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Chapter 1:

About Science

What Science Is

Scientific Measurements

MathematicsThe Language of Science

Scientific Methods

The Scientific Attitude

Science, Art, and Religion

Science and Technology

PhysicsThe Basic Science

What Science Is

Science

is a body of knowledge.

is an ongoing human activity.

has beginnings that precede recorded history.

Scientific Measurements

Measurements are a hallmark of good science.

"I often say that when you can measure

something and express it in numbers, you know

something about it. When you cannot measure

it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your

knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory

kind. It may be the beginning of knowledge, but

you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to

the stage of science, whatever it may be."

Lord Kelvin

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Scientific Measurements

Measurements

relate to how much you know

about something.

of pinhole images of the Sun

nicely lead to a calculation

of the Sun's diameter.

Scientific Measurements

shaped during a partial solar eclipse.

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EratosthenesDiameter of Earth

AristarchusDistance and Size of the Moon

Integration of science and mathematics

Occurred some four centuries ago.

Ideas of science are unambiguous when

expressed in mathematical terms.

Equations of science provide expressions of

relationships between concepts

Equations are "guides to thinking."

Scientific Methods

There is no one scientific method.

In general, scientific methods refer to principles

and procedures for the systematic pursuit of

knowledge involving the recognition and

formulation of a problem, the collection of data

through observation and experiment, and the

formulation and testing of hypotheses.

1. Recognize a question, a puzzle, or an

unexplained fact.

2. Make a hypothesis (educated guess) to resolve

the puzzle.

3. Predict consequences of the hypothesis.

4. Perform experiments or make calculations to

test the predictions.

5. Formulate the simplest general rule that

organizes the three main steps.

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The scientific attitude is one of

inquiry.

experimentation.

willingness to admit error.

Scientists

are experts at changing their minds.

must accept experimental findings

test for erroneous beliefs

understand objections and positions of

antagonists.

Fact is a close

agreement by competent

observers who make a

series of observations

about the same

phenomenon.

A scientific hypothesis is

an educated guess that is

only presumed to be

factual until supported by

experiment.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Which of these is a scientific hypothesis?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Atomic nuclei are the smallest particles in nature.

A magnet will pick up a copper penny.

Cosmic rays cannot penetrate the thickness of your

Conceptual Physics textbook.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Which of these is a scientific hypothesis?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Atomic nuclei are the smallest particles in nature.

A magnet will pick up a copper penny.

Cosmic rays cannot penetrate the thickness of your

Conceptual Physics textbook.

Explanation:

All are scientific hypotheses!

All have tests for proving wrongness, so they pass the test of being a

scientific hypothesis.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Which of these is not a scientific hypothesis?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Undetectable particles are some of nature's secrets.

Charged particles bend when in a magnetic field.

All of the above are scientific hypotheses.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Which of these is not a scientific hypothesis?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Undetectable particles are some of nature's secrets.

Charged particles bend when in a magnetic field.

All of the above are scientific hypotheses.

Explanation:

Choices A and C can be disproved by experiments.

Choice B has no test for wrongness, so it is not a scientific

hypothesis.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Law or principle

A hypothesis that has been tested repeatedly

and has not been contradicted

Theory

A synthesis of a large body of information that

encompasses well-tested and verified

hypotheses about certain aspects of the

natural world

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Which of these often changes over time with further study?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Facts.

Theories.

Both of the above.

Neither of the above.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Which of these often changes over time with further study?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Facts.

Theories.

Both of the above.

Neither of the above.

Explanation:

Both can change. As we learn new information, we refine

our ideas; likewise in science.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A person who says, "that's only a theory" likely doesn't know

that a scientific theory is a

A.

B.

C.

D.

guess.

number of facts.

hypothesis of sorts.

vast synthesis of well-tested hypotheses and facts.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A person who says, "that's only a theory" likely doesn't know

that a scientific theory is a

A.

B.

C.

D.

guess.

number of facts.

hypothesis of sorts.

vast synthesis of well-tested hypotheses and facts.

Explanation:

The word "theory" in everyday speech is different than its use in science.

In science, only a vast, experimentally verifiable body of knowledge is a

theory.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Comparison of science, art, and religion by

domain:

Science is of the natural order and involves

the discovery and recording of natural

phenomena.

Art is the interpretation and expression of

human experience.

Religion involves faith and worship of a

supreme being.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Similarities between art and in science

Knowledge of what is possible in human

experience and in nature.

Knowledge of both affects our views and

decisions about the world.

Similarities between religion and in science

Both deal with unanswered questions.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Between a pilot and a priest, who do you think should fly a commercial

jet airplane? Who should perform a marriage? (Although the questions

are no-brainers, they have a point.)

A.

B.

C.

D.

The pilot should fly and the priest should perform a marriage.

The priest should fly and the pilot should perform a marriage.

The pilot should do both.

The priest should do both.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Between a pilot and a priest, who do you think should fly a commercial

jet airplane? Who should perform a marriage? (Although the questions

are no-brainers, they have a point.)

A.

B.

C.

D.

The pilot should fly and the priest should perform a marriage.

The priest should fly and the pilot should perform a marriage.

The pilot should do both.

The priest should do both.

Explanation:

The pilot and priest have different skills for different tasks, and each

can do their thing well.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Science is concerned with gathering and

organizing knowledge.

Technology is the use of scientific knowledge for

practical purposes and to provide tools for

further exploration.

Physical sciences include geology, astronomy,

chemistry, and physics.

Life sciences include biology, zoology, and

botany.

Physics underlies all the sciences.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Although physics may be the most difficult science course in certain

schools, when compared with the fields of chemistry, biology, geology,

and astronomy, it is

A.

B.

C.

D.

the simplest.

still the hardest!

the central science, between chemistry and biology.

simple enough, but only for especially intelligent people.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Although physics may be the most difficult science course in certain

schools, when compared with the fields of chemistry, biology, geology,

and astronomy, it is

A.

B.

C.

D.

the simplest.

still the hardest!

the central science, between chemistry and biology.

simple enough, but only for especially intelligent people.

Explanation:

Your physics text has fewer terms than biology or chemistry texts.

Physics is a much more basic science than other fields.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline

Chapter 2:

Newton's

First Law of

MotionInertia

Galileo's Concept of Inertia

Newton's First Law of Motion

Net Force and Vectors

The Equilibrium Rule

Support Force

Equilibrium of Moving Things

The Moving Earth

Aristotle's classification of motion

Natural motion

Every object in the universe has a proper

place determined by a combination of four

elements: earth, water, air, and fire.

Any object not in its proper place will strive to

get there.

Examples:

Stones fall.

Puffs of smoke rise.

Natural motion (continued)

Straight up or straight down for all things on Earth

Beyond Earth, motion is circular

Example: The Sun and Moon continually circle Earth.

Violent motion

Produced by external pushes or pulls on objects

Example: Wind imposes motion on ships.

Galileo demolished Aristotle's

assertions in the 1500s.

Galileo's discovery:

Objects of different weight fall

to the ground at the same time

in the absence of air

resistance.

A moving object needs no

force to keep it moving in the

absence of friction.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Force

is a push or a pull.

Inertia

is a property of matter to resist changes in

motion.

depends on the amount of matter in an object

(its mass).

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Balls rolling on downward-sloping

planes pick up speed.

Balls rolling on upward-sloping

planes lose speed.

So a ball on a horizontal plane

maintains its speed indefinitely.

If the ball comes to rest, it is not

due to its "nature," but due to

friction.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

The use of inclined planes for Galileo's experiments helped

him to

A.

B.

C.

D.

discover the concept of energy.

discover the property called inertia.

discover the concept of momentum

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

The use of inclined planes for Galileo's experiments helped

him to

A.

B.

C.

D.

discover the concept of energy.

discover the property called inertia.

discover the concept of momentum.

Comment:

Note that inertia is a property of matter, not a reason for the

behavior of matter.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Every object continues in a state of rest or of

uniform speed in a straight line unless acted on

by a nonzero net force.

Net Force

Vector quantity

a quantity whose description requires both

magnitude (how much) and direction (which

way)

can be represented by arrows drawn to scale,

called vectors

length of arrow represents magnitude and

arrowhead shows direction

Examples: force, velocity, acceleration

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Net Force

Net force is the combination of all forces that act

on an object.

Example: Two 5-N pulls in the same direction

produce a 10-N pull (net force of 10 N). If the

pair of 5-N pulls are in opposite directions,

the net force is zero.

Net Force

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A cart is pulled to the right with a force of 15 N

while being pulled to the left with a force of 20 N.

The net force on the cart is

A.

B.

C.

D.

5 N to the left.

5 N to the right.

25 N to the left.

25 N to the right.

Net Force

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A cart is pulled to the right with a force of 15 N

while being pulled to the left with a force of 20 N.

The net force on the cart is

A.

B.

C.

D.

5 N to the left.

5 N to the right.

25 N to the left.

25 N to the right.

directions, so they subtract.

The direction is determined by

the direction of the larger force.

Net Force

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

What is the net force acting on the box?

A.

B.

C.

D.

15 N to the left

15 N to the right

5 N to the left

5 N to the right

?

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Net Force

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

What is the net force acting on the box?

A.

B.

C.

D.

15 N to the left

15 N to the right

5 N to the left

5 N to the right

Vectors

Vector quantity

has magnitude and direction.

is represented by an arrow.

Example: velocity, force, acceleration

Scalar quantity

has magnitude.

Example: mass, volume, speed

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Vectors

Resultant

The sum of two or more vectors

For vectors in the same direction, add arithmetically.

For vectors in opposite directions, subtract

arithmetically.

Two vectors that don't act in the same or opposite

direction:

use parallelogram rule.

use Pythagorean Theorem: R2 = V2 + H2.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Vectors

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Referring to the figure, which of the following are true

statements?

A. 50 N is the resultant of the 30- and the 40-N vectors.

B. The 30-N vector can be considered a component of the

50-N vector.

C. The 40-N vector can be considered

a component of the 50-N vector.

D. All of the above are correct.

Vectors

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Referring to the figure, which of the following are true

statements?

A. 50 N is the resultant of the 30- and the 40-N vectors.

B. The 30-N vector can be considered a component of the

50-N vector.

C. The 40-N vector can be considered

a component of the 50-N vector.

D. All of the above are correct.

Vectors

Nellie Newton hangs from a rope

as shown.

Which side has the greater tension?

There are three forces acting on

Nellie:

her weight, mg,

a tension in the left-hand side of

the rope,

and a tension in the right-hand

side of the rope.

Vectors

Because of the different angles, different rope tensions will occur in

each side.

Nellie hangs in equilibrium, so her weight is supported by two rope

tensions, adding vectorially to be equal and opposite to her weight.

The parallelogram rule shows that the tension in the right-hand is

greater than the tension in the left-hand side of the rope.

A string holding up a bag of flour

Two forces act on the bag of flour:

Tension force in string acts

upward.

Force due to gravity acts

downward.

Both are equal in magnitude and

opposite in direction.

When added, they cancel to zero.

So, the bag of flour remains at

rest.

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The vector sum of forces acting on a

nonaccelerating object equals zero.

In equation form: F = 0.

The red arrows represent force vectors. The sum of the two upward

force vectors minus the sum of the three bottom force vectors,

equals zero. We say the forces cancel to zero, and the system of

Burl, Paul, and the staging is in equilibrium.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

The equilibrium rule, F = 0, applies to

A.

