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Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive


Model Series 451

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Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive  Model Series 451

Introduction into Service Manual

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Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive


Introduction into Service Manual for Model
Series 451

Daimler AG Technical Information and Workshop Equipment (GSP/OI) D-70546 Stuttgart

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Information and Copyright


Ordering workshop information
This Introduction into Service Manual is only available from SDmedia.
Other printed workshop information from GSP/OI, such as Introduction into
Service Manuals, System Descriptions, Function Descriptions, Technology
Guides, Technical Data Manuals and adhesive labels, can be ordered as
follows:
Within Germany
Through our GSP/OI Shop on the Internet
Link:
http://gsptishop.de
or alternatively
Email:
Phone:
Fax:

customer.support@daimler.com
+49(0)18 05/0 1079 79
+49(0)18 05/0 1079 78

Outside Germany
Please get in touch with the contact person responsible for your market.

Product Portfolio
You can also find comprehensive information on our complete product
portfolio in our Internet portal.
Link: http://aftersales.mercedesbenz.com

Questions and Suggestions


If you have any questions or suggestions concerning this product, please
write to us.
Email:
customer.support@daimler.com
Fax:
+49(0)18 05/0 1079 78
or alternatively
Address:

Daimler AG
GSP/OIS
HPC R822, W002
D70546 Stuttgart

2009 by Daimler AG
This document, including all its parts, is protected by copyright.
Any further processing or use requires the previous written consent of
Daimler AG, Department GSP/OIS, HPC R822, W002, D70546 Stuttgart.
This applies in particular to reproduction, distribution, alteration,
translation, microfilming and storage and/or processing in electronic
systems, including databases and online services.

Image no. of title image:


P00.10483200
Note: This publication is only available online

09/09

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Contents
Preface

Overall vehicle
Overview

Technical data

11

Maintenance

13

Towing

15

Electrical system
Onboard electrical system/power supply

16

Highvoltage battery

20

Highvoltage charger control unit

24

External power outlet communications control unit

25

Charger feedin socket

26

Charging cable

27

Charge detection

28

Interlock

29

Highvoltage distributor control unit (PDU)

31

Brake system

32

Power disconnect

34

Overall network

39

Diagnosis

42

SAM

44

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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Contents
Electric drive system
Motor description

47

Transmission
Transmission description

48

Chassis
Axles and suspension

49

Rear module

50

Cooling systems
Electric drive cooling system

51

Highvoltage battery and interior cooling system

53

Design

Instrument cluster

57

Climate control

60

Body

63

Notes on damage analysis

65

Notes on supplemental restraint systems

66

Notes on repair operations

67

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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Contents
Special tools
Electrical system

68

Annex
Abbreviations

71

Index

73

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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Contents

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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Preface
Dear Reader,
This Introduction into Service Manual presents the
new smart fortwo electric drive in model series 451.
The purpose of this brochure is to acquaint you with
the technical highlights of this new vehicle in
advance of its market launch. This brochure is
intended to provide information for people
employed in service or maintenance/repair as well
as for aftersales staff. It is assumed that the reader
is already familiar with the MercedesBenz and
smart model series currently on the market.
In terms of the contents, the emphasis in this Intro
duction into Service Manual is on presenting new and
modified components and systems.
This Introduction into Service Manual is not
intended as an aid for repairs or for the diagnosis of
technical problems. For such needs, more extensive
information is available in the Workshop Information
System (WIS), via vehicle diagnosis (DAS) and drive
system diagnosis.

WIS is updated continuously. Therefore, the infor


mation available there reflects the latest technical
status of our vehicles.
This Introduction into Service Manual presents
initial information relating to the new smart fortwo
electric drive in model series 451 and, as such, is
not stored in WIS. The contents are not maintained
and there is no provision for updates.
We will publicize modifications and new features in
the relevant WIS documents. The information
presented in this Introduction into Service Manual
may therefore differ from the more uptodate
information found in WIS.
All information relating to specifications, equipment
and options is valid as of the copy deadline in
October 2009 and may therefore differ from the
series production configuration.

Daimler AG
Technical Information
and Workshop Equipment (GSP/OI)

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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Overall vehicle

Overview
Vehicle concept
The smart fortwo in model series 451 with electric
drive system is being introduced in December
2009.
The new smart fortwo electric drive is available in
the coup and cabrio variants.
With its electric drive system, the smart fortwo
electric drive embodies the concept of an emis
sionfree motor vehicle. Its introduction is
another step forward in the use of innovative
drive technologies which are suitable for
everyday use and efficient.

P00.00-4517-00

With the smart fortwo electric drive, the brand is


pursuing an ambitious goal the production of a
technically mature, attractive city car which
releases zero emissions locally.
The smart fortwo electric drive can be charged at
a conventional household power socket. A full
battery charge is sufficient for a range of around
135 kilometers in urban traffic.
The green design elements, except the light alloy
wheels, cannot be ordered and invoiced via the
usual replacement part/warranty process.
These elements must be obtained from BRABUS via
the "tailormade" process.
P00.00-4518-00

P00.00-4519-00

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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Innovations
30 kW permanent magnet motor
Transmission with fixed gear ratio (1speed
forward/reverse) and differential
Watercooled lithiumion batteries of the
latest generation
Temperaturecontrolled air conditioning with
battery cooling system
Charging of battery via regenerative braking
Preheating/precooling of interior
(preconditioning) with Telestart remote
control

The 30 kW electric motor provides fast accelera


tion and high responsiveness with 120 Nm of
torque available right from startoff.

Overall vehicle

Overview

Due to the output characteristics of the electric


motor, the smart fortwo electric drive only
requires a single fixed transmission ratio. This
means that gearshifting is no longer required a
major advantage is heavy urban traffic. The motor
changes its direction of rotation for reverse
travel.
The highlyefficient lithiumion battery is housed
between the axles in a spacesaving manner. The
electric drive does not result in any space
related limitations for the smart fortwo electric
drive; the interior compartment and trunk are
exactly the same size as on a smart fortwo with
combustion engine.

P08.00-2009-00

Electric drive system of smart fortwo electric drive

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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Overall vehicle

Overview
Model 451

Model

Motor

smart fortwo electric drive coup

451.39

780.009

smart fortwo electric drive cabrio

451.49

780.009

P00.00-4493-00

smart fortwo electric drive coup


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

10

Electric motor
Electric motor control unit EDCM
(Electric Drive Control Module)
Lithiumion battery incl. BMS
(BatteryManagementSystem)
Highvoltage charger
Transmission
Cooler for electric drive system and
highvoltage charger
Brake booster vacuum pump
Vacuum pump control unit

9 Charger feedin socket


10 Communications control unit
Smart Charge Communication Unit
11 Highvoltage battery heat exchanger (chiller)
12 Highvoltage battery heater booster
13 Highvoltage interior PTC heater
(Positive Temperature Coefficient
14 Interior air conditioning expansion valve
15 Battery air conditioning expansion valve
16 Electric vehicle control unit EVCM
(Electric Vehicle Control Module)
17 PDU highvoltage distributor
(Power Distribution Unit)
18 Electric refrigerant compressor

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Unit

smart fortwo
electric drive coup

smart fortwo
electric drive cabrio

Performance

Maximum speed

km/h

100

Acceleration
050 km/h

5.8

Range as per NEDC

km
miles

135
84

CO2 emissions

g/km

Overall vehicle

Technical data

Dimensions

Vehicle length

mm

2695

Vehicle width

mm

1559

Vehicle height

mm

1542

Wheelbase

mm

1867

Front track width

mm

1283

Rear track width

mm

1385

Dimensions and weights

Curb weight (as per DIN/EPA)

kg

890

910

Permissible gross vehicle weight

kg

1120

1120

Maximum payload

kg

230

210

Max. seating capacity

Trunk capacity

220

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11

Overall vehicle

Technical data
Unit

smart fortwo
electric drive

Highvoltage battery
Configuration

Lithiumion battery

Rated voltage

< 400 V

Capacity

kW/h

Weight

kg

approx. 148

Motor model designation

780.009

Configuration

Permanent magnet motor

Rated voltage

360

Maximum output

kW

30

Maximum torque

Nm

120

16.5

Electric motor

Power transmission

12

Drive

Rear wheel drive

Transmission

1speed
forward/reverse

Transmission ratio

9.77:1

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Maintenance concept

Maintenance interval display

The maintenance concept mainly differs in terms


of the maintenance performed on the drive
system. In contrast to a vehicle driven by a
combustion engine, the electric drive is largely
maintenance free.

