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Lecture Outline

Chapter 1:

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What Science Is
Scientific Measurements
MathematicsThe Language of Science
Scientific Methods
The Scientific Attitude
Science, Art, and Religion
Science and Technology
PhysicsThe Basic Science

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What Science Is
Science
is a body of knowledge.
is an ongoing human activity.
has beginnings that precede recorded history.

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Scientific Measurements
Measurements are a hallmark of good science.
"I often say that when you can measure
something and express it in numbers, you know
something about it. When you cannot measure
it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your
knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory
kind. It may be the beginning of knowledge, but
the stage of science, whatever it may be."
Lord Kelvin
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Scientific Measurements
Measurements
relate to how much you know
of pinhole images of the Sun
of the Sun's diameter.

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Scientific Measurements

These round images of the Sun are crescent

shaped during a partial solar eclipse.
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Some Early Scientific Measurements

EratosthenesDiameter of Earth

Some Early Scientific Measurements

AristarchusDistance and Size of the Moon

MathematicsThe Language of Science

Integration of science and mathematics
Occurred some four centuries ago.
Ideas of science are unambiguous when
expressed in mathematical terms.
Equations of science provide expressions of
relationships between concepts
Equations are "guides to thinking."

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Scientific Methods
There is no one scientific method.
In general, scientific methods refer to principles
and procedures for the systematic pursuit of
knowledge involving the recognition and
formulation of a problem, the collection of data
through observation and experiment, and the
formulation and testing of hypotheses.

Scientific MethodsCommon Steps

1. Recognize a question, a puzzle, or an
unexplained fact.
2. Make a hypothesis (educated guess) to resolve
the puzzle.
3. Predict consequences of the hypothesis.
4. Perform experiments or make calculations to
test the predictions.
5. Formulate the simplest general rule that
organizes the three main steps.
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The Scientific Attitude

The scientific attitude is one of
inquiry.
experimentation.

The Scientific Attitude

Scientists
are experts at changing their minds.
must accept experimental findings
test for erroneous beliefs
understand objections and positions of
antagonists.

The Scientific Attitude

Fact is a close
agreement by competent
observers who make a
series of observations
phenomenon.
A scientific hypothesis is
an educated guess that is
only presumed to be
factual until supported by
experiment.
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The Scientific Attitude

Which of these is a scientific hypothesis?
A.
B.
C.
D.

The Moon is made of green cheese.

Atomic nuclei are the smallest particles in nature.
A magnet will pick up a copper penny.
Cosmic rays cannot penetrate the thickness of your
Conceptual Physics textbook.

The Scientific Attitude

Which of these is a scientific hypothesis?
A.
B.
C.
D.

The Moon is made of green cheese.

Atomic nuclei are the smallest particles in nature.
A magnet will pick up a copper penny.
Cosmic rays cannot penetrate the thickness of your
Conceptual Physics textbook.

Explanation:
All are scientific hypotheses!
All have tests for proving wrongness, so they pass the test of being a
scientific hypothesis.
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The Scientific Attitude

Which of these is not a scientific hypothesis?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Protons carry an electric charge.

Undetectable particles are some of nature's secrets.
Charged particles bend when in a magnetic field.
All of the above are scientific hypotheses.

The Scientific Attitude

Which of these is not a scientific hypothesis?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Protons carry an electric charge.

Undetectable particles are some of nature's secrets.
Charged particles bend when in a magnetic field.
All of the above are scientific hypotheses.

Explanation:
Choices A and C can be disproved by experiments.
Choice B has no test for wrongness, so it is not a scientific
hypothesis.
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The Scientific Attitude

Law or principle
A hypothesis that has been tested repeatedly
Theory
A synthesis of a large body of information that
encompasses well-tested and verified
hypotheses about certain aspects of the
natural world

The Scientific Attitude

Which of these often changes over time with further study?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Facts.
Theories.
Both of the above.
Neither of the above.

The Scientific Attitude

Which of these often changes over time with further study?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Facts.
Theories.
Both of the above.
Neither of the above.

Explanation:
Both can change. As we learn new information, we refine
our ideas; likewise in science.
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The Scientific Attitude

A person who says, "that's only a theory" likely doesn't know
that a scientific theory is a
A.
B.
C.
D.

guess.
number of facts.
hypothesis of sorts.
vast synthesis of well-tested hypotheses and facts.

The Scientific Attitude

A person who says, "that's only a theory" likely doesn't know
that a scientific theory is a
A.
B.
C.
D.

guess.
number of facts.
hypothesis of sorts.
vast synthesis of well-tested hypotheses and facts.

Explanation:
The word "theory" in everyday speech is different than its use in science.
In science, only a vast, experimentally verifiable body of knowledge is a
theory.
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Science, Art, and Religion

Comparison of science, art, and religion by
domain:
Science is of the natural order and involves
the discovery and recording of natural
phenomena.
Art is the interpretation and expression of
human experience.
Religion involves faith and worship of a
supreme being.
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Science, Art, and Religion

Similarities between art and in science
Knowledge of what is possible in human
experience and in nature.
Knowledge of both affects our views and
Similarities between religion and in science

The Scientific Attitude

Between a pilot and a priest, who do you think should fly a commercial
jet airplane? Who should perform a marriage? (Although the questions
are no-brainers, they have a point.)
A.
B.
C.
D.

The pilot should fly and the priest should perform a marriage.
The priest should fly and the pilot should perform a marriage.
The pilot should do both.
The priest should do both.

The Scientific Attitude

Between a pilot and a priest, who do you think should fly a commercial
jet airplane? Who should perform a marriage? (Although the questions
are no-brainers, they have a point.)
A.
B.
C.
D.

The pilot should fly and the priest should perform a marriage.
The priest should fly and the pilot should perform a marriage.
The pilot should do both.
The priest should do both.

Explanation:
The pilot and priest have different skills for different tasks, and each
can do their thing well.
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Science and Technology

Science is concerned with gathering and
organizing knowledge.
Technology is the use of scientific knowledge for
practical purposes and to provide tools for
further exploration.

PhysicsThe Basic Science

Physical sciences include geology, astronomy,
chemistry, and physics.
Life sciences include biology, zoology, and
botany.
Physics underlies all the sciences.

The Scientific Attitude

Although physics may be the most difficult science course in certain
schools, when compared with the fields of chemistry, biology, geology,
and astronomy, it is
A.
B.
C.
D.

the simplest.
still the hardest!
the central science, between chemistry and biology.
simple enough, but only for especially intelligent people.

The Scientific Attitude

Although physics may be the most difficult science course in certain
schools, when compared with the fields of chemistry, biology, geology,
and astronomy, it is
A.
B.
C.
D.

the simplest.
still the hardest!
the central science, between chemistry and biology.
simple enough, but only for especially intelligent people.

Explanation:
Your physics text has fewer terms than biology or chemistry texts.
Physics is a much more basic science than other fields.
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Lecture Outline

Chapter 2:
Newton's
First Law of
MotionInertia

Aristotle's Ideas of Motion

Galileo's Concept of Inertia
Newton's First Law of Motion
Net Force and Vectors
The Equilibrium Rule
Support Force
Equilibrium of Moving Things
The Moving Earth

Aristotle's Ideas of Motion

Aristotle's classification of motion
Natural motion
Every object in the universe has a proper
place determined by a combination of four
elements: earth, water, air, and fire.
Any object not in its proper place will strive to
get there.
Examples:
Stones fall.
Puffs of smoke rise.

Aristotle's Ideas of Motion

Natural motion (continued)
Straight up or straight down for all things on Earth
Beyond Earth, motion is circular
Example: The Sun and Moon continually circle Earth.
Violent motion
Produced by external pushes or pulls on objects
Example: Wind imposes motion on ships.

Galileo's Concept of Inertia

Galileo demolished Aristotle's
assertions in the 1500s.
Galileo's discovery:
Objects of different weight fall
to the ground at the same time
in the absence of air
resistance.
A moving object needs no
force to keep it moving in the
absence of friction.
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Galileo's Concept of Inertia

Force
is a push or a pull.
Inertia
is a property of matter to resist changes in
motion.
depends on the amount of matter in an object
(its mass).
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Galileo's Concept of Inertia

Balls rolling on downward-sloping
planes pick up speed.
Balls rolling on upward-sloping
planes lose speed.
So a ball on a horizontal plane
maintains its speed indefinitely.
If the ball comes to rest, it is not
due to its "nature," but due to
friction.
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Galileo's Concept of Inertia

The use of inclined planes for Galileo's experiments helped
him to
A.
B.
C.
D.

eliminate the acceleration of free fall.

discover the concept of energy.
discover the property called inertia.
discover the concept of momentum

Galileo's Concept of Inertia

The use of inclined planes for Galileo's experiments helped
him to
A.
B.
C.
D.

eliminate the acceleration of free fall.

discover the concept of energy.
discover the property called inertia.
discover the concept of momentum.

Comment:
Note that inertia is a property of matter, not a reason for the
behavior of matter.
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Newton's First Law of Motion

Every object continues in a state of rest or of
uniform speed in a straight line unless acted on
by a nonzero net force.

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Net Force
Vector quantity
a quantity whose description requires both
magnitude (how much) and direction (which
way)
can be represented by arrows drawn to scale,
called vectors
length of arrow represents magnitude and
Examples: force, velocity, acceleration
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Net Force
Net force is the combination of all forces that act
on an object.
Example: Two 5-N pulls in the same direction
produce a 10-N pull (net force of 10 N). If the
pair of 5-N pulls are in opposite directions,
the net force is zero.

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Net Force
A cart is pulled to the right with a force of 15 N
while being pulled to the left with a force of 20 N.
The net force on the cart is

A.
B.
C.
D.

5 N to the left.
5 N to the right.
25 N to the left.
25 N to the right.

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Net Force
A cart is pulled to the right with a force of 15 N
while being pulled to the left with a force of 20 N.
The net force on the cart is

A.
B.
C.
D.

5 N to the left.
5 N to the right.
25 N to the left.
25 N to the right.

The two forces are in opposite

directions, so they subtract.
The direction is determined by
the direction of the larger force.

Net Force
What is the net force acting on the box?
A.
B.
C.
D.

15 N to the left
15 N to the right
5 N to the left
5 N to the right

?
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Net Force
What is the net force acting on the box?
A.
B.
C.
D.

15 N to the left
15 N to the right
5 N to the left
5 N to the right

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Vectors
Vector quantity
has magnitude and direction.
is represented by an arrow.
Example: velocity, force, acceleration
Scalar quantity
has magnitude.
Example: mass, volume, speed
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Vectors
Resultant
The sum of two or more vectors
For vectors in the same direction, add arithmetically.
For vectors in opposite directions, subtract
arithmetically.
Two vectors that don't act in the same or opposite
direction:
use parallelogram rule.

Two vectors at right angles to each other

use Pythagorean Theorem: R2 = V2 + H2.
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Vectors
Referring to the figure, which of the following are true
statements?
A. 50 N is the resultant of the 30- and the 40-N vectors.
B. The 30-N vector can be considered a component of the
50-N vector.
C. The 40-N vector can be considered
a component of the 50-N vector.
D. All of the above are correct.

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Vectors
Referring to the figure, which of the following are true
statements?
A. 50 N is the resultant of the 30- and the 40-N vectors.
B. The 30-N vector can be considered a component of the
50-N vector.
C. The 40-N vector can be considered
a component of the 50-N vector.
D. All of the above are correct.

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Vectors
Nellie Newton hangs from a rope
as shown.
Which side has the greater tension?
There are three forces acting on
Nellie:
her weight, mg,
a tension in the left-hand side of
the rope,
and a tension in the right-hand
side of the rope.