B.

C.

D.

vector quantities.

scalar quantities.

Both of the above.

None of the above.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

The equilibrium rule, F = 0, applies to

A.

B.

C.

D.

vector quantities.

scalar quantities.

Both of the above.

None of the above.

Explanation:

Vector addition accounts for + and quantities. So,

two vectors in opposite directions can add to zero.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Support Force

Support force (normal force) is an upward force

on an object that is opposite to the force of

gravity.

atoms in the table, and the compressed

atoms produce the support force.

When you push down on a

spring, the spring pushes

back up on you.

pushes down on a table,

the table pushes back up

on the book.

Support Force

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When you stand on two bathroom scales with one foot on each scale

and with your weight evenly distributed, each scale will read

A.

B.

C.

D.

your weight.

half your weight.

zero.

more than your weight.

Support Force

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When you stand on two bathroom scales with one foot on each scale

and with your weight evenly distributed, each scale will read

A.

B.

C.

D.

your weight.

half your weight.

zero.

more than your weight.

Explanation:

You are at rest, so F = 0.

Forces from both scales add to cancel your weight.

Force from each scale is one-half your weight.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Equilibrium: a state of no change with no net

force acting

Static equilibrium

Example: hockey puck at rest on slippery ice

Dynamic equilibrium

Example: hockey puck sliding at constant

speed on slippery ice

Equilibrium test: whether something undergoes

change in motion

Example: A crate at rest is in static

equilibrium (no change in motion).

Example: When pushed at a steady speed, it

is in dynamic equilibrium (no change in

motion).

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A bowling ball is in equilibrium when it

A.

B.

C.

D.

is at rest.

moves steadily in a straight-line path.

Both of the above.

None of the above.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A bowling ball is in equilibrium when it

A.

B.

C.

D.

is at rest.

moves steadily in a straight-line path.

Both of the above.

None of the above.

Explanation:

Equilibrium means no change in motion, so there are two

options:

If at rest, it continues at rest.

If in motion, it continues at a steady rate in a straight line.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

You push a crate at a steady speed in a straight line. If the

friction force is 75 N, how much force must you apply?

A.

B.

C.

D.

More than 75 N.

Less than 75 N.

Equal to 75 N.

Not enough information.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

You push a crate at a steady speed in a straight line. If the

friction force is 75 N, how much force must you apply?

A.

B.

C.

D.

More than 75 N.

Less than 75 N.

Equal to 75 N.

Not enough information.

Explanation:

The crate is in dynamic equilibrium, so, F = 0.

Your applied force balances the force of friction.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copernicus proposed that Earth

was moving, circulating the Sun.

This idea was refuted by people.

Example: If Earth moved, how

could a bird swoop from a

branch to catch a worm?

Solution: As it swoops, due to

inertia, it continues to move

sideways at the speed of Earth

along with the tree, worm, etc.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

You are riding in a vehicle at a steady speed and toss a

coin straight upward. Where will the coin land?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Behind you.

Ahead of you.

In your hand.

There is not enough information.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

You are riding in a vehicle at a steady speed and toss a

coin straight upward. Where will the coin land?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Behind you.

Ahead of you.

In your hand.

There is not enough information.

Explanation:

Due to the coin's inertia, it continues sideways with the

same speed as the vehicle in its up-and-down motion,

which is why it lands in your hand.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline

Chapter 3:

Linear Motion

Motion Is Relative

Speed

Velocity

Acceleration

Free Fall

Velocity Vectors

Motion Is Relative

Motion of objects is always described as relative

to something else. For example:

You walk on the road

relative to Earth, but

Earth is moving relative

to the Sun.

So your motion relative

to the Sun is different from

your motion relative to Earth.

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Speed

Defined as the distance covered per amount of

travel time.

Units are meters per second.

In equation form:

distance

Speed =

time

Example: A girl runs 4 meters in 2 s. Her speed

is 2 m/s.

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Average Speed

The total distance covered divided by the total

travel time.

Doesn't indicate various instantaneous

speeds along the way.

In equation form:

total distance covered

Average speed

time interval

your average speed is 100 km/h.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Average Speed

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

The average speed of driving 30 km in 1 hour is the same as the

average speed of driving

A.

B.

C.

D.

30 km in 1/2 hour.

30 km in 2 hours.

60 km in 1/2 hour.

60 km in 2 hours.

Average Speed

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

The average speed of driving 30 km in 1 hour is the same as the

average speed of driving

A.

B.

C.

D.

30 km in 1/2 hour.

30 km in 2 hours.

60 km in 1/2 hour.

60 km in 2 hours.

Explanation:

Average speed = total distance / time

So, average speed = 30 km / 1 h = 30 km/h.

Now, if we drive 60 km in 2 hours:

Average speed = 60 km / 2 h = 30 km/h

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Same

Instantaneous Speed

Instantaneous speed is the speed at any instant.

Example:

When you ride in your car, you may speed up

and slow down with speed at any instant that

is normally quite different than your average

speed.

Your instantaneous speed is given by your

speedometer.

Velocity

A description of both

the instantaneous speed of the object.

the direction of travel.

Velocity is a vector quantity. It has

Magnitude (speed) and Direction.

Velocity is "directed" speed.

Constant speed is steady speed, neither

speeding up nor slowing down.

Constant velocity is

constant speed and

constant direction (straight-line path with no

acceleration).

Motion is relative to Earth, unless otherwise

stated.

Acceleration

Formulated by Galileo based on

his experiments with inclined

planes.

Rate at which velocity changes

over time.

Acceleration

Involves a

change in speed, or

change in direction, or

both.

Example: Car making a turn.

Acceleration

In equation form:

Acceleration =

change in velocity

time interval

Example:

Your car's speed may presently be 40 km/h.

Your car's speed 5 s later is 45 km/h.

Your car's change in speed is 45 40 = 5 km/h.

Your car's acceleration is 5 km/h5 s = 1 km/hs.

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Acceleration

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

An automobile is accelerating when it is

A.

B.

C.

D.

rounding a curve at a steady speed.

Both of the above.

Neither of the above.

Acceleration

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

An automobile is accelerating when it is

A.

B.

C.

D.

rounding a curve at a steady speed.

Both of the above.

Neither of the above.

Explanation:

Change in speed (increase or decrease) per time is acceleration, so

slowing is acceleration.

Change in direction is acceleration (even if speed stays the same),

so rounding a curve is acceleration.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Acceleration

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Acceleration and velocity are actually

A.

B.

C.

D.

the same.

rates but for different quantities.

the same when direction is not a factor.

the same when an object is freely falling.

Acceleration

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Acceleration and velocity are actually

A.

B.

C.

D.

the same.

rates but for different quantities.

the same when direction is not a factor.

the same when an object is freely falling.

Explanation:

Velocity is the rate at which distance traveled changes over time,

Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes over time.

Acceleration

Galileo increased the inclination of inclined planes.

Steeper inclines result in greater accelerations.

When the incline is vertical, acceleration is at

maximum, the same as that of a falling object.

When air resistance is negligible, all objects fall with

the same unchanging acceleration.

Free Fall

Falling under the influence of gravity only-with

no air resistance

Freely falling objects on Earth accelerate at the

rate of 10 m/ss, that is, 10 m/s2 (more precisely,

9.8 m/s2).

The velocity acquired by an object

starting from rest is

Velocity = acceleration time

So, under free fall, when

acceleration is 10 m/s2, the speed is

10 m/s after 1 s.

20 m/s after 2 s.

30 m/s after 3 s.

And so on.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

At a particular instant a free-falling object has a speed of

30 m/s. Exactly 1 s later its speed will be

A.

B.

C.

D.

the same.

35 m/s.

more than 35 m/s.

60 m/s.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

At a particular instant a free-falling object has a speed of

30 m/s. Exactly 1 s later its speed will be

A.

B.

C.

D.

the same.

35 m/s.

more than 35 m/s.

60 m/s.

Explanation:

One second later its speed will be 40 m/s, which is more

than 35 m/s.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

The distance covered by an accelerating object

starting from rest is

Distance = (1/2) acceleration time time

Under free fall, when acceleration is 10 m/s2, the

distance fallen is

5 m/s after 1 s.

20 m/s after 2 s.

45 m/s after 3 s.

And so on.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

What is the distance fallen after 4 s for a freely falling object starting

from rest?

A.

B.

C.

D.

4m

16 m

40 m

80 m

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

What is the distance fallen after 4 s for a freely falling object starting

from rest?

A.

B.

C.

D.

4m

16 m

40 m

80 m

Explanation:

Distance = (1/2) acceleration time time

So:

Distance = (1/2) 10 m/s2 4 s 4 s

So:

Distance = 80 m

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Vectors

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

The 60-km/h crosswind blows the 80-km/h airplane off

course at 100 km/h. If the crosswind were 80 km/h, the

airplane would travel at 113 km/h at an angle of

A.

B.

C.

D.

45 degrees.

more than 45 degrees.

None of the above are correct.

Vectors

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

The 60-km/h crosswind blows the 80-km/h airplane off

course at 100 km/h. If the crosswind were 80 km/h, the

airplane would travel at 113 km/h at an angle of

A.

B.

C.

D.

45 degrees.

more than 45 degrees.

None of the above are correct.

Comment:

The parallelogram would then be a square with a 45-degree diagonal.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Vectors

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

You run horizontally at 4 m/s in a vertically falling rain that falls at 4 m/s.

Relative to you, the raindrops are falling at an angle of

A.

B.

C.

D.

0.

45.

53.

90.

Vectors

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

You run horizontally at 4 m/s in a vertically falling rain that falls at 4 m/s.

Relative to you, the raindrops are falling at an angle of

A.

B.

C.

D.

0.

45.

53.

90.

Explanation:

The horizontal 4 m/s and vertical 4 m/s combine by the parallelogram

rule to produce a resultant of 5.6 m/s at 45. Again, the parallelogram is

a square.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline

Chapter 4:

Newton's Second

Law of Motion

Friction

Mass and Weight

Newton's Second Law of Motion

Free Fall

Nonfree Fall

Acceleration is directly proportional to net force.

To increase the acceleration of an object,

increase the net force acting on it.

Depends on the kinds of material and how much they

are pressed together.

Is due to tiny surface bumps and to "stickiness" of the

atoms on a material's surface.

floor is less than that on a rough floor.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

The force of friction can occur

A.

B.

C.

D.

in water.

in air.

All of the above.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

The force of friction can occur

A.

B.

C.

D.

in water.

in air.

All of the above.

Comment:

Friction can also occur for objects at rest. If you push horizontally on

your book and it doesn't move, then friction between the book and the

table is equal and opposite to your push.

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When Sanjay pushes a refrigerator across a kitchen floor at

a constant speed, the force of friction between the

refrigerator and the floor is

A.

B.

C.

D.

equal to Sanjay's push.

equal and opposite to Sanjay's push.

more than Sanjay's push.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When Sanjay pushes a refrigerator across a kitchen floor at

a constant speed, the force of friction between the

refrigerator and the floor is

A.

B.

C.

D.

equal to Sanjay's push.

equal and opposite to Sanjay's push.

more than Sanjay's push.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When Sanjay pushes a refrigerator across a kitchen floor at an

increasing speed, the amount of friction between the refrigerator and

the floor is

A.

B.

C.

