These activities are designed to teach various group work and leadership skills like communication, listening skills, creative thinking skills, problem solving, etc. Some are similar to initiative tasks in that there is some type of problem to solve but the problems are a little different from some big group challenge. They are more along the lines of figuring out how to make a group more effective. Most of these activities can be done in the classroom and tend to be a little less active than some of the other sections. One of the things that I tell my students or any other group that I am working with is that their ability to work well with others is going to be one of the most important skills they will learn in school. People that can‟t work well with others often find themselves unemployed. It‟s surprising how many people, adults and children, don‟t understand the importance of being able to work with others, even those they don‟t get a long with or like. I am always pointing out that in today‟s world of technology, the one thing that hasn‟t changed is the fact that most accomplishments still require more than one person to pull it off. When I drive over a bridge, I want to know that there were hundreds of people who were working well together that designed and built it. Just like any other skill, group work needs to be learned. Very few individuals come together in a group for the first time and know how to work effectively with each other. It is a skill that should be taught in schools but too often it is taught by putting students in groups and having them work together on some project without ever really teaching them how to work together in that group. That‟s where this section of this book comes in. One of the best methods to teach people how to work together is to first have them work as a team on tasks that aren‟t really all that important but allow for specific lessons on what is successful and not so successful group work. That‟s what you will find in this section. As you use this section with your different groups and teams, make sure that you spend the time before and after each activity to analyze the results with your different groups. While you could just pull out some of these activities to fill in the time and have some fun, that defeats the purpose of the tasks. The very first activity includes some common games like Charades which at first glance is nothing more than a fun party game but if used properly can facilitate a discussion on what is effective communication and what happens when it doesn‟t occur. As part of teaching group work, you also need to teach about the different positive and negative roles that can exist in a group.


Express Yourself
A number of thinking & communication activities that can be done anywhere. Works on individual thinking and verbal and non-verbal communication skills. Any group size. None. To get the group at large to guess correctly the topic. Charades 1. A person from the group is given a topic and they must act out that topic in such a way that someone in the group is able to guess what it is and say the topic.

2. The person at the front is not allowed to make any sounds, mouth any words, draw or write anything down. 3. The person at the front is not allowed to have the group run through the alphabet in order to guess letters. Pictionary 1. Similar to Charades except that the person at the front has to draw whatever they can to get the group to guess the topic.

2. Again, they can‟t make any sounds, mouth any words or have the group run through the alphabet. 3. If the group guesses a word or part of a word from the topic, the person may write it on the paper to help guide the group. 1. A neat variation of Pictionary is to do it using clay instead of drawings. The person at the front is given a lump of play dough or clay and has to mould it into whatever they want in order to get the group to guess the word(s). To start with you might want to stick with actual objects that can be moulded in clay. Move onto difficult concepts later on.

Team Charades or Team Pictionary

4 1. The facilitator has a list of 10 words.

2. The teams are in different areas or rooms. 3. The first person from each team comes to the facilitator and gets the first word. 4. That person returns to the group and acts or draws it out until their group guesses the word. 5. The next person then goes to the facilitator and gets the next word and so on. 6. The first team that gets all the words and returns to the facilitator wins. 7. For each round, mix up the teams so that no one group of people dominates.

1. Just like the other games, the person at the front has to get the group to guess the topic.

2. The person at the front has a list of words that they CANNOT say as they are trying to verbally describe what the topic is. 3. They cannot say any form of any word on this list like plurals or shortened forms, etc. 4. They can‟t draw pictures or act it out. 5. Example: On the paper you would give them would have the topic BASEBALL at the top and the following words underneath. WORLD SERIES, BAT, GLOVE, DIAMOND, PITCHER. Some more examples follow. 6. BOOK: READING, PAGES, LIBRARY, TEXT, WRITING

7.   

COFFEE: DRINK, TEA, CUP, HOT, LIQUID These are really good activities to do as a break from other more active initiative tasks if you are doing some type of leadership camp. They are also really good activities to be able to pull out at any time when your group needs a break from their work load. Just because these activities are fun does not diminish the amount of learning that occurs as a result, especially in the area of communication.


Quiet activity that can be done anywhere. Works on verbal and non-verbal communication skills. Any group size. Paper and pencils/pens. To draw the object(s) described by one person. 1. One participant is given a drawing and stands at the front of the room facing away from the group.

2. This person does their best to describe the drawing that they have to the rest of the group that do their best to draw the object. 3. The drawers may not ask any questions or talk. 4. The person describing must make sure that no one can see the drawing that they are looking at. 5. The person at the front may make no gestures. 6. When this person feels satisfied that they have described the object, they draw it on a blackboard or larger piece of paper for the entire group to compare their drawing to. 7. Get someone else to go up and try this activity.

8. Drawings should include different combinations and size of shapes like squares, triangle and circles inside each other, stacked on top of each other, etc. The more complex, the more challenging the task will be. 1. Just like above but the group can ask questions of the person at the front.

2. The person at the front faces the audience and is only able to use gestures in the air. No verbal communication at all.

6 3. The person at the front is able to do all of these things: talk, answer questions and use gestures. 4. Have two people at the front of the group with the same picture describing it to the group. Facing away, no questions and no gestures. 5. Partner everyone up. One partner is blindfolded and does the drawing and the other person gives verbal directions to this person. Put the shapes up on the board and have the partnerships work together to copy the drawing. The seeing partner can look at the blindfolded partner's drawing and give verbal directions only.  This is an excellent activity to do with a group to work on effective communication skills. Students never get tired of it. It‟s similar to charades.

Puzzle Sharing
Quiet activity that can be done anywhere. Works on silent communication, sharing and give and take cooperation. Any group size although you will want at least 16 to 20 people for the task to be an effective lesson. Five simple puzzles. The puzzles should be fairly different from each other and only have between 20 and 30 pieces. You can just take five full page pictures from a magazine and cut them up into at least 20 pieces. To complete your group's puzzle.

7 1. Take the puzzles and evenly distribute all five puzzles into four different piles so that there are an equal number of each of the five puzzles in each pile.

2. Divide the class into four groups. 3. Each group goes to a different corner of the room. 4. Each group is given one of the four puzzle piles. 5. The objective of each group is to complete one puzzle. 6. If they want, one member of each group may go to the center of the room at any time with one puzzle piece to trade with a different group. 7. Only one member from each group may be in the middle at any time.

