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# ANALOG ELECTRONICS

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Faculty of Engineering

AMPLIFIERS

Linear Signal
Amplification:

## A: Amplifier gain equals

the slope

v0 (t ) Avi (t )

Distortion changes
waveform as in figure

## No real life amplifier is

perfectly linear,
distortion due to
clipping

## Fig. An amplifier transfer characteristic that is linear except

for output saturation.
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NONLINEARITY
Most

amplifiers are
only linear in a narrow
range of operation

For

## linear, bias the

circuit with a dc
voltage, labeled Q,
the quiescent point.

## Fig. An amplifier transfer characteristic that shows

considerable nonlinearity.
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## LOW PASS FILTER (LPF) FREQUENCY RESPONSE

Magnitude Response

## LPF FREQUENCY RESPONSE

Phase Response

Fig. (a) Magnitude and (b) phase response of STC networks of the lowpass type.
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## HIGH PASS FILTER FREQUENCY

RESPONSE

Magnitude Response

## HIGH PASS FILTER FREQUENCY

RESPONSE

Phase response

Fig. (a) Magnitude and (b) phase response of STC networks of the
high-pass type.
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OP-AMP

Dual

in Line Packaging(DIP)

OP-AMP PACKAGING

Pinouts

OP-AMP CIRCUITRY

The

circuitry

OP-AMPS
Common

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The

## linear models for Op-Amps include

dependent sources

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FIND CURRENTS
Invert

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Difference

amplifier

Use

Kirchoffs
Current Law

Use

Superposition

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R2
R2
R2 R1

vO 1 v v1 1 v v1
R1
R1 R2
R1

i 0 v

R4
R4
v2 v
v2
R3 R4
R3 R4
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R2

v1

Ri
v

R1

RO

vO

A( v v )

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## INPUT IMPEDANCE OF OP-AMP

COMPLETE EQUIVALENT
FOR MESH ANALYSIS

INPUT RESISTANCE

Rin

v1
i1

GAIN

vO
vi

vO

MESH 1
MESH 2

vO R2 i2 R1 (i1 i2 )

## REPLACE AND PUT IN MATRIX FORM

R1
( R1 R2 )
i1 v1
AR R ( R R R ) i 0

i
1
1
2
O 2

i1

R1 R2 RO
v1

i2

( ARi R1 )

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## BUFFER USING OP-AMP

Fig. (a) Unity-gain follower. (b) Input step waveform. (c) Linearly rising output
waveform obtained when the amplifier is slew-rate limited. (d) Exponentially
rising output waveform obtained when V is sufficiently small so that the initial
slope (wtV) is smaller then or equal to SR.
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## OP-AMP SLEW RATE

Effect of slew-rate
limits output for
sinusoidal waveforms.
dv0
SR
dt

max

## Limited BW, i max

dvi
Vi cost Vi
dt
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BASIC SEMICONDUCTORS
Diode
Structure

Symbol

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DIODES

Fig. The ideal diode: (a) diode circuit symbol; (b) i-v characteristic; (c)
equivalent circuit in the reverse direction; (d) equivalent circuit in the
forward direction.
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DIODE CIRCUITS

## During positive cycle, diode

allow current to pass through
and output voltage is positive
Fig. (a) Rectifier circuit. (b) Input waveform. (c) Equivalent circuit when (d)
Equivalent circuit when v1 > 0 (e) Output waveform.

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DIODE CHARACTERIZATION

i I s ev / nVT 1

## Diodes have a nonlinear

response to voltage

## We model different regions of

operation
Forward Bias
Reverse Bias

i I s ev / nVT 1

Breakdown

i I s
Fig. The i-v characteristic of a
silicon junction diode.
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DIODE REGIONS

Diodes

have negligible
current when biased in
reverse direction

Diodes

## have a 0.7V drop

in the forward direction

## Fig. The diode i-v relationship with some scales

expanded and others compressed in order to reveal
details.
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PHYSICAL STRUCTURE ON PN
JUNCTION
We

## can simplify Diode

physics by modeling it
as a 2D PN junction

junction diode.

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Knee

## of diode I-v characteristic, the voltage is

less than Zener voltage.

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## PHYSICAL STRUCTURE ON PN JUNCTION

We

can simplify
Diode physics by
modeling it as a 2D
PN junction

PN

junction:P and N
regions by different
dopings: n p ni

Diffusion

& Drift

## Fig. Simplified physical structure of

the junction diode.

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REVERSE-BIAS PN JUNCTION
The pn junction excited by a constant-current source I in the
reverse direction. To avoid breakdown, I is kept smaller than
Is. Note that the depletion layer widens and the barrier
voltage increases by Vr volts, which appears between the
terminals as a reverse voltage.

Reverse

Bias:

of voltage,

IS ID I
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## When the pn junction is

excited by a constantcurrent source supplying
a current I in the
forward direction:
The depletion layer
narrows and the barrier
voltage decreases by V
volts, which appears as
an external voltage in
the forward direction.

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## Fig. Minority-carrier distribution in a forward-biased pn junction. It is

assumed that the p region is more heavily doped than the n region;
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MODELING

Approximate

the
diode forward
characteristic with
two straight lines.

Fig. 3.20

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APPROXIMATION

Diode

Is nonlinear

## Fig. Piecewise-linear model of the diode forward

characteristic and its equivalent circuit representation.
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## CONSTANT VOLTAGE DROP MODEL

Development

of

the constantvoltage-drop
model of the
diode forward
characteristics.

vertical straight
line B is used to
approximate the
fast-rising
exponential

## Fig. Development of the constant-voltage-drop

model of the diode forward characteristics. A
vertical straight line B is used to approximate the
fast-rising exponential.

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## Fig. The constant-voltage-drop model of the diode forward

characteristic and its equivalent circuit representation.

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## Fig. Development of the diode small-signal model.

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Fig. Equivalent circuit model for the diode for small changes around
bias point Q. The incremental resistance rd is the inverse of the slope
of the tangent at Q, and VD0 is the intercept of the tangent on the VD
axis.
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Fig. The analysis of the circuit in (a), which contains both dc and signal
quantities, can be performed by replacing the diode with the model shown in
(b). This allows separating the dc analysis [the circuit in (c)] from the signal
analysis [the circuit in (d)].
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## Fig. The diode i-v characteristic with the

breakdown region shown in some detail.
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## Fig. Block diagram of a dc power supply.

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Fig. (a) Half-wave rectifier. (b) Equivalent circuit of the half-wave rectifier with the
diode replaced with its battery-plus-resistance model. (c) transfer characteristic of the
rectifier circuit. (d) Input and output waveforms, assuming that rD || R.

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## Fig. Full-wave rectifier utilizing a transformer with a center-tapped secondary

winding. (a) Circuit. (b) Transfer characteristic assuming a constant-voltagedrop model for the diodes. (c) Input and output waveforms.

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Fig. The bridge rectifier: (a) circuit and (b) input and output
waveforms.

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Fig. Voltage and current waveforms in the peak rectifier circuit with
CR at T. The diode is assumed ideal.
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## Fig. A simplified structure of the n-p-n transistor.

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BJT - DC Biasing
Transistor magical device that can rise the
level of the applied input
without the assistance of an
external energy source
FACT:
Output ac power level is the result of a transfer of
energy from the applied dc supplies

## The analysis or design of any electronic amplifier has

two components: DC portion, AC portion

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BJT - DC Biasing
Once the desired DC current and voltage levels have
been defined, a network must be constructed that will
establish the desired operating point.
These basic relationships are needed for analysis

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