D.

equal to Sanjay's push.

equal and opposite to Sanjay's push.

more than Sanjay's push.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When Sanjay pushes a refrigerator across a kitchen floor at an

increasing speed, the amount of friction between the refrigerator and

the floor is

A.

B.

C.

D.

equal to Sanjay's push.

equal and opposite to Sanjay's push.

more than Sanjay's push.

Explanation:

The increasing speed indicates a net force greater than zero.

The refrigerator is not in equilibrium.

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Mass: The quantity of matter in an object. It is

also the measure of the inertia or sluggishness

that an object exhibits in response to any effort

made to start it, stop it, or change its state of

motion in any way.

Weight: Usually the force upon an object due to

gravity.

Mass

A measure of the inertia of a material object

Independent of gravity Greater inertia greater mass

Unit of measurement is the kilogram (kg)

Weight

Usually the force on an object due to gravity

Scientific unit of force is the newton (N)

Unit is also the pound (lb)

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

If the mass of an object is halved, the weight of the object

is

A.

B.

C.

D.

halved.

twice.

depends on location.

None of the above.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

If the mass of an object is halved, the weight of the object

is

A.

B.

C.

D.

halved.

twice.

depends on location.

None of the above.

Comment:

Weight and mass are directly proportional to each other.

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Mass and weight in everyday conversation are

interchangeable.

Mass, however, is different and more fundamental than

weight.

Mass versus weight

On the Moon and Earth:

Weight of an object on the Moon

is less than on Earth.

Mass of an object is the same

in both locations.

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1 kilogram weighs 10 newtons (9.8 newtons, to

be precise).

Relationship between kilograms and pounds:

1 kg = 2.2 lb = 10 N at Earth's surface

1 lb = 4.45 N

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When the string is pulled down slowly, the top string

breaks, which best illustrates the

A.

B.

C.

D.

mass of the ball.

volume of the ball.

density of the ball.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When the string is pulled down slowly, the top string

breaks, which best illustrates the

A.

B.

C.

D.

mass of the ball.

volume of the ball.

density of the ball.

Explanation:

Tension in the top string is the pulling tension plus the

weight of the ball, both of which break the top string.

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When the string is pulled down quickly, the bottom string

breaks, which best illustrates the

A.

B.

C.

D.

mass of the ball.

volume of the ball.

density of the ball.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When the string is pulled down quickly, the bottom string

breaks, which best illustrates the

A.

B.

C.

D.

mass of the ball.

volume of the ball.

density of the ball.

Explanation:

It is the "laziness" of the ball that tends to keep it at rest,

resulting in the breaking of the bottom string.

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The same force applied to

twice the mass produces half the acceleration.

3 times the mass, produces 1/3 the

acceleration.

1

Acceleration ~

mass

Acceleration is inversely proportional to mass.

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Isaac Newton was the first to connect the

concepts of force and mass to produce

acceleration.

Newton's second law (the law of acceleration)

relates acceleration and force.

The acceleration produced by a net force on

an object is directly proportional to the net

force, is in the same direction as the net

force, and is inversely proportional to the

mass of the object.

In equation form:

Acceleration

net force

mass

Example:

If net force acting on object is doubled

object's acceleration will be doubled.

If mass of object is doubled

object's acceleration will be halved.

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Consider a cart pushed along a track with a certain force. If the force

remains the same while the mass of the cart decreases to half, the

acceleration of the cart

A.

B.

C.

D.

halves.

doubles.

changes unpredictably.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Consider a cart pushed along a track with a certain force. If the force

remains the same while the mass of the cart decreases to half, the

acceleration of the cart

A.

B.

C.

D.

halves.

doubles.

changes unpredictably.

Explanation:

Acceleration = net force / mass

Because, mass is in the denominator, acceleration increases as mass

decreases. So, if mass is halved, acceleration doubles.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Push a cart along a track so twice as much net force acts on it. If the

acceleration remains the same, what is a reasonable explanation?

A.

B.

C.

D.

The cart experiences a force that it didn't before.

The track is not level.

Friction reversed direction.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Push a cart along a track so twice as much net force acts on it. If the

acceleration remains the same, what is a reasonable explanation?

A.

B.

C.

D.

The cart experiences a force that it didn't before.

The track is not level.

Friction reversed direction.

Explanation:

Acceleration = net force / mass

If force doubles, acceleration will also double. But it does not, so mass

must also double to cancel the effects of force doubling.

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Free Fall

The greater the mass of the object

the greater its force of attraction toward

the Earth.

the smaller its tendency to move, that

is, the greater its inertia.

So, acceleration of both sets of bricks

is the same. (Twice the force on twice

the mass gives the same acceleration

g!)

The acceleration of both sets of bricks

is the same, 10 m/s2 (more precisely,

9.8 m/s2).

Free Fall

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

At one instant, an object in free fall has a speed of 40 m/s.

Its speed 1 second later is

A.

B.

C.

D.

also 40 m/s.

45 m/s.

50 m/s.

None of the above.

Free Fall

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

At one instant, an object in free fall has a speed of 40 m/s.

Its speed 1 second later is

A.

B.

C.

D.

also 40 m/s.

45 m/s.

50 m/s.

None of the above.

Comment:

We assume the object is falling downward. If it were traveling upward

with no force on it but gravity, it would nevertheless be in "free fall."

Then 1 second later its speed would be 30 m/s.

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Free Fall

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A 5-kg iron ball and a 10-kg iron ball are dropped

from rest. For negligible air resistance, the

acceleration of the heavier ball will be

A.

B.

C.

D.

less.

the same.

more.

undetermined.

Free Fall

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A 5-kg iron ball and a 10-kg iron ball are dropped

from rest. For negligible air resistance, the

acceleration of the heavier ball will be

A.

B.

C.

D.

less.

the same.

more.

undetermined.

Free Fall

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A 5-kg iron ball and a 10-kg iron ball are dropped from rest.

When the free-falling 5-kg ball reaches a speed of 10 m/s,

the speed of the free-falling 10-kg ball is

A.

B.

C.

D.

10 m/s.

more than 10 m/s.

undetermined.

Free Fall

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A 5-kg iron ball and a 10-kg iron ball are dropped from rest.

When the free-falling 5-kg ball reaches a speed of 10 m/s,

the speed of the free-falling 10-kg ball is

A.

B.

C.

D.

10 m/s.

more than 10 m/s.

undetermined.

Comment:

Note both are in "free fall." Hence their equal speeds.

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Nonfree Fall

When an object falls downward through the air it

experiences

force of gravity pulling it downward.

air drag force acting upward.

Nonfree Fall

The condition of nonfree fall

occurs when air resistance is nonnegligible.

depends on two things:

speed and

frontal surface area.

Nonfree Fall

When the object is moving fast enough so that

air resistance builds up to equal the force of

gravity.

No acceleration

Velocity does not change

Nonfree Fall

Terminal speed

occurs when acceleration terminates (when

air resistance equals weight and net force is

zero).

Terminal velocity

same as terminal speed, with direction

implied or specified.

Nonfree FallExample

A skydiver in fall after jumping from a plane.

Weight and air resistance act on the falling

object.

As falling speed increases, air resistance on

diver builds up, net force is reduced, and

acceleration becomes less.

When air resistance equals the diver's weight,

net force is zero and acceleration terminates.

Diver reaches terminal velocity, then continues

the fall at constant speed.

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Nonfree Fall

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When a 20-N falling object encounters 5 N of air

resistance, its acceleration of fall is

A.

B.

C.

D.

less than g.

more than g.

g.

terminated.

Nonfree Fall

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When a 20-N falling object encounters 5 N of air

resistance, its acceleration of fall is

A.

B.

C.

D.

less than g.

more than g.

g.

terminated.

Comment:

Acceleration of a nonfree fall is always less than g.

Acceleration will actually be (20 N 5 N)/2 kg = 7.5 m/s2.

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Nonfree Fall

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

If a 50-N person is to fall at terminal speed, the air

resistance needed is

A.

B.

C.

D.

less than 50 N.

50 N.

more than 50 N.

None of the above.

Nonfree Fall

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

If a 50-N person is to fall at terminal speed, the air

resistance needed is

A.

B.

C.

D.

less than 50 N.

50 N.

more than 50 N.

None of the above.

Explanation:

Then, F = 0 and acceleration = 0.

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Nonfree Fall

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

As the skydiver falls faster and faster through the

air, air resistance

A.

B.

C.

D.

increases.

decreases.

remains the same.

Not enough information.

Nonfree Fall

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

As the skydiver falls faster and faster through the

air, air resistance

A.

B.

C.

D.

increases.

decreases.

remains the same.

Not enough information.

Nonfree Fall

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

As the skydiver continues to fall faster and faster

through the air, net force

A.

B.

C.

D.

increases.

decreases.

remains the same.

Not enough information.

Nonfree Fall

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

As the skydiver continues to fall faster and faster

through the air, net force

A.

B.

C.

D.

increases.

decreases.

remains the same.

Not enough information.

Nonfree Fall

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

As the skydiver continues to fall faster and faster through

the air, her acceleration

A.

B.

C.

D.

increases.

decreases.

remains the same.

Not enough information.

Nonfree Fall

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

As the skydiver continues to fall faster and faster through

the air, her acceleration

A.

B.

C.

D.

increases.

decreases.

remains the same.

Not enough information.

Comment:

If this question were asked first in the sequence of skydiver questions,

many would answer it incorrectly. Would this have been you?

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Nonfree Fall

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Consider a heavy and a light person jumping together with same-size

parachutes from the same altitude. Who will reach the ground first?

A.

B.

C.

D.

The heavy person

Both will reach at the same time.

Not enough information.

Nonfree Fall

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Consider a heavy and a light person jumping together with same-size

parachutes from the same altitude. Who will reach the ground first?

A.

B.

C.

D.

The heavy person

Both will reach at the same time.

Not enough information.

Explanation:

They both have the same drag force (for the same speed).

The heavier person has a greater downward force than the lighter person.

The heavier one has to drop farther to receive a drag force equal to the

downward force, and so has a higher terminal velocity.

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Coin and feather fall while air is present

Feather reaches terminal velocity very

quickly and falls slowly at constant

speed, reaching the bottom after the

coin does.

Coin falls very quickly and air resistance

doesn't build up to its weight over

short-falling distances, which is why

the coin hits the bottom much sooner

than the falling feather.

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Nonfree Fall

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When the air is removed by a vacuum pump and the coin

and feather activity is repeated,

A.

B.

C.

D.

the feather hits the bottom first, before the coin hits.

the coin hits the bottom first, before the feather hits.

both the coin and feather drop together side by side.

Not enough information.

Nonfree Fall

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When the air is removed by a vacuum pump and the coin

and feather activity is repeated,

A.

B.

C.

D.

the feather hits the bottom first, before the coin hits.

the coin hits the bottom first, before the feather hits.

both the coin and feather drop together side by side.

Not enough information.

Coin and feather fall in vacuum

There is no air, because it is vacuum.

So, no air resistance.

Coin and feather fall together.

Lecture Outline

Chapter 5:

Newton's Third

Law of Motion

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Vectors and the Third Law

Summary of Newton's Three Laws of Motion

Interaction

is between one thing and another.

requires a pair of forces acting on two objects.

Example: interaction of hand and

wall pushing on each other

Force pairyou push on

wall; wall pushes on you.

Whenever one object

exerts a force on a second

object, the second object

exerts an equal and

opposite force on the first.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A soccer player kicks a ball with 1500 N of force.