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Vectors
Because of the different angles, different rope tensions will occur in
each side.
Nellie hangs in equilibrium, so her weight is supported by two rope
tensions, adding vectorially to be equal and opposite to her weight.
The parallelogram rule shows that the tension in the right-hand is
greater than the tension in the left-hand side of the rope.

The Equilibrium Rule: Example

A string holding up a bag of flour
Two forces act on the bag of flour:
Tension force in string acts
upward.
Force due to gravity acts
downward.
Both are equal in magnitude and
opposite in direction.
When added, they cancel to zero.
So, the bag of flour remains at
rest.
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The Equilibrium Rule

The vector sum of forces acting on a
nonaccelerating object equals zero.
In equation form: F = 0.

The red arrows represent force vectors. The sum of the two upward
force vectors minus the sum of the three bottom force vectors,
equals zero. We say the forces cancel to zero, and the system of
Burl, Paul, and the staging is in equilibrium.
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The Equilibrium Rule

The equilibrium rule, F = 0, applies to
A.
B.
C.
D.

vector quantities.
scalar quantities.
Both of the above.
None of the above.

The Equilibrium Rule

The equilibrium rule, F = 0, applies to
A.
B.
C.
D.

vector quantities.
scalar quantities.
Both of the above.
None of the above.

Explanation:
Vector addition accounts for + and quantities. So,
two vectors in opposite directions can add to zero.
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Support Force
Support force (normal force) is an upward force
on an object that is opposite to the force of
gravity.

Example: A book on a table compresses

atoms in the table, and the compressed
atoms produce the support force.

Understanding Support Force

When you push down on a
spring, the spring pushes
back up on you.

Similarly, when a book

pushes down on a table,
the table pushes back up
on the book.

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Support Force
When you stand on two bathroom scales with one foot on each scale
A.
B.
C.
D.

zero.

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Support Force
When you stand on two bathroom scales with one foot on each scale
A.
B.
C.
D.

zero.

Explanation:
You are at rest, so F = 0.
Force from each scale is one-half your weight.
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Equilibrium of Moving Things

Equilibrium: a state of no change with no net
force acting
Static equilibrium
Example: hockey puck at rest on slippery ice
Dynamic equilibrium
Example: hockey puck sliding at constant
speed on slippery ice

Equilibrium of Moving Things

Equilibrium test: whether something undergoes
change in motion
Example: A crate at rest is in static
equilibrium (no change in motion).
Example: When pushed at a steady speed, it
is in dynamic equilibrium (no change in
motion).

Equilibrium of Moving Things

A bowling ball is in equilibrium when it
A.
B.
C.
D.

is at rest.
moves steadily in a straight-line path.
Both of the above.
None of the above.

Equilibrium of Moving Things

A bowling ball is in equilibrium when it
A.
B.
C.
D.

is at rest.
moves steadily in a straight-line path.
Both of the above.
None of the above.

Explanation:
Equilibrium means no change in motion, so there are two
options:
If at rest, it continues at rest.
If in motion, it continues at a steady rate in a straight line.
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Equilibrium of Moving Things

You push a crate at a steady speed in a straight line. If the
friction force is 75 N, how much force must you apply?
A.
B.
C.
D.

More than 75 N.
Less than 75 N.
Equal to 75 N.
Not enough information.

Equilibrium of Moving Things

You push a crate at a steady speed in a straight line. If the
friction force is 75 N, how much force must you apply?
A.
B.
C.
D.

More than 75 N.
Less than 75 N.
Equal to 75 N.
Not enough information.

Explanation:
The crate is in dynamic equilibrium, so, F = 0.
Your applied force balances the force of friction.
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The Moving Earth

Copernicus proposed that Earth
was moving, circulating the Sun.
This idea was refuted by people.
Example: If Earth moved, how
could a bird swoop from a
branch to catch a worm?
Solution: As it swoops, due to
inertia, it continues to move
sideways at the speed of Earth
along with the tree, worm, etc.
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The Moving Earth

You are riding in a vehicle at a steady speed and toss a
coin straight upward. Where will the coin land?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Behind you.
There is not enough information.

The Moving Earth

You are riding in a vehicle at a steady speed and toss a
coin straight upward. Where will the coin land?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Behind you.
There is not enough information.

Explanation:
Due to the coin's inertia, it continues sideways with the
same speed as the vehicle in its up-and-down motion,
which is why it lands in your hand.
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Lecture Outline

Chapter 3:
Linear Motion

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Motion Is Relative
Speed
Velocity
Acceleration
Free Fall
Velocity Vectors

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Motion Is Relative
Motion of objects is always described as relative
to something else. For example:
relative to Earth, but
Earth is moving relative
to the Sun.
to the Sun is different from
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Speed
Defined as the distance covered per amount of
travel time.
Units are meters per second.
In equation form:

distance
Speed =
time
Example: A girl runs 4 meters in 2 s. Her speed
is 2 m/s.
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Average Speed
The total distance covered divided by the total
travel time.
Doesn't indicate various instantaneous
speeds along the way.
In equation form:
total distance covered
Average speed
time interval

Example: Drive a distance of 200 km in 2 h and

your average speed is 100 km/h.
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Average Speed
The average speed of driving 30 km in 1 hour is the same as the
average speed of driving
A.
B.
C.
D.

30 km in 1/2 hour.
30 km in 2 hours.
60 km in 1/2 hour.
60 km in 2 hours.

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Average Speed
The average speed of driving 30 km in 1 hour is the same as the
average speed of driving
A.
B.
C.
D.

30 km in 1/2 hour.
30 km in 2 hours.
60 km in 1/2 hour.
60 km in 2 hours.

Explanation:
Average speed = total distance / time
So, average speed = 30 km / 1 h = 30 km/h.
Now, if we drive 60 km in 2 hours:
Average speed = 60 km / 2 h = 30 km/h
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Same

Instantaneous Speed
Instantaneous speed is the speed at any instant.
Example:
When you ride in your car, you may speed up
and slow down with speed at any instant that
is normally quite different than your average
speed.
Your instantaneous speed is given by your
speedometer.

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Velocity
A description of both
the instantaneous speed of the object.
the direction of travel.
Velocity is a vector quantity. It has
Magnitude (speed) and Direction.
Velocity is "directed" speed.

Speed and Velocity

Constant speed is steady speed, neither
speeding up nor slowing down.
Constant velocity is
constant speed and
constant direction (straight-line path with no
acceleration).
Motion is relative to Earth, unless otherwise
stated.

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Acceleration
Formulated by Galileo based on
his experiments with inclined
planes.
Rate at which velocity changes
over time.

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Acceleration
Involves a
change in speed, or
change in direction, or
both.
Example: Car making a turn.

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Acceleration
In equation form:
Acceleration =

change in velocity
time interval

Unit of acceleration is unit of velocity / unit of time.

Example:
Your car's speed may presently be 40 km/h.
Your car's speed 5 s later is 45 km/h.
Your car's change in speed is 45 40 = 5 km/h.
Your car's acceleration is 5 km/h5 s = 1 km/hs.
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Acceleration
An automobile is accelerating when it is

A.
B.
C.
D.

slowing down to a stop.

rounding a curve at a steady speed.
Both of the above.
Neither of the above.

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Acceleration
An automobile is accelerating when it is

A.
B.
C.
D.

slowing down to a stop.

rounding a curve at a steady speed.
Both of the above.
Neither of the above.

Explanation:
Change in speed (increase or decrease) per time is acceleration, so
slowing is acceleration.
Change in direction is acceleration (even if speed stays the same),
so rounding a curve is acceleration.
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Acceleration
Acceleration and velocity are actually

A.
B.
C.
D.

the same.
rates but for different quantities.
the same when direction is not a factor.
the same when an object is freely falling.

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Acceleration
Acceleration and velocity are actually

A.
B.
C.
D.

the same.
rates but for different quantities.
the same when direction is not a factor.
the same when an object is freely falling.

Explanation:
Velocity is the rate at which distance traveled changes over time,
Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes over time.

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Acceleration
Galileo increased the inclination of inclined planes.
Steeper inclines result in greater accelerations.
When the incline is vertical, acceleration is at
maximum, the same as that of a falling object.
When air resistance is negligible, all objects fall with
the same unchanging acceleration.

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Free Fall
Falling under the influence of gravity only-with
no air resistance
Freely falling objects on Earth accelerate at the
rate of 10 m/ss, that is, 10 m/s2 (more precisely,
9.8 m/s2).

Free FallHow Fast?

The velocity acquired by an object
starting from rest is
Velocity = acceleration time
So, under free fall, when
acceleration is 10 m/s2, the speed is
10 m/s after 1 s.
20 m/s after 2 s.
30 m/s after 3 s.
And so on.
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Free FallHow Fast?

At a particular instant a free-falling object has a speed of
30 m/s. Exactly 1 s later its speed will be
A.
B.
C.
D.

the same.
35 m/s.
more than 35 m/s.
60 m/s.

Free FallHow Fast?

At a particular instant a free-falling object has a speed of
30 m/s. Exactly 1 s later its speed will be
A.
B.
C.
D.

the same.
35 m/s.
more than 35 m/s.
60 m/s.

Explanation:
One second later its speed will be 40 m/s, which is more
than 35 m/s.
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Free FallHow Far?

The distance covered by an accelerating object
starting from rest is
Distance = (1/2) acceleration time time
Under free fall, when acceleration is 10 m/s2, the
distance fallen is
5 m/s after 1 s.
20 m/s after 2 s.
45 m/s after 3 s.
And so on.
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Free FallHow Far?

What is the distance fallen after 4 s for a freely falling object starting
from rest?
A.
B.
C.
D.

4m
16 m
40 m
80 m

Free FallHow Far?

What is the distance fallen after 4 s for a freely falling object starting
from rest?
A.
B.
C.
D.

4m
16 m
40 m
80 m

Explanation:
Distance = (1/2) acceleration time time
So:
Distance = (1/2) 10 m/s2 4 s 4 s
So:
Distance = 80 m
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Vectors
The 60-km/h crosswind blows the 80-km/h airplane off
course at 100 km/h. If the crosswind were 80 km/h, the
airplane would travel at 113 km/h at an angle of
A.
B.
C.
D.

less than 45 degrees.

45 degrees.
more than 45 degrees.
None of the above are correct.

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Vectors
The 60-km/h crosswind blows the 80-km/h airplane off
course at 100 km/h. If the crosswind were 80 km/h, the
airplane would travel at 113 km/h at an angle of
A.
B.
C.
D.

less than 45 degrees.

45 degrees.
more than 45 degrees.
None of the above are correct.

Comment:
The parallelogram would then be a square with a 45-degree diagonal.
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Vectors
You run horizontally at 4 m/s in a vertically falling rain that falls at 4 m/s.
Relative to you, the raindrops are falling at an angle of
A.
B.
C.
D.

0.
45.
53.
90.

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Vectors
You run horizontally at 4 m/s in a vertically falling rain that falls at 4 m/s.
Relative to you, the raindrops are falling at an angle of
A.
B.
C.
D.

0.
45.
53.
90.

Explanation:
The horizontal 4 m/s and vertical 4 m/s combine by the parallelogram
rule to produce a resultant of 5.6 m/s at 45. Again, the parallelogram is
a square.
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Lecture Outline

Chapter 4:
Newton's Second
Law of Motion

Force Causes Acceleration

Friction
Mass and Weight
Newton's Second Law of Motion
Free Fall
Nonfree Fall

Force Causes Acceleration

Acceleration is directly proportional to net force.
To increase the acceleration of an object,
increase the net force acting on it.

The Force of Friction

Depends on the kinds of material and how much they
are pressed together.
Is due to tiny surface bumps and to "stickiness" of the
atoms on a material's surface.

Example: Friction between a crate on a smooth wooden

floor is less than that on a rough floor.
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The Force of Friction

The force of friction can occur
A.
B.
C.
D.

with sliding objects.

in water.
in air.
All of the above.