8. No talking can occur between the groups at any time including in the middle of the room. 9. Only one piece can be taken to the middle of the room at any time and only one piece may be taken away from the middle at any time. 10. A piece may be given away for nothing, traded for another piece or taken away for nothing in the middle.


You can make this activity competitive by declaring the first group to complete their puzzle the winners.

2. You can make this activity cooperative with the objective being for all four groups to have a completed puzzle. 3. Instead of using 4 puzzles, use a deck of cards. Cut each card into four pieces, either as rectangles or as 4 equal triangles. Mix all of the pieces well and give each group an equal number of pieces. This is a good one to use if you want to have more than 4 groups. You could potentially have lots of groups of 3 to 4 people so everyone is very involved.


Work Horse
Any group size. Entire team. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Get all four teams side by side at one end of the gym. The goal is to get all of your teammates to the other side of the gym. To cross the open area a person must be carried. The carrier must return and be carried him/herself. The only person allowed to walk across the open area is the last person. If the carried person touches the ground while being transported, both members must return to the start. 7. The number of people being carried and carrying can vary with the strength and/or imagination of the group. In other words, one to one is not the only way.

8  A safety concern would be watching out for persons running when they are carrying someone and stumbling.

Mini Marshmallow Toss & Catch Any group size. Entire team. One bag of mini marshmallows.


Each team has 5 people chosen to stand behind a line or bench with the rest of their team standing behind a table about 5 to 7 feet away.

2. On the table in front of the rest of the team, place as many mini marshmallows as you wish, equal number for each team competing. 3. Each team needs to have an adult supervisor standing in visual range of the 5 people who are going to be “catching” the marshmallows. 4. On “GO”, the first person in line picks up a marshmallow and tosses it to the first person in line behind the bench or line. The person behind the bench must catch the marshmallow in their mouth with no hands for it to be considered a point for that team. 5. The people that just threw and caught go to the end of their lines and the next 2 people do the same thing. 6. When all of the marshmallows are gone, the team with the most points, according to their adult supervisor, wins. 7. There is no time limit. In other words, it is not a race and teams should be encouraged to take enough time to make a good toss.

8. If a person does not successfully catch the marshmallow in their mouth, they can still pick it up and eat it if they so desire. (5 second rule) 9. If you want to give other members of the team an opportunity to catch the marshmallows with their mouths, you can have multiple rounds.

Hula Hoop Passing Any group size. Entire team. One hula hoop per group. 1. Each team stands in a circle holding hands in their corner of the gym.

2. One hula-hoop is placed so that 2 people are holding hands through the hoop. 3. The goal is to move the hula hoop around the entire group without breaking any grip. 4. The group has to pass the hoop over their bodies onto the next person.

9 NOTES 1. Record the time it takes and then try to beat that time.

2. To add more challenge, have two hoops, one going clockwise and the other going counterclockwise. This gets real interesting when it gets around to the other side. Everyone tends to pass the hoop as fast as they can so they don‟t have to deal with two going different directions.  One warning….be prepared for the hula hoop to get stretched and/or broken.

Circle Tug of War 10 to 20 participants per team depending on the size of the rope. (4 teams)   One heavy duty rope that is at least 30 meters long and tied in a large circle. Four pylons with balls on them or flags.

10 1. Tie 4 colored flags or bibs so that the rope circle is divided equally into four sections.

2. Each team has its selected participants grab onto their section of the rope. 3. Team members can go inside or outside of the circle. 4. No one may twist the rope so that it wraps around a person. This is very dangerous. 5. Make sure that the rope is centered in the middle of the gym. 6. Place one pylon in each corner of the gym with a ball balanced on it or flag. 7. On go, each team tries to pull the rope circle towards their corner of the gym so that one of their teammates who is holding onto the rope can grab their ball.

8. Only a person holding onto the rope with at least one hand may grab onto the object in the corner. 9. When a team is successful at doing this, all of their team carefully lets go of the rope and the other three teams continue to battle it out. 10. Every time a team is successful at reaching their pylon, they carefully let go of the rope until there is only one team remaining. 11. This insures first, second, third and fourth placings. 12. Make sure that when a team has successfully grabbed their object that they don‟t just instantly let go of the rope otherwise some of the other teams may fall over. Have some type of signal so that everyone knows what is about to happen. 13. You could even have all of the teams stop and stand up, get the one team to let go and on a signal have the remaining teams start up again.

Any group size. 1. Have all four teams lie down from one end of the gym to the other so that you have four rows of people lying down. One row per team.

2. Everyone lies down on their back with their heads beside each other but the direction of their bodies

11 alternating. 3. In other words, they are not lying side by side but instead one person lies in one direction, the next person beside them lies in the opposite direction and so on but they all have their heads beside each other. 4. Everyone puts their arms straight in the air and palms up so as to form the support mechanism. 5. The volunteer lies down on their back on these supporting hands and keeps their body rigid. 6. This person is passed down the line of people. 7. 1. All of the people lying down should be as close to each other as possible so as to insure as many hands touching the lying down person as possible. The person at the end lies on the hands and is passed down. Once this person is passed along, the next person in the line is up and passed down. When these people reach the end, they lie down and are ready to pass the next person coming along.

2. Put the person moving along on a gym mat and the people lying down, over their bodies drag the mat. For this one, the people lying down should have their waists in line instead of just their heads. 3. Everyone just lies down beside each other with the person at the end lying on his/her stomach on top of them. The people in the lineup roll their bodies in such a way as to move the person who is lying on top of them along the human “conveyor belt” to the other end. 4. Everyone stands in two lines and facing each other with their arms out in front of them similar to the set up for catching people in Trust Falls. The person lies down on their back on the hands at one end and is passed along the lines to the other end.  Safety is always an issue and with this one you have to make sure that people are not just thrown along the line because they will fall and get hurt. You should have a spotter follow each person along the Zipper to make sure they don't fall and hit their heads. It also may not be feasible to have everyone go. Someone who is heavier may overwhelm someone who is smaller and trying to support him/her. You may want to just stick to a couple of smaller volunteers or allow people to choose whether or not they want to travel along the line.

The Clock
Any group size. Entire team. 1. One team at a time competes to try and set the fastest time.

12 2. Everyone in the group forms a large circle with everyone holding hands. 3. Have the circled group rotate clockwise 360 degrees in one direction and then return 360 degrees back to the start. 4. The goal is to see how quickly the group can complete the double rotation. 5. The attempt is timed and becomes invalid if anyone breaks his/her grip with a partner. 6. Keep trying to beat that time. After they do it a couple of times, set a specific time that they have to try and beat and away they go. 7. If they get good at this, have them start and finish seated on the ground.

8. A good time would be about 1 second per person in the group minus 1 second per ten people. 1.   If the group is really large or you want them to experience a bizarre effect. Place one circle of people inside another group and have each circle go in a different direction to start. Make sure you keep an eye on the obvious safety concerns that can exist with a bunch of people running and dragging each other in a circle. Remember that this is a very physical activity so after a while the group will be getting tired.

Leadership & Groupwork Training


The activities in this section are designed to introduce your group members to each other and to get them warmed up and into the appropriate mood for trust and risk taking. You will need to gauge the needs of the group that you are working with. Groups that are experienced with initiative tasks and working together may not need any of these activities to get into it. Other groups may need to spend

13 the entire session just doing the activities in this section. The beginning of this section contains ice breakers that get people to learn each other's names and be introduced to each other. Following these are a number of activities that are designed to help people learn a little bit more about each other. The final part of this section are warm-ups that help to break down barriers between group members and get people in the mood to play and work together. Don‟t be afraid to focus on this section more than others, especially in the beginning. These activities are just as useful as others and overdoing them will not cause any real harm whereas jumping too quickly into the more challenging ones later on in this book can have disastrous effects on a group and the individuals in that group. As the facilitator of the group, most of these activities are excellent ones for you to be involved in as well. With many of the initiative tasks, the facilitator cannot really be involved as they might inadvertently give away a possible solution but with most of the activities in this section, there is no real objective or solution. Seeing their illustrious leader playing along beside them will go a long way to earning their trust and respect which you are going to need to pull off the rest of the activities in this book. One other thing about the activities in this section and others, always keep an eye on the group and stop it before the people involved become bored. Always leave them wanting more. It's better than having group members getting bored and potentially causing problems.

Invisible Object
Mildly active activity that can be done anywhere. Works on learning everyone's name and breaking down some barriers by using their imagination. Any size group.  No real equipment. Just your imagination.

14 To be able to say the names of others in the group to pass them the object. 1. Everyone stands in a circle facing the middle.

2. The leader starts by walking across the circle to a specific person and says the person‟s name s/he is now facing followed by “Here is the RED BALL”. 3. The person says “Thank you for the RED BALL” and then s/he walks to someone new, as the leader takes his/her place in the circle, and says his/her name and says the same thing and so on. 4. There is no red ball. You are all just using your imagination and should act as if you are carrying a red ball. 5. If that was it, this would be a pretty boring activity. After the red ball has moved on, the leader now walks to someone else and says that person‟s name s/he is facing followed by “Here is the Blue Bag of Cement.” That person says „Thank you for the Blue Bag of Cement and then off s/he goes. The leader should have set the tone as s/he walked across the circle having difficulty carrying this big bag of cement. 6. And so on. The leader keeps introducing a new object, crazier than the last every 30 seconds or so until you have as many people as possible walking back and forth across the circle and racing to try and get to those few people not going anywhere yet. Objects could include stinky socks, crazed cat by the tail, unconscious person and so on.

Did You Catch My Name
e Active activity that can be done anywhere. Works on learning everyone's name. Groups of 10 to 20.  Three or four balls per group.


To be able to say the names of others in the group quickly. 1. The group stands in a circle.

2. One person starts with the ball, states his/her first name and then throws the ball to the next person beside him/her. 3. The next person also says his/her first name and tosses the ball to the next person and so on around the circle until everyone has introduced him/herself. 4. Now the first person says the name of anyone in the circle and then tosses the ball to that person. 5. That person says the name of someone else and tosses the ball to him/her. 6. The ball continues moving back and forth across the circle with name being called. 7. 1. The ball tossing should speed up as people learn everyone‟s name. Have everyone say first and last names of the person that they are tossing the ball to.

2. Have more than one ball moving around the circle. 3. If you have more than 20 people, you should have a couple of different groups formed. After each circle has done this activity for about 3 to 5 minutes, have ½ of the people in one circle exchange places with ½ of the people in another circle and so on so that everyone can get to know everyone in the larger group. 4. Throw something other than a ball….rubber chickens are always a favorite of mine. There‟s just something about handling a rubber chicken that brings out the best or worst in people. 5. Have the group has a whole just mingle all around while still throwing the different balls or objects to each other after calling that person‟s name.

Active activity that can be done anywhere. Works on introducing people and getting them to know each other's names. Groups of 6 to 10. One large sock with another sock stuffed inside per group. To avoid getting hit with the sock by saying the name of someone in the group.

16 1. Everyone in the group stands in a circle facing the middle.

2. One at a time, everyone introduces themselves and says one thing about themselves. 3. After the introductions, give one person the sock and have them stand in the middle of the circle.

4. Choose one person in the circle to say the name of someone else in the circle before the SOCKER in the middle hits them below the thighs with the sock.' 5. Who ever is named must say the name of someone else in the circle before they are hit below the thighs with the sock. 6. If someone is hit before they are able to say a name or they say an incorrect name, that person trades places with the SOCKER.   Make sure that the circle is not too spread out and not too close. The farther apart they are, the easier it is to say a name before they get socked and vice versa. From a safety stand point, make sure that whoever is SOCKING does not do it too hard.

Active activity that can be done anywhere. Works on introducing people to each other and learning things about them. Any group size.   Pens/Pencils One copy of the signature sheet per person.

17 To find people who match the items on your list. 1. Everyone gets a copy of the signature sheet.

2. Everyone is to go around and find someone that they can ask a question. 3. Each person introduces themselves to each other and then each get to ask the other person one of the questions that they have on their sheet. 4. If that person says yes to the question, have them sign your sheet beside that item. 5. Move onto a different person. 6. You could make it a rule that they are only allowed to ask each person one question and if the answer is no, find someone else to ask a question. What will probably happen regardless is that when they find someone, they will ask them if they match any of the questions on the list and then have them sign that one. So be it. 7. One rule that you should insist on is that they are only allowed to have a person sign their sheet once. If you have enough questions, that will force them to meet more people.

8. Some examples of things to have on the list include:        Someone with green eyes. Someone with 2 sisters. Someone who lives out of town. Someone who was born in a different province / state. Someone who speaks more than one language. A good idea with this activity is to try and do some research before hand and have things written down on the sheet that are specific to certain people. If you know that someone went somewhere exotic recently or owns something unique, etc, put it on the list.