The ball exerts a reaction force against the

player's foot of

A.

B.

C.

D.

1500 N.

somewhat more than 1500 N.

None of the above.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A soccer player kicks a ball with 1500 N of force.

The ball exerts a reaction force against the

player's foot of

A.

B.

C.

D.

1500 N.

somewhat more than 1500 N.

None of the above.

Action and reaction forces

one force is called the action force; the other

force is called the reaction force.

are co-pairs of a single interaction.

neither force exists without the other.

are equal in strength and opposite in direction.

always act on different objects.

Re-expression of Newton's third law:

To every action there is always an opposed

equal reaction.

Example: Tires of car push back against the

road while the road pushes the tires

forward.

Simple rule to identify action and reaction

Identify the interactionone thing interacts

with another

Action: Object A exerts a force on object B.

Reaction: Object B exerts a force on object A.

Example: Actionrocket (object A) exerts force on

gas (object B).

Reactiongas (object B) exerts force on

rocket (object A).

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When you step off a curb, Earth pulls you

downward. The reaction to this force is

A.

B.

C.

D.

nonexistent in this case.

you pulling Earth upward.

None of the above.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When you step off a curb, Earth pulls you

downward. The reaction to this force is

A.

B.

C.

D.

nonexistent in this case.

you pulling Earth upward.

None of the above.

Comment:

Due to the enormous mass of Earth, don't look for evidence

of the upward pull on Earth!

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When you step off a curb, Earth pulls you downward and you pull Earth

upward. Why do you not sense Earth moving upward toward you?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Earth can move, but other objects on it prevent it from moving.

It moves, but by an imperceptible amount.

None of the above.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When you step off a curb, Earth pulls you downward and you pull Earth

upward. Why do you not sense Earth moving upward toward you?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Earth can move, but other objects on it prevent it from moving.

It moves, but by an imperceptible amount.

None of the above.

Explanation:

The force you exert on Earth is just as much as the force Earth exerts

on you. You move more than Earth does because Earth's mass is

enormously greater than your mass. Earth's tiny motion is less than you

can perceive. (Can you accept what you can't see?)

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Action and Reaction on Different Masses

Cannonball: F = a

m

Cannon: F = a

produces a large acceleration.

The same force exerted on a large mass

produces a small acceleration.

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When a cannon is fired, the accelerations of the cannon

and cannonball are different because the

A. forces don't occur at the same time.

B. forces, although theoretically the same, in practice are

not.

C. masses are different.

D. ratios of force to mass are the same.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When a cannon is fired, the accelerations of the cannon

and cannonball are different because the

A. forces don't occur at the same time.

B. forces, although theoretically the same, in practice are

not.

C. masses are different.

D. ratios of force to mass are the same.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Consider a high-speed bus colliding head-on with a flying bug. The

force of impact splatters the unfortunate bug over the windshield.

Which is greater, the force on the bug or the force on the bus?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Bug

Bus

Both the same amount.

Cannot say

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Consider a high-speed bus colliding head-on with a flying bug. The

force of impact splatters the unfortunate bug over the windshield.

Which is greater, the force on the bug or the force on the bus?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Bug

Bus

Both the same amount.

Cannot say

Comment:

Although the forces are equal in magnitude, the effects are very

different. Do you know why?

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Two people of equal mass on slippery ice push off from each other. Will

both move at the same speed in opposite directions?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Yes

Yes, but only if both push equally.

No

No, unless acceleration occurs.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Two people of equal mass on slippery ice push off from each other. Will

both move at the same speed in opposite directions?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Yes

Yes, but only if both push equally.

No

No, unless acceleration occurs.

Explanation:

In whatever way they push, equal-magnitude forces acting on equal

masses produce equal accelerations; therefore, both undergo equal

changes in speed.

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Defining Your System

Consider a single enclosed orange.

Applied external force causes the orange to

accelerate in accord with Newton's second law.

We see here only the action force (red vector).

Consider the orange and the apple pulling on it.

Action and reaction do not cancel (because they act

on different objects).

External force by apple accelerates the orange.

Consider a system comprising both the

orange and the apple.

The apple is no longer external to the system.

Force pair is internal to the system, which doesn't

cause acceleration.

Action and reaction within the system cancel.

With no external forces, there is no acceleration of

the system.

Aha! Here's the same system, but with external

force of friction on it (friction between the apple's

feet and the floor).

External frictional force of the floor accelerates

the system.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

The apple-orange system will move with constant speed if

A.

B.

C.

D.

the apple gains mass.

a force equal and opposite to the friction force occurs.

None of the above.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

The apple-orange system will move with constant speed if

A. the orange loses mass.

B. the apple gains mass.

C. a force equal and opposite to the friction force

occurs.

D. None of the above.

Comment:

Such a force may be floor friction on the cart wheels, or even

a force produced by an opposing wind.

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Consider the flight of a helicopter. When lift is

greater than the helicopter's weight, the helicopter

A.

B.

C.

D.

moves downward.

moves upward.

hovers in midair.

None of the above.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Consider the flight of a helicopter. When lift is

greater than the helicopter's weight, the helicopter

A.

B.

C.

D.

moves downward.

moves upward.

hovers in midair.

None of the above.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A bird flies by

A. flapping its wings.

B. pushing air down so that the air pushes it

upward.

C. hovering in midair.

D. inhaling and exhaling air.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A bird flies by

A. flapping its wings.

B. pushing air down so that the air pushes it

upward.

C. hovering in midair.

D. inhaling and exhaling air.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Slightly tilted wings of airplanes deflect

A.

B.

C.

D.

oncoming air upward to produce lift.

Both A and B.

Neither A nor B.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Slightly tilted wings of airplanes deflect

A.

B.

C.

D.

oncoming air upward to produce lift.

Both A and B.

Neither A nor B.

Explanation:

When a wing diverts air downward, it exerts a downward force on the

air. The air simultaneously exerts an upward force on the wing. The

vertical component of this upward force is lift. (The horizontal

component is drag.)

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Compared with a lightweight glider, a heavier glider would

have to push air

A.

B.

C.

D.

downward with the same force.

downward with less force.

None of the above.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Compared with a lightweight glider, a heavier glider would

have to push air

A.

B.

C.

D.

downward with the same force.

downward with less force.

None of the above.

Explanation:

The force on the air deflected downward must equal the

weight of the glider.

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Vectors

Vector components

Vertical and horizontal components of a

vector are perpendicular to each other.

Determined by resolution.

Vectors

Nellie Newton pulls on the sled as shown.

Which component of her force F is greater?

What two other forces (not shown) act on the

sled?

Vectors

Nellie Newton pulls on the sled as shown.

Which component of her force F is greater?

The horizontal component Fx is greater.

sled?

Weight mg and normal N also act on the sled.

Vectors

Two forces act on the block of ice.

1. As the ramp is raised, which force remains constant?

2. As the ramp is raised, how does the magnitude of N

change?

3. When the ramp is raised 90 degrees (vertical) what is

the net force on the block?

Vectors

Two forces act on the block of ice.

1. As the ramp is raised, which force remains constant?

mg

2. As the ramp is raised, how does the magnitude of N

change? N decreases with increased angle of the

ramp.

3. When the ramp is raised 90 degrees (vertical) what is

the net force on the block? The net force is mg!

Vectors

(a) Can you see that N and mg are equal and opposite?

(b) Can you see that N is less on the incline?

(c) Can you see that the resultant of N and mg is the force

propelling Nellie down the hill? And can you see which

component of mg is equal and opposite to N?

Newton's first law of motion (the law of inertia)

An object at rest tends to remain at rest; an object in motion

tends to remain in motion at constant speed along a straight-line

path.

Newton's second law of motion (the law of acceleration)

When a net force acts on an object, the object will accelerate.

The acceleration is directly proportional to the net force and

inversely proportional to the mass.

Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the

second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.

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Lecture Outline

Chapter 6:

Momentum

Momentum

Impulse

Impulse Changes Momentum

Bouncing

Conservation of Momentum

Collisions

More Complicated Collisions

Momentum

a property of moving things

means inertia in motion

more specifically, mass of an object multiplied by

its velocity

in equation form:

Momentum = mass x velocity

Momentum

Example:

A moving boulder has more

momentum than a stone rolling

at the same speed.

A fast boulder has more

momentum than a slow boulder.

A boulder at rest has no

momentum.

Momentum

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A moving object has

A.

B.

C.

D.

momentum.

energy.

speed.

All of the above.

Momentum

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A moving object has

A.

B.

C.

D.

momentum.

energy.

speed.

All of the above.

Comment:

We will see in the next chapter that energy in motion is

called kinetic energy.

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Momentum

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When the speed of an object is doubled, its

momentum

A. remains unchanged in accord with the

conservation of momentum.

B. doubles.

C. quadruples.

D. decreases.

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Momentum

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When the speed of an object is doubled, its

momentum

A. remains unchanged in accord with the

conservation of momentum.

B. doubles.

C. quadruples.

D. decreases.

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Impulse

Product of force and time (force x time)

In equation form: Impulse = Ft

Example:

A brief force applied over a short time interval

produces a smaller change in momentum than the

same force applied over a longer time interval.

or

If you push with the same force for twice the time,

you impart twice the impulse and produce twice the

change in momentum.

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The greater the impulse exerted on something,

the greater the change in momentum.

In equation form: Ft = (mv)

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When the force that produces an impulse acts for

twice as much time, the impulse is

A.

B.

C.

D.

not changed.

doubled.

quadrupled.

halved.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When the force that produces an impulse acts for

twice as much time, the impulse is

A.

B.

C.

D.

not changed.

doubled.

quadrupled.

halved.

Case 1: increasing momentum

Apply the greatest force for

as long as possible and you

extend the time of contact.

Force can vary throughout

the duration of contact.

Examples:

follows through.

Baseball player hits a ball and

follows through.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A cannonball shot from a cannon with a long barrel will emerge with

greater speed because the cannonball receives a greater

A.

B.

C.

D.

average force.

impulse.

Both of the above.

None of the above.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A cannonball shot from a cannon with a long barrel will emerge with

greater speed because the cannonball receives a greater

A.

B.

C.

D.

average force.

impulse.

Both of the above.

None of the above.

Explanation:

The average force on the cannonball will be the same for a short- or

long-barreled cannon. The longer barrel provides for a longer time for

the force to act, and therefore, a greater impulse. (The long barrel also

provides a longer distance for the force to act, providing greater work

and greater kinetic energy to the cannonball.)

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Case 2: decreasing momentum over a long time

extend the time during which momentum is

reduced

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A fast-moving car hitting a haystack or hitting a cement wall produces

vastly different results.

1. Do both experience the same change in momentum?

2. Do both experience the same impulse?

3. Do both experience the same force?

A. Yes for all three

B. Yes for 1 and 2

C. No for all three

D. No for 1 and 2

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A fast-moving car hitting a haystack or hitting a cement wall produces

vastly different results.

1. Do both experience the same change in momentum?

2. Do both experience the same impulse?

3. Do both experience the same force?

A. Yes for all three

B. Yes for 1 and 2

C. No for all three

D. No for 1 and 2

Explanation:

Although stopping the momentum is the same whether done slowly or

quickly, the force is vastly different. Be sure to distinguish among

momentum, impulse, and force.

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When a dish falls, will the change in momentum be less if it

lands on a carpet than if it lands on a hard floor? (Careful!)