The Force of Friction

The force of friction can occur
A.
B.
C.
D.

with sliding objects.

in water.
in air.
All of the above.

Comment:
Friction can also occur for objects at rest. If you push horizontally on
your book and it doesn't move, then friction between the book and the
table is equal and opposite to your push.
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The Force of Friction

When Sanjay pushes a refrigerator across a kitchen floor at
a constant speed, the force of friction between the
refrigerator and the floor is
A.
B.
C.
D.

less than Sanjay's push.

equal to Sanjay's push.
equal and opposite to Sanjay's push.
more than Sanjay's push.

The Force of Friction

When Sanjay pushes a refrigerator across a kitchen floor at
a constant speed, the force of friction between the
refrigerator and the floor is
A.
B.
C.
D.

less than Sanjay's push.

equal to Sanjay's push.
equal and opposite to Sanjay's push.
more than Sanjay's push.

The Force of Friction

When Sanjay pushes a refrigerator across a kitchen floor at an
increasing speed, the amount of friction between the refrigerator and
the floor is
A.
B.
C.
D.

less than Sanjay's push.

equal to Sanjay's push.
equal and opposite to Sanjay's push.
more than Sanjay's push.

The Force of Friction

When Sanjay pushes a refrigerator across a kitchen floor at an
increasing speed, the amount of friction between the refrigerator and
the floor is
A.
B.
C.
D.

less than Sanjay's push.

equal to Sanjay's push.
equal and opposite to Sanjay's push.
more than Sanjay's push.

Explanation:
The increasing speed indicates a net force greater than zero.
The refrigerator is not in equilibrium.
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Mass and Weight

Mass: The quantity of matter in an object. It is
also the measure of the inertia or sluggishness
that an object exhibits in response to any effort
made to start it, stop it, or change its state of
motion in any way.
Weight: Usually the force upon an object due to
gravity.

Mass and Weight

Mass
A measure of the inertia of a material object
Independent of gravity Greater inertia greater mass
Unit of measurement is the kilogram (kg)
Weight
Usually the force on an object due to gravity
Scientific unit of force is the newton (N)
Unit is also the pound (lb)
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MassA Measure of Inertia

If the mass of an object is halved, the weight of the object
is
A.
B.
C.
D.

halved.
twice.
depends on location.
None of the above.

MassA Measure of Inertia

If the mass of an object is halved, the weight of the object
is
A.
B.
C.
D.

halved.
twice.
depends on location.
None of the above.

Comment:
Weight and mass are directly proportional to each other.
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Mass and Weight

Mass and weight in everyday conversation are
interchangeable.
Mass, however, is different and more fundamental than
weight.
Mass versus weight
On the Moon and Earth:
Weight of an object on the Moon
is less than on Earth.
Mass of an object is the same
in both locations.
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Mass and Weight

1 kilogram weighs 10 newtons (9.8 newtons, to
be precise).
Relationship between kilograms and pounds:
1 kg = 2.2 lb = 10 N at Earth's surface
1 lb = 4.45 N

Mass and Weight

When the string is pulled down slowly, the top string
breaks, which best illustrates the
A.
B.
C.
D.

weight of the ball.

mass of the ball.
volume of the ball.
density of the ball.

Mass and Weight

When the string is pulled down slowly, the top string
breaks, which best illustrates the
A.
B.
C.
D.

weight of the ball.

mass of the ball.
volume of the ball.
density of the ball.

Explanation:
Tension in the top string is the pulling tension plus the
weight of the ball, both of which break the top string.
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Mass and Weight

When the string is pulled down quickly, the bottom string
breaks, which best illustrates the
A.
B.
C.
D.

weight of the ball.

mass of the ball.
volume of the ball.
density of the ball.

Mass and Weight

When the string is pulled down quickly, the bottom string
breaks, which best illustrates the
A.
B.
C.
D.

weight of the ball.

mass of the ball.
volume of the ball.
density of the ball.

Explanation:
It is the "laziness" of the ball that tends to keep it at rest,
resulting in the breaking of the bottom string.
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Mass Resists Acceleration

The same force applied to
twice the mass produces half the acceleration.
3 times the mass, produces 1/3 the
acceleration.

1
Acceleration ~
mass
Acceleration is inversely proportional to mass.
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Newton's Second Law of Motion

Isaac Newton was the first to connect the
concepts of force and mass to produce
acceleration.

Newton's Second Law of Motion

Newton's second law (the law of acceleration)
relates acceleration and force.
The acceleration produced by a net force on
an object is directly proportional to the net
force, is in the same direction as the net
force, and is inversely proportional to the
mass of the object.

Newton's Second Law of Motion

In equation form:
Acceleration

net force
mass

Example:
If net force acting on object is doubled
object's acceleration will be doubled.
If mass of object is doubled
object's acceleration will be halved.
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Newton's Second Law of Motion

Consider a cart pushed along a track with a certain force. If the force
remains the same while the mass of the cart decreases to half, the
acceleration of the cart
A.
B.
C.
D.

remains relatively the same.

halves.
doubles.
changes unpredictably.

Newton's Second Law of Motion

Consider a cart pushed along a track with a certain force. If the force
remains the same while the mass of the cart decreases to half, the
acceleration of the cart
A.
B.
C.
D.

remains relatively the same.

halves.
doubles.
changes unpredictably.

Explanation:
Acceleration = net force / mass
Because, mass is in the denominator, acceleration increases as mass
decreases. So, if mass is halved, acceleration doubles.
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Newton's Second Law of Motion

Push a cart along a track so twice as much net force acts on it. If the
acceleration remains the same, what is a reasonable explanation?
A.
B.
C.
D.

The mass of the cart doubled when the force doubled.

The cart experiences a force that it didn't before.
The track is not level.
Friction reversed direction.

Newton's Second Law of Motion

Push a cart along a track so twice as much net force acts on it. If the
acceleration remains the same, what is a reasonable explanation?
A.
B.
C.
D.

The mass of the cart doubled when the force doubled.

The cart experiences a force that it didn't before.
The track is not level.
Friction reversed direction.

Explanation:
Acceleration = net force / mass
If force doubles, acceleration will also double. But it does not, so mass
must also double to cancel the effects of force doubling.
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Free Fall
The greater the mass of the object
the greater its force of attraction toward
the Earth.
the smaller its tendency to move, that
is, the greater its inertia.
So, acceleration of both sets of bricks
is the same. (Twice the force on twice
the mass gives the same acceleration
g!)
The acceleration of both sets of bricks
is the same, 10 m/s2 (more precisely,
9.8 m/s2).

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Free Fall
At one instant, an object in free fall has a speed of 40 m/s.
Its speed 1 second later is
A.
B.
C.
D.

also 40 m/s.
45 m/s.
50 m/s.
None of the above.

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Free Fall
At one instant, an object in free fall has a speed of 40 m/s.
Its speed 1 second later is
A.
B.
C.
D.

also 40 m/s.
45 m/s.
50 m/s.
None of the above.

Comment:
We assume the object is falling downward. If it were traveling upward
with no force on it but gravity, it would nevertheless be in "free fall."
Then 1 second later its speed would be 30 m/s.
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Free Fall
A 5-kg iron ball and a 10-kg iron ball are dropped
from rest. For negligible air resistance, the
acceleration of the heavier ball will be
A.
B.
C.
D.

less.
the same.
more.
undetermined.

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Free Fall
A 5-kg iron ball and a 10-kg iron ball are dropped
from rest. For negligible air resistance, the
acceleration of the heavier ball will be
A.
B.
C.
D.

less.
the same.
more.
undetermined.

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Free Fall
A 5-kg iron ball and a 10-kg iron ball are dropped from rest.
When the free-falling 5-kg ball reaches a speed of 10 m/s,
the speed of the free-falling 10-kg ball is
A.
B.
C.
D.

less than 10 m/s.

10 m/s.
more than 10 m/s.
undetermined.

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Free Fall
A 5-kg iron ball and a 10-kg iron ball are dropped from rest.
When the free-falling 5-kg ball reaches a speed of 10 m/s,
the speed of the free-falling 10-kg ball is
A.
B.
C.
D.

less than 10 m/s.

10 m/s.
more than 10 m/s.
undetermined.

Comment:
Note both are in "free fall." Hence their equal speeds.
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Nonfree Fall
When an object falls downward through the air it
experiences
force of gravity pulling it downward.
air drag force acting upward.

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Nonfree Fall
The condition of nonfree fall
occurs when air resistance is nonnegligible.
depends on two things:
speed and
frontal surface area.

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Nonfree Fall
When the object is moving fast enough so that
air resistance builds up to equal the force of
gravity.

Then no net force

No acceleration
Velocity does not change

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Nonfree Fall
Terminal speed
occurs when acceleration terminates (when
air resistance equals weight and net force is
zero).
Terminal velocity
same as terminal speed, with direction
implied or specified.

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Nonfree FallExample
A skydiver in fall after jumping from a plane.
Weight and air resistance act on the falling
object.
As falling speed increases, air resistance on
diver builds up, net force is reduced, and
acceleration becomes less.
When air resistance equals the diver's weight,
net force is zero and acceleration terminates.
Diver reaches terminal velocity, then continues
the fall at constant speed.
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Nonfree Fall
When a 20-N falling object encounters 5 N of air
resistance, its acceleration of fall is
A.
B.
C.
D.

less than g.
more than g.
g.
terminated.

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Nonfree Fall
When a 20-N falling object encounters 5 N of air
resistance, its acceleration of fall is
A.
B.
C.
D.

less than g.
more than g.
g.
terminated.

Comment:
Acceleration of a nonfree fall is always less than g.
Acceleration will actually be (20 N 5 N)/2 kg = 7.5 m/s2.
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Nonfree Fall
If a 50-N person is to fall at terminal speed, the air
resistance needed is
A.
B.
C.
D.

less than 50 N.
50 N.
more than 50 N.
None of the above.

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Nonfree Fall
If a 50-N person is to fall at terminal speed, the air
resistance needed is
A.
B.
C.
D.

less than 50 N.
50 N.
more than 50 N.
None of the above.

Explanation:
Then, F = 0 and acceleration = 0.
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Nonfree Fall
As the skydiver falls faster and faster through the
air, air resistance
A.
B.
C.
D.

increases.
decreases.
remains the same.
Not enough information.

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Nonfree Fall
As the skydiver falls faster and faster through the
air, air resistance
A.
B.
C.
D.

increases.
decreases.
remains the same.
Not enough information.

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Nonfree Fall
As the skydiver continues to fall faster and faster
through the air, net force
A.
B.
C.
D.

increases.
decreases.
remains the same.
Not enough information.

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Nonfree Fall
As the skydiver continues to fall faster and faster
through the air, net force
A.
B.
C.
D.

increases.
decreases.
remains the same.
Not enough information.

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Nonfree Fall
As the skydiver continues to fall faster and faster through
the air, her acceleration
A.
B.
C.
D.

increases.
decreases.
remains the same.
Not enough information.

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Nonfree Fall
As the skydiver continues to fall faster and faster through
the air, her acceleration
A.
B.
C.
D.

increases.
decreases.
remains the same.
Not enough information.

Comment:
If this question were asked first in the sequence of skydiver questions,
many would answer it incorrectly. Would this have been you?
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Nonfree Fall
Consider a heavy and a light person jumping together with same-size
parachutes from the same altitude. Who will reach the ground first?
A.
B.
C.
D.

The light person

The heavy person
Both will reach at the same time.
Not enough information.

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Nonfree Fall
Consider a heavy and a light person jumping together with same-size
parachutes from the same altitude. Who will reach the ground first?
A.
B.
C.
D.

The light person

The heavy person
Both will reach at the same time.
Not enough information.

