller a Plug N Control lighting
control solution for classrooms and offices. Dialog is
a digital, addressable, programmable

lighting control system for entire floors, buildings and


large multi-building applications.

About Panasonic Lighting Americas, Inc.

Panasonic Lighting Americas, Inc., a subsidiary of the Panasonic Group,


operates Universal Lighting Technologies, Inc. and Douglas Lighting
Controls, two market leaders in the industry. Universal Lighting
Technologies, based in Nashville, Tennessee, engineers LED solutions for
commercial lighting applications as well as LED, linear fluorescent, compact fluorescent, HID, and eHID components. Douglas Lighting Controls,
based in Vancouver, British Columbia, develops innovative controls
systems and works to engineer end-to-end energy-efficient, easy-toinstall digital lighting-control solutions for commercial buildings,
campuses and sports complexes
Dialog Room Controller
throughout North America.
Together, Douglas and Universal,
provide customers with the most
advanced lighting controls and
LED components available today.

Toll-free: 877-873-2797 Tel: 604-873-2797


www.douglaslightingcontrols.com

input #43 at www.csemag.com/information


cse2016o6_innovHalf_douglas.indd 1

5/10/2016 8:46:46 AM

ADVERTISEMENT

NaviLink Wi-Fi Control Introduced by Navien


Naviens most recent innovation is Wi-Fi control
called NaviLink, designed to support remote
access for all Navien tankless water heaters (NPE
series), combi-boilers (NCB-E series) and gas
condensing boilers (NHB series) through the new
NaviLink Wi-Fi control and mobile application.
Now, smart phone and tablet owners will be able to
control temperatures remotely, access usage data,
receive diagnostic notifications, remotely activate
recirculation and schedule recirculation, by day and
hour, on the NPE-A series tankless water heaters
an industry first.
NaviLink will be able to report and monitor diagnostic
data through the companion app along with error
code notification. NaviLink is capable of reporting the
following information for added comfort and peace of
mind: DHW and Space Heating set temperatures,

Current DHW
Temperature, DHW
Flow Rates, Inlet
Water Temperature,
Total DHW
Consumption, Average
Firing Rate, Cumulative
Gas Consumption,
and On Demand
activation tracking.
With the integration of
NaviLink Wi-Fi connectivity a whole new level of
control and comfort can be achieved with Naviens
products never before seen in our industry. Navien
continues to lead the way in innovation for the plumbing
industry that consumers and installers have come to
expect from the leader in condensing technology.

marketing@navien.com Tel: 949-420-0420 www.navien.com


input #44 at www.csemag.com/information

eNewsletters
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Check out some of our webcasts on
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HVAC: Cooling systems
Critical Power: Back-up power systems
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Input #100 at www.csemag.com/information

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Input #101 at www.csemag.com/information

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informed
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and trends in
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76

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE


MONTH
2016
2016

www.csemag.com

Digital Edition
Exclusive Content
Visit www.csemag.com/digitaledition for exclusive content and for
more technical feature articles. The digital edition includes tabletfriendly viewing (HTML5), headlines linking to longer versions, and
an emailed link as soon as its ready.

DE-1

How secure is the


Internet of Things?
The Internet of Things (IoT) is on the
cusp of making lives easier, but there is
also a very real cybersecurity risk that
needs to be addressed.
DOUG DRINKWATER,
INTERNET OF BUSINESS, LONDON

For a list of future and past webcasts, visit


www.csemag.com/webcast. Earn continuing education
via these 1-hour courses, including courses on:
 Critical power: Backup power systems
 HVAC: Cooling systems

webcasts

 Critical power: Electrical systems and data center efficiency


 Fire/life safety: Detection, notification, and suppression
 Critical power: Circuit protection in health care facilities
 Retrofitting HVAC systems in existing buildings
 Critical power: Selective coordination in health care buildings
 Lighting: LED codes and standards.

www.csemag.com

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

77

How secure is the


Internet of Things?
The Internet of Things (IoT) is on the cusp of making lives easier, but there
is also a very real cybersecurity risk that needs to be addressed.
BY DOUG DRINKWATER, Internet of Business, London

Key concepts
 Internet of Things (IoT)
devices, forecast to grow
to 50 billion units by 2020,
are a potential goldmine to
hackers.

 Cybersecurity risks notwithstanding, the benefits


of the IoT far outweigh the
potential negatives.
 Companies need to be
proactive in auditing and
managing devices that use
the IoT.

nformation security is a huge topic of


conversation right now, and its about
to get even bigger. Edward Snowdens
leaks on government surveillance and
huge data breaches at Target, JPMorgan, TalkTalk, and others made the subject front-page news, and that is likely
to continue given the proliferation of the
Internet of Things (IoT).
IoT devices, forecast to grow to 50 billion units by 2020, offer consumers and
businesses huge amounts of convenience
and benefit, but to hackers they are also
a goldmine. This is because such devices
represent another piece of hardware or
software that can be compromised and
lead to stolen data or money.
The early signs of IoT security are not
encouraging; researchers have already
managed to hack everything from
Googles Nest to an Internet-connected
doll and Canon printer, while significant and exploitable software vulnerabilities have also been found in Wi-Fi
light bulbs, smartwatches, and Internetconnected baby monitors.
There have been questions too on how
this affects businesses, if the likes of Nest
and Hive are connecting to enterprise
Wi-Fi networks. Security experts have
been quick to voice their fears over the
IoT, with many pointing the finger at
device manufacturers.
Insufficient device cybersecurity