A.

B.

C.

D.

Yes, less if it lands on the carpet.

No, less if it lands on a hard floor.

No, more if it lands on a hard floor.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When a dish falls, will the change in momentum be less if it

lands on a carpet than if it lands on a hard floor? (Careful!)

A.

B.

C.

D.

Yes, less if it lands on the carpet.

No, less if it lands on a hard floor.

No, more if it lands on a hard floor.

Explanation:

The momentum becomes zero in both cases, so both change by the

same amount. Although the momentum change and impulse are the

same, the force is less when the time of momentum change is extended.

Be careful to distinguish among force, impulse, and momentum.

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Examples:

When a car is out of control, it is better to hit a

haystack than a concrete wall.

Physics reason: Same impulse either way, but extension

of hitting time reduces the force.

Example (continued):

In jumping, bend your knees when your feet make

contact with the ground because the extension of

time during your momentum decrease reduces the

force on you.

In boxing, ride with the punch.

Case 3: decreasing momentum over a short time

short time interval produces large force.

Example: Karate expert splits

a stack of bricks by bringing

her arm and hand swiftly

against the bricks with

considerable momentum.

Time of contact is brief and

force of impact is huge.

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Bouncing

Impulses are generally greater when objects

bounce.

Example:

Catching a falling flower pot from a shelf with your

hands. You provide the impulse to reduce its

momentum to zero. If you throw the flower pot up

again, you provide an additional impulse. This

"double impulse" occurs when something bounces.

Bouncing

Pelton wheel designed to "bounce" water when it

makes a U-turn on impact with the curved paddle

Conservation of Momentum

Law of conservation of momentum:

In the absence of an external force, the

momentum of a system remains unchanged.

Conservation of Momentum

Examples:

When a cannon is fired, the force on the cannonball

inside the cannon barrel is equal and opposite to the

force of the cannonball on the cannon.

The cannonball gains momentum, while the cannon

gains an equal amount of momentum in the opposite

directionthe cannon recoils.

When no external force is present, no external impulse is

present, and no change in momentum is possible.

Conservation of Momentum

Examples (continued):

Internal molecular forces within a baseball

come in pairs, cancel one another out, and

have no effect on the momentum of the ball.

Molecular forces within a baseball have no

effect on its momentum.

Pushing against a car's dashboard has no

effect on its momentum.

Collisions

For all collisions in the absence of external

forces,

net momentum before collision equals net

momentum after collision.

in equation form:

(net mv)before = (net mv)after

Collisions

Elastic collision

occurs when colliding objects rebound

without lasting deformation or any generation

of heat.

Collisions

Inelastic collision

occurs when colliding objects result in

deformation and/or the generation of heat.

Collisions

Example of elastic collision:

single car moving at 10 m/s collides with another

car of the same mass, m, at rest

(net mv)before = (net mv)after

(m x 10)before = (2m x V)after

V = 5 m/s

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Collisions

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Freight car A is moving toward identical freight car B that is

at rest. When they collide, both freight cars couple

together. Compared with the initial speed of freight car A,

the speed of the coupled freight cars is

A.

B.

C.

D.

the same.

half.

twice.

None of the above.

Collisions

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Freight car A is moving toward identical freight car B that is

at rest. When they collide, both freight cars couple

together. Compared with the initial speed of freight car A,

the speed of the coupled freight cars is

A.

B.

C.

D.

the same.

half.

twice.

None of the above.

Explanation:

After the collision, the mass of the moving freight cars has doubled.

Can you see that their speed is half the initial velocity of freight car A?

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Sometimes the colliding objects are not moving

in the same straight line.

In this case you create a parallelogram of the

vectors describing each initial momentum to find

the combined momentum.

Example: collision of two cars at a corner

Another example:

A firecracker exploding;

the total momentum of

the pieces after the

explosion can be added

vectorially to get the

initial momentum of the

firecracker before it

exploded.

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Lecture Outline

Chapter 7:

Energy

Energy

Work

Power

Mechanical Energy: Potential and Kinetic

Work-Energy Theorem

Conservation of Energy

Machines

Efficiency

Recycled Energy

Energy for Life

Sources of Energy

Energy

A combination of energy and matter make up the

universe.

Energy

Mover of substances

Both a thing and a process

Observed when it is being transferred or

being transformed

A conserved quantity

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Energy

Property of a system that enables it to do work

Anything that can be turned into heat

Example: Electromagnetic waves from the

Sun

Matter

Substance we can see, smell, and feel

Occupies space

Work

Work

involves force and distance.

is force x distance.

in equation form: W = Fd.

Two things occur whenever work is done:

application of force

movement of something by that force

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Work

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

If you push against a stationary brick wall for

several minutes, you do no work

A.

B.

C.

D.

on the wall.

at all.

Both of the above.

None of the above.

Work

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

If you push against a stationary brick wall for

several minutes, you do no work

A.

B.

C.

D.

on the wall.

at all.

Both of the above.

None of the above.

Explanation:

You may do work on your muscles, but not on the wall.

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Work

Examples:

Twice as much work is done in

lifting 2 loads 1 story high versus

lifting 1 load the same vertical

distance.

Reason: force needed to lift twice the

load is twice as much.

lifting a load 2 stories instead of 1

story.

Reason: distance is twice as great.

Work

Example:

a weightlifter raising a

barbell from the floor

does work on the

barbell.

Unit of work:

newton-meter (Nm) or

joule (J)

Work

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Work is done in lifting a barbell. How much work is

done in lifting a barbell that is twice as heavy the

same distance?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Twice as much

Half as much

The same

Depends on the speed of the lift

Work

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Work is done in lifting a barbell. How much work is

done in lifting a barbell that is twice as heavy the

same distance?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Twice as much

Half as much

The same

Depends on the speed of the lift

Explanation:

This is in accord with work = force x distance. Twice the force for the

same distance means twice the work done on the barbell.

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Work

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

You do work when pushing a cart with a constant

force. If you push the cart twice as far, then the

work you do is

A.

B.

C.

D.

twice as much.

more than twice as much.

zero.

Work

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

You do work when pushing a cart with a constant

force. If you push the cart twice as far, then the

work you do is

A.

B.

C.

D.

twice as much.

more than twice as much.

zero.

Power

Power:

Measure of how fast work is

done

In equation form:

work done

Power =

time interval

Power

Example:

A worker uses more power running up the

stairs than climbing the same stairs slowly.

Twice the power of an engine can do twice

the work of one engine in the same amount of

time, or twice the work of one engine in half

the time or at a rate at which energy is

changed from one form to another.

Power

Unit of power

joule per second, called the watt after James

Watt, developer of the steam engine

1 joule/second = 1 watt

1 kilowatt = 1000 watts

Power

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A job can be done slowly or quickly. Both may

require the same amount of work, but different

amounts of

A.

B.

C.

D.

energy.

momentum.

power.

impulse.

Power

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A job can be done slowly or quickly. Both may

require the same amount of work, but different

amounts of

A.

B.

C.

D.

energy.

momentum.

power.

impulse.

Comment:

Power is the rate at which work is done.

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Mechanical Energy

Mechanical energy is due to position or to

motion, or both.

There are two forms of mechanical energy:

Potential energy

Kinetic energy

Potential Energy

Stored energy held in readiness with a potential

for doing work

Example:

A stretched bow has stored energy that can

do work on an arrow.

A stretched rubber band of a slingshot has

stored energy and is capable of doing work.

Potential EnergyGravitational

Potential energy due to elevated position

Example:

water in an elevated reservoir

raised ram of a pile driver

Potential EnergyGravitational

Equal to the work done (force required to move it

upward x the vertical distance moved against

gravity) in lifting it

In equation form:

Potential energy

= mass x acceleration due to gravity x height

= mgh

Potential Energy

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Does a car hoisted for repairs in a service station

have increased potential energy relative to the

floor?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Yes

No

Sometimes

Not enough information

Potential Energy

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Does a car hoisted for repairs in a service station

have increased potential energy relative to the

floor?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Yes

No

Sometimes

Not enough information

Comment:

If the car were twice as heavy, its increase in potential energy would be

twice as great.

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Potential Energy

Example: Potential energy of 10-N ball is the

same in all 3 cases because work

done in elevating it is the same.

Kinetic Energy

Energy of motion

Depends on the mass of the object and square

of its speed

Include the proportional constant 1/2 and kinetic

energy = 1/2 x mass x speed x speed

If object speed is doubled kinetic energy is

quadrupled.

Kinetic Energy

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Must a car with momentum have kinetic energy?

A. Yes, due to motion alone

B. Yes, when motion is nonaccelerated

C. Yes, because speed is a scalar and velocity is

a vector quantity

D. No

Kinetic Energy

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Must a car with momentum have kinetic energy?

A. Yes, due to motion alone

B. Yes, when motion is nonaccelerated

C. Yes, because speed is a scalar and velocity is

a vector quantity

D. No

Explanation:

Acceleration, speed being a scalar, and velocity being a vector quantity

are irrelevant. Any moving object has both momentum and kinetic

energy.

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Kinetic Energy

Kinetic energy and work of a moving object

Equal to the work required to bring it from rest

to that speed, or the work the object can do

while being brought to rest

In equation form: net force x distance =

kinetic energy, or Fd = 1/2 mv2

Work-Energy Theorem

Work-energy theorem

Gain or reduction of energy is the result of

work.

In equation form: work = change in kinetic

energy (W = KE).

Doubling speed of an object requires 4 times

the work.

Work-Energy Theorem

Applies to decreasing speed:

reducing the speed of an object or bringing it

to a halt

Example: Applying the

brakes to slow a moving

car, work is done on it

(the friction force supplied

by the brakes x distance).

Work-Energy Theorem

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Consider a problem that asks for the distance of a

fast-moving crate sliding across a factory floor and then

coming to a stop. The most useful equation for solving this

problem is

A.

B.

C.

D.

F = ma.

Ft = mv.

KE = 1/2mv2.

Fd = 1/2mv2.

Work-Energy Theorem

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Consider a problem that asks for the distance of a

fast-moving crate sliding across a factory floor and then

coming to a stop. The most useful equation for solving this

problem is

A.

B.

C.

D.

F = ma.

Ft = mv.

KE = 1/2mv2.

Fd = 1/2mv2.

Comment:

solving many motion-related problems.

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Work-Energy Theorem

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

The work done in bringing a moving car to a stop is the

force of tire friction x stopping distance. If the initial speed

of the car is doubled, the stopping distance is

A.

B.

C.

D.

actually less.

about the same.

twice.

None of the above.

Work-Energy Theorem

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

The work done in bringing a moving car to a stop is the

force of tire friction x stopping distance. If the initial speed

of the car is doubled, the stopping distance is

A.

B.

C.

D.

actually less.

about the same.

twice.

None of the above.

Explanation:

Twice the speed means four times the kinetic energy and

four times the stopping distance.

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Conservation of Energy

Law of conservation of energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it

may be transformed from one form into

another, but the total amount of energy never

changes.

Conservation of Energy

Example: Energy transforms without net loss or

net gain in the operation of a pile driver.

Conservation of Energy

A situation to ponder

Consider the system of a bow and arrow. In

drawing the bow, we do work on the system and

give it potential energy. When the bowstring is

released, most of the potential energy is

transferred to the arrow as kinetic energy and

some as heat to the bow.