Explanation:
They both have the same drag force (for the same speed).
The heavier person has a greater downward force than the lighter person.
The heavier one has to drop farther to receive a drag force equal to the
downward force, and so has a higher terminal velocity.
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Free Fall Versus Nonfree Fall

Coin and feather fall while air is present
Feather reaches terminal velocity very
quickly and falls slowly at constant
speed, reaching the bottom after the
coin does.
Coin falls very quickly and air resistance
doesn't build up to its weight over
short-falling distances, which is why
the coin hits the bottom much sooner
than the falling feather.
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Nonfree Fall
When the air is removed by a vacuum pump and the coin
and feather activity is repeated,
A.
B.
C.
D.

the feather hits the bottom first, before the coin hits.
the coin hits the bottom first, before the feather hits.
both the coin and feather drop together side by side.
Not enough information.

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Nonfree Fall
When the air is removed by a vacuum pump and the coin
and feather activity is repeated,
A.
B.
C.
D.

the feather hits the bottom first, before the coin hits.
the coin hits the bottom first, before the feather hits.
both the coin and feather drop together side by side.
Not enough information.

Free Fall Versus Nonfree Fall

Coin and feather fall in vacuum
There is no air, because it is vacuum.
So, no air resistance.
Coin and feather fall together.

Lecture Outline

Chapter 5:
Newton's Third
Law of Motion

Forces and Interactions

Newton's Third Law of Motion
Vectors and the Third Law
Summary of Newton's Three Laws of Motion

Forces and Interactions

Interaction
is between one thing and another.
requires a pair of forces acting on two objects.
Example: interaction of hand and
wall pushing on each other
Force pairyou push on
wall; wall pushes on you.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Whenever one object
exerts a force on a second
object, the second object
exerts an equal and
opposite force on the first.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

A soccer player kicks a ball with 1500 N of force.
The ball exerts a reaction force against the
player's foot of

A.
B.
C.
D.

somewhat less than 1500 N.

1500 N.
somewhat more than 1500 N.
None of the above.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

A soccer player kicks a ball with 1500 N of force.
The ball exerts a reaction force against the
player's foot of

A.
B.
C.
D.

somewhat less than 1500 N.

1500 N.
somewhat more than 1500 N.
None of the above.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Action and reaction forces
one force is called the action force; the other
force is called the reaction force.
are co-pairs of a single interaction.
neither force exists without the other.
are equal in strength and opposite in direction.
always act on different objects.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Re-expression of Newton's third law:
To every action there is always an opposed
equal reaction.
Example: Tires of car push back against the
forward.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Simple rule to identify action and reaction
Identify the interactionone thing interacts
with another
Action: Object A exerts a force on object B.
Reaction: Object B exerts a force on object A.
Example: Actionrocket (object A) exerts force on
gas (object B).
Reactiongas (object B) exerts force on
rocket (object A).

Newton's Third Law of Motion

When you step off a curb, Earth pulls you
downward. The reaction to this force is
A.
B.
C.
D.

a slight air resistance.

nonexistent in this case.
you pulling Earth upward.
None of the above.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

When you step off a curb, Earth pulls you
downward. The reaction to this force is
A.
B.
C.
D.

a slight air resistance.

nonexistent in this case.
you pulling Earth upward.
None of the above.

Comment:
Due to the enormous mass of Earth, don't look for evidence
of the upward pull on Earth!
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Newton's Third Law of Motion

When you step off a curb, Earth pulls you downward and you pull Earth
upward. Why do you not sense Earth moving upward toward you?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Earth is fixed, so it cannot move.

Earth can move, but other objects on it prevent it from moving.
It moves, but by an imperceptible amount.
None of the above.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

When you step off a curb, Earth pulls you downward and you pull Earth
upward. Why do you not sense Earth moving upward toward you?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Earth is fixed, so it cannot move.

Earth can move, but other objects on it prevent it from moving.
It moves, but by an imperceptible amount.
None of the above.

Explanation:
The force you exert on Earth is just as much as the force Earth exerts
on you. You move more than Earth does because Earth's mass is
enormously greater than your mass. Earth's tiny motion is less than you
can perceive. (Can you accept what you can't see?)
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Newton's Third Law of Motion

Action and Reaction on Different Masses
Cannonball: F = a
m

Cannon: F = a

The same force exerted on a small mass

produces a large acceleration.
The same force exerted on a large mass
produces a small acceleration.
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Newton's Third Law of Motion

When a cannon is fired, the accelerations of the cannon
and cannonball are different because the
A. forces don't occur at the same time.
B. forces, although theoretically the same, in practice are
not.
C. masses are different.
D. ratios of force to mass are the same.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

When a cannon is fired, the accelerations of the cannon
and cannonball are different because the
A. forces don't occur at the same time.
B. forces, although theoretically the same, in practice are
not.
C. masses are different.
D. ratios of force to mass are the same.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Consider a high-speed bus colliding head-on with a flying bug. The
force of impact splatters the unfortunate bug over the windshield.
Which is greater, the force on the bug or the force on the bus?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Bug
Bus
Both the same amount.
Cannot say

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Consider a high-speed bus colliding head-on with a flying bug. The
force of impact splatters the unfortunate bug over the windshield.
Which is greater, the force on the bug or the force on the bus?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Bug
Bus
Both the same amount.
Cannot say

Comment:
Although the forces are equal in magnitude, the effects are very
different. Do you know why?
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Newton's Third Law of Motion

Two people of equal mass on slippery ice push off from each other. Will
both move at the same speed in opposite directions?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Yes
Yes, but only if both push equally.
No
No, unless acceleration occurs.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Two people of equal mass on slippery ice push off from each other. Will
both move at the same speed in opposite directions?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Yes
Yes, but only if both push equally.
No
No, unless acceleration occurs.

Explanation:
In whatever way they push, equal-magnitude forces acting on equal
masses produce equal accelerations; therefore, both undergo equal
changes in speed.
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Newton's Third Law of Motion

Consider a single enclosed orange.
Applied external force causes the orange to
accelerate in accord with Newton's second law.
We see here only the action force (red vector).

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Consider the orange and the apple pulling on it.
Action and reaction do not cancel (because they act
on different objects).
External force by apple accelerates the orange.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Consider a system comprising both the
orange and the apple.
The apple is no longer external to the system.
Force pair is internal to the system, which doesn't
cause acceleration.
Action and reaction within the system cancel.
With no external forces, there is no acceleration of
the system.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Aha! Here's the same system, but with external
force of friction on it (friction between the apple's
feet and the floor).
External frictional force of the floor accelerates
the system.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

The apple-orange system will move with constant speed if
A.
B.
C.
D.

the orange loses mass.

the apple gains mass.
a force equal and opposite to the friction force occurs.
None of the above.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

The apple-orange system will move with constant speed if
A. the orange loses mass.
B. the apple gains mass.
C. a force equal and opposite to the friction force
occurs.
D. None of the above.

Comment:
Such a force may be floor friction on the cart wheels, or even
a force produced by an opposing wind.
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Newton's Third Law of Motion

Consider the flight of a helicopter. When lift is
greater than the helicopter's weight, the helicopter
A.
B.
C.
D.

moves downward.
moves upward.
hovers in midair.
None of the above.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Consider the flight of a helicopter. When lift is
greater than the helicopter's weight, the helicopter
A.
B.
C.
D.

moves downward.
moves upward.
hovers in midair.
None of the above.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

A bird flies by
A. flapping its wings.
B. pushing air down so that the air pushes it
upward.
C. hovering in midair.
D. inhaling and exhaling air.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

A bird flies by
A. flapping its wings.
B. pushing air down so that the air pushes it
upward.
C. hovering in midair.
D. inhaling and exhaling air.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Slightly tilted wings of airplanes deflect

A.
B.
C.
D.

oncoming air downward to produce lift.

oncoming air upward to produce lift.
Both A and B.
Neither A nor B.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Slightly tilted wings of airplanes deflect

A.
B.
C.
D.

oncoming air downward to produce lift.

oncoming air upward to produce lift.
Both A and B.
Neither A nor B.

Explanation:
When a wing diverts air downward, it exerts a downward force on the
air. The air simultaneously exerts an upward force on the wing. The
vertical component of this upward force is lift. (The horizontal
component is drag.)
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Newton's Third Law of Motion

Compared with a lightweight glider, a heavier glider would
have to push air
A.
B.
C.
D.

downward with greater force.

downward with the same force.
downward with less force.
None of the above.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Compared with a lightweight glider, a heavier glider would
have to push air
A.
B.
C.
D.

downward with greater force.

downward with the same force.
downward with less force.
None of the above.

Explanation:
The force on the air deflected downward must equal the
weight of the glider.
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Vectors
Vector components
Vertical and horizontal components of a
vector are perpendicular to each other.
Determined by resolution.

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Vectors
Nellie Newton pulls on the sled as shown.
Which component of her force F is greater?
What two other forces (not shown) act on the
sled?

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Vectors
Nellie Newton pulls on the sled as shown.
Which component of her force F is greater?
The horizontal component Fx is greater.

What two other forces (not shown) act on the

sled?
Weight mg and normal N also act on the sled.

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Vectors
Two forces act on the block of ice.
1. As the ramp is raised, which force remains constant?
2. As the ramp is raised, how does the magnitude of N
change?
3. When the ramp is raised 90 degrees (vertical) what is
the net force on the block?

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Vectors
Two forces act on the block of ice.
1. As the ramp is raised, which force remains constant?
mg
2. As the ramp is raised, how does the magnitude of N
change? N decreases with increased angle of the
ramp.
3. When the ramp is raised 90 degrees (vertical) what is
the net force on the block? The net force is mg!

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Vectors
(a) Can you see that N and mg are equal and opposite?
(b) Can you see that N is less on the incline?
(c) Can you see that the resultant of N and mg is the force
propelling Nellie down the hill? And can you see which
component of mg is equal and opposite to N?

Summary of Newton's Three Laws of Motion

Newton's first law of motion (the law of inertia)
An object at rest tends to remain at rest; an object in motion
tends to remain in motion at constant speed along a straight-line
path.
Newton's second law of motion (the law of acceleration)
When a net force acts on an object, the object will accelerate.
The acceleration is directly proportional to the net force and
inversely proportional to the mass.

Newton's third law of motion (the law of action and reaction)

Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the
second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.
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Lecture Outline

Chapter 6:
Momentum

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Momentum
Impulse
Impulse Changes Momentum
Bouncing
Conservation of Momentum
Collisions
More Complicated Collisions

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Momentum
a property of moving things
means inertia in motion
more specifically, mass of an object multiplied by
its velocity
in equation form:
Momentum = mass x velocity

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Momentum
Example:
A moving boulder has more
momentum than a stone rolling
at the same speed.
A fast boulder has more
momentum than a slow boulder.
A boulder at rest has no
momentum.

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Momentum
A moving object has
A.
B.
C.
D.

momentum.
energy.
speed.
All of the above.

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Momentum
A moving object has
A.
B.
C.
D.

momentum.
energy.
speed.
All of the above.

Comment:
We will see in the next chapter that energy in motion is
called kinetic energy.
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Momentum
When the speed of an object is doubled, its
momentum
A. remains unchanged in accord with the
conservation of momentum.
B. doubles.
D. decreases.
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Momentum
When the speed of an object is doubled, its
momentum
A. remains unchanged in accord with the
conservation of momentum.
B. doubles.
D. decreases.
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Impulse
Product of force and time (force x time)
In equation form: Impulse = Ft
Example:
A brief force applied over a short time interval
produces a smaller change in momentum than the
same force applied over a longer time interval.
or
If you push with the same force for twice the time,
you impart twice the impulse and produce twice the
change in momentum.
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Impulse Changes Momentum

The greater the impulse exerted on something,
the greater the change in momentum.
In equation form: Ft = (mv)

Impulse Changes Momentum

When the force that produces an impulse acts for
twice as much time, the impulse is
A.
B.
C.
D.

not changed.
doubled.
halved.