The maintenance interval display is located in the


multifunction display of the instrument cluster.
The maintenance interval is displayed here in the
form of one or two wrench symbols.

In addition to a visual inspection for damage and


leaks as well as checking, refilling or replacing
operating fluids, only the desiccant cartridge of
the highvoltage battery has to be replaced if
indicated accordingly by the drive diagnosis
system.

Overall vehicle

Maintenance

The same maintenance must be performed for


both indicators.
The remaining time is shown in days roughly one
month before a service date.
The remaining distance is displayed as of
1000 km.

Maintenance interval
The maintenance interval for the smart fortwo
electric drive is specified as follows:

1 year or 15,000 km

P54.32-8103-00

Maintenance interval display


(example of remaining distance)

i Note
A special feature of the maintenance process is
that the number of operating hours of the brake
booster vacuum pump has to be determined via
the vehicle diagnosis system (DAS) and the condi
tion of the desiccant cartridge has to be checked
via the drive diagnosis system.

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13

Overall vehicle

Maintenance
Maintenance items at front
The following maintenance items are accessible
via the front service flap:
1 Brake fluid reservoir
2 Windshield washer fluid reservoir
3 Coolant expansion reservoir for cooling and
heating of highvoltage battery
4 Lamp unit for bulb replacement

P00.20-2670-00

Maintenance items at front

Rear maintenance item


The following maintenance item must be reached
via the cover in the luggage compartment cover:
5 Coolant expansion reservoir on cooler for electric
drive system and highvoltage charger

P00.20-2671-00

Rear maintenance item

14

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Notes on towing

a Warning

The vehicle can be towed at a maximum speed of


50 km/h for a distance of up to 40 km.

If the vehicle is towed at a speed greater than


50 km/h, there is a risk that the electric drive or
highvoltage battery may overheat.

Prerequisite:

Overall vehicle

Towing

Ignition "ON"
Selector lever in position "N"
The vehicle must be loaded on to a suitable means
of transport if one of the following events occurs:
One or more red warning lamps
(e.g. highvoltage battery, drive diagnosis,
12 V battery) lights up on the instrument
cluster
Increased or pulsating braking effect

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15

Electrical system

Onboard electrical system/power supply


The onboard electrical system ensures that the
power supply to the electric drive system and all
electrical consumers and components in the
vehicle is appropriate for the requirements and
the situation.
The power supply in the smart fortwo electric
drive consists of two onboard electrical systems:
12 V onboard electrical system with 12 V
battery
In order to ensure a continuous supply of elec
trical energy to the 12 V onboard electrical
system, the DC/DC converter in the electric motor
control unit transforms high direct voltage into
12 V direct voltage. All 12 V consumers are
supplied with power by the 12 V onboard elec
trical system.

Information on the highvoltage system


General
The highvoltage system consists of several
components. The individual components are
connected by highvoltagecarrying electrical
lines.
Identification of HV components and HV lines
Every component of the highvoltage onboard
electrical system installed in the vehicle is iden
tified by a yellow warning sticker. All electrical
lines carrying high voltage are identified by a
warning color (orange).

Highvoltage onboard electrical system with


highvoltage battery
The highvoltage battery is charged in decelera
tion mode by the regenerative braking system or
by connecting it to an external power supply via
the highvoltage charger control unit.

P08.00-2008-00

Warning sticker
P08.10-2035-00

1
DC/DC converter
M5
Electric motor
N145 Electric motor control unit EDCM

16

i Note
The connectors of the HV lines on the electric
drive system and on the highvoltage battery
may only be disconnected using the special tools
intended for this purpose (see chapter "Special
tools").

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Overview of highvoltage components

Electrical system

Onboard electrical system/power supply

P54.00-2782-00

G5
M5
N24/3
N116/1
N116/5
N145
R23
X58/23

Highvoltage battery
Electric motor
Highvoltage charger control unit
Refrigerant compressor control unit (EAC)
Highvoltage distributor control unit (PDU)
Electric motor control unit (EDCM)
Highvoltage PTC heater
Charger feedin socket

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17

Electrical system

Onboard electrical system/power supply


General activities

Working requirements

Repair, maintenance and diagnosis activities on


vehicles with a highvoltage system may only be
performed by qualified employees. (The high
voltage awareness course is the minimum qualifi
cation required for this).

When work is performed on a highvoltage system,


the system must be deenergized and the voltage
free state of the highvoltage system must be
secured.

Deenergization (power disconnect) of the high


voltage system before operations are carried out
on the vehicle and subsequent initial startup after
the operations have been performed may only be
carried out by an electrical specialist for HV
systems in motor vehicles (series production
vehicles). The following preconditions must be
met:
Successful completion of the highvoltage
awareness course
Successful completion of the highvoltage
qualification course
Successful completion of the smart electric
drive product training course

18

This has to happen in accordance with 3 safety


rules:
Power disconnect (voltagefree)
Secure against reactivation
Check and secure the deenergized state
The following information must be observed and
complied with for operations on highvoltage
systems:
Measuring instruments and aids must be
checked for proper condition before use
Cable lugs and contacts must be secured with
suitable protective bags and insulating caps
Contacts, electrical lines and electrical
connectors must be checked for dirt and
damage before assembly and they must be
cleaned or replaced if necessary.
Screw contacts must be tightened to the
specified tightening torque and (if applicable)
rotation angle

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Evaluation of highvoltage components

Safety Inertia Switch

Wiring harness check:

There is a Safety Inertia Switch located on the


inside of the right Apillar above the instrument
panel crossmember.

If the chafe protection or the lines are damaged


by external influences (e.g. animal bites), the
lines must be replaced immediately. Repair is not
permissible.
Check after an accident:

Electrical system

Onboard electrical system/power supply

Pressing the switch can reset the open circuit and


restore the availability of the highvoltage
network.

The highvoltage system must be checked for


external damage and defects. If defects or
damage is found on the highvoltage components
or lines, they must be replaced. Repair of the
highvoltage components or lines is not permis
sible.
Safety function after an accident:
Highvoltage system shut off
1 Automatic shutoff of the highvoltage battery
and discharge of the highvoltage components
takes place via a Safety Inertia Switch after a
rollover.

a Warning
The Safety Inertia Switch may not be actuated if
the emergency tensioning retractors or airbags
have been triggered after a rollover.

2) Automatic shutoff takes place via the airbag


control unit after triggering of the emergency
tensioning retractors (stage 1) or front
airbags (stage 2).

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19

Electrical system

Highvoltage battery
Highvoltage battery module
The highvoltage battery module is located under
the vehicle floor. The highvoltage battery
module incorporates the following components

Highvoltage battery
Battery management system (BMS) control unit
Service Disconnect with cover
Contactors (positive and negative)
Desiccant cartridge
HV onboard electrical system connection
12 V onboard electrical system connection
Coolant line connections
Overpressure twoway valve

The HV battery is a lithiumion battery, which


stores energy for the electric motor. The HV
battery is connected to the 12 V onboard elec
trical system via the DC/DC converter (integrated
in the electric motor control unit) so that it can
provide support to the 12 V onboard electrical
system. The contactors are actuated by the
battery management system (BMS) control unit
and internally isolate the highvoltage battery
positive and negative terminals from the high
voltage onboard electrical system.

P54.10-3329-00

Highvoltage battery module


1
2
3
4

20

HV onboard electrical system connection


12 V onboard electrical system connection
Desiccant cartridge
Service Disconnect cover

5
6

Coolant line connections


Overpressure twoway valve

G5
Highvoltage battery
N82/2 Battery management system control unit

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The HV battery is cooled or heated by a coolant


circuit. The temperature is recorded by a
temperature sensor in the highvoltage battery
module. The electric vehicle control unit (EVCM)
evaluates the signal and initiates cooling or
heating mode for the HV battery. The connections
for the coolant lines are located at the right front
of the vehicle when viewed in the direction of
travel.