A situation to ponder

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Suppose the potential energy of a drawn bow is 50 joules

and the kinetic energy of the shot arrow is 40 joules. Then

A.

B.

C.

D.

10 joules go to warming the bow.

10 joules go to warming the target.

10 joules are mysteriously missing.

A situation to ponder

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Suppose the potential energy of a drawn bow is 50 joules

and the kinetic energy of the shot arrow is 40 joules. Then

A.

B.

C.

D.

10 joules go to warming the bow.

10 joules go to warming the target.

10 joules are mysteriously missing.

Explanation:

The total energy of the drawn bow, which includes

the poised arrow, is 50 joules. The arrow gets 40

joules and the remaining 10 joules warms the

bowstill in the initial system.

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Similarities between momentum and kinetic

energy:

Both are properties of moving things.

Difference between momentum and kinetic

energy:

Momentum is a vector quantity and therefore

is directional and can be canceled.

Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity and can

never be canceled.

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Velocity dependence

Momentum depends on velocity.

Kinetic energy depends on the square of

velocity.

Example: An object moving with twice the

velocity of another with the same

mass, has twice the momentum but

4 times the kinetic energy.

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Machines

Machine

Device for multiplying forces or changing the

direction of forces

Cannot create energy but can transform

energy from one form to another, or transfer

energy from one location to another

Cannot multiply work or energy

Machines

Principle of a machine

Conservation of energy concept:

Work input = work output

Output force x output distance

(Force x distance)input = (force x distance)output

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Machines

Simplest machine

Lever

rotates on a point of support called the fulcrum

allows small force over a large distance and large

force over a short distance

Machines

Pulley

operates like a lever with equal arms changes the

direction of the input force

Example:

This pulley arrangement can allow a load to be lifted

with half the input force.

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Machines

Operates as a system of pulleys (block and tackle)

Multiplies force

Machines

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

In an ideal pulley system, a woman lifts a 100-N crate by

pulling a rope downward with a force of 25 N. For every

1-meter length of rope she pulls downward, the crate rises

A.

B.

C.

D.

50 centimeters.

45 centimeters.

25 centimeters.

None of the above.

Machines

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

In an ideal pulley system, a woman lifts a 100-N crate by

pulling a rope downward with a force of 25 N. For every

1-meter length of rope she pulls downward, the crate rises

A.

B.

C.

D.

50 centimeters.

45 centimeters.

25 centimeters.

None of the above.

Explanation:

Work in = work out; Fd in = Fd out.

One-fourth of 1 m = 25 cm.

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Efficiency

Efficiency

Percentage of work put into a machine that is

converted into useful work output

In equation form:

useful energy output

Efficiency =

total energy input

Efficiency

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A certain machine is 30% efficient. This means the

machine will convert

A. 30% of the energy input to useful work

70% of the energy input will be wasted.

B. 70% of the energy input to useful work30% of

the energy input will be wasted.

C. Both of the above.

D. None of the above.

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Efficiency

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A certain machine is 30% efficient. This means the

machine will convert

A. 30% of the energy input to useful work

70% of the energy input will be wasted.

B. 70% of the energy input to useful work30% of

the energy input will be wasted.

C. Both of the above.

D. None of the above.

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Recycled Energy

Re-employment of energy that otherwise would

be wasted.

Edison used heat from his power plant in New

York City to heat buildings.

Typical power plants waste about 30% of their

energy to heat because they are built away from

buildings and other places that use heat.

Body is a machine, so it needs energy.

Our cells feed on hydrocarbons that release

energy when they react with oxygen (like

gasoline burned in an automobile).

There is more energy stored in the food than in

the products after metabolism.

Sources of Energy

Sources of energy

Sun

Example:

Sunlight evaporates water; water falls as rain; rain flows

into rivers and into generator turbines; then back to the

sea to repeat the cycle.

Sunlight can be transformed into electricity by

photovoltaic cells.

Wind power turns generator turbines.

Sources of Energy

Sources of energy

Sun

Example:

Photovoltaic cells on

rooftops catch the solar

energy and convert it to

electricity.

than all of the energy consumed by humans in

an entire year!

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Sources of Energy

Fuel cell

Runs opposite to the

battery shown (where

electricity separates

water into hydrogen

and oxygen).

In a fuel cell, hydrogen

and oxygen are

compressed at

electrodes and electric

current is produced at

electrodes.

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Sources of Energy

Concentrated energy

Nuclear power

stored in uranium and plutonium

by-product is geothermal energy

held in underground reservoirs of hot water to provide

steam that can drive turbogenerators

Sources of Energy

Dry-rock geothermal power is a producer of electricity.

Water is put into cavities in deep, dry, hot rock. Water

turns to steam and reaches a turbine, at the surface.

After exiting the turbine, it is returned to the cavity for

reuse.

Lecture Outline

Chapter 8:

Rotational Motion

Circular Motion

Rotational Inertia

Torque

Center of Mass and Center of Gravity

Centripetal Force

Centrifugal Force

Rotating Reference Frames

Simulated Gravity

Angular Momentum

Conservation of Angular Momentum

Circular Motion

When an object turns about an internal axis, it is

undergoing circular motion or rotation.

Circular Motion is characterized by two kinds of

speeds:

tangential (or linear) speed.

rotational (or circular) speed.

The distance traveled by a point on the rotating object

divided by the time taken to travel that distance is called

its tangential speed (symbol v).

Points closer to the circumference have a higher

tangential speed that points closer to the center.

Rotational (angular) speed is the number of

rotations or revolutions per unit of time

(symbol ).

All parts of a rigid merry-go-round or turntable

turn about the axis of rotation in the same

amount of time.

So, all parts have the same rotational speed.

Tangential speed

= Radial Distance x Rotational Speed

= r

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A ladybug sits halfway between the rotational axis and the

outer edge of the turntable. When the turntable has a

rotational speed of 20 RPM and the bug has a tangential

speed of 2 cm/s, what will be the rotational and tangential

speeds of her friend who sits at the outer edge?

A.

B.

C.

D.

1 cm/s

2 cm/s

4 cm/s

8 cm/s

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A ladybug sits halfway between the rotational axis and the

outer edge of the turntable. When the turntable has a

rotational speed of 20 RPM and the bug has a tangential

speed of 2 cm/s, what will be the rotational and tangential

speeds of her friend who sits at the outer edge?

A.

B.

C.

D.

1 cm/s

2 cm/s

4 cm/s

8 cm/s

Explanation:

Tangential speed = r

Rotational speed of both bugs is the same, so if radial

distance doubles, tangential speed also doubles.

So, tangential speed is 2 cm/s x 2 = 4 cm/s.

Rotational Inertia

An object rotating about an axis tends to remain

rotating about the same axis at the same

rotational speed unless interfered with by some

external influence.

The property of an object to resist changes in its

rotational state of motion is called rotational

inertia (symbol I).

Rotational Inertia

Depends upon

mass of object.

distribution of mass

around axis of rotation.

The greater the distance

between an object's

mass concentration and

the axis, the greater the

rotational inertia.

Rotational Inertia

The greater the rotational inertia, the harder it is to

change its rotational state.

A tightrope walker carries a long pole that has a high

rotational inertia, so it does not easily rotate.

Keeps the tightrope walker stable.

Rotational Inertia

Depends upon the axis

around which it rotates

Easier to rotate pencil

around an axis passing

through it.

Harder to rotate it around

vertical axis passing

through center.

Hardest to rotate it

around vertical axis

passing through the end.

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Rotational Inertia

The rotational inertia depends upon the shape of

the object and its rotational axis.

Rotational Inertia

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A hoop and a disk are released from the top of an

incline at the same time. Which one will reach the

bottom first?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Hoop

Disk

Both together

Not enough information

Rotational Inertia

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A hoop and a disk are released from the top of an

incline at the same time. Which one will reach the

bottom first?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Hoop

Disk

Both together

Not enough information

Explanation:

Hoop has larger rotational inertia, so it will be slower in gaining speed.

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Torque

The tendency of a force to cause rotation is

called torque.

Torque depends upon three factors:

Magnitude of the force

The direction in which it acts

The point at which it is applied on the object

Torque

The equation for Torque is

Torque = lever arm x force

where the force is applied.

the direction in which it acts.

TorqueExample

1st picture: Lever arm is less than length of handle

because of direction of force.

2nd picture: Lever arm is equal to length of handle.

3rd picture: Lever arm is longer than length of handle.

Rotational Inertia

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Suppose the girl on the left suddenly

is handed a bag of apples weighing

50 N. Where should she sit order to

balance, assuming the boy does not

move?

A.

B.

C.

D.

1 m from pivot

1.5 m from pivot

2 m from pivot

2.5 m from pivot

Rotational Inertia

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Suppose the girl on the left suddenly

is handed a bag of apples weighing

50 N. Where should she sit order to

balance, assuming the boy does not

move?

A.

B.

C.

D.

1 m from pivot

1.5 m from pivot

2 m from pivot

2.5 m from pivot

Explanation:

She should exert same torque as before.

Torque = lever arm x force

= 3 m x 250 N

= 750 Nm

Torque = new lever arm x force

750 Nm = new lever arm x 250N

New lever arm = 750 Nm / 250 N = 2.5 m

Center of mass is the average position of all the

mass that makes up the object.

Center of gravity (CG) is the average position

of weight distribution.

Since weight and mass are proportional,

center of gravity and center of mass usually

refer to the same point of an object.

To determine the center of gravity,

suspend the object from a point and draw a vertical

line from suspension point.

repeat after suspending from another point.

The center of gravity lies where the two lines intersect.

Center of GravityStability

The location of the center of

gravity is important for stability.

If we draw a line straight

down from the center of

gravity and it falls inside the

base of the object, it is in

stable equilibrium; it will

balance.

If it falls outside the base, it is

unstable.

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Centripetal Force

Any force directed toward a fixed center is called a

centripetal force.

Centripetal means "center-seeking" or "toward the

center."

Example: To whirl a tin can

at the end of a string, you

pull the string toward the

center and exert a centripetal

force to keep the can moving

in a circle.

Centripetal Force

Depends upon

mass of object.

tangential speed of the object.

radius of the circle.

In equation form:

mass x tangential speed2

Centripetal force =

radius

Centripetal ForceExample

When a car rounds a curve, the

centripetal force prevents it from

skidding off the road.

If the road is wet, or if the car is

going too fast, the centripetal

force is insufficient to prevent

skidding off the road.

Centripetal Force

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Suppose you double the speed at which you round a

bend in the curve, by what factor must the centripetal

force change to prevent you from skidding?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Double

Four times

Half

One-quarter

Centripetal Force

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Suppose you double the speed at which you round a

bend in the curve, by what factor must the centripetal

force change to prevent you from skidding?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Double

Four times

Half

One-quarter

Explanation:

mass x tangential speed2

Centripetal force =

radius

Because the term for "tangential speed" is

squared, if you double the tangential speed,

the centripetal force will be double squared,

which is four times.

Centripetal Force

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Suppose you take a sharper turn than before and

halve the radius, by what factor will the centripetal

force need to change to prevent skidding?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Double

Four times

Half

One-quarter

Centripetal Force

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Suppose you take a sharper turn than before and

halve the radius, by what factor will the centripetal

force need to change to prevent skidding?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Double

Four times

Half

One-quarter

Explanation:

mass x tangential speed2

Centripetal force =

radius

Because the term for "radius" is in the

denominator, if you halve the radius, the

centripetal force will double.