Impulse Changes Momentum

When the force that produces an impulse acts for
twice as much time, the impulse is
A.
B.
C.
D.

not changed.
doubled.
halved.

Impulse Changes Momentum

Case 1: increasing momentum
Apply the greatest force for
as long as possible and you
extend the time of contact.
Force can vary throughout
the duration of contact.
Examples:

Golfer swings a club and

follows through.
Baseball player hits a ball and
follows through.

Impulse Changes Momentum

A cannonball shot from a cannon with a long barrel will emerge with
greater speed because the cannonball receives a greater
A.
B.
C.
D.

average force.
impulse.
Both of the above.
None of the above.

Impulse Changes Momentum

A cannonball shot from a cannon with a long barrel will emerge with
greater speed because the cannonball receives a greater
A.
B.
C.
D.

average force.
impulse.
Both of the above.
None of the above.

Explanation:
The average force on the cannonball will be the same for a short- or
long-barreled cannon. The longer barrel provides for a longer time for
the force to act, and therefore, a greater impulse. (The long barrel also
provides a longer distance for the force to act, providing greater work
and greater kinetic energy to the cannonball.)
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Impulse Changes Momentum

Case 2: decreasing momentum over a long time
extend the time during which momentum is
reduced

Impulse Changes Momentum

A fast-moving car hitting a haystack or hitting a cement wall produces
vastly different results.
1. Do both experience the same change in momentum?
2. Do both experience the same impulse?
3. Do both experience the same force?
A. Yes for all three
B. Yes for 1 and 2
C. No for all three
D. No for 1 and 2

Impulse Changes Momentum

A fast-moving car hitting a haystack or hitting a cement wall produces
vastly different results.
1. Do both experience the same change in momentum?
2. Do both experience the same impulse?
3. Do both experience the same force?
A. Yes for all three
B. Yes for 1 and 2
C. No for all three
D. No for 1 and 2
Explanation:
Although stopping the momentum is the same whether done slowly or
quickly, the force is vastly different. Be sure to distinguish among
momentum, impulse, and force.
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Impulse Changes Momentum

When a dish falls, will the change in momentum be less if it
lands on a carpet than if it lands on a hard floor? (Careful!)
A.
B.
C.
D.

No, both are the same.

Yes, less if it lands on the carpet.
No, less if it lands on a hard floor.
No, more if it lands on a hard floor.

Impulse Changes Momentum

When a dish falls, will the change in momentum be less if it
lands on a carpet than if it lands on a hard floor? (Careful!)
A.
B.
C.
D.

No, both are the same.

Yes, less if it lands on the carpet.
No, less if it lands on a hard floor.
No, more if it lands on a hard floor.

Explanation:
The momentum becomes zero in both cases, so both change by the
same amount. Although the momentum change and impulse are the
same, the force is less when the time of momentum change is extended.
Be careful to distinguish among force, impulse, and momentum.
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Impulse Changes Momentum

Examples:
When a car is out of control, it is better to hit a
haystack than a concrete wall.
Physics reason: Same impulse either way, but extension
of hitting time reduces the force.

Impulse Changes Momentum

Example (continued):
contact with the ground because the extension of
time during your momentum decrease reduces the
force on you.
In boxing, ride with the punch.

Impulse Changes Momentum

Case 3: decreasing momentum over a short time
short time interval produces large force.
Example: Karate expert splits
a stack of bricks by bringing
her arm and hand swiftly
against the bricks with
considerable momentum.
Time of contact is brief and
force of impact is huge.
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Bouncing
Impulses are generally greater when objects
bounce.
Example:
Catching a falling flower pot from a shelf with your
hands. You provide the impulse to reduce its
momentum to zero. If you throw the flower pot up
again, you provide an additional impulse. This
"double impulse" occurs when something bounces.

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Bouncing
Pelton wheel designed to "bounce" water when it
makes a U-turn on impact with the curved paddle

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Conservation of Momentum
Law of conservation of momentum:
In the absence of an external force, the
momentum of a system remains unchanged.

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Conservation of Momentum
Examples:
When a cannon is fired, the force on the cannonball
inside the cannon barrel is equal and opposite to the
force of the cannonball on the cannon.
The cannonball gains momentum, while the cannon
gains an equal amount of momentum in the opposite
directionthe cannon recoils.
When no external force is present, no external impulse is
present, and no change in momentum is possible.

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Conservation of Momentum
Examples (continued):
Internal molecular forces within a baseball
come in pairs, cancel one another out, and
have no effect on the momentum of the ball.
Molecular forces within a baseball have no
effect on its momentum.
Pushing against a car's dashboard has no
effect on its momentum.

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Collisions
For all collisions in the absence of external
forces,
net momentum before collision equals net
momentum after collision.
in equation form:
(net mv)before = (net mv)after

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Collisions
Elastic collision
occurs when colliding objects rebound
without lasting deformation or any generation
of heat.

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Collisions
Inelastic collision
occurs when colliding objects result in
deformation and/or the generation of heat.

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Collisions
Example of elastic collision:
single car moving at 10 m/s collides with another
car of the same mass, m, at rest

From the conservation of momentum,

(net mv)before = (net mv)after
(m x 10)before = (2m x V)after
V = 5 m/s
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Collisions
Freight car A is moving toward identical freight car B that is
at rest. When they collide, both freight cars couple
together. Compared with the initial speed of freight car A,
the speed of the coupled freight cars is
A.
B.
C.
D.

the same.
half.
twice.
None of the above.

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Collisions
Freight car A is moving toward identical freight car B that is
at rest. When they collide, both freight cars couple
together. Compared with the initial speed of freight car A,
the speed of the coupled freight cars is
A.
B.
C.
D.

the same.
half.
twice.
None of the above.

Explanation:
After the collision, the mass of the moving freight cars has doubled.
Can you see that their speed is half the initial velocity of freight car A?
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More Complicated Collisions

Sometimes the colliding objects are not moving
in the same straight line.
In this case you create a parallelogram of the
vectors describing each initial momentum to find
the combined momentum.
Example: collision of two cars at a corner

More Complicated Collisions

Another example:
A firecracker exploding;
the total momentum of
the pieces after the
vectorially to get the
initial momentum of the
firecracker before it
exploded.
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Lecture Outline

Chapter 7:
Energy

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Energy
Work
Power
Mechanical Energy: Potential and Kinetic
Work-Energy Theorem
Conservation of Energy
Machines
Efficiency
Recycled Energy
Energy for Life
Sources of Energy

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Energy
A combination of energy and matter make up the
universe.
Energy
Mover of substances
Both a thing and a process
Observed when it is being transferred or
being transformed
A conserved quantity
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Energy
Property of a system that enables it to do work
Anything that can be turned into heat
Example: Electromagnetic waves from the
Sun
Matter
Substance we can see, smell, and feel
Occupies space

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Work
Work
involves force and distance.
is force x distance.
in equation form: W = Fd.
Two things occur whenever work is done:
application of force
movement of something by that force
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Work
If you push against a stationary brick wall for
several minutes, you do no work
A.
B.
C.
D.

on the wall.
at all.
Both of the above.
None of the above.

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Work
If you push against a stationary brick wall for
several minutes, you do no work
A.
B.
C.
D.

on the wall.
at all.
Both of the above.
None of the above.

Explanation:
You may do work on your muscles, but not on the wall.
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Work
Examples:
Twice as much work is done in
lifting 2 loads 1 story high versus
lifting 1 load the same vertical
distance.
Reason: force needed to lift twice the

Twice as much work is done in

story.
Reason: distance is twice as great.

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Work
Example:
a weightlifter raising a
barbell from the floor
does work on the
barbell.

Unit of work:
newton-meter (Nm) or
joule (J)

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Work
Work is done in lifting a barbell. How much work is
done in lifting a barbell that is twice as heavy the
same distance?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Twice as much
Half as much
The same
Depends on the speed of the lift

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Work
Work is done in lifting a barbell. How much work is
done in lifting a barbell that is twice as heavy the
same distance?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Twice as much
Half as much
The same
Depends on the speed of the lift

Explanation:
This is in accord with work = force x distance. Twice the force for the
same distance means twice the work done on the barbell.
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Work
You do work when pushing a cart with a constant
force. If you push the cart twice as far, then the
work you do is

A.
B.
C.
D.

less than twice as much.

twice as much.
more than twice as much.
zero.

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Work
You do work when pushing a cart with a constant
force. If you push the cart twice as far, then the
work you do is

A.
B.
C.
D.

less than twice as much.

twice as much.
more than twice as much.
zero.

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Power
Power:
Measure of how fast work is
done
In equation form:
work done
Power =
time interval

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Power
Example:
A worker uses more power running up the
stairs than climbing the same stairs slowly.
Twice the power of an engine can do twice
the work of one engine in the same amount of
time, or twice the work of one engine in half
the time or at a rate at which energy is
changed from one form to another.

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Power
Unit of power
joule per second, called the watt after James
Watt, developer of the steam engine
1 joule/second = 1 watt
1 kilowatt = 1000 watts

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Power
A job can be done slowly or quickly. Both may
require the same amount of work, but different
amounts of

A.
B.
C.
D.

energy.
momentum.
power.
impulse.

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Power
A job can be done slowly or quickly. Both may
require the same amount of work, but different
amounts of

A.
B.
C.
D.

energy.
momentum.
power.
impulse.

Comment:
Power is the rate at which work is done.
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Mechanical Energy
Mechanical energy is due to position or to
motion, or both.
There are two forms of mechanical energy:
Potential energy
Kinetic energy

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Potential Energy
Stored energy held in readiness with a potential
for doing work
Example:
A stretched bow has stored energy that can
do work on an arrow.
A stretched rubber band of a slingshot has
stored energy and is capable of doing work.

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Potential EnergyGravitational
Potential energy due to elevated position
Example:
water in an elevated reservoir
raised ram of a pile driver

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Potential EnergyGravitational
Equal to the work done (force required to move it
upward x the vertical distance moved against
gravity) in lifting it
In equation form:
Potential energy
= mass x acceleration due to gravity x height
= mgh

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Potential Energy
Does a car hoisted for repairs in a service station
have increased potential energy relative to the
floor?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Yes
No
Sometimes
Not enough information

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Potential Energy
Does a car hoisted for repairs in a service station
have increased potential energy relative to the
floor?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Yes
No
Sometimes
Not enough information

Comment:
If the car were twice as heavy, its increase in potential energy would be
twice as great.
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Potential Energy
Example: Potential energy of 10-N ball is the
same in all 3 cases because work
done in elevating it is the same.

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Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion
Depends on the mass of the object and square
of its speed
Include the proportional constant 1/2 and kinetic
energy = 1/2 x mass x speed x speed
If object speed is doubled kinetic energy is

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Kinetic Energy
Must a car with momentum have kinetic energy?
A. Yes, due to motion alone
B. Yes, when motion is nonaccelerated
C. Yes, because speed is a scalar and velocity is
a vector quantity
D. No

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Kinetic Energy
Must a car with momentum have kinetic energy?
A. Yes, due to motion alone
B. Yes, when motion is nonaccelerated
C. Yes, because speed is a scalar and velocity is
a vector quantity
D. No
Explanation:
Acceleration, speed being a scalar, and velocity being a vector quantity
are irrelevant. Any moving object has both momentum and kinetic
energy.
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Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy and work of a moving object
Equal to the work required to bring it from rest
to that speed, or the work the object can do
while being brought to rest
In equation form: net force x distance =
kinetic energy, or Fd = 1/2 mv2

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Work-Energy Theorem
Work-energy theorem
Gain or reduction of energy is the result of
work.
In equation form: work = change in kinetic
energy (W = KE).
Doubling speed of an object requires 4 times
the work.