A desiccant cartridge is installed at the lower left


of the highvoltage battery module to ensure the
required air moisture content. The electric
vehicle control unit (EVCM) issues a corre
sponding code via the drive diagnosis system if
the desiccant cartridge needs to be replaced.

Electrical system

Highvoltage battery

Low outside temperatures


The efficiency of the highvoltage battery is
temperaturedependent and decreases rapidly
as temperatures drop. In addition, the electro
lytes can "gel" at very low temperatures.
It must be ensured that the inside temperature of
the highvoltage battery does not drop below
15 C.

i Note
The condition of the desiccant cartridge must be
checked at every maintenance interval using the
drive diagnosis tester.

Discharged highvoltage battery

i Note

If the highvoltage battery is fully discharged,


the drive system shuts off. This protects the high
voltage battery against deep discharging.

The drive system can be temporarily reactivated


once in order to park the vehicle in a safe place
by switching the ignition off and back on.

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21

Electrical system

Highvoltage battery
Information on highvoltage battery

General information on transport

If used according to specifications, the high


voltage battery presents no danger.

Highvoltage batteries are hazardous goods and


are classified as "UN 3480 Lithiumion battery,
class 9, packaging group II" in accordance with
international hazardous goods regulations. High
voltage batteries may only be transported in
accordance with the applicable international and
national hazardous goods regulations for the
respective mode of transport. Before any high
voltage battery is transported, it must be checked
to determine whether it is safe for transport.
A highvoltage battery which has been damaged
must be classed as not safe for transport if
following points apply to the transport:

Information on safe handling


Risk of short circuit Avoid physical damage
(pressure)
Risk of explosion Thermal load (avoid the
effect of heat/welding; painting work/force
drying up to max. 60 C)
Risk of injury due to the formation of
poisonous and corrosive gases
Use personal protective equipment (with high
voltage batteries that are damaged and not
safe for transport: Safety glasses
 Electrical gloves
gotis:// O_01.0_04.0

There is a possibility of dangerous exposure


to heat
The highvoltage battery can cause fires or
short circuits
Danger can occur in another way e.g. due to
the release of fluid electrolyte or combustible,
corrosive or poisonous vapors.

i Note
Further information on handling procedures and
safety requirements can be found in the safety
data sheet for highvoltage batteries in the
Daimler hazardous goods management system.
Link: http://gms.aftersales.daimler.com

Requirements for storage areas and


containers
Highvoltage batteries may not be stored in
bulk containers because this can result in
leakage, short circuits or explosion
Protect highvoltage batteries from moisture
Protect contacts with suitable terminal caps
Store highvoltage batteries in a cool and
wellventilated location
Prevent fluids from the highvoltage battery
from entering the sewage system, water drains
or the ground

22

i Note
Shipment must be performed/arranged by a
qualified logistics employee.

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Highvoltage batteries which are safe for


transport

Highvoltage batteries which are not safe for


transport

Highvoltage batteries which are safe for trans


port may only be transported in original pack
aging and the highvoltage battery must be
packed in the same way as it was delivered. The
following minimum requirements must be
observed:

A highvoltage battery is not safe for transport in


the following circumstances:

The highvoltage battery must be protected


against external short circuit by the use of
insulating caps and by activating the Service
Disconnect
All of the openings on the highvoltage
battery, particularly the coolant connections,
must be sealed
The highvoltage battery housing must be free
from dangerous soiling on the outside
It is important to observe the requirement for
proper packaging with adhesive tape and dual
strapping, labeling of the package in accordance
with the respective applicable hazardous goods
regulations and any other requirements associ
ated with the transport.

Electrical system

Highvoltage battery

Highvoltage battery is not diagnosiscapable


Insulation fault
Contactor status "closed" (energized with high
voltage)
Visual inspection:

Crack in housing
Housing deformed
Housing tarnished
Electrolyte leakage
Highvoltage contacts damaged

Highvoltage batteries which are not safe for


transport may only be transported via road or sea
with an exemption from the relevant national
authority and where the conditions described in
the exemption are complied with in full.

i Note
Shipment must be performed/arranged by a
qualified logistics employee.

The transport of highvoltage batteries which are


not safe for transport via air is forbidden under
any circumstances!

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23

Electrical system

Highvoltage charger control unit


The battery is charged by connecting the
charging cable to the charger feedin socket and
an external power supply. The highvoltage
charger control unit is located above the drive
unit.
Connections:

HV line to highvoltage distributor


HV line to charger feedin socket
12 V line
Coolant lines

For cooling purposes, the highvoltage charger


control unit is connected to the electric motor
cooling circuit via two connections.
Performance data:
Input:

100 to 240 V (AC voltage)

Output:

270 to 380 V (DC voltage)

Output:

3 kW max. at 115230 V

Charging duration: 8 h (0100% SOC) at +25 C


4 h (2080% SOC) at +25 C

The highvoltage charger control unit converts


the alternating current from the charger feedin
socket into direct current and forwards it to the
highvoltage distributor.
The charging procedure is controlled and moni
tored by the battery management system control
unit.

P54.10-3330-00

6
7
8
9

24

Connection, HV line to highvoltage distributor


Connection, HV line to charger feedin socket
12 V line connection
Coolant line connection

N24/3 Highvoltage charger control unit

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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The optional external power outlet communica


tions control unit (SCCU = Smart Charge Commu
nication Unit) allows the vehicle to be charged
using public infrastructure.
A communication connection (power line) is
established between the vehicle and public
charging station for data exchange. The following
information can be accessed:

Electrical system

External power outlet communications control unit

Payment information
Tariff information
Maximum available charging current
In addition, the customer can query status infor
mation over the Internet during the charging
process e.g.
Current SOC
Range
Estimated charging duration until 100% SOC
Error conditions detected by the external power
outlet communications control unit are output via
the drive diagnosis system.

P54.10-3355-00

1
2
3

The control unit is attached to the frametype


integral support by a bracket above the electric
refrigerant compressor at right rear.

HV connection
12 V connection
Frametype integral support

N24/3 Highvoltage charger control unit


N24/4 External power outlet communications
control unit
N116/1 Electric refrigerant compressor (EAC)

Connections:
HV connection:
HV line from charger feedin socket to external
power outlet communications control unit
12 V connection:

Circuit 30
Circuit 15
ESSCAN
Drive train CAN

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25

Electrical system

Charger feedin socket


The charger feedin socket is located on the right
rear Bpillar under a flap. The socket is fitted
with a removable protective cap.
There is a ring of indicator LEDs positioned
around the socket which light up during the
charging process when the charge socket is
correctly connected to an external power supply
and when the preconditioning function is active.
When the connector is connected to the socket,
this is indicated on the instrument cluster by the
charging cable indicator lamp and gear indicator
"0" on the multifunction display. Driving operation
is not possible as long as the connector is
connected to the socket.

P54.10-3348-00

P54.10-3343-00

10
Protective cap
E34
Charger feedin socket indicator LED
X58/23 Charger feedin socket

The 12 V battery is fused via the prefuse in the


charge line from the electric motor control unit to
the 12 V battery.
The prefuse is located in the battery box for the
12 V battery.

P54.10-3344-00

F90 12 V charge line prefuse


G1 Battery

26

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Charging cable
The charging cable for connection to an external
power supply is included as standard.
The charging cable is equipped with a RCD
(Residual Current Protection Device).

Electrical system

Charging cable

The RCD protects against impermissibly high


contact currents. If a certain differential current
level (fault current) is exceeded, the monitored
electric circuit is disconnected at the positive
and negative terminals.
ON button
The triggered RCD is switched back on using the
ON button.
TEST button (OFF button)
Pressing the TEST button simulates a fault for the
purpose of a function test. If the RCD is triggered
after the TEST button is pressed, the RCD is oper
ating properly.
RCD indicator lamp
The indicator lamp (LED) indicates the current
status of the RCD.
Before the mains plug is disconnected, the RCD
must be switched off by pressing the TEST button
(OFF button).