Centrifugal Force

Although centripetal force is center directed, an

occupant inside a rotating system seems to

experience an outward force. This apparent

outward force is called centrifugal force.

Centrifugal means "center-fleeing" or "away from

the center."

Centrifugal Force

A Common Misconception

It is a common misconception

that a centrifugal force pulls

outward on an object.

Example:

If the string breaks, the

object doesn't move radially

outward.

It continues along its tangent

straight-line pathbecause

no force acts on it. (Newton's

first law)

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Centrifugal force in a rotating reference frame is a force

in its own right as real as any other force, e.g. gravity.

Example:

The bug at the bottom of the can experiences a pull

toward the bottom of the can.

Simulated Gravity

Centrifugal force can be used to simulate gravity in space

stations of the future.

By spinning the space station, occupants would

experience a centrifugal force (simulated gravity) similar to

the bug in the can.

Simulated Gravity

To simulate an acceleration

due to gravity, g, which is

10 m/s2, a space station

must

have a radius of about 1 km

(i.e. diameter of 2 km).

rotate at a speed of about

1 revolution per minute.

Angular Momentum

The "inertia of rotation" of rotating objects is called

angular momentum.

This is analogous to "inertia of motion", which was

momentum.

Angular momentum

= rotational inertia x angular velocity

This is analogous to

Linear momentum = mass x velocity

Angular Momentum

For an object that is small compared with the radial

distance to its axis, magnitude of

Angular momentum = mass tangential speed x radius

Linear momentum = mass x speed

Examples:

Whirling ball at the end of a

long string

Planet going around the Sun

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Angular Momentum

An external net torque is required to change the

angular momentum of an object.

Rotational version of Newton's first law:

An object or system of objects will

maintain its angular momentum unless

acted upon by an external net torque.

Angular Momentum

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Suppose you are swirling a can around and

suddenly decide to pull the rope in halfway; by

what factor would the speed of the can change?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Double

Four times

Half

One-quarter

Angular Momentum

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Suppose you are swirling a can around and

suddenly decide to pull the rope in halfway; by

what factor would the speed of the can change?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Double

Four times

Half

One-quarter

Explanation:

Angular momentum =

mass tangential speed x radius

Angular Momentum is proportional to radius

of the turn.

No external torque acts with inward pull, so

angular momentum is conserved. Half radius

means speed doubles.

The law of conservation of angular momentum

states:

If no external net torque acts on a rotating system,

the angular momentum of that system remains

constant.

Analogous to the law of conservation of linear

momentum:

If no external force acts on a system, the total linear

momentum of that system remains constant.

Example:

When the man pulls the weights inward, his rotational

speed increases!

Angular Momentum

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Suppose by pulling the weights inward, the

rotational inertia of the man reduces to half its

value. By what factor would his angular velocity

change?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Double

Three times

Half

One-quarter

Angular Momentum

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Suppose by pulling the weights inward, the

rotational inertia of the man reduces to half its

value. By what factor would his angular velocity

change?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Double

Three times

Half

One-quarter

Explanation:

Angular momentum = rotational inertia x angular

velocity

Angular momentum is proportional to "rotational

inertia."

If you halve the rotational inertia, to keep the

angular momentum constant, the angular

velocity would double.

Lecture Outline

Chapter 9:

Gravity

The Universal Law of Gravity

The Universal Gravitational Constant

Gravity and Distance: Inverse-Square Law

Weight and Weightlessness

Ocean Tides

Gravitational Fields

Einstein's Theory of Gravitation

Black Holes

Universal Gravitation

Newton was not the first

to discover gravity.

Newton discovered that

gravity is universal.

LegendNewton, sitting

under an apple tree,

realizes that the Earth's

pull on an apple extends

also to pull on the Moon.

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In Aristotle's time, motion of planets and stars

was natural not governed by the same laws as

objects on Earth.

Newton recognized that a force directed toward

the Sun must act on planets

This is similar to force that Earth exerts on an

apple that falls toward it.

Newtonian synthesis: The same set of laws

apply to both celestial and terrestrial objects.

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Law of universal gravitation:

Everything pulls on everything else.

Every body attracts every other body with a force that

is directly proportional to the product of their masses

and inversely proportional to the square of the distance

separating them.

In equation form:

mass1 x mass2

Force ~

distance2

or

m1m2

F~

d2

between their centers.

Examples:

The greater the masses m1 and m2 of two bodies, the

greater the force of attraction between them.

The greater the distance of separation d, the weaker

the force of attraction.

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Newton's most celebrated synthesis was and is of

A.

B.

C.

D.

weight on Earth and weightlessness in outer space.

masses and distances.

the paths of tossed rocks and the paths of satellites.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Newton's most celebrated synthesis was and is of

A.

B.

C.

D.

weight on Earth and weightlessness in outer space.

masses and distances.

the paths of tossed rocks and the paths of satellites.

Comment:

This synthesis provided hope that other natural phenomena

followed universal laws and ushered in the "Age of

Enlightenment."

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Gravity is the weakest of four known

fundamental forces

With the gravitational constant G, we have the

equation

m1m2

F=G

d2

Universal gravitational constant:

G = 6.67 x 1011 Nm2/kg2

Once the value was known, the mass of Earth

was calculated as 6 x 1024 kg

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

The universal gravitational constant, G, which links force to

mass and distance, is similar to the familiar constant

A.

B.

C.

D.

.

g.

acceleration due to gravity.

speed of uniform motion.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

The universal gravitational constant, G, which links force to

mass and distance, is similar to the familiar constant

A.

B.

C.

D.

.

g.

acceleration due to gravity.

speed of uniform motion.

Explanation:

Just as relates the circumference of a circle to its

diameter, G relates force to mass and distance.

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Inverse-square law:

relates the intensity of an effect to the

inverse-square of the distance from the

cause.

in equation form: intensity = 1/distance2.

for increases in distance, there are decreases

in force.

even at great distances, force approaches but

never reaches zero.

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Inverse-Square Law

Inverse-Square Law

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

The force of gravity between two planets depends on their

A.

B.

C.

D.

planetary atmospheres.

rotational motions.

All of the above.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

The force of gravity between two planets depends on their

A.

B.

C.

D.

planetary atmospheres.

rotational motions.

All of the above.

Explanation:

The equation for gravitational force, cites only masses and

distances as variables. Rotation and atmospheres are

m1m2

irrelevant.

F=G

d2

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

If the masses of two planets are each somehow doubled,

the force of gravity between them

A.

B.

C.

D.

doubles.

quadruples.

reduces by half.

reduces by one-quarter.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

If the masses of two planets are each somehow doubled,

the force of gravity between them

A.

B.

C.

D.

doubles.

quadruples.

reduces by half.

reduces by one-quarter.

Explanation:

Note that both masses double. Then, double x double =

quadruple.

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

If the mass of one planet is somehow doubled, the force of

gravity between it and a neighboring planet

A.

B.

C.

D.

doubles.

quadruples

reduces by half.

reduces by one-quarter.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

If the mass of one planet is somehow doubled, the force of

gravity between it and a neighboring planet

A.

B.

C.

D.

doubles.

quadruples

reduces by half.

reduces by one-quarter.

Explanation:

Let the equation guide your thinking:

m1m2

Note that if one mass doubles, then the force F = G d 2

between them doubles.

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Weight:

force an object exerts against a supporting surface

Examples:

standing on a scale in an elevator accelerating downward,

less compression in scale springs; weight is less

standing on a scale in an elevator accelerating upward, more

compression in scale springs; weight is greater

at constant speed in an elevator, no change in weight

Weightlessness:

no support force, as

in free fall

Example: Astronauts

in orbit are without

support forces and

are in a continual

state of

weightlessness.

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When an elevator accelerates upward, your weight reading

on a scale is

A.

B.

C.

D.

greater.

less.

zero.

the normal weight.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When an elevator accelerates upward, your weight reading

on a scale is

A.

B.

C.

D.

greater.

less.

zero.

the normal weight.

Explanation:

The support force pressing on you is greater, so you weigh

more.

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When an elevator accelerates downward, your weight

reading is

A.

B.

C.

D.

greater.

less.

zero.

the normal weight.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When an elevator accelerates downward, your weight

reading is

A.

B.

C.

D.

greater.

less.

zero.

the normal weight.

Explanation:

The support force pressing on you is less, so you weigh

less. Question: Would you weigh less in an elevator that

moves downward at constant velocity?

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When the elevator cable breaks, the elevator falls freely, so

your weight reading is

A.

B.

C.

D.

greater.

less.

zero.

the normal weight.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When the elevator cable breaks, the elevator falls freely, so

your weight reading is

A.

B.

C.

D.

greater.

less.

zero.

the normal weight.

Explanation:

There is still a downward gravitational force acting on you,

but gravity is not felt as weight because there is no support

force, so your weight is zero.

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

If you weigh yourself in an elevator, you'll weigh more when

the elevator

A.

B.

C.

D.

moves upward.

moves downward.

accelerates upward.

All of the above.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

If you weigh yourself in an elevator, you'll weigh more when

the elevator

A.

B.

C.

D.

moves upward.

moves downward.

accelerates upward.

All of the above.

Explanation:

The support provided by the floor of an elevator is the

same whether the elevator is at rest or moving at constant

velocity. Only accelerated motion affects weight.

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Ocean Tides

The differences between ocean levels at

different times of the day are called tides.

tides each day.

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Ocean Tides

Ocean tides are caused due to the gravitational

attraction of the Moon.

Unequal tugs on Earth's oceans causes a stretching

effect that produces a pair of ocean bulges.

Because the two bulges are on opposite sides, high

tides occur every 12 hours.

Ocean Tides

During the new Moon or full

Moon, the effects of Moon

and Sun add up, causing

most pronounced spring

tides.

When the Moon is halfway

between a new and full

Moon, the tides due to Sun

and Moon partly cancel

each other, causing least

pronounced neap tides.

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Gravitational Fields

Interaction between Earth and Moon is action at a

distance. How do they interact without touching?

One way to think of this:

Earth is surrounded by a gravitational field.

Moon interacts with this gravitational field.

Gravitational field is an alteration of space

around Earth (or any object with mass).

Gravitational field is an example of a force

field (another example: magnetic field).

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Gravitational Fields

Fields are represented by

field lines radiating into the

object (Earth).

The inward direction of arrows

indicates that the force is

always attractive to Earth.

The crowding of arrows closer

to Earth indicates that the

magnitude of the force is

larger closer to Earth.

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Gravitational Fields

Inside a planet, it decreases

to zero at the center

because pull from the

mass of Earth below you

is partly balanced by

what is above you.

Outside a planet, it

decreases to zero (not at

the same rate as inside), at

infinity

because you are farther

away from planet.

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Gravitational Fields

Suppose you dig a hole through

Earth to the other side and jump

through it.

As you fall, your acceleration

toward the center will go on

decreasing.

At the center, your acceleration

will be zero.

Past the center you will be pulled

back up, but because you have

acquired sufficient speed you will

get to the other side.

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Gravitational field is a warping

of space-time by a planet

just as a massive ball would

make a dent on the surface

of a waterbed.

The warped space-time affects

the motion of other objects

just as a marble rolling on

the waterbed "gravitates" to

the dent.

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Black Holes

When a star shrinks, all of

its mass is now

concentrated in a smaller

radius.