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Work-Energy Theorem
Applies to decreasing speed:
reducing the speed of an object or bringing it
to a halt
Example: Applying the
brakes to slow a moving
car, work is done on it
(the friction force supplied
by the brakes x distance).

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Work-Energy Theorem
Consider a problem that asks for the distance of a
fast-moving crate sliding across a factory floor and then
coming to a stop. The most useful equation for solving this
problem is
A.
B.
C.
D.

F = ma.
Ft = mv.
KE = 1/2mv2.
Fd = 1/2mv2.

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Work-Energy Theorem
Consider a problem that asks for the distance of a
fast-moving crate sliding across a factory floor and then
coming to a stop. The most useful equation for solving this
problem is
A.
B.
C.
D.

F = ma.
Ft = mv.
KE = 1/2mv2.
Fd = 1/2mv2.

Comment:

The work-energy theorem is the physicist's favorite starting point for

solving many motion-related problems.
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Work-Energy Theorem
The work done in bringing a moving car to a stop is the
force of tire friction x stopping distance. If the initial speed
of the car is doubled, the stopping distance is
A.
B.
C.
D.

actually less.
twice.
None of the above.

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Work-Energy Theorem
The work done in bringing a moving car to a stop is the
force of tire friction x stopping distance. If the initial speed
of the car is doubled, the stopping distance is
A.
B.
C.
D.

actually less.
twice.
None of the above.

Explanation:
Twice the speed means four times the kinetic energy and
four times the stopping distance.
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Conservation of Energy
Law of conservation of energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it
may be transformed from one form into
another, but the total amount of energy never
changes.

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Conservation of Energy
Example: Energy transforms without net loss or
net gain in the operation of a pile driver.

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Conservation of Energy
A situation to ponder
Consider the system of a bow and arrow. In
drawing the bow, we do work on the system and
give it potential energy. When the bowstring is
released, most of the potential energy is
transferred to the arrow as kinetic energy and
some as heat to the bow.

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A situation to ponder
Suppose the potential energy of a drawn bow is 50 joules
and the kinetic energy of the shot arrow is 40 joules. Then
A.
B.
C.
D.

energy is not conserved.

10 joules go to warming the bow.
10 joules go to warming the target.
10 joules are mysteriously missing.

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A situation to ponder
Suppose the potential energy of a drawn bow is 50 joules
and the kinetic energy of the shot arrow is 40 joules. Then
A.
B.
C.
D.

energy is not conserved.

10 joules go to warming the bow.
10 joules go to warming the target.
10 joules are mysteriously missing.

Explanation:
The total energy of the drawn bow, which includes
the poised arrow, is 50 joules. The arrow gets 40
joules and the remaining 10 joules warms the
bowstill in the initial system.
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Kinetic Energy and Momentum Compared

Similarities between momentum and kinetic
energy:
Both are properties of moving things.
Difference between momentum and kinetic
energy:
Momentum is a vector quantity and therefore
is directional and can be canceled.
Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity and can
never be canceled.
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Kinetic Energy and Momentum Compared

Velocity dependence
Momentum depends on velocity.
Kinetic energy depends on the square of
velocity.
Example: An object moving with twice the
velocity of another with the same
mass, has twice the momentum but
4 times the kinetic energy.
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Machines
Machine
Device for multiplying forces or changing the
direction of forces
Cannot create energy but can transform
energy from one form to another, or transfer
energy from one location to another
Cannot multiply work or energy

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Machines
Principle of a machine
Conservation of energy concept:
Work input = work output

Input force x input distance =

Output force x output distance
(Force x distance)input = (force x distance)output
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Machines
Simplest machine
Lever
rotates on a point of support called the fulcrum
allows small force over a large distance and large
force over a short distance

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Machines
Pulley
operates like a lever with equal arms changes the
direction of the input force

Example:
This pulley arrangement can allow a load to be lifted
with half the input force.
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Machines
Operates as a system of pulleys (block and tackle)
Multiplies force

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Machines
In an ideal pulley system, a woman lifts a 100-N crate by
pulling a rope downward with a force of 25 N. For every
1-meter length of rope she pulls downward, the crate rises
A.
B.
C.
D.

50 centimeters.
45 centimeters.
25 centimeters.
None of the above.

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Machines
In an ideal pulley system, a woman lifts a 100-N crate by
pulling a rope downward with a force of 25 N. For every
1-meter length of rope she pulls downward, the crate rises
A.
B.
C.
D.

50 centimeters.
45 centimeters.
25 centimeters.
None of the above.

Explanation:
Work in = work out; Fd in = Fd out.
One-fourth of 1 m = 25 cm.
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Efficiency
Efficiency
Percentage of work put into a machine that is
converted into useful work output
In equation form:
useful energy output
Efficiency =
total energy input

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Efficiency
A certain machine is 30% efficient. This means the
machine will convert
A. 30% of the energy input to useful work
70% of the energy input will be wasted.
B. 70% of the energy input to useful work30% of
the energy input will be wasted.
C. Both of the above.
D. None of the above.
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Efficiency
A certain machine is 30% efficient. This means the
machine will convert
A. 30% of the energy input to useful work
70% of the energy input will be wasted.
B. 70% of the energy input to useful work30% of
the energy input will be wasted.
C. Both of the above.
D. None of the above.
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Recycled Energy
Re-employment of energy that otherwise would
be wasted.
Edison used heat from his power plant in New
York City to heat buildings.
Typical power plants waste about 30% of their
energy to heat because they are built away from
buildings and other places that use heat.

Energy for Life

Body is a machine, so it needs energy.
Our cells feed on hydrocarbons that release
energy when they react with oxygen (like
gasoline burned in an automobile).
There is more energy stored in the food than in
the products after metabolism.

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Sources of Energy
Sources of energy
Sun
Example:
Sunlight evaporates water; water falls as rain; rain flows
into rivers and into generator turbines; then back to the
sea to repeat the cycle.
Sunlight can be transformed into electricity by
photovoltaic cells.
Wind power turns generator turbines.

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Sources of Energy
Sources of energy
Sun
Example:
Photovoltaic cells on
rooftops catch the solar
energy and convert it to
electricity.

More energy from the Sun hits Earth in 1 hour

than all of the energy consumed by humans in
an entire year!
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Sources of Energy
Fuel cell
Runs opposite to the
battery shown (where
electricity separates
water into hydrogen
and oxygen).
In a fuel cell, hydrogen
and oxygen are
compressed at
electrodes and electric
current is produced at
electrodes.
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Sources of Energy
Concentrated energy
Nuclear power
stored in uranium and plutonium
by-product is geothermal energy
held in underground reservoirs of hot water to provide
steam that can drive turbogenerators

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Sources of Energy
Dry-rock geothermal power is a producer of electricity.
Water is put into cavities in deep, dry, hot rock. Water
turns to steam and reaches a turbine, at the surface.
After exiting the turbine, it is returned to the cavity for
reuse.

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Lecture Outline

Chapter 8:
Rotational Motion

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Circular Motion
Rotational Inertia
Torque
Center of Mass and Center of Gravity
Centripetal Force
Centrifugal Force
Rotating Reference Frames
Simulated Gravity
Angular Momentum
Conservation of Angular Momentum

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Circular Motion
When an object turns about an internal axis, it is
undergoing circular motion or rotation.
Circular Motion is characterized by two kinds of
speeds:
tangential (or linear) speed.
rotational (or circular) speed.

Circular MotionTangential Speed

The distance traveled by a point on the rotating object
divided by the time taken to travel that distance is called
its tangential speed (symbol v).
Points closer to the circumference have a higher
tangential speed that points closer to the center.

Circular MotionRotational Speed

Rotational (angular) speed is the number of
rotations or revolutions per unit of time
(symbol ).
All parts of a rigid merry-go-round or turntable
turn about the axis of rotation in the same
amount of time.
So, all parts have the same rotational speed.
Tangential speed
= Radial Distance x Rotational Speed
= r
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Rotational and Tangential Speed

A ladybug sits halfway between the rotational axis and the
outer edge of the turntable. When the turntable has a
rotational speed of 20 RPM and the bug has a tangential
speed of 2 cm/s, what will be the rotational and tangential
speeds of her friend who sits at the outer edge?
A.
B.
C.
D.

1 cm/s
2 cm/s
4 cm/s
8 cm/s

Rotational and Tangential Speed

A ladybug sits halfway between the rotational axis and the
outer edge of the turntable. When the turntable has a
rotational speed of 20 RPM and the bug has a tangential
speed of 2 cm/s, what will be the rotational and tangential
speeds of her friend who sits at the outer edge?
A.
B.
C.
D.

1 cm/s
2 cm/s
4 cm/s
8 cm/s

Explanation:
Tangential speed = r
Rotational speed of both bugs is the same, so if radial
distance doubles, tangential speed also doubles.
So, tangential speed is 2 cm/s x 2 = 4 cm/s.

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Rotational Inertia
An object rotating about an axis tends to remain
rotating about the same axis at the same
rotational speed unless interfered with by some
external influence.
The property of an object to resist changes in its
rotational state of motion is called rotational
inertia (symbol I).

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Rotational Inertia
Depends upon
mass of object.
distribution of mass
around axis of rotation.
The greater the distance
between an object's
mass concentration and
the axis, the greater the
rotational inertia.

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Rotational Inertia
The greater the rotational inertia, the harder it is to
change its rotational state.
A tightrope walker carries a long pole that has a high
rotational inertia, so it does not easily rotate.
Keeps the tightrope walker stable.

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Rotational Inertia
Depends upon the axis
around which it rotates
Easier to rotate pencil
around an axis passing
through it.
Harder to rotate it around
vertical axis passing
through center.
Hardest to rotate it
around vertical axis
passing through the end.
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Rotational Inertia
The rotational inertia depends upon the shape of
the object and its rotational axis.

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Rotational Inertia
A hoop and a disk are released from the top of an
incline at the same time. Which one will reach the
bottom first?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Hoop
Disk
Both together
Not enough information

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Rotational Inertia
A hoop and a disk are released from the top of an
incline at the same time. Which one will reach the
bottom first?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Hoop
Disk
Both together
Not enough information

Explanation:
Hoop has larger rotational inertia, so it will be slower in gaining speed.
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Torque
The tendency of a force to cause rotation is
called torque.
Torque depends upon three factors:
Magnitude of the force
The direction in which it acts
The point at which it is applied on the object

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Torque
The equation for Torque is
Torque = lever arm x force

The lever arm depends upon

where the force is applied.
the direction in which it acts.

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TorqueExample
1st picture: Lever arm is less than length of handle
because of direction of force.
2nd picture: Lever arm is equal to length of handle.
3rd picture: Lever arm is longer than length of handle.

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Rotational Inertia
Suppose the girl on the left suddenly
is handed a bag of apples weighing
50 N. Where should she sit order to
balance, assuming the boy does not
move?
A.
B.
C.
D.

1 m from pivot
1.5 m from pivot
2 m from pivot
2.5 m from pivot

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Rotational Inertia
Suppose the girl on the left suddenly
is handed a bag of apples weighing
50 N. Where should she sit order to
balance, assuming the boy does not
move?
A.
B.
C.
D.

1 m from pivot
1.5 m from pivot
2 m from pivot
2.5 m from pivot

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Explanation:
She should exert same torque as before.
Torque = lever arm x force
= 3 m x 250 N
= 750 Nm
Torque = new lever arm x force
750 Nm = new lever arm x 250N
New lever arm = 750 Nm / 250 N = 2.5 m

Center of Mass and Center of Gravity

Center of mass is the average position of all the
mass that makes up the object.
Center of gravity (CG) is the average position
of weight distribution.
Since weight and mass are proportional,
center of gravity and center of mass usually
refer to the same point of an object.

Center of Mass and Center of Gravity

To determine the center of gravity,
suspend the object from a point and draw a vertical
line from suspension point.
repeat after suspending from another point.
The center of gravity lies where the two lines intersect.