P54.10-3347-00

1
2
3

Charging cable
Connector to charger feedin socket
Mains plug

S203
S203e1
S203s1
S203s2

Residual current protection device (RCD)


RCD indicator lamp
ON button
TEST button

i Note

i Note

If the mains plug is disconnected from the socket


and then plugged back in, the RCD is triggered
and must be switched back on by pressing the ON
button.

The mains plug of the charging cable must be


plugged directly into a suitable power outlet. No
extension cords may be used (increased line
resistance).

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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27

Electrical system

Charge detection
When the connector of the charging cable is
plugged into the charger feedin socket, the
battery management system control unit wakes
the CAN buses with the associated control units.

The charging process is monitored and controlled


by the highvoltage charger control unit and
battery management system control unit.

P00.19-4754-00

A1
A1e70
E34
F90
G1
G5
N3
N10/10
N24/3
N82/2

28

Instrument cluster
Charging current indicator lamp
Charger feedin socket indicator lamp
12 V battery prefuse
Battery
Highvoltage battery
Electric vehicle control unit EVCM
SAM control unit
Highvoltage charger control unit
Battery management system control unit

N116/5 Highvoltage distributor control unit (PDU)


N145
Electric motor control unit EDCM
X58/23 Charger feedin socket
CAN C Drive train CAN
EDCAN Electric Drive CAN
ESSCAN Electric Storage System CAN
HV
LV

Highvoltage line
12 V line

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Interlock
The interlock circuit serves to protect people who
deal with the highvoltage onboard electrical
system. The interlock circuit detects an open
connector circuit in the highvoltage onboard
electrical system.
Since capacitors are present in the highvoltage
components, the highvoltage onboard elec
trical system is not immediately rendered
voltagefree once the protection switch is
opened. For this reason, an active rapid
discharge function is incorporated in the high
voltage components. This discharges the high
voltage onboard electrical system to voltages
below 60 V within 2 to 5 s.
If the interlock circuit is interrupted, this causes
the protection switch in the highvoltage battery
module to open and the highvoltage onboard
electrical system to shut down. In addition, acci
dents trigger a 2stage crash shutdown proce
dure. This shuts down the highvoltage battery
and discharges the highvoltage onboard elec
trical system:

The interlock signal is generated in the battery


management system (BMS) control unit and trans
mitted to the following components over a series
connection:

Electrical system

Interlock

Highvoltage charger control unit


Highvoltage PTC heater
Refrigerant compressor control unit
Electric motor control unit EDCM
Electric vehicle control unit EVCM
Highvoltage distributor control unit (PDU)

If the interlock signal is interrupted during


driving operation, the highvoltage onboard
electrical system is only shut off the next time the
vehicle is stopped when the selector lever is
moved to position "N" with the vehicle at a stand
still or the vehicle key is turned to position "Off".

Stage 1: Reversible (without airbag triggering)


Stage 2: Irreversible (with airbag triggering)
The crash signal is transmitted by the restraint
systems control unit to the electric vehicle
control unit (EVCM) via the drive train CAN.

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29

Electrical system

Interlock
Interlock layout

P00.19-4728-00

F90
G1
G5
M5
N3
N24/3
N82/2
N116/1
N116/5
N145
R23

30

12 V battery prefuse
Battery
Highvoltage battery
Electric motor
Electric vehicle control unit EVCM
Highvoltage charger control unit
Battery management control unit
Refrigerant compressor control unit (EAC)
Highvoltage distributor control unit (PDU)
Electric motor control unit EDCM
Highvoltage PTC heater

A
B
Red
Yellow
Orange

Circuit 30
Circuit 30c
12 V line
Interlock signal line
Highvoltage line

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The highvoltage distributor control unit PDU


(Power Distribution Unit) is installed above the
drive unit.
All HV components are supplied with power via the
highvoltage distributor control unit (PDU). There
are three fuses in the highvoltage distributor
control unit (PDU) to protect the highvoltage on
board electrical system.

The connectors from the HV line to the HV battery


and to the electric motor control unit (EDCM) must
be disconnected with the corresponding special
tools.

Electrical system

Highvoltage distributor control unit (PDU)

P54.10-3331-00

1
2
3
4
5
6

Highvoltage charger control unit


Highvoltage battery
Refrigerant compressor
Electric motor control unit
Highvoltage PTC heater
12 V line

N116/5

Highvoltage distributor control unit


(PDU)

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31

Electrical system

Brake system
General

Brake booster vacuum pump

The brake system is largely the same as the brake


system of the smart fortwo with combustion
engine in terms of its design and operation.

The vacuum is measured and monitored by the


brake booster vacuum pump control unit. The
vacuum is recorded via a measurement line which
branches off the vacuum line from the vacuum
pump to the brake booster via a Tpiece.

The regenerative braking function and the elec


tric vacuum pump, which is controlled by the
brake booster vacuum pump control unit, are new
features.

If the required vacuum drops, e.g. due to frequent


operation of the brake, the vacuum pump is actu
ated to generate the required vacuum.

Regenerative braking
The electric motor operates in generator mode
during braking. During driving operation, the
electric motor generates mechanical rotational
energy from electrical energy in order to drive
the vehicle. In regenerative braking mode, elec
trical energy to supply the highvoltage
consumers and to charge the highvoltage
battery is generated from mechanical energy. If
the energy generated is greater than the current
requirements of the highvoltage consumers, it is
stored in the highvoltage battery.
The status, charging and discharging of the high
voltage battery are monitored by the battery
management system control unit.
Control of charging, discharging and the charge
level is performed by the electric vehicle control
unit (EVCM).
P42.22-2043-00

1
2
M57
N65/3

32

Measurement line
Tpiece
Brake booster vacuum pump
Brake booster vacuum pump control unit

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Electrical system

Brake system

P42.22-2044-00

Vacuum pump control (schematic)


1
2
3
4
5

Measurement line
Tpiece
Vacuum line
Check valve
Brake booster

M57 Brake booster vacuum pump


N65/3 Brake booster vacuum pump control unit

i Note

A Plug connection A
A1 Circuit 15 (ignition ON)
A2 Data link connector
A5 Brake light switch signal
B Plug connection B
B1 Circuit 31 (ground)
B2 Circuit 30 (permanent current)
C Plug connection C
C1 Pump power supply +
C2 Pump power supply 

The brake booster vacuum pump must be replaced


after 300 operating hours.

The number of operating hours of the brake


booster vacuum pump must be determined at
every maintenance interval via the vehicle diag
nosis system (DAS).

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33

Electrical system

Power disconnect
To allow service operations to be performed
without any risk of electric shock, the high
voltage onboard electrical system must be deen
ergized and protected against reactivation.
The power disconnect and restart must be docu
mented in a vehicle power disconnect and vehicle
initial startup log. The logs must be enclosed with
the vehicle repair documents.

The power is disconnected by switching the igni


tion "Off". Finally, a check is performed using the
diagnostic unit for drive system diagnosis. The
Service Disconnect cover underneath the HV
battery is then removed and the Service Discon
nect is pulled out of the highvoltage battery An
activation lock is installed in place of the Service
Disconnect to protect against reactivation.