Cross Circle
Active activity that can be done anywhere. Works on quick responses and learning names. Any group size. You should have at least 15 or more people though. None To learn the names of those in your group.

18 1. The entire group is standing in a circle facing each other.

2. A selected person calls out the name of someone in the group. 3. When that person acknowledges that their name has been called out, the person who called it out starts to walk towards them. 4. The second person has to call out another person‟s name and when they are acknowledged, they start walking towards that person and so on. 5. It is the responsibility of the person whose name has been called out to call out a name of someone else in the group who is not moving and get walking towards that person before the person who called out their name reaches them. Try and say all of that in one breath. 6. When the person(s) who is walking reaches the spot where the person was standing that they called out to, they just take that spot and wait for their name to be called out again. 7. The round or game ends when someone calls out someone‟s name and reaches that spot before that person calls out someone else‟s name and gets out of the way. COLLISION! It can also end when you are going so fast that everything is just a blur. Get two different people starting out at the beginning. This way you have 2 different cycles moving within the same circle. If you have a really large group, try 3 or more.


2. No calling out at all. Just point. When eye contact is made, start walking and so on.  Start out slowly at first so that everyone gets the hang of it and then see how fast you can get things going.

Just Testing
Quiet activity that can be done anywhere. Works on quick recognition and remembering names. Groups of 20 to 30.  1. Blanket Break the group up into two teams. To recognize and be able to say the other person's name first.

19 2. The teams stand on either side of a blanket that is being held by two volunteers. 3. Each team chooses one person to go and sit in front of the blanket without the other team knowing or seeing whom. 4. When both people are ready, the blanket is dropped and the first person to recognize say the other person‟s name wins. The losing person now joins the other team. 5. Continue until one team has everyone on the other team or everyone is getting bored. 1. Have more than one person sitting on either side and the side that says all of the names of the other people wins.

2. Have the two chosen people sit with their backs to the blanket and when it is dropped, their own team will physically describe the other person. Without looking, the first person of the two sitting back to back to correctly name the other person wins.

Leadership & Group work Training


Here come the challenges. All of these tasks involve some type of problem that the group must solve and/or work together to overcome. Most of the tasks in this section require the effective use of both brains and brawn and making the best use of the different strengths that exist in all groups. As much as possible, try to set these tasks up in such a way that no one homogeneous group will be successful. Set them up so that the group will need to effectively use each person to accomplish the goal.


Up Chuck
Active activity that can be done outside or inside (large room with high ceiling). Works on working together. Any group size although if there is more than 20 or 30 people, it will be pretty difficult for the group to be successful to say the least. One ball or soft object that can be thrown and caught per person.

The objective is for everyone to throw their ball up in the air and catch a different ball without a single one touching the ground. 1. Every person in the group has a ball.

2. Standing in a circle or cluster or however the group wants to arrange them, they must toss their ball up to a height of at least 10 feet and then attempt to catch a ball that they did not throw. 3. The number of balls that hit the ground is that group‟s negative score. 4. The goal is to get that score to zero. 5. Allow the group to work together to make this work. It will be pretty difficult and the group might need lots of time or multiple sessions to accomplish it. NOTE 1. Have the group start with only one ball thrown and caught. Each time they successfully catch a ball, another is added for the next round until finally they drop one and then the whole thing starts over or they don't get another ball until they through up the ones they have and catch them all. See how many balls in total they can get to.

2. Once the group has accomplished this task, give some of them or all of them two balls and that is of course how many they have to catch.  The look on the group‟s face when they finally throw up the balls and catch each and everyone and there is the dead silence of no objects hitting the ground is priceless. The sound gives it away every time.

Raft Crossing
Very active activity that can be done outside or inside (large room). Works on problem solving and working together. Any group size  Transport Pads = Gym mats, milk crates, pieces of fire wood, chairs

21  Keys = balls, rubber chickens, bean bags The entire group is being held captive by aliens on an alien planet that is covered with lava or toxic waste. They have an opportunity to escape the evil aliens and make it back home. To get everyone from the starting area to the launch area alive and well. 1. The entire group starts in the corner of a large room, auditorium or gym.

2. They are in a safe place for the time being, but their job is to get to the opposite side where there is another safe place and a "transport beam" or “escape rocket” that will take them out of this volatile area. 3. The rest of the room is covered with a deadly substance that will kill them immediately upon contact. (i.e. lava, acid or toxic waste) 4. This means that if they place a hand or foot or anything on the actual floor of the room, they are dead. People who die either reappear back at the starting area or are out of the game completely. This is a decision that the facilitator needs to make before explaining the rules. 5. They are given transport pads that they can use to stand on to cross the evil surface and make it safely to the other side. 6. Gymnastic mats make good transport pads but almost anything that people can stand on can be used including upside down milk crates, pieces of fire wood, chairs, etc. 1. To emphasize teamwork, it is a good idea to make the overall objective to ensure that EVERYONE makes it to the launch area. This means that if someone has died and reappeared back at the starting point, they have to send someone back for them.

2. If someone has died and does not get to reappear, the group has a whole has failed the task and everyone must start over again. You need to be prepared to deal with the group‟s response to failure and intervene if they become too negative. 3. Give a time limit. At the end of that time limit, anyone who is not in the transport beam, dies. 4. Give as few transport pads as possible. If they have to crowd onto 2 mats, so be it. The whole idea is working together anyway. 5. Put a number of "keys" around the area that they have to collect in order to turn on the transport beam. A good "thinker" is to tell them that upon all of the keys being in the transport area, the beam automatically operates and takes those keys and people in the beam away.

6. They have to activate the keys before they will work. A good way of activating the keys is for them to have to pass through something like a basketball hoop. 7. Be a "bog monster" and steal transport pads away from the group if they are not on them.

8. Another good variation is to change the transport pads. Using upside down milk crates instead of gym mats changes the dynamics of the entire thing as the milk crates are more easily upset. Giving them planks of wood that must be balanced on baseball bats or thick cardboard carpet tubes make it even more interesting and challenging.  This is a really enjoyable initiative task that groups will often request again and again. It can easily be changed and made new by just holding it in a different location or using different

22 materials.  One thing that I enjoyed doing was to make the bog monster react to a specific stimuli for that round and it was up to them to figure out what made the bog monster become more active and interfere with their attempts.

Count Off
Quiet activity that can be done anywhere. Works on creative problem solving. Any number of people although preferably over 20 to create more of a challenge. None. To have a large group count off from 1 to whatever number of people there are without any duplicates. 1. The entire group needs to be sitting down and facing a specific direction.