A recent study of 7,000 information


technology (IT) professionals by cyber-

DE-1

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

security association, ISACA, found that


75% thought IoT device manufacturers
were not implementing sufficient security measures devices, while a further
73% said existing security standards
were inadequate.
BH Consulting managing director,
Brian Honan, joined the chorus of discontent. The IoT makes our lives easier
and better in many regards, but unfortunately you also have to take into account
that, in the rush to get these devices to
market, [manufacturers] forget about
security, Honan said. Were seeing IoT
devices, from kettles and light bulbs to
a range of different products, that are
insecure out-of-the-box; they have weak
security, default passwords ... and can
allow people with malicious intent to
control those devices for their own needs.
Honan added, We also have issue on
privacy as lot of these devices can take a
lot of information, which is being used
by companies to improve services. But if
that information falls into wrong hands,
that will impact on privacy.
Attacks aplenty

Ken Munro is the CEO and founder of


penetration testing outfit PenTest Partners,
which has found numerous IoT device vulnerabilities over the last year, and he agreed
with Honan that security must be baked-in
to products from the start, especially given
the fast acceleration of IoT devices.
The reason I love IoT as a security
researcher is that theres enormous attack
www.csemag.com

surface, Munro said, adding that attackers


can leverage everything from device and
mobile application flaws to the application program interface (API) and server
infrastructure vulnerabilities to attack IoT
users. He said that rolling such devices out
across staff and customers is simply accentuating that risk.
Munro added, Everyone has got access
to everything with IoT, and this means
that you need firmware, OS, mobile app,
and coding experts ... You need to know
how to put apps together with wireless
or global system for mobile communication (GSM) technology. Theres a massive
expansion skillset required in order to
adopt IoT. Were seeing crazy acceleration of IoT devices available, primarily
because theres money to be made, but I
think were going to see standards starting to become available.
Munro is working on standards at the
IoT Security Foundation and says the GSM
Association, which focuses on the interests
of mobile operators worldwide, is working
on something similar for mobile communications. Munro added that vendors are
too often focused on getting goods to market rather than on devices being secure.
Some, he said, simply hope to patch the
OTA or Hope the problems go away.
Munro, who praised Fitbit for bolstering its own security team at the start of
the year, said that IoT flaws, which usually reside in app source code or resolve
around weak passwords and unsecured
Wi-Fi, may enable attackers to take control of devices locally or remotely. The
latter could ultimately lead to larger-scale
attacks, such as turning off heating or surveilling a property to see when it is not
occupied.
Other experts, meanwhile, have cited
patch management as a major issue given
billions of IoT devices forecast to ship and
say that more elaborate IoT attacks could
lead to driverless cars becoming mobile
bombs or connected devices sending malware via botnets or through spam emails.
Benefits outweigh the negatives

Shipping company Maersk reportedly


has one of the largest deployments of
www.csemag.com

Industrial IoT (IIoT), to ensure refrigerated containers all maintain the correct
temperature.
Speaking at a recent conference, Maersk
UK chief intelligence officer (CIO) Andy
Jones outlined the benefits of the deployment, saying that the firm is now able to
monitor goods in real-time via Internet
protocol (IP)-enabled sensors, whereas
it previously took engineers two days to
check and report on these conditions.
The readings from these sensors are
continually fed into Maersks monitoring
systems via satellite, and any problems
at sea can be identified immediately.

Woodward is also concerned about


cheap devices and weak patch management, saying on the latter that updating
the firmware on embedded IoT systems
is extremely difficult and problematic.
I think IoT has far more potential
than mainstream computing for being
compromised, he said. The IoT is a
classic area where people are having to
relearn all lessons taken 25 years to learn
in computing.
What businesses can do: audits

Munro urged CIOs and other IoT decision makers to be proactive in auditing

Were seeing IoT devices, a

range of different products,


that are insecure out-of-thebox; they have weak security,
default passwords.

Brian Honan

Jones said the problem arises where IoT


systems are connected to something
physical, like braking or airbag systems
of vehicles or the heating and cooling
systems of buildings. There are many
security challenges; not only because
of the difficulty in keeping devices and
software patched but also because the IP
used by IoT devices is inherently insecure.
Risk factors: Internet, devices, users

Combine this with the fact the Internet does not have any form of service
level agreement, that there are millions of
devices in the hands of unsophisticated
users, and that the Internet is accessible
worldwide, and you have the perfect
storm, he said.
Alan Woodward, computing professor
at the University of Surrey, added: My
big concern from a security perspective
... is that IoT is set up using embedded
computing, which is notorious for cheap,
open-source, off-the-shelf bits of software and hardware.

and managing devices, even it means


walking the floors to find out what
devices are connecting to enterprise
networks.
The CIO, he said, must think really
seriously what data could be compromised if there is a system breach, and
what hackers have access to if the network is segregated.
Jones is optimistic about future security plans, but he advised isolating IoT
devices at risk. Any risk assessment
should include the criminal mindset
and learn from past analogies, he said.
Woodward urged companies to rollout IoT policies so users clearly know
their data can be wiped and devices
managed.
Doug Drinkwater is editor at Internet of Business, which is hosting the
Internet of Manufacturing Conference
Nov. 1-2, 2016, in Chicago. Internet of
Business is a CFE Media content partner. Edited by Joy Chang, CFE Media,
jchang@cfemedia.com.
Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

DE-2

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Input #103 at www.csemag.com/information

78

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016


CSE_1604_ProdMart_3x5.indd 1

4/1/2016 9:13:08 AM

Advertiser Index

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Request more information about products and advertisers in this issue by using the
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If youre reading the digital edition, the link will be live. You may also check the circle
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Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

79

Future of Engineering
BY WADE W. SMITH, PE,
Wade W. Smith Consulting LLC, Chetek, Wis.

Regulation of commercial,
industrial fan efficiency
The new proposed Department of Energy standard will drive changes
on how engineers design air systems for peak fan efficiency.

ans consume 18% of the electricity


purchased by industrial and commercial buildings. Yet fan efficiency
has escaped the attention of those who
endeavor to design efficient air systems.
That is about to change. Fan efficiency has been regulated in Europe
since 2013, and the U.S. Department of
Energy (DOE) will publish a proposed
rule this year covering fans from 1 to
200 hp. The DOE rule is expected to
save approximately 7 quadrillion Btus
of energy over 60 years. (Note, the U.S.
consumes around 100 quadrillion Btus
of energy every year.)
If you follow ASHRAE Standard 90.1:
Energy Standard for Buildings Except
Low-Rise Residential Buildings or
model energy codes, you may have discovered requirements for fan efficiency
based on the metric called the fan efficiency grade (FEG), which is tied to the
fans peak efficiency. In Europe, a similar
metric, called the fan motor efficiency
grade (FMEG), is similar to FEG.
Unfortunately, both FEG and FMEG
do not lower a fans energy use because
the fans performance, at its peak efficiency, is poorly correlated with the fan
efficiency and power use at its design
operating point.
DOEs proposed standard

The operating efficiency of every fan


varies dramatically from single digits
to peak-efficiency levels that are more
than 90%. Unfortunately, a fan with a
80

Consulting-Specifying Engineer JUNE 2016

90% peak efficiency will generally operate at a much lower efficiency; how low
depends on where the fan is selected.
Consequently, fan manufacturers rejected the FEG and FMEG peak-based metrics and recommended what DOE now
calls the fan energy index (FEI). The
proposed DOE standard will establish a
maximum power input that will vary by
a formula tied to the design-point flow
and pressure. (See DOEs website for
details.)
FEI is the ratio of the DOE standards
maximum allowable watts into the fan
motor over the actual fan electrical power
at the design point. An FEI of 1.0 or greater meets the proposed DOE standard. An
FEI of 1.1 will use 10% less energy than
the DOE standard. FEI informs the public
immediately of the percentage savings
relative to a fixed benchmark of DOE
regulationat design conditions. Plotting
a fans compliant operating range, where
the FEI is greater than 1.0, inspires several
observations that impact design practice:
 Every fan has a compliant range.
The proposed DOE standard will not
arbitrarily force any fan off the market.
Instead, the proposed standard will limit
fan sales to a compliant efficiency range.
 Every fan also has a noncompliant
range. This means manufacturers are
rewarded for improving the efficiency of
every fan that is sold to expand the fans
compliant range.
 A noncompliant selection is resolved
with a larger-diameter fan, or smaller

one that is more aerodynamic. Competitive dynamics in the fan industry


will shift, as designers consider DOE
compliance along with other system
requirements.
 The proposed DOE standard covers fan systems, including the motor,
transmission, and variable speed
drive. Improving these non-fan component efficiencies will expand the
fans compliance envelope, making it
possible to satisfy DOE requirements
with a smaller-diameter fan.
 Building owners are more likely
to compare actual design conditions
(and actual FEI) recorded during
commissioning with those specified.
Clients will have a clear expectation
of the power use of the fan, thanks
to the DOE regulation and the FEI
metric. Getting the air-system design
right will become equally important.
There is much to understand in this
new DOE rulemaking, and many implications to engineers design practice that
will lower fan energy use.
Wade W. Smith led the DOEs rulemaking negotiations for the fan industry. He
now consults on related questions with
HVAC manufacturers and component
suppliers.
Coming soon: read more at
www.csemag.com/archives about:
 A series of articles on the proposed
DOE standard.
 An education course about fan efficiency.

www.csemag.com

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