P54.10-3332-00

G5 Highvoltage battery

34

1 Cover
2 Service Disconnect
3 Activation lock

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Electrical system

Power disconnect

P00.01-3964-00

SF54.10P300007A
F54.10P300008A

Form for power disconnect log


Form for initial startup log

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35

Electrical system

Power disconnect
Power disconnect matrix for operations where power disconnect is required
Yes

Underside of vehicle
Rear module lowering

Remove/install electric motor with power electronics

Remove/install transmission

Remove/install frametype integral support

Remove/install axle tube

Remove/install battering cooling system coolant pump

Remove/install electric motor cooling system


coolant pump

Remove/install A/C condenser

Remove/install pedals

Remove/install ESP control unit

Remove/install ESP hydraulic unit

Remove/install electric steering

Remove/install highvoltage battery

Remove/install vacuum pump

36

No

Remove/install refrigerant compressor

Remove/install highvoltage distributor

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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Yes

No

Underside of vehicle
Remove/install highvoltage AC/DC battery
charger control unit

HV lines

Remove/install front axle

Remove/install front suspension

Electrical system

Power disconnect

Outside of vehicle
Remove/install CBS parts

Remove/install soft top/roof

Remove/install windshield

Remove/install rearend door upper section (coup)

Remove/install rearend door lower section

Remove/install front exterior lights

Remove/install rear exterior lights

Remove/install wiper blades

Remove/install charger feedin socket


(charge socket)

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37

Electrical system

Power disconnect
Yes

No

Wheels, brakes
Remove/install wheels/tires

Remove/install front service brake

Remove/install rear service brake

Vehicle interior

38

12 V battery

Remove/install restraint systems

Remove/install floor covering

Remove/install instrument cluster

Remove/install instrument panel

Steering gear pitman arm

Remove/install driver/passenger seat

Remove/install interior HV lines

Remove/install air distribution box

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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P00.19-4729-00

Overall network Location of components

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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Electrical system

Overall network

39

Electrical system

Overall network
Overall network
A1
A15p6
A15p7
B24/15
B37
B38
M4/8

Instrument cluster
HV battery energy flow
HV battery charge level indicator
Yaw rate and lateral acceleration sensor
Accelerator pedal
Rain sensor/light sensor
Electric drive and highvoltage charger fan
motor
M4/9
Highvoltage battery and interior fan motor
M43/2 Battery cooling system coolant pump
M46
Electric motor cooling system coolant pump
M57
Brake booster vacuum pump
N2/7
Restraint systems control unit
N3
Electric vehicle control unit EVCM
N10/10 SAM control unit
N15/5 Electronic selector lever module
N23
Heater/AC operating unit
N24/3 Highvoltage charger control unit
N475 ESP control unit
N49
Steering angle sensor

The electric vehicle control unit (EVCM) serves as


a gateway between
Drive train CAN
EDCAN
ESSCAN
Diagnosis of the electric vehicle (EVCM) and elec
tric motor (EDCM) control units is only possible
via the separate diagnostic tool for drive system
diagnosis.

40

N65/3
N68
N82/2
N116/1
N116/5
N145
R23
R101
S16/2
X11/4
X58/23
X200
X201
Y19/1
Y19/3

Brake booster vacuum pump control unit


Steering assist control unit
Battery management system control unit
Refrigerant compressor control unit (EAC)
Highvoltage distributor control unit (PDU)
Electric motor control unit EDCM
Highvoltage PTC heater
Highvoltage battery heater booster
Park pawl switch
Data link connector
Charger feedin socket
EVCM data link connector (6pin)
EDCM data link connector (9pin)
Interior air conditioning expansion valve
Battery air conditioning expansion valve

CAN C
EDCAN
ESSCAN
LIN

Drive train CAN


Electric Drive CAN
Energy Storage System CAN
Local Interconnect Network

In the event of a crash, the connection to the drive


train CAN is used to transfer the crash signal from
the restraint systems control unit. If the airbags
are triggered, the contactors switch and the
vehicle is deenergized.
The highvoltage distributor control unit distrib
utes power to the highvoltage consumers and is
not a CAN subscriber.

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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P00.19-4730-00

Overall network, CAN bus/LIN bus (for picture legend, see page 40)

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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Electrical system

Overall network

41

Electrical system

Diagnosis
General
The network architecture allows external access
to the individual control units of the CAN bus
systems.
By connecting a diagnostic tester, the vehicle with
all its equipment characteristics can be identi
fied. This enables accurate fault evaluation and
rectification and the analysis of vehiclespecific
values and parameters.
On the smart fortwo electric drive, diagnosis is
separated into two areas:
Vehicle diagnosis via DAS (data link connector
X11/4)
Drive diagnosis via separate diagnostic tester
(data link connector X200)

Diagnosis Assistance System (DAS)


All control units of the drive train CAN (CAN C) can
be diagnosed with DAS. The data link connector
(X11/4) is located in the vehicle interior on the
underside of the instrument panel on the driver
side.
The following control units have diagnosis capa
bility:

42

Instrument cluster
Restraint systems control unit
SAM control unit
Heater/AC operating unit
ESP control unit
Steering assist control unit
Refrigerant compressor control unit
Electronic selector lever module (ESM)
Brake booster vacuum pump control unit

P54.22-2062-00

DAS
X11/4 Data link connector

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Drive system diagnosis


The electric drive system with its components is
checked separately via drive system diagnosis.
For this purpose, the electric vehicle control unit
(EVCM) is equipped with a data link connector
(6pin) which is connected to the external drive
system diagnosis tester.

Electrical system

Diagnosis

The following control units have diagnosis capa


bility:

Electric vehicle control unit


Electric motor control unit
Battery management system control unit
Highvoltage charger control unit.

The electric motor control unit (EDCM) is


equipped with a data link connector (9pin) for
connecting to the diagnostic tester, which is used
to update the software of the electric motor
control unit (EDCM).

P54.22-2063-00

Drive system diagnosis


N3
Electric vehicle control unit EVCM
X200 EVCM data link connector (6pin)
X201 EDCM data link connector (9pin)

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43

Electrical system

SAM
All fuses, except the highvoltage fuses in the
highvoltage distributor control unit and the 12 V
charge line prefuse, are housed on the SAM
control unit. Fuses 131 are located on the front
of the SAM control unit; fuses 3235 are located
on the rear.
The SAM control unit is installed in the vehicle
interior on the left side near the Apillar under
the instrument panel.

Modified fuse assignments:


F1 25A
F8 25A
F9 7.5A
F10 15A

F12 10A
F16 15A
F30 40A
F32

Ignition Brake booster vacuum pump


Main relay Highvoltage battery heater
booster
Main relay Electric drive and high
voltage charger cooling system fan
motor
Main relay Electric drive and high
voltage charger cooling system coolant
pump and battery cooling system coolant
pump
Additional Telestart preheating/
precooling
Electric vehicle control unit Blower
stage 2
Highvoltage battery and interior
cooling fan motor
Omitted

P54.21-3106-00

SAM control unit (front)

44

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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Modified fuse assignments:


R5 7.5A Battery Highvoltage charger control
R6 15A
R7 15A
R8 5A
R9 25A

unit
Battery Electric vehicle control unit
Battery Electric motor control unit
Battery Electric vehicle control unit
Battery Brake booster vacuum pump

The SAM control unit is linked with the drive train


CAN in order to exchange data. It communicates
with the following components:

Instrument cluster
ESP control unit
Restraint systems control unit
Heater/AC operating unit
Steering assist control unit
Yaw rate and lateral acceleration sensor
Electric vehicle control unit EVCM
Steering angle sensor
Vehicle diagnosis/DAS data link connector

Electrical system

SAM

P54.21-3107-00

SAM control unit (rear)

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45

Electrical system

SAM
The SAM control unit communicates with the rain
sensor/light sensor via LIN.
The relay and fuse box with all relays and fuses is
integrated in the SAM control unit, with the
exception of the following relays:
Relay 1 and 2 for air conditioning blower motor
Relay for electric drive and highvoltage
charger cooling system fan motor
Relay for highvoltage battery heater booster

P54.15-3318-00

K61 Relay 1 for blower motor


K62 Relay 2 for blower motor

P54.15-3317-00

K57 Relay for highvoltage battery heater booster


K59 Relay for cooler fan motor

46

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The smart fortwo electric drive is driven by a


permanent magnet motor with an output of 30 kW.
The electric motor is connected to the electric
motor control unit. The motor is supplied with
power and controlled via the electric motor
control unit (EDCM).

The efficiency of the electric motor depends on


the operating temperature. The output of the
electric motor is reduced at temperatures over
95 C. This is displayed on the performance indi
cator of the instrument cluster.

Electric drive system

Motor description

Both components are cooled via the electric drive


and highvoltage charger coolant circuit.
The DC/DC converter is integrated in the electric
motor control unit (EDCM).

P54.32-000-00

Output reduction indication

P08.10-2035-00

P20.00-2380-00

Electric drive system

Electric motor coolant circuit

1
DC/DC converter
M5
Electric motor
N145 Electric motor control unit EDCM

M5
Electric motor
N145 Electric motor control unit EDCM

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47

Transmission

Transmission description
A transmission with park pawl, which has been
modified for the electric drive system, is used in
the smart fortwo electric drive.
All components for gearshifting have been
removed and the resulting openings have been
fitted with covers. The drive system has a perma
nent gear ratio of 9.77:1. The differential has
been taken over from previous models and allows
the use of standard drive shafts.