23 2. They may not look around, make gestures or say anything except a number. 3. The goal is for the group to count from 1 to the number of people in the group in order with no one saying the same number as another person. 4. If more than one person says a number, the group must start over. 5. If a number is said out of order, the group must start over. 6. It is very important that you make sure they realize that they can‟t talk or look around in between rounds. If at anytime, anyone says anything other than a number, looks around or makes any gestures, the group as a whole needs to be warned that any continuation of that will result in them not being successful at the challenge. 7. The instant someone makes a mistake, you say “Start Over”.

8. This activity only works once with any given group.

9. Make sure they are not sitting in a pattern that would make this easy, like a circle.  This activity is a one-time deal with any group for obvious reasons. It is very important that you set it up right and have the entire group bought into the idea that they cannot look around or speak at all otherwise it will not work. You also need to make sure that you have lots of time so that the group can attempt this task again and again without having a chance to talk before they are successful.

Very active activity that should be done in a large room or outside. Works on strategy and problem solving. Any group size. Blindfolds For the Argonauts to escape with as many of them alive as possible. 1. Divide the group into half.

2. One half of the group is the Argonauts and the other half of the group are the Cyclops.

24 3. All of the Cyclops must wear blindfolds at all times. 4. All of the Argonauts will start at one end of the gym. 5. The Argonauts goal is to make it safely out through the exit of the cave without being touched by a blinded Cyclops. 6. The exit to the cave should be marked using pylons or chairs and the total width of the exit should be a wider than all of the blinded Cyclops standing side by side with arms outstretched. 7. All of the Cyclops will start by the exit of the cave.

8. The Cyclops will go around touching anyone that they can and if they make contact with each other, they should inform each other that they are fellow Cyclops. 9. If a Cyclops touches an Argonaut with his/her hands, the Argonaut is dead and will let out a blood curdling scream. 10. Once all of the Argonauts have made it through the exit or have died, switch roles and try it again. 11. Team members on both sides may communicate with each other at any time and in any fashion. 1.  Make the exit way even smaller and only have one Cyclops….YOU. If you or your group members are not familiar with the story of Jason, the Argonauts and the Cyclops, you might want to read them the story first from Greek mythology to give a little background information to this task.

Reach for the Sky
Active activity that can be done outside or inside (large room with high ceiling). Works on working together and physical support. Any number of people although if you have more than 15 or 20 you might want to break them up into two groups. Piece of paper with tape. They are lost in the woods and need to set up an antenna or signal flag as high as possible. To place a piece of paper as high as possible. 1. The group must try and place a piece of paper with tape on the wall as high as possible without climbing the wall or using a ladder, etc.

25 2. They may only use themselves to get the paper up. 3. It is okay to make contact with the wall for support but not okay to use any holes in the wall in order to climb it. s    USE EXTREME CAUTION. This is a very dangerous activity if not done properly. It needs major spotting all around the participants along with thick high jump mats placed all around them. When I first did this activity, I underestimated the ability and ingenuity of my group of students and before I realize what was happening, they had created a standing human pyramid that was three students high and three students wide with a smaller student supported above this with the paper. That piece of paper remained stuck to the wall just below the gym ceiling for a couple of years before the tape finally dried up and it fell down. I now make sure that I am right in there ready to support where necessary.


Helium Stick

Deceptively simple but powerful exercise for learning how to work together and communicate in small to medium sized groups. Line up in two rows

which face each other.

Introduce the Helium Stick - a long, thin, light rod. Ask participants to point their index fingers and hold their arms out. Lay the Helium Stick down on their fingers. Get the group to adjust their finger heights until the Helium Stick is horizontal and everyone's index fingers are touching the stick. Explain that the challenge is to lower the Helium Stick to the ground. The catch: Each person's fingers must be in contact with the Helium Stick at all times. Pinching or grabbing the pole in not allowed - it must rest on top of fingers. Reiterate to the group that if anyone's finger is caught not touching the Helium Stick, the task will be restarted. Let the task begin.... Warning: Particularly in the early stages, the Helium Stick has a habit of mysteriously 'floating' up rather than coming down, causing much laughter. A bit of clever humoring can help - e.g., act surprised and ask what are they doing raising the Helium Stick instead of lowering it! For added drama, jump up and pull it down! Participants may be confused initially about the paradoxical behavior of the Helium Stick. Some groups or individuals (most often larger size groups) after 5 to 10 minutes of trying may be inclined to give up, believing it not to be possible or that it is too hard. The facilitator can offer direct suggestions or suggest the group stops the task, discusses their strategy, and then has another go. Less often, a group may appear to be succeeding too fast. In response, be particularly vigilant about fingers not touching the pole. Also make sure participants lower the pole all the way onto the ground. You can add further difficulty by adding a large washer to each end of the stick and explain that the washers should not fall off during the exercise, otherwise it's a restart. Eventually the group needs to calm down, concentrate, and very

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27 slowly, patiently lower the Helium Stick - easier said than done.

How Does it Work?

The stick does not contain helium. The secret (keep it to yourself) is that the collective upwards pressure created by everyone's fingers tends to be greater than the weight of the stick. As a result, the more a group tries, the more the stick tends to 'float' upwards.

Processing Ideas
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What was the initial reaction of the group? How well did the group cope with this challenge? What skills did it take to be successful as a group? What creative solutions were suggested and how were they received? What would an outside observer have seen as the strengths and weaknesses of the group? What did each group member learn about him/her self as an individual? What other situations (e.g., at school, home or work) are like the Helium Stick?


Toxic Waste
This is a popular, engaging small group initiative activity which always "works", providing a rich teamwork challenge for about 30-45 minutes. Involves thinking, imagination, action, fantasy, risk and an attractive solution. Can be done with adolescents or adults. The challenge is to move the toxic waste contents to the neutralization container using minimal equipment and maintaining a safe distance within a time limit. Moderately difficult - avoid using with groups who are still in the early stages of group development. Works best towards the end of a program and/or after the group has come together and dealt with basic teamwork issues. Can be done indoors or outdoors; outdoors is more dramatic because water can be used as the "toxic waste" instead of balls.

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Use the rope to create a circle at least 8 ft in diameter on the ground to represent the toxic waste radiation zone. The larger the radiation zone, the more difficult the activity. Place the small bucket in the center of the radiation zone and fill it with water or balls to represent the toxic waste. Place the neutralization bucket approximately 30 to 50 feet away. The greater the distance, the more difficult the activity. Put all other equipment (i.e., bungee, cords, and red herring objects (optional)) in a pile near the rope circle.


The challenge is for the group to work out how to transfer the toxic waste from the small bucket into the large bucket where it will be "neutralized", using only the equipment provided and within a time frame. The waste will blow up and destroy the world after 20 minutes if it is not neutralized. Anyone who ventures into the radiation zone will suffer injury and possibly even death, and spillage will create partial death and destruction. Therefore, the group should aim to save the world and do so without injury to any group members. The rope circle represents the radiation zone emanating from the toxic waste in the bucket. Emphasize that everyone must maintain a distance (circle radius) from the toxic waste wherever it goes, otherwise they will suffer severe injury, such as loss of a limb or even death. Give the group some planning time with no action e.g. 5 mins, then start the clock and indicate its time for action, e.g., 15 or 20 mins.

Facilitator Notes

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Toxic Waste is not an easy exercise and most groups will benefit from some coaching along the way. The solution involves attaching the cords to the bungee loop, then guiding the bungee with the strings to sit around and grab the toxic waste bucket. Then with everyone pulling on their cord and with good coordination and care, the toxic waste bucket can be lifted, moved and tipped into the empty neutralizing bucket. If someone breaches the toxic waste zone, indicated by the circle, enforce an appropriate penalty e.g., loss of limbs (hand behind back) or function (e.g., blindfolds if a head enters the zone) that lasts for the rest of the game. If a whole person enters the zone, they die and must then sit out for the rest of the activity. If the group struggles to work out what to do, freeze the action and help them discuss. If the group spills the waste entirely, make a big deal about catastrophic failure (everyone dies), invite them to discuss what went wrong and how they can do better, then refill the container and let them have another go. Ideas for varying the level difficulty of the activity: o Adjust timeframe o Adjust distance between the buckets o Include obstacles between the buckets o Include red herring objects in available equipment

Processing Ideas
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There are invariably plenty of key communications and decisions during the exercise that provide for fruitful debriefing. The exercise will tend to naturally expose processes and issues related to many aspects of teamwork, including cooperation, communication, trust, empowerment, risk-taking, support, problemsolving, decision-making, and leadership. Can be videoed for subsequent analysis and debriefing. How successful was the group? e.g. consider: o How long did it take? o Was there any spillage? o Were there any injuries? (Often in the euphoria of finishing participants will overlook their errors and seem unconcerned about injuries and deaths caused by carelessness along the way. Make sure there is an objective evaluation of performance - it is rarely 'perfect'.) How well did the group cope with this challenge? (e.g., out of 10?) What was the initial reaction of the group? What skills did it take for the group to be successful? What would an outside observer have seen as the strengths and weaknesses of the group? How did the group come up with its best ideas? What did each group member learn about him/her self as a group member? What lessons did the group learn from this exercise which could be applied to future situations?


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Can be used a staff selection or group assessment exercise. Can be used with large groups (with multiple kits and divided into small groups). The toxic waste bucket can be used upside down, with a ball balanced on top. The activity can be framed in many different ways, e.g., instead of waste, it could presented as a desirable substance, such as a life saving serum which needs be carefully transported (suggested by Rohnke & Butler, 1995, pp.178-179). Divide the group into leaders and workers. Leaders can talk but not touch equipment. Workers cannot talk but can touch equipment. Lends itself to being metaphorically structured and isometrically framed to suit specific training contexts (e.g., see "Computer Disinfectant" by Gass & Priest in Gass, 1995, pp. 151-154) and "Disseminating Raw Materials (Toxic Waste)", activity #57 in Priest & Rohnke 2000). For added drama, the toxic waste can be floated on a platform in a swimming pool (Priest & Rohnke 2000). A chemical reaction can be created by putting baking soda in the neutralization container and vinegar in the toxic waste container. When combined, they froth. Object Retrieval is a variation in which a group needs to retrieve a heavy object from the middle of a circle, without touching the ground in the surrounding circle (Rohnke, 1994).


Mine Field

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A popular and engaging game involving communication and trust. The task is very flexible, works for groups of various types and sizes, and can be adapted to youth, adults, corporate, etc. Select an appropriate area. Go outside, if possible. Can be done inside, even in rooms with fixed furniture (which can become objects to be avoided). Distribute "mines" e.g., balls or other objects such as bowling pins, cones, foam noodles, etc. Establish a concentrating and caring tone for this activity. Trust exercises require a serious atmosphere to help develop a genuine sense of trust and safety. Participants operate in pairs. Consider how the pairs are formed - it's a chance to work on relationships. One person is blind-folded (or keeps eyes closed) and cannot talk (optional). The other person can see and talk, but cannot enter the field or touch the person. The challenge is for each blind-folded person to walk from one side of the field to the other, avoiding the "mines", by listening to the verbal instructions of their partners. Allow participants a short period (e.g., 3 minutes) of planning time to decide on their communication commands, then begin the activity. Be wary of blindfolded people bumping into each other. The instructor(s) can float around the playing area to help prevent collisions. Decide on the penalty for hitting a "mine". It could be a restart (serious consequence) or time penalty or simply a count of hits, but without penalty. It can help participants if you suggest that they each develop a unique communication system. When participants swap roles, give participants some review and planning time to refine their communication method. Allow participants to swap over and even have several attempts, until a real, satisfied sense of skill and competence in being able to guide a partner through the "minefield" develops. The activity can be conducted one pair at a time (e.g., in a therapeutic situation), or with all pairs at once (creates a more demanding exercise due to the extra noise/confusion). Can be conducted as a competitive task - e.g., which pair is the quickest or has the fewest hits? The facilitator plays an important role in creating an optimal level of challenge, e.g., consider introducing more items or removing items if it seems too easy or too hard. Also consider coaching participants with communication methods (e.g., for younger students, hint that they could benefit from coming up with clear commands for stop, forward, left, right, etc.). Be cautious about blind-folding people - it can provoke trust and care

32 issues and trigger post-traumatic reactions. Minimize this risk by sequencing Mine Field within a longer program involving other get-toknow-you and trust building activities before Mine Field.


Minefield in a Circle: Blindfolded people start on the outside of a large rope circle, go into middle, get an item ("treasure", e.g., a small ball or bean bag), then return to the outside; continue to see who can get the most objects within a time period. Metaphorical Framing: Some set ups for minefield get very elaborate and metaphor-rich, e.g., hanging objects which metaphorically reflect the participants' background and/or issues. For example, items which represent drugs, peer pressure, talking with parents about the problem, etc. have been used in a family adventure therapy program (Gillis & Simpson, 1994). Participants can begin by trying to cross the field by themselves. In a second round, participants can then ask someone else to help them traverse the field by "talking" them through the field. To increase the difficulty, you can have other people calling out. The blindfolded person must concentrate on their partner's voice amidst all the other voices that could distract them from the task. Be aware that some participants may object to, or have previous traumatic experience around the metaphor of explosive mines which have caused and continue to cause much harm and suffering. It may be preferable to rename the activity, for example, as an "obstacle course" or "navigation course". Alternatively, the activity could be used to heighten awareness about the effect of land mines on the lives of people in countries such as Afghanistan and Nicaragua (see UNICEF information on land mines).


All Aboard!

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This activity requires working together in close physical proximity in order to solve a practical, physical problem. It tends to emphasize group communication, cooperation, patience and problem solving strategy, as well as issues related to physical self and physical proximity. The activity can be run in many different ways. Basic method: Ask the whole group to try to fit inside a small area which can be marked

by: small platforms, or circle of rope, or tarpaulin or blanket When the group succeeds, decrease the area (e.g., changing platforms, shrinking the circle, or folding the tarp) and challenge the group again. How far can the group go? Cautions: Obviously people are going to need to feel physically comfortable in order to get physically close and be supportive of one another. So make sure people are warmed up and preferably have removed excessive jewelry, watches, etc.
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Tarp Flip Over: With a group standing on a tarp, challenge them to turn the tarp over without anyone touching the ground in the process. Can add a time limit e.g., 15 mins for this activity. Framing, e.g.,"The group must work together to ensure everyone manages to get aboard the new management structure. As time goes by, the team must become closer to deal with shrinking margins and increased competition." [www.bushsports.com.au] Name game: The activity can be used as a name game by setting the rule that every communication to another person must include that person's name.


Overview - Group Survival Scenario Exercise
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A classic group communication and decision making exercise, with many variatio Works for a wide variety of ages and purposes, indoors or outdoors. There are two classic types of "paper & pencil" group survival scenarios (selecting and selecting people). In each case: o Provide instructions & hand out materials Set a time limit (~15-30 minutes) et the group go - answer questions, watch, & observe! Debrief

pe 1: Choose Survival Equipment

hed...your group needs to choose the 12 most useful items to survive...

quipment items in terms of their relative survival value:

pants choose/rank the items individually s choices/rankings in small group and come to a group consensus answers against "expert" opinion e scenarios: ost at sea or island survival (shipwreck) Desert (plane crash) Space or Moon

pe 2: People Survival Scenario (Who will be saved?)
has been dropped...a radiation-free shelter is available, but can only take 6 people; choose who will survive...

eople in terms of who will get to live or die in situations with limited survival resources:

pants role play characters (a bit like a Murder Mystery) ad to high emotions; people get intensely engaged, particularly when choosing who will survive, an ns are easy. ht answers - any so-called "correct" answers are based on debatable values (e.g., ageism, sexism, hts individual's dispositions, group processes and decision making e scenarios: Nuclear war shelter Oxygen dwindling (space, moon, mars) ifeboat / Sinking ship (sea)

t a time keeper in each group and encourage them to be the person who monitors the progress of s achieving consensus within the time frame. phasise individual versus group decision making, split the session into three parts: ndividuals make their own selections first, on paper (5-10 minutes) Groups (or sub-groups) then discuss and create a group decision Compare individual and group performances, e.g.,:  For equipment scenarios, group decisions are usually more accurate than individual answers, illustrate the importance of collaborative group decision-making.  For people scenarios, score individuals according to how close the group's decision was to thei selections of who is to live and die (an indicator of each person's influence over the group).


brief Questions

ere decisions made? fluenced the decisions and how? ould better decisions have been made? as conflict managed? d people feel about the decisions? atisfied was each person with the decision (ask each participant to rate his / her satisfaction out of 1 a group average and compare / discuss with other groups' satisfaction levels) ave you learnt about the functioning of this group? ould you do the activity differently if you were asked to do it again? ituations at work/home/school do you think are like this exercise? Each person blows up a balloon. Balloons work best for games at about 85% of inflation capacity. Keen participants often over-inflate which leads to higher burstage. Less confident participants may under-inflate. You can turn the ideal inflation into a game and demonstration. Show the ideal inflation and walk around coaching people. 85% inflation also allows a handy distance for tying a thumb-knot in the neck of the balloon. Some participants may need a hand to tie the balloon off - encourage cooperation amongst participants rather than doing it yourself. Challenge participants to keep all balloons (1+ per person) in the air. This gets the group moving and cooperating. Once they've got the hang of it, make it harder by adding in more balloons or placing restrictions e.g., no hands to keep balloons up. Ask participants to keep juggling the balloons, but to sort them into colors (works best with large groups). Two to three inflated balloons per person are needed and a stopwatch. Each person has a balloon, with the rest in a nearby pile. Everyone begins bouncing their balloons in the air. Every five seconds, another balloon is added. See how long the group can keep the balloons bouncing before receiving six penalties. A penalty is announced loudly (to create stress!) by the leader when a balloon hits the floor, or once on the floor, if is not got back into play within five seconds. The leader keeps a cumulative score by shouting out "one", "two", etc. When the leader gets to "six", time is stopped. After some discussion, the group tries to better its record with another attempt. A handy name game. Stand in a circle. Toss a balloon in the air and call someone's name. That person must catch the balloon before it touches the ground. If the person succeeds he/she then tosses the balloon up and calls the next name. A variation of Group Juggle. An extension of Catch the Balloon. Now the balloon is not caught, but kept in the air. As well as calling out someone's name, also call out a body part which that person has to use to keep the balloon in the air until he/she calls another person's name and body part.

Balloon Inflation

Balloon Juggle & Sort

Balloon Frantic

Catch the Balloon

Balloon Bop

36 Balloon Blow Divide into teams. Each team stands in a small circle. See which team can keep a balloon aloft the longest using only breath. Watch out for hyperventilation! Start off with everyone in a circle, facing inwards, hands behind back. The objective is for everyone to be in the center keeping all balloons afloat. Put between zero and three balloons in people's hands behind their backs. Participants should not let on to others how many they have. The leader starts by trying to keep three balloons afloat in the center. When it becomes difficult, the leader calls somebody's name and says "X, I need your help!". That person comes in with all their balloons and helps until it becomes difficult and then they call "Y, I need your help!". If a balloon falls on the ground, it must be picked up by someone in the center and kept afloat. Try balancing a balloon on the end of your finger. Have a competition to see who can do it for the longest. The balloon must not be held, only balanced, and it must not be tapped. The finger must be in direct contact with the balloon at all times. Good for focus, concentration and physical movement. Ball sports take on a new dimension when a balloon is used instead, e.g., get people into pairs, 1 balloon between them. Get them to play a series of 1 on 1 sports e.g., soccer, volleyball, table tennis, etc. - add equipment if you want, but without equipment people will improvise wonderfully. On a soft surface there can be dramatic diving. Variation: Ask participants to play some points in slowmotion.

Balloon Help

Balloon Finger Balance

Balloon Ball Games

Great Egg Drop
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Engaging small group activity (4 or 5) as part of larger group (e.g., 20 up to 100) Can be run as a competition between teams Task is to build a single egg package that can sustain a fall of 8ft (top of a supermarket shelf) Can be used to highlight any almost aspect of teamwork or leadership Lends itself to building a dramatic large group scenario/finale for the Egg Drop Off Can include the task of presenting a 30-second advert for the egg package. This increases the complexity of the activity. Lends itself to production line or project management metaphors


Give no equipment - participants are to find natural materials from the local environment.

Warp Speed

Warp Speed is a Group Juggle spin-off activity to focus on problem-solving and teamwork.


Extends the common Group Juggle icebreaker/name game to a team building exercise by asking participants how fast they can pass the ball to everyone (including saying names). Groups can tender a time and then try to deliver. Push them to go even faster. Use the set up & instructions as for Group Juggle, but probably not emphasizing names. Challenge the group to see how fast it can juggle one ball around the whole group. Time the group, and ask them to "tender" for how fast they think they can really do it. Explain that the tender is like a business tender - they must put in a really good bid, but they must be able to deliver. Allow time for discussion and planning. Then ask them what their tender is & then ask them to deliver it. If they make it, then ask them to think again, because they undersold themselves. Ask them to come up with a new tender which better reflects their capabilities as a group. If they don't make it, then ask them to discuss what went wrong, and say you'll give them a second chance to make their tender.

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Generally requires debriefing.

Multi-Way Tug-of-War
Fun, finale-type activity. Physically exhausting and emotionally climaxing!  Works for kids through to corporate programs. Ideal for adolescents and possibly youth at risk. Especially with older adults, be careful with this activity, especially if they are unfit or if overexertion is contraindicated (e.g., heart problems). Use for any size groups, indoor or outdoor. Ideal is large group outdoors. Pick a soft location e.g., grass/beach. In traditional 1 on 1 tug-of-war it is mostly strength that wins, with a few tactics. In multi-way tug-of-war it is mostly tactics that wins, with some strength. Lay out the ropes, etc. as shown in diagram below. Participants should prepare appropriately e.g., watches and hand jewellery off. Divide into groups and make sure the groups appear to be of similar strength. Brief group on normal tug-of-war safety rules, basically: o no wrapping or tying rope around anyone or anything - only hold rope with hands o watch out for rope burn on hands - let go if rope is moving through hands o watch out for rope burn on body - let go if you lose footing First command from the Tug-of-War master is "take the strain". This is only to take up the slack, that's all. The Tug-of-War master makes sure the centre ring is stable and centered. This needs strong leadership because teams are always keen to add extra strain! Second command is "Go!!" Teams attempt to pull the center ring or knot over their finish line. This can rarely be achieved by strength alone and instead will require guile. Teams can swivel to cooperate / compete with other teams, then switch directions, etc.

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Conduct several rounds. Continue, say, until one team earns 3 victories and the Tug-of-War title. Allow teams plenty of time to physically recover and debrief/plan after each round. Team building groups may wish to discuss what the secrets to success were in this activity - and whether these lessons apply elsewhere

Games Index Team Building Exercises

Amoeba Race
James Neill Description of a Fun, Team Building Activity
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Amoeba Race
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A fun game, using a basic biology concept of a cell Requires cooperation, competition and close physical interaction. Useful as a simple activity to help a group get comfortable with one another. Explain how to create an amoeba. There are 3 parts: o a lot of protoplasm (people who don't mind being close, gather together) o a cell wall (people who like to contain themselves & others, surround the protoplasm, facing outward, linking elbows) o a nucleus (someone with good eyesight and the ability to keep on top of things should be the nucleus, seated on the shoulders of some of the protoplasm) Once the amoeba is formed, try taking a walk through a field or around the block. A rhythmic chant might be helpful for coordinating movements. (What sort of sound does a one-celled creature make?) Finally, try a little cell division. Split into two, create a second nucleus and have an Amoeba Race.

Group Mandala
James Neill Description of a Group Dynamics Exercise Group Mandala

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Allows symbolic exploration of group structure and dynamics, and revealing of personal feelings towards others Each person is represented by an object they choose themselves; objects are then "caste" like dice Each person then shares how he or she feels about the position in which his or her object has landed (uses psychoanalytic technique of "projection") Through various rounds, participants get to modify/adjust the position of their object until each individual is satisfied with where they sit in relation to the other objects (group members)


Logistically, a simple activity; facilitation-wise, a potentially difficult and challenging activity; lots of potential for subtle and deep group work Group sizes of approximately 7 to 9 are ideal, but can be done with as few as 5 or as many as 12.

Create Your Own Team Building Activity
James Neill Description of a Team Building Exercise Create Your Own Team Building Activity
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Challenging exercise best presented late in a program Divide a larger group into smaller groups of 4 to 5 Give groups ~15-20 minutes to come up with a challenging small group activity. The catch: The activity should be one that the group believes it can do better than any other group! Then all groups come together and take turns to present their activity. Groups earn points if:
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No other group can beat them at their activity (+2) Can do another group's activity (+1)

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Be warned: This is harder than it sounds - requires all elements of team work including creativity, communication, trust, problem-solving, time management, etc. To help groups succeed, the facilitator checks in with the progress during planning. Help with ideas or problem-solving strategies if the group is struggling. Encourage creative out-of-the-box thinking e.g., singing, dancing, joke-telling, nonverbal, as well as physical or mental-type challenges. Avoid using this activity to get out of designing an activity yourself!

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