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Center of GravityStability
The location of the center of
gravity is important for stability.
If we draw a line straight
down from the center of
gravity and it falls inside the
base of the object, it is in
stable equilibrium; it will
balance.
If it falls outside the base, it is
unstable.
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Centripetal Force
Any force directed toward a fixed center is called a
centripetal force.
Centripetal means "center-seeking" or "toward the
center."
Example: To whirl a tin can
at the end of a string, you
pull the string toward the
center and exert a centripetal
force to keep the can moving
in a circle.

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Centripetal Force
Depends upon
mass of object.
tangential speed of the object.
In equation form:
mass x tangential speed2
Centripetal force =

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Centripetal ForceExample
When a car rounds a curve, the
centripetal force prevents it from
If the road is wet, or if the car is
going too fast, the centripetal
force is insufficient to prevent

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Centripetal Force
Suppose you double the speed at which you round a
bend in the curve, by what factor must the centripetal
force change to prevent you from skidding?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Double
Four times
Half
One-quarter

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Centripetal Force
Suppose you double the speed at which you round a
bend in the curve, by what factor must the centripetal
force change to prevent you from skidding?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Double
Four times
Half
One-quarter

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Explanation:
mass x tangential speed2
Centripetal force =
Because the term for "tangential speed" is
squared, if you double the tangential speed,
the centripetal force will be double squared,
which is four times.

Centripetal Force
Suppose you take a sharper turn than before and
halve the radius, by what factor will the centripetal
force need to change to prevent skidding?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Double
Four times
Half
One-quarter

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Centripetal Force
Suppose you take a sharper turn than before and
halve the radius, by what factor will the centripetal
force need to change to prevent skidding?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Double
Four times
Half
One-quarter

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Explanation:
mass x tangential speed2
Centripetal force =
Because the term for "radius" is in the
denominator, if you halve the radius, the
centripetal force will double.

Centrifugal Force
Although centripetal force is center directed, an
occupant inside a rotating system seems to
experience an outward force. This apparent
outward force is called centrifugal force.
Centrifugal means "center-fleeing" or "away from
the center."

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Centrifugal Force
A Common Misconception
It is a common misconception
that a centrifugal force pulls
outward on an object.
Example:
If the string breaks, the
outward.
It continues along its tangent
straight-line pathbecause
no force acts on it. (Newton's
first law)
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Rotating Reference Frames

Centrifugal force in a rotating reference frame is a force
in its own right as real as any other force, e.g. gravity.
Example:
The bug at the bottom of the can experiences a pull
toward the bottom of the can.

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Simulated Gravity
Centrifugal force can be used to simulate gravity in space
stations of the future.
By spinning the space station, occupants would
experience a centrifugal force (simulated gravity) similar to
the bug in the can.

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Simulated Gravity
To simulate an acceleration
due to gravity, g, which is
10 m/s2, a space station
must
(i.e. diameter of 2 km).
rotate at a speed of about
1 revolution per minute.

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Angular Momentum
The "inertia of rotation" of rotating objects is called
angular momentum.
This is analogous to "inertia of motion", which was
momentum.
Angular momentum
= rotational inertia x angular velocity
This is analogous to
Linear momentum = mass x velocity

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Angular Momentum
For an object that is small compared with the radial
distance to its axis, magnitude of
Angular momentum = mass tangential speed x radius

This is analogous to magnitude of

Linear momentum = mass x speed
Examples:
Whirling ball at the end of a
long string
Planet going around the Sun
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Angular Momentum
An external net torque is required to change the
angular momentum of an object.
Rotational version of Newton's first law:
An object or system of objects will
maintain its angular momentum unless
acted upon by an external net torque.

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Angular Momentum
Suppose you are swirling a can around and
suddenly decide to pull the rope in halfway; by
what factor would the speed of the can change?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Double
Four times
Half
One-quarter

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Angular Momentum
Suppose you are swirling a can around and
suddenly decide to pull the rope in halfway; by
what factor would the speed of the can change?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Double
Four times
Half
One-quarter

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Explanation:
Angular momentum =
Angular Momentum is proportional to radius
of the turn.
No external torque acts with inward pull, so
angular momentum is conserved. Half radius
means speed doubles.

Conservation of Angular Momentum

The law of conservation of angular momentum
states:
If no external net torque acts on a rotating system,
the angular momentum of that system remains
constant.
Analogous to the law of conservation of linear
momentum:
If no external force acts on a system, the total linear
momentum of that system remains constant.

Conservation of Angular Momentum

Example:
When the man pulls the weights inward, his rotational
speed increases!

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Angular Momentum
Suppose by pulling the weights inward, the
rotational inertia of the man reduces to half its
value. By what factor would his angular velocity
change?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Double
Three times
Half
One-quarter

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Angular Momentum
Suppose by pulling the weights inward, the
rotational inertia of the man reduces to half its
value. By what factor would his angular velocity
change?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Double
Three times
Half
One-quarter

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Explanation:
Angular momentum = rotational inertia x angular
velocity
Angular momentum is proportional to "rotational
inertia."
If you halve the rotational inertia, to keep the
angular momentum constant, the angular
velocity would double.

Lecture Outline

Chapter 9:
Gravity

The Newtonian Synthesis

The Universal Law of Gravity
The Universal Gravitational Constant
Gravity and Distance: Inverse-Square Law
Weight and Weightlessness
Ocean Tides
Gravitational Fields
Einstein's Theory of Gravitation
Black Holes
Universal Gravitation

The Newtonian Synthesis

Newton was not the first
to discover gravity.
Newton discovered that
gravity is universal.
LegendNewton, sitting
under an apple tree,
realizes that the Earth's
pull on an apple extends
also to pull on the Moon.
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The Newtonian Synthesis

In Aristotle's time, motion of planets and stars
was natural not governed by the same laws as
objects on Earth.
Newton recognized that a force directed toward
the Sun must act on planets
This is similar to force that Earth exerts on an
apple that falls toward it.
Newtonian synthesis: The same set of laws
apply to both celestial and terrestrial objects.
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The Universal Law of Gravity

Law of universal gravitation:
Everything pulls on everything else.
Every body attracts every other body with a force that
is directly proportional to the product of their masses
and inversely proportional to the square of the distance
separating them.

The Universal Law of Gravity

In equation form:
mass1 x mass2
Force ~
distance2

or

m1m2
F~
d2

where m is the mass of the objects and d is the distance

between their centers.
Examples:
The greater the masses m1 and m2 of two bodies, the
greater the force of attraction between them.
The greater the distance of separation d, the weaker
the force of attraction.
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The Universal Law of Gravity

Newton's most celebrated synthesis was and is of

A.
B.
C.
D.

earthly and heavenly laws.

weight on Earth and weightlessness in outer space.
masses and distances.
the paths of tossed rocks and the paths of satellites.

The Universal Law of Gravity

Newton's most celebrated synthesis was and is of

A.
B.
C.
D.

earthly and heavenly laws.

weight on Earth and weightlessness in outer space.
masses and distances.
the paths of tossed rocks and the paths of satellites.

Comment:
This synthesis provided hope that other natural phenomena
followed universal laws and ushered in the "Age of
Enlightenment."
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The Universal Gravitational Constant, G

Gravity is the weakest of four known
fundamental forces
With the gravitational constant G, we have the
equation
m1m2
F=G
d2
Universal gravitational constant:
G = 6.67 x 1011 Nm2/kg2
Once the value was known, the mass of Earth
was calculated as 6 x 1024 kg
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The Universal Gravitational Constant, G

The universal gravitational constant, G, which links force to
mass and distance, is similar to the familiar constant
A.
B.
C.
D.

.
g.
acceleration due to gravity.
speed of uniform motion.

The Universal Gravitational Constant, G

The universal gravitational constant, G, which links force to
mass and distance, is similar to the familiar constant
A.
B.
C.
D.

.
g.
acceleration due to gravity.
speed of uniform motion.

Explanation:
Just as relates the circumference of a circle to its
diameter, G relates force to mass and distance.
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Gravity and Distance: The Inverse-Square Law

Inverse-square law:
relates the intensity of an effect to the
inverse-square of the distance from the
cause.
in equation form: intensity = 1/distance2.
for increases in distance, there are decreases
in force.
even at great distances, force approaches but
never reaches zero.
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Inverse-Square Law

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Inverse-Square Law

Gravity and Distance: The Inverse-Square Law

The force of gravity between two planets depends on their

A.
B.
C.
D.

masses and distance apart.

planetary atmospheres.
rotational motions.
All of the above.

Gravity and Distance: The Inverse-Square Law

The force of gravity between two planets depends on their

A.
B.
C.
D.

masses and distance apart.

planetary atmospheres.
rotational motions.
All of the above.

Explanation:
The equation for gravitational force, cites only masses and
distances as variables. Rotation and atmospheres are
m1m2
irrelevant.
F=G
d2

Gravity and Distance: The Inverse-Square Law

If the masses of two planets are each somehow doubled,
the force of gravity between them
A.
B.
C.
D.

doubles.
reduces by half.
reduces by one-quarter.

Gravity and Distance: The Inverse-Square Law

If the masses of two planets are each somehow doubled,
the force of gravity between them
A.
B.
C.
D.

doubles.
reduces by half.
reduces by one-quarter.

Explanation:
Note that both masses double. Then, double x double =
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Gravity and Distance: The Inverse-Square Law

If the mass of one planet is somehow doubled, the force of
gravity between it and a neighboring planet
A.
B.
C.
D.

doubles.
reduces by half.
reduces by one-quarter.

Gravity and Distance: The Inverse-Square Law

If the mass of one planet is somehow doubled, the force of
gravity between it and a neighboring planet
A.
B.
C.
D.

doubles.
reduces by half.
reduces by one-quarter.

Explanation:
Let the equation guide your thinking:
m1m2
Note that if one mass doubles, then the force F = G d 2
between them doubles.
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Weight and Weightlessness

Weight:
force an object exerts against a supporting surface
Examples:
standing on a scale in an elevator accelerating downward,
less compression in scale springs; weight is less
standing on a scale in an elevator accelerating upward, more
compression in scale springs; weight is greater
at constant speed in an elevator, no change in weight

Weight and Weightlessness

Weightlessness:
no support force, as
in free fall
Example: Astronauts
in orbit are without
support forces and
are in a continual
state of
weightlessness.
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Weight and Weightlessness

on a scale is
A.
B.
C.
D.

greater.
less.
zero.
the normal weight.

Weight and Weightlessness

on a scale is
A.
B.
C.
D.

greater.
less.
zero.
the normal weight.

Explanation:
The support force pressing on you is greater, so you weigh
more.
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Weight and Weightlessness

When an elevator accelerates downward, your weight

A.
B.
C.
D.

greater.
less.
zero.
the normal weight.

Weight and Weightlessness

When an elevator accelerates downward, your weight

A.
B.
C.
D.

greater.
less.
zero.
the normal weight.

Explanation:
The support force pressing on you is less, so you weigh
less. Question: Would you weigh less in an elevator that
moves downward at constant velocity?
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Weight and Weightlessness

When the elevator cable breaks, the elevator falls freely, so
A.
B.
C.
D.

greater.
less.
zero.
the normal weight.

Weight and Weightlessness

When the elevator cable breaks, the elevator falls freely, so
A.
B.
C.
D.

greater.
less.
zero.
the normal weight.

Explanation:
There is still a downward gravitational force acting on you,
but gravity is not felt as weight because there is no support
force, so your weight is zero.
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Weight and Weightlessness

If you weigh yourself in an elevator, you'll weigh more when
the elevator
A.
B.
C.
D.

moves upward.
moves downward.
accelerates upward.
All of the above.

Weight and Weightlessness

If you weigh yourself in an elevator, you'll weigh more when
the elevator
A.
B.
C.
D.

moves upward.
moves downward.
accelerates upward.
All of the above.