Selector lever
Operation takes place via the selector lever/PRND
shifter with park pawl.
The mechanical park pawl is engaged in the trans
mission in position "P" via a cable.
The electric vehicle control unit (EVCM) reads in
the status of the park pawl via the park pawl
switch.

The reverse gear is implemented by changing the


rotating field of the electric motor.

P27.00-2332-00

1
2
3
4
5

48

Transmission
Right drive shaft
Left drive shaft
Park pawl
Selector lever/PRND shifter

M5
Electric motor
N145 Electric motor control unit EDCM
S16/2 Park pawl switch

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Due to the greater vehicle weight, modified


springs are used at the front and rear axle.

Chassis

Axles and suspension

On the front axle, the crossmember for holding


the supporting strut for the highvoltage battery
was modified.

P33.00-2107-00

1
2

Front axle crossmember


Highvoltage battery supporting strut

P00.00-4499-00

Suspension and steering

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49

Chassis

Rear module
The rear drive module can also be lowered on the
smart fortwo electric drive.
This allows access to various components such
as the refrigerant compressor, electric motor,
drive shafts etc. without removing CBS parts
(CBS = Customized Bodypanel System).

P35.00-2093-00

Lowered rear module


1 Spacer sleeve
2 Bolt
3 Frame-type integral support

i Note

a Warning

Before the rear module is lowered, the vehicle


power must be disconnected as per the deacti
vation log!

Spacer sleeves must be used at the front bolts to


lower the rear module, otherwise the HV connec
tion on the HV battery will be damaged and the
entire HV battery will have to be replaced!
Observe the corresponding notes in WIS:
f01.00P3050MEV

50

Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive, Model series 451


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The smart fortwo electric drive is equipped with


two cooling systems:
Electric drive and highvoltage charger
cooling system
Highvoltage battery and interior cooling
system

Cooling systems

Electric drive cooling system

Electric drive cooling system


The electric drive cooling system is located at the
rear of the engine compartment and consists of
the following parts:
Cooler with coolant expansion reservoir
Fan
Coolant pump
The electric drive cooling system cools the HV
components
Electric motor
Electric motor control unit EDCM
Highvoltage charger control unit

The electric vehicle control unit records the


values from the temperature sensors in the
components involved and controls the fan motor
and coolant pump according to requirements.

M4/8 Electric drive and highvoltage charger


fan motor
M46 Electric drive and highvoltage charger coolant
pump

P20.00-2381-00

Cooler with coolant expansion reservoir

The coolant (glycol/water mixture) is pumped


from the cooler to the electric motor control unit
by the coolant pump. From there, it passes into
the electric motor and flows through the coolant
ducts integrated in the outer wall of the electric
motor on to the highvoltage charger control unit.
From there, it returns to the coolant expansion
reservoir.

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51

Cooling systems

Electric drive cooling system

P20.00-2375-00

Coolant circuit
M4/8 Electric drive and highvoltage charger fan
motor
M5
Electric motor
M46 Electric drive and highvoltage charger
coolant pump
N24/3 Highvoltage charger control unit
N145 Electric motor control unit EDCM

52

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The highvoltage battery and interior cooling


system consists of the refrigerant circuit and the
highvoltage battery coolant circuit. It includes
the following individual components:

The interior evaporator and HV battery heat


exchanger use thermostatic expansion valves with
electromagnetic shutoff capability.

Cooling systems

Highvoltage battery and interior cooling system

Highvoltage refrigerant compressor


Condenser
Interior air conditioning expansion valve
Evaporator (interior)
Battery air conditioning expansion valve
HV battery heat exchanger (chiller)
Coolant expansion reservoir
Battery cooling system coolant pump
Highvoltage battery heater booster

P20.00-2378-00

G5
Highvoltage battery
M4/9 Highvoltage battery and interior fan motor
M43/2 Battery cooling system coolant pump
R101 Highvoltage battery heater booster
Y19/1 Interior air conditioning expansion valve
Y19/3 Battery air conditioning expansion valve

1
2
3
4
5
A
B

Coolant expansion reservoir


Condenser
Evaporator
Heat exchanger (chiller)
Highvoltage refrigerant compressor
Refrigerant
Coolant

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53

Cooling systems

Highvoltage battery and interior cooling system


Highvoltage battery cooling system

Interior cooling system

In order to cool the highvoltage battery, the


coolant pump pumps coolant from the expansion
reservoir through the highvoltage battery heat
exchanger and the highvoltage battery heater
booster to the highvoltage battery. From there,
it returns to the expansion reservoir.

As on vehicles with a combustion engine, the inte


rior is cooled via the refrigerant circuit with the
following components:

If the temperature in the highvoltage battery


exceeds certain specified values, refrigerant is
directed through the highvoltage battery heat
exchanger (chiller) via the battery air condi
tioning expansion valve so that heat is removed
from the coolant circulating in the highvoltage
battery coolant circuit.

Refrigerant compressor
Condenser
Expansion valve
Evaporator

If the coolant temperature is below the optimal


highvoltage battery operating temperature, the
battery management system activates the high
voltage battery heater booster integrated in the
highvoltage battery coolant circuit and the
coolant is heated.

The output of the electric motor is reduced at a


highvoltage battery operating temperature of
above +55 C or below +5 C. This is displayed on
the performance indicator of the instrument
cluster.

P54.32-000-00

Output reduction indication

54

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Highvoltage battery cooling mode


In cooling mode, the battery management control
unit actuates the battery cooling system coolant
pump with a PWM signal according to require
ments and coolant is pumped through the heat
exchanger via the coolant circuit. If the cooling
requirement is high enough, the electric vehicle
control unit (EVCM) opens the battery cooling air
conditioning expansion valve and actuates the
refrigerant compressor.

The refrigerant is directed through the heat


exchanger and removes thermal energy from the
coolant in the highvoltage battery coolant
circuit.

Cooling systems

Highvoltage battery and interior cooling system

P00.00-2376-00

Cooling mode (schematic)


G5
M43/2
N3
N82/2
R101
Y19/1
Y19/3

Highvoltage battery
Battery cooling system coolant pump
Electric vehicle control unit EVCM
Battery management system control unit
Highvoltage battery heater booster
Interior air conditioning expansion valve
Battery air conditioning expansion valve

1
2
3
4
5
a
b
c
d

Coolant expansion reservoir


Condenser
Evaporator
Heat exchanger (chiller)
Refrigerant compressor
Refrigerant feed
Refrigerant return
Coolant feed
Coolant return

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55

Cooling systems

Highvoltage battery and interior cooling system


Highvoltage battery heating mode
If the temperature is low enough, the highvoltage
battery is heated via the coolant circuit until the
optimal operating temperature is reached. The
12 V highvoltage battery heater booster is
located between the heat exchanger and battery
cooling system coolant pump.

The battery air conditioning expansion valve is


closed by the electric vehicle control unit (EVCM)
so that no refrigerant flows through the heat
exchanger. The coolant passes through the heat
exchanger without temperature change, is heated
by the highvoltage battery heater booster
installed behind it and is pumped to the high
voltage battery. From there, it returns to the
coolant expansion reservoir.

P00.00-2377-00

Heating mode (schematic)


G5
M43/2
N3
N82/2
R101
Y19/1
Y19/3

56

Highvoltage battery
Battery cooling system coolant pump
Electric vehicle control unit EVCM
Battery management system control unit
Highvoltage battery heater booster
Interior air conditioning expansion valve
Battery air conditioning expansion valve

1
2
3
4
5
a
b
c
d

Coolant expansion reservoir


Condenser
Evaporator
Heat exchanger (chiller)
Highvoltage refrigerant compressor
Refrigerant feed
Refrigerant return
Coolant feed
Coolant return

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Instrument cluster

Additional instruments

The instrument cluster has been adapted to the


requirements of the electric drive system with
new indicator and warning lamps and a power
indicator instead of a fuel level indicator.