So gravitational force on

the surface increases

because

F=G

m1m2

d2

When d decreases, F

increases.

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Black Holes

Black Hole: When the

star becomes so small

and the gravitational

force at the surface

becomes so large that

even light cannot

escape the surface,

anything in its vicinity

will be attracted by

warped space-time

and lost forever.

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Black Holes

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

What would happen to Earth if the Sun became a black

hole?

A.

B.

C.

D.

It would be pulled into the Sun.

It would become a black hole too.

None of the above.

Black Holes

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

What would happen to Earth if the Sun became a black

hole?

A.

B.

C.

D.

It would be pulled into the Sun.

It would become a black hole too.

None of the above.

Explanation:

Letting the equation for gravity guide our thinking, we see that no mass

changes, no distance from center to center changes, so there would be

NO change in force between the shrunken Sun and Earth.

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Wormhole

Wormhole: An

enormous distortion of

space-time,

but instead of

collapsing toward an

infinitely dense point,

the wormhole opens

out again in some other

part of the universe or

different universe!

No wormholes have

been found yet.

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Universal Gravitation

Universal gravitation

Everything attracts everything else.

Example: Earth is round because of

gravitationall parts of Earth have been

pulled in, making the surface equidistant from

the center.

The universe is expanding and accelerating

outward.

Lecture Outline

Chapter 10:

Projectile and

Satellite Motion

Projectile Motion

Fast-Moving Projectiles Satellites

Circular Satellite Orbits

Elliptical Orbits

Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

Energy Conservation and Satellite Motion

Escape Speed

Projectile Motion

Without gravity, a tossed object follows a

straight-line path.

With gravity, the same object tossed at an angle

follows a curved path.

Projectile:

Any object that moves through the air or

space under the influence of gravity,

continuing in motion by its own inertia

Projectile Motion

Projectile motion is a combination of

a horizontal component, and

a vertical component.

Projectile Motion

Projectiles launched horizontally

Important points:

Horizontal component of velocity doesn't change

(when air drag is negligible).

Ball travels the same horizontal

distance in equal times

(no component of gravitational

force acting horizontally).

Remains constant.

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Projectile Motion

Vertical positions become farther apart with time.

Gravity acts downward, so ball accelerates

downward.

Curvature of path is the combination of

horizontal and vertical components of motion.

Projectile Motion

Parabola:

Curved path of a projectile that undergoes

acceleration only in the vertical direction,

while moving horizontally at a constant speed

Projectile Motion

Projectiles launched at an angle:

Paths of stone thrown at an angle upward

and downward

Vertical and horizontal

components are

independent of each

other.

Projectile Motion

Paths of a cannonball shot at an upward angle

Vertical distance that a stone falls is the same

vertical distance it would have fallen if it had

been dropped from rest and been falling for

the same amount of time (5t2).

Projectile Motion

Paths of projectile following a parabolic

trajectory

Horizontal component along

trajectory remains

unchanged.

Only vertical component

changes.

Velocity at any point is

computed with the

Pythagorean theorem

(diagonal of rectangle).

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Projectile Motion

Different horizontal distances

Same range is obtained from two different

launching angles when the angles add up to 90

.

Object thrown at an angle of 60has the same range

as if it were thrown at an angle of 30

.

Projectile Motion

Different horizontal distances (continued)

Maximum range occurs for ideal launch at

45

.

With air resistance, the maximum range

occurs for a baseball batted at less than 45

above the horizontal (~25

34

).

With air resistance the maximum range

occurs when a golf ball is hit at an angle less

than 38

.

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Projectile Motion

Without air resistance, the

time for a projectile to reach

maximum height is the same

as the time for it to return to

its initial level.

Projectile Motion

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

The velocity of a typical projectile can be

represented by horizontal and vertical components.

Assuming negligible air resistance, the horizontal

component along the path of the projectile

A. increases.

B. decreases.

C. remains the same.

D. Not enough information.

Projectile Motion

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

The velocity of a typical projectile can be represented by

horizontal and vertical components. Assuming negligible air

resistance, the horizontal component along the path of the

projectile

A. increases.

B. decreases.

C. remains the same.

D. Not enough information.

Explanation:

Since there is no force horizontally, no horizontal

acceleration occurs.

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Projectile Motion

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When no air resistance acts on a fast-moving

baseball, its acceleration is

A. downward, g.

B. a combination of constant horizontal motion

and accelerated downward motion.

C. opposite to the force of gravity.

D. centripetal.

Projectile Motion

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When no air resistance acts on a fast-moving

baseball, its acceleration is

A. downward, g.

B. a combination of constant horizontal motion

and accelerated downward motion.

C. opposite to the force of gravity.

D. centripetal.

Projectile Motion

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Neglecting air drag, a ball tossed at an angle of 30

with the horizontal will go as far downrange as one

that is tossed at the same speed at an angle of

A. 45

.

B. 60

.

C. 75

.

D. None of the above.

Projectile Motion

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Neglecting air drag, a ball tossed at an angle of 30with the

horizontal will go as far downrange as one that is tossed at

the same speed at an angle of

A. 45

.

B. 60

.

C. 75

.

D. None of the above.

Explanation:

Same initial-speed projectiles have the same range when their launching

angles add up to 90

. Why this is true involves a bit of trigonometry

which, in the interest of time, we'll not pursue here.

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Fast-Moving ProjectilesSatellites

Satellite motion is an example of a high-speed

projectile.

A satellite is simply a projectile that falls around

Earth rather than into it.

Sufficient tangential velocity needed for orbit.

With no resistance to reduce speed, a

satellite goes around Earth indefinitely.

Fast-Moving ProjectilesSatellites

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

As the ball leaves the girl's hand, 1 second later it will have

fallen

A. 10 meters.

B. 5 meters below the dashed line.

C. less than 5 meters below the straight-line path.

D. None of the above.

Fast-Moving ProjectilesSatellites

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

As the ball leaves the girl's hand, 1 second later it will have

fallen

A. 10 meters.

B. 5 meters below the dashed line.

C. less than 5 meters below the straight-line path.

D. None of the above.

Comment:

Whatever the speed, the ball will fall a vertical distance of 5

meters below the dashed line.

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Satellite in circular orbit

Speed

must be great enough to ensure that its falling

distance matches Earth's curvature.

is constantonly

direction changes.

is unchanged by

gravity.

Positioning:

beyond Earth's atmosphere, where air resistance is

almost totally absent

Example: Space shuttles

are launched to altitudes

of 150 kilometers or more,

to be above air drag

(But even the ISS, as

shown experiences some

air drag, which is compensated

for with periodic upward boosts.)

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Motion

moves in a direction perpendicular to the

force of gravity acting on it

Period for complete orbit about Earth

for satellites close to Earthabout 90 minutes

for satellites at higher altitudeslonger periods

Curvature of Earth

Earth surface drops a vertical distance of 5

meters for every 8000 meters tangent to the

surface

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When you toss a projectile sideways, it curves as it

falls. It will be an Earth satellite if the curve it

makes

A. matches the curved surface of Earth.

B. results in a straight line.

C. spirals out indefinitely.

D. None of the above.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When you toss a projectile sideways, it curves as it falls. It

will be an Earth satellite if the curve it makes

A. matches the curved surface of Earth.

B. results in a straight line.

C. spirals out indefinitely.

D. None of the above.

Explanation:

For an 8-km tangent, Earth curves downward 5 m.

Therefore, a projectile traveling horizontally at 8 km/s will

fall 5 m in that time, and follow the curve of Earth.

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CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When a satellite travels at a constant speed, the

shape of its path is

A. a circle.

B. an ellipse.

C. an oval that is almost elliptical.

D. a circle with a square corner, as seen

throughout your book.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When a satellite travels at a constant speed, the

shape of its path is

A. a circle.

B. an ellipse.

C. an oval that is almost elliptical.

D. a circle with a square corner, as seen

throughout your book.

A payload into orbit requires control over

direction of rocket.

Initially, rocket is fired vertically, then tipped.

Once above the atmosphere, the rocket is aimed horizontally.

speed of rocket

Payload is given a final thrust to orbital speed of 8 km/s to fall

around Earth and become an Earth satellite.

Elliptical Orbits

A projectile just above the atmosphere will follow

an elliptical path if given a horizontal speed

greater than 8 km/s.

Ellipse

specific curve, an oval path

Example: A circle is a special

case of an ellipse when its two

foci coincide.

Elliptical Orbits

Elliptical orbit

Speed of satellite varies.

Initially, if speed is greater than needed for circular

orbit, satellite overshoots a circular path and moves

away from Earth.

Satellite loses speed and then regains it as it falls

back toward Earth.

It rejoins its original path

with the same speed it

had initially.

Procedure is repeated.

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Elliptical Orbits

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

The speed of a satellite in an elliptical orbit

A. varies.

B. remains constant.

C. acts at right angles to its motion.

D. All of the above.

Elliptical Orbits

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

The speed of a satellite in an elliptical orbit

A. varies.

B. remains constant.

C. acts at right angles to its motion.

D. All of the above.

Comment :

A satellite in an elliptical orbit half the time recedes

from Earth and loses speed and half the time

approaches Earth and gains speed.

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Kepler was assistant to the famous astronomer

Brahe, who directed the world's first observatory.

He used data his mentor Brahe had collected on

planetary motion to figure out the motion of

planets.

He found that the motion of planets was not

circular; rather, it was elliptical.

1st Law: The path of each planet

around the Sun is an ellipse with

the Sun at one focus.

2nd Law: The line from the Sun to

any planet sweeps out equal areas

of space in equal time intervals.

3rd Law: The square of the orbital

period of a planet is directly

proportional to the cube of the average distance

of the planet from the Sun (for all planets).

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Recall the following:

Object in motion possesses KE due to its

motion.

Object above Earth's surface possesses PE

by virtue of its position.

Satellite in orbit possesses KE and PE.

Sum of KE and PE is constant at all points in the

orbit.

PE, KE, and speed in circular orbit:

Unchanged.

distance between the

satellite and center of

the attracting body

does not changePE is

the same everywhere.

no component of force acts

along the direction of motionno change in

speed and KE.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Elliptical Orbit Varies.

PE is greatest when the satellite

is farthest away (apogee).

PE is least when the satellite

is closest (perigee).

KE is least when PE is the

most and vice versa.

At every point in the orbit,

sum of KE and PE is the same.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

When satellite gains altitude and moves against

gravitational force, its speed and KE decrease

and decrease continues to the apogee.

Past the apogee, satellite moves

in the same direction as the force

component and speed and KE

increase. Increase continues

until past the perigee and cycle

repeats.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Escape Speed

First probe to escape the solar system was

Pioneer 10, launched from Earth in 1972.

Accomplished by directing the probe into the

path of oncoming Jupiter

Escape Speed

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

When a projectile achieves escape speed from

Earth, it

A. forever leaves Earth's gravitational field.

B. outruns the influence of Earth's gravity, but

is never beyond it.

C. comes to an eventual stop, returning to Earth at

some future time.

D. All of the above.

Escape Speed

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

When a projectile achieves escape speed from

Earth, it

A. forever leaves Earth's gravitational field.

B. outruns the influence of Earth's gravity, but

is never beyond it.

C. comes to an eventual stop, returning to Earth at

some future time.

D. All of the above.

Escape Speed

Voyages to the Moon, Mars, and beyond begin

with launches that exceed escape speed from

Earth.

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