Explanation:
The support provided by the floor of an elevator is the
same whether the elevator is at rest or moving at constant
velocity. Only accelerated motion affects weight.
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Ocean Tides
The differences between ocean levels at
different times of the day are called tides.

There are typically two high tides and two low

tides each day.
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Ocean Tides
Ocean tides are caused due to the gravitational
attraction of the Moon.
Unequal tugs on Earth's oceans causes a stretching
effect that produces a pair of ocean bulges.
Because the two bulges are on opposite sides, high
tides occur every 12 hours.

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Ocean Tides
During the new Moon or full
Moon, the effects of Moon
most pronounced spring
tides.
When the Moon is halfway
between a new and full
Moon, the tides due to Sun
and Moon partly cancel
each other, causing least
pronounced neap tides.
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Gravitational Fields
Interaction between Earth and Moon is action at a
distance. How do they interact without touching?
One way to think of this:
Earth is surrounded by a gravitational field.
Moon interacts with this gravitational field.
Gravitational field is an alteration of space
around Earth (or any object with mass).
Gravitational field is an example of a force
field (another example: magnetic field).
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Gravitational Fields
Fields are represented by
object (Earth).
The inward direction of arrows
indicates that the force is
always attractive to Earth.
The crowding of arrows closer
to Earth indicates that the
magnitude of the force is
larger closer to Earth.
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Gravitational Fields
Inside a planet, it decreases
to zero at the center
because pull from the
mass of Earth below you
is partly balanced by
what is above you.
Outside a planet, it
decreases to zero (not at
the same rate as inside), at
infinity
because you are farther
away from planet.
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Gravitational Fields
Suppose you dig a hole through
Earth to the other side and jump
through it.
toward the center will go on
decreasing.
will be zero.
Past the center you will be pulled
back up, but because you have
acquired sufficient speed you will
get to the other side.
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Einstein's Theory of Gravitation

Gravitational field is a warping
of space-time by a planet
just as a massive ball would
make a dent on the surface
of a waterbed.
The warped space-time affects
the motion of other objects
just as a marble rolling on
the waterbed "gravitates" to
the dent.
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Black Holes
When a star shrinks, all of
its mass is now
concentrated in a smaller
So gravitational force on
the surface increases
because
F=G

m1m2
d2

When d decreases, F
increases.
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Black Holes
Black Hole: When the
star becomes so small
and the gravitational
force at the surface
becomes so large that
even light cannot
escape the surface,
anything in its vicinity
will be attracted by
warped space-time
and lost forever.
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Black Holes
What would happen to Earth if the Sun became a black
hole?
A.
B.
C.
D.

It would break away from the attraction of the Sun.

It would be pulled into the Sun.
It would become a black hole too.
None of the above.

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Black Holes
What would happen to Earth if the Sun became a black
hole?
A.
B.
C.
D.

It would break away from the attraction of the Sun.

It would be pulled into the Sun.
It would become a black hole too.
None of the above.

Explanation:
Letting the equation for gravity guide our thinking, we see that no mass
changes, no distance from center to center changes, so there would be
NO change in force between the shrunken Sun and Earth.
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Wormhole
Wormhole: An
enormous distortion of
space-time,
collapsing toward an
infinitely dense point,
the wormhole opens
out again in some other
part of the universe or
different universe!
No wormholes have
been found yet.
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Universal Gravitation
Universal gravitation
Everything attracts everything else.
Example: Earth is round because of
gravitationall parts of Earth have been
pulled in, making the surface equidistant from
the center.
The universe is expanding and accelerating
outward.

Lecture Outline

Chapter 10:
Projectile and
Satellite Motion

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Projectile Motion
Fast-Moving Projectiles Satellites
Circular Satellite Orbits
Elliptical Orbits
Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
Energy Conservation and Satellite Motion
Escape Speed

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Projectile Motion
Without gravity, a tossed object follows a
straight-line path.
With gravity, the same object tossed at an angle
follows a curved path.
Projectile:
Any object that moves through the air or
space under the influence of gravity,
continuing in motion by its own inertia

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Projectile Motion
Projectile motion is a combination of
a horizontal component, and

a vertical component.

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Projectile Motion
Projectiles launched horizontally
Important points:
Horizontal component of velocity doesn't change
(when air drag is negligible).
Ball travels the same horizontal
distance in equal times
(no component of gravitational
force acting horizontally).
Remains constant.
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Projectile Motion
Vertical positions become farther apart with time.
Gravity acts downward, so ball accelerates
downward.
Curvature of path is the combination of
horizontal and vertical components of motion.

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Projectile Motion
Parabola:
Curved path of a projectile that undergoes
acceleration only in the vertical direction,
while moving horizontally at a constant speed

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Projectile Motion
Projectiles launched at an angle:
Paths of stone thrown at an angle upward
and downward
Vertical and horizontal
components are
independent of each
other.

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Projectile Motion
Paths of a cannonball shot at an upward angle
Vertical distance that a stone falls is the same
vertical distance it would have fallen if it had
been dropped from rest and been falling for
the same amount of time (5t2).

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Projectile Motion
Paths of projectile following a parabolic
trajectory
Horizontal component along
trajectory remains
unchanged.
Only vertical component
changes.
Velocity at any point is
computed with the
Pythagorean theorem
(diagonal of rectangle).
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Projectile Motion
Different horizontal distances
Same range is obtained from two different
launching angles when the angles add up to 90
.
Object thrown at an angle of 60has the same range
as if it were thrown at an angle of 30
.

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Projectile Motion
Different horizontal distances (continued)
Maximum range occurs for ideal launch at
45
.
With air resistance, the maximum range
occurs for a baseball batted at less than 45
above the horizontal (~25
34
).
With air resistance the maximum range
occurs when a golf ball is hit at an angle less
than 38
.
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Projectile Motion
Without air resistance, the
time for a projectile to reach
maximum height is the same
its initial level.

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Projectile Motion
The velocity of a typical projectile can be
represented by horizontal and vertical components.
Assuming negligible air resistance, the horizontal
component along the path of the projectile
A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. remains the same.
D. Not enough information.

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Projectile Motion
The velocity of a typical projectile can be represented by
horizontal and vertical components. Assuming negligible air
resistance, the horizontal component along the path of the
projectile
A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. remains the same.
D. Not enough information.
Explanation:
Since there is no force horizontally, no horizontal
acceleration occurs.
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Projectile Motion
When no air resistance acts on a fast-moving
baseball, its acceleration is
A. downward, g.
B. a combination of constant horizontal motion
and accelerated downward motion.
C. opposite to the force of gravity.
D. centripetal.

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Projectile Motion
When no air resistance acts on a fast-moving
baseball, its acceleration is
A. downward, g.
B. a combination of constant horizontal motion
and accelerated downward motion.
C. opposite to the force of gravity.
D. centripetal.

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Projectile Motion
Neglecting air drag, a ball tossed at an angle of 30
with the horizontal will go as far downrange as one
that is tossed at the same speed at an angle of
A. 45
.
B. 60
.
C. 75
.
D. None of the above.

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Projectile Motion
Neglecting air drag, a ball tossed at an angle of 30with the
horizontal will go as far downrange as one that is tossed at
the same speed at an angle of
A. 45
.
B. 60
.
C. 75
.
D. None of the above.
Explanation:
Same initial-speed projectiles have the same range when their launching
. Why this is true involves a bit of trigonometry
which, in the interest of time, we'll not pursue here.
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Fast-Moving ProjectilesSatellites
Satellite motion is an example of a high-speed
projectile.
A satellite is simply a projectile that falls around
Earth rather than into it.
Sufficient tangential velocity needed for orbit.
With no resistance to reduce speed, a
satellite goes around Earth indefinitely.

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Fast-Moving ProjectilesSatellites
As the ball leaves the girl's hand, 1 second later it will have
fallen
A. 10 meters.
B. 5 meters below the dashed line.
C. less than 5 meters below the straight-line path.
D. None of the above.

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Fast-Moving ProjectilesSatellites
As the ball leaves the girl's hand, 1 second later it will have
fallen
A. 10 meters.
B. 5 meters below the dashed line.
C. less than 5 meters below the straight-line path.
D. None of the above.
Comment:
Whatever the speed, the ball will fall a vertical distance of 5
meters below the dashed line.
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Circular Satellite Orbits

Satellite in circular orbit
Speed
must be great enough to ensure that its falling
distance matches Earth's curvature.
is constantonly
direction changes.
is unchanged by
gravity.

Circular Satellite Orbits

Positioning:
beyond Earth's atmosphere, where air resistance is
almost totally absent
Example: Space shuttles
are launched to altitudes
of 150 kilometers or more,
to be above air drag
(But even the ISS, as
shown experiences some
air drag, which is compensated
for with periodic upward boosts.)
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Circular Satellite Orbits

Motion
moves in a direction perpendicular to the
force of gravity acting on it
Period for complete orbit about Earth
for satellites close to Earthabout 90 minutes
for satellites at higher altitudeslonger periods

Circular Satellite Orbits

Curvature of Earth
Earth surface drops a vertical distance of 5
meters for every 8000 meters tangent to the
surface

What speed will allow the ball to clear the gap?

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Circular Satellite Orbits

When you toss a projectile sideways, it curves as it
falls. It will be an Earth satellite if the curve it
makes
A. matches the curved surface of Earth.
B. results in a straight line.
C. spirals out indefinitely.
D. None of the above.

Circular Satellite Orbits

When you toss a projectile sideways, it curves as it falls. It
will be an Earth satellite if the curve it makes
A. matches the curved surface of Earth.
B. results in a straight line.
C. spirals out indefinitely.
D. None of the above.
Explanation:
For an 8-km tangent, Earth curves downward 5 m.
Therefore, a projectile traveling horizontally at 8 km/s will
fall 5 m in that time, and follow the curve of Earth.
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Circular Satellite Orbits

When a satellite travels at a constant speed, the
shape of its path is
A. a circle.
B. an ellipse.
C. an oval that is almost elliptical.
D. a circle with a square corner, as seen

Circular Satellite Orbits

When a satellite travels at a constant speed, the
shape of its path is
A. a circle.
B. an ellipse.
C. an oval that is almost elliptical.
D. a circle with a square corner, as seen

Circular Satellite Orbits

A payload into orbit requires control over
direction of rocket.
Initially, rocket is fired vertically, then tipped.
Once above the atmosphere, the rocket is aimed horizontally.

speed of rocket
Payload is given a final thrust to orbital speed of 8 km/s to fall
around Earth and become an Earth satellite.

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Elliptical Orbits
A projectile just above the atmosphere will follow
an elliptical path if given a horizontal speed
greater than 8 km/s.
Ellipse
specific curve, an oval path
Example: A circle is a special
case of an ellipse when its two
foci coincide.

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Elliptical Orbits
Elliptical orbit
Speed of satellite varies.
Initially, if speed is greater than needed for circular
orbit, satellite overshoots a circular path and moves
away from Earth.
Satellite loses speed and then regains it as it falls
back toward Earth.
It rejoins its original path
with the same speed it
Procedure is repeated.
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Elliptical Orbits
The speed of a satellite in an elliptical orbit
A. varies.
B. remains constant.
C. acts at right angles to its motion.
D. All of the above.

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Elliptical Orbits
The speed of a satellite in an elliptical orbit
A. varies.
B. remains constant.
C. acts at right angles to its motion.
D. All of the above.
Comment :
A satellite in an elliptical orbit half the time recedes
from Earth and loses speed and half the time
approaches Earth and gains speed.
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Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

Kepler was assistant to the famous astronomer
Brahe, who directed the world's first observatory.
He used data his mentor Brahe had collected on
planetary motion to figure out the motion of
planets.
He found that the motion of planets was not
circular; rather, it was elliptical.

Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