The function of the two additional instruments on


the center of the instrument panel has been modi
fied:

The new indicator and warning lamps display the


following information:

Charging cable connected


Regenerative braking inactive
Drive diagnosis indicator lamp
Drive diagnosis warning lamp
Electric drive system, highvoltage charger
and highvoltage battery coolant temperature
warning lamp
Highvoltage battery warning lamp
12 V battery warning lamp

Design

Instrument cluster

Right: Highvoltage battery energy flow (kW)


Left: Charge level indicator of battery
(SOC in %)

Multifunction display
The multifunction display provides information
about variable changes in the vehicle, its
surroundings and the route. These include:

Outside temperature
Main odometer
Trip odometer
Display of available power from electric motor
Maintenance interval display
Coolant temperature gauge
Frost warning symbol
Clock

P54.32-8104-00

Additional instruments
A15p6 HV battery energy flow
A15p7 HV battery charge level indicator

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57

Design

Instrument cluster

P54.32-8087-00

Instrument cluster
1
2
A1
A1e1
A1e2
A1e3
A1e7
A1e9

58

Left button, select multiple display/set clock


Right button, instrument illumination/set clock
Instrument cluster
Left turn signal indicator lamp
Right turn signal indicator lamp
High beam indicator lamp
Brake fluid and parking brake warning lamp
Seat belt warning lamp

A1e15
A1e17
A1e18
A1e41
A1e52
A1e54
A1e66
A1e67
A1e70
A1e72
A1e73
A1e74
A1e75
A1p8
A1p13

Airbag indicator and warning lamp


ABS indicator lamp
Electric steering indicator lamp
ESP warning lamp
Rear fog light indicator lamp
Coolant temperature warning lamp
Tire pressure monitor warning lamp
Low beam indicator lamp
Charging cable indicator lamp
Drive system diagnosis indicator lamp
Drive system diagnosis warning lamp
Highvoltage system warning lamp
12 V battery warning lamp
Electronic speedometer
Multifunction display

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Design

Instrument cluster
Limphome mode
The limphome function with output and torque
reduction is activated if one of the following
events occurs:
Faults in the 12 V onboard electrical system
Accelerator pedal malfunction
Faults in battery management system
and malfunction of HV battery coolant pump
The drive diagnosis indicator lamp comes on in
the instrument cluster.
P54.32-8211-00

1
Performance indicator
A1
Instrument cluster
A1e72 Drive system diagnosis indicator lamp

HV battery charge level SOC (State Of Charge)


As of 5% SOC, an acoustic warning sounds and the
performance indicator on the instrument cluster
starts to flash.
Between 5% and 2% SOC, the output is continuously
limited down to 10 kW.

P54.32-8257-00

A15p7 HV battery charge level indicator

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59

Design

Climate control
Heating

Air conditioning

A highvoltage PTC heater booster with 4 kW


output is used instead of a heating system heat
exchanger through which coolant flows as is the
case on vehicles with a combustion engine.

Operation takes place via the AAC operating unit


as on conventional vehicles of model series 451.

Heating is controlled via the drive train CAN by


the electric vehicle control unit depending on the
charge level of the highvoltage battery. The heat
output can be reduced if the charge level of the
highvoltage battery becomes too low because
the electric vehicle control unit gives priority to
supplying power to the electric motor and high
voltage battery cooling system.
The PTC heater is supplied with power by the
highvoltage distributor control unit.

However, the system design is different from that


of conventional vehicles of model series 451 in
some significant aspects.
The differences in the design of the air condi
tioning are:
Nonbeltdriven highvoltage refrigerant
compressor
Thermostatic expansion valve on interior
evaporator with electromagnetic shutoff
capability
Additional refrigerant circuit branch to high
voltage battery heat exchanger (chiller) with
expansion valve on highvoltage battery heat
exchanger with electromagnetic shutoff
capability.

P83.00-2323-00

1 Condenser
2 Evaporator
3 Refrigerant compressor

60

M4/9 Highvoltage battery and interior fan motor


R23 Highvoltage PTC heater
Y19/1 Interior air conditioning expansion valve

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Highvoltage refrigerant compressor

Air conditioning operating unit

The drive system for the refrigerant compressor


has to be kept separate from the drive motor so
that sufficient cooling output can be provided
when the vehicle and the electric motor are
stationary. This ensures that the highvoltage
battery can be cooled independently and climate
control for the vehicle interior can operate inde
pendently. This is achieved by means of an elec
trically driven highvoltage refrigerant
compressor.

The air conditioning operating unit is located at


the top of the center console. The interior
temperature sensor is located at the bottom of the
air conditioning operating unit.

The highvoltage refrigerant compressor draws


in and compresses the refrigerant (R134a) and
pumps the refrigerant through the system.
Depending on the evaporator temperature, the
highvoltage refrigerant compressor is step
lessly regulated from 800 to 9000 rpm.
The electric refrigerant compressor consists of
the following three main groups:
Control unit with integrated power electronics
Electric motor
Spiral compressor
The control unit of the highvoltage refrigerant
compressor regulates the speed of the electric
motor and the quantity of refrigerant. The elec
tric motor drives the spiral compressor. This
consists of two spiral coils nested inside each
other, whereby the first coil is permanently
attached to the housing and the second moves in a
circular pattern inside the first. The spiral coils
thus touch each other at several points and form
a number of chambers of ever decreasing size
within the coils. The refrigerant is thus
compressed and moves towards the center of
these chambers, where it then exits the spiral in
compressed form.

Design

Climate control

When the desired temperature is set, the request


for heating or cooling is transmitted to the elec
tric vehicle control unit (EVCM) via the drive train
CAN. There, the values for outside temperature
and interior temperature provided by the instru
ment cluster are compared to the desired value
and the corresponding function is activated.
Heating:
The electric vehicle control unit (EVCM) regulates
the power supply to the highvoltage PTC heater
in the air conditioner housing from the high
voltage distributor control unit (PDU) via a PWM
signal.
Cooling:
The electric vehicle control unit (EVCM) opens the
interior air conditioning expansion valve and the
interior cooling refrigerant circuit is closed. The
electric vehicle control unit (EVCM) gives priority
to cooling the highvoltage battery. If the battery
management system control unit reports that the
temperature of the highvoltage battery is above
the specified value, cooling of the interior is
reduced for the duration of the battery cooling
period.

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61

Design

Climate control
Preconditioning
As a special comfort feature, the vehicle interior
of the smart fortwo electric drive can be pre
heated or precooled. The Telestart T 91 system
is installed for this purpose. Telestart consists of
the following components
Antenna
Receiver
Transmitter
Operation takes place via the Telestart trans
mitter.
P83.70-5300-00

Prerequisites

A6/2 Telestart receiver

Driver door and liftgate closed


Soft top closed (cabrio)
Vehicle is supplied with mains power via an
external charging cable
SOC over 75%
The Telestart antenna is located on the windshield
above the inside rearview mirror. The Telestart
receiver is installed on the right cockpit cross
member next to the steering column.
When a "Heating/cooling" request is received
from the receiver, the electric vehicle control
unit (EVCM) checks the required parameters and
actuates the corresponding components.
Replacement parts for the Telestart components
are supplied by Webasto.

P83.70-5301-00

A8/7 Telestart transmitter

P83.70-5303-00

A2/24 Telestart antenna

62

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Design

Body
Bodyshell structure
The bodyshell structure has been taken over from
the series production vehicles unchanged.
A Soft deepdrawing steels:
In these areas, all the usual welding methods can
be used.
B Highstrength steels:
These areas consist of highstrength, micro
alloyed steels. Resistance spot welding can easily
be carried out in these areas. However, metal
active gas (MAG) welding can only be performed in
approved areas.

P60.00-2875-00

Bodyshell material overview


A
B

Soft deepdrawing steels


Highstrength steels

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63

Design

Body
Underfloor
The holding devices for the highvoltage battery
are located in the area of the underfloor.

P60.00-2876-00

Highvoltage battery holding devices (red)

64

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Chassis

Highvoltage system

If damage to the chassis has occurred or is


suspected, a wheel alignment check is recom
mended for quick diagnosis of the damage. The
wheel alignment data for the series production
vehicle with combustion engine apply.

After the vehicle has been subjected to a signifi


cant impact, the highvoltage system must be
checked to determine whether it is deenergized.
Work on the vehicle may only be carried out by an
"Electrical specialist for HV systems in motor
vehicles (series production vehicles)".

In order to prevent false measurement results,


undamaged wheels must be mounted on the vehicle
before the wheel alignment check. In particular,
the four bolting points (front axle carrier/frame
type integral support) to the body must be
checked for displacement.
If there is any type of deformation on the front or
rear axle, it must be replaced. For this reason,
these components must be visually inspected with
care for cracks and deformation.
In order to check for frame damage, electronic
body measurement systems can be used for diag
nostic purposes e.g.
"Contact" (CAR BENCH)
"NAJA" (Celette)
"Shark" (Blackhawk)

Design

Notes on damage analysis

If it is not possible to definitively determine that


the highvoltage system is deenergized, e.g. due
to mechanical damage, no further work may be
performed on the highvoltage system.
Once the power has been disconnected, the high
voltage system must be checked for external
damage and defects. Damaged or defective high
voltage components, cooling systems or lines
must be replaced.
Repairing the highvoltage components is not
permissible.
When inspecting highvoltage components,
personal protective equipment must always be
worn (safety glasses, electrical gloves etc.).

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65

Design

Notes on supplemental restraint systems


Airbag or emergency tensioning retractor
units
Before performing work on the airbag or emer
gency tensioning retractor units, which requires
intervention in their electric circuits (e.g. disas
sembly), the highvoltage system must always be
deenergized.
The vehicle's power may only be disconnected by
an "Electrical specialist for HV systems in motor
vehicles (series production vehicles)".

66

i Note
Airbag or emergency tensioning retractor units
which have been dropped from a height of over
0.5 m must be replaced.
Do not allow airbag or emergency tensioning
retractor units to come into contact with grease,
oil or cleaning agents.
To allow emergency tensioning retractor units to
be installed without damage or soiling, they are
fitted with a PVC protective hose. After installa
tion, these protective components can be
removed. No sharpedged tools may be used for
removal to prevent damaging the belt strap.

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Body

Welding

Depending on the extent of the damage, sheet


metal damage can be repaired in various ways:

Welding may only be performed on the vehicle


after its power has been disconnected.

Remove dents from sheet metal part(s)


Partially replace sheet metal part(s)
Completely replace sheet metal part(s)

The highvoltage battery should be protected


from the influence of thermal energy.

Only the cutting areas are specified for sectional


repairs (also "replacement part repairs"). This
gives the service operation some leeway when
adjusting the section to the respective damage
profile. Cuts should always be made at the
narrowest point and along the shortest distance.
Sectional repairs on the front longitudinal
member are only permissible in front of the axle
mount. The dull repair weld seams on the front
longitudinal member repair section may not be
ground smooth for strengthrelated reasons.
Before and after body repairs, the fault memory
must be read out and any faults present must be
documented.
After repairs to the body or body connections
(e.g. suspension), the steering angle sensor (ESP)
must be reparameterized.

Design

Notes on repair operations

Before welding, a voltage monitor can be attached


to the 12 V battery. This protects electronic
systems and components from brief voltage peaks
(overvoltage) caused by the welding equipment.
The 12 V battery does not then have to be discon
nected.
The decision as to whether a voltage monitor is
used or the 12 V battery is disconnected depends
on the extent of the damage.

Postrepair refinishing
The following measures must be observed before
and during painting work:
The preparation of paints produces vapors
which combust in an explosion if ignited.
Good ventilation must be provided before and
during painting work.
A dry temperature (or object temperature) of
60 C may not be exceeded.

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67

Special tools

Electrical system
Release tool

Use Release tool for HV connectors. For


releasing HV connectors on the high
voltage lines to the highvoltage battery
and electric drive.

MB number W 245 589 00 63 00

P58.20-2278-00

FG 06
Set B

Activation lock

Use Reactivation lock.

MB number A 451 545 01 08

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P58.20-2279-00

Guide pins

Special tools

Electrical system

Use Guide pins for installing the highvoltage


battery.

MB number W 156 589 00 31 00

P58.20-2280-00

FG 54
Set B

Spacer sleeves

Use Spacer sleeves for bolts for lowering rear


module.

Note Tool is shopmade

P58.50-2066-01

y58.50P035001MEV

Lifting platform

Use Lifting platform for removing/installing


highvoltage battery and for lowering rear
module.

MB number gotis://A_01_07.1

P58.20-2110-00

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69

Special tools

Electrical system
Highvoltage battery locks

Use Set of locks for electrical connections on


highvoltage battery.

MB number A 451 546 05 35


P58.20-2282-00

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ABS

EAC

Antilock Brake System

Electric Air Compressor

AKSE

EBD

Automatic Child Seat Recognition (ACSR)

Electronic brake force distribution

BAS

ECO

Brake Assist System

Electronically Controlled Orifice

BMS

EDCM

Battery Management System

Electric Drive Control Module


(electric motor control unit)

Annex

Abbreviations

CAN
ESP
Controller Area Network
Electronic Stability Program
CBS
ESS
Customized Bodypanel System
Energy Storage System
COMAND
EVCM
Cockpit Management and Data System
Electric Vehicle Control Module
DAS
VIN
Diagnosis Assistance System
Vehicle Identification Number
DVD
GF
Digital Versatile Disc
Basic knowledge/functions (WIS)

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71

Annex

Abbreviations
HV

RBS

High Voltage

Regenerative Braking System

HVIL

RCD

High Voltage Interlock Loop

Residual Current Protection Device

LED

SAM

Light Emitting Diode

Signal acquisition and actuation module

LIN

SCCU

Local Interconnect Network

Smart Charge Communication Unit


(external power outlet communications control unit)

LV
SIS
Low Voltage
Safety Inertia Switch
MAG
SOC
Metal Active Gas
State of Charge
NCT
UDDS
Negative Temperature Coefficient
Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule
NEFZ
WIS
New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)
Workshop Information System
OBD
OnBoard Diagnostics
PDU
Power Distribution Unit
(highvoltage distributor)
PTC
Positive Temperature Coefficient
PWM
Pulse Width Modulation

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Activation lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Additional instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Air conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Highvoltage battery
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

55
56
22
22

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

.
.
.
.
Highvoltage refrigerant compressor .

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

19
17
19
19
61

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

HV line connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Operating unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

B
Bodyshell structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

C
CAN bus . . . . . .
Charging duration
Coolant circuit . .
Cooling system . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

Check after an accident . . . . .


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety function after an accident
Wiring harness check . . . . . .

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

Cooling mode
Heating mode
Storage . . .
Transport .

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

Annex

Index

Highvoltage components

I
Initial startup

D
Desiccant cartridge . . . . .
Diagnosis assistance system
Dimensions . . . . . . . . . .
Dimensions and weights . . .
Drive system diagnosis . . .
Drive train CAN . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 20
. . . . . . . . . . . . 42
. . . . . . . . . . . . 11
. . . . . . . . . . . . 11
. . . . . . . . . . . . 43
. . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Innovations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Instrument cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

L
Limphome mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
LIN bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Electric Drive CAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40


Energy Storage System CAN . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Maintenance concept . . . . .
Maintenance interval . . . . .
Maintenance interval display
Maintenance points . . . . . .
Multifunction display . . . . .

F
Front axle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Fuse assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

. . . . . . . . . . . 13
. . . . . . . . . . . 13
. . . . . . . . . . . 13
. . . . . . . . . . . 14
. . . . . . . . . . . 57

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73

Annex

Index

Output reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47, 54, 59

Safety Inertia Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19


Selector lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Service Disconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

P
Park pawl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Performance indicator . . . . . . . . . . . 47, 54, 59
Power disconnect
Power disconnect matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Preconditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62

Prefuse
12 V battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26

U
Underfloor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

V
Vacuum pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Vehicle concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

R
Regenerative braking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Residual current protection device . . . . . . . .27
Reverse gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48

74

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Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive


Model Series 451

www.smart.com

smart  A Daimler Brand


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Introduction of the smart fortwo electric drive  Model Series 451

Introduction into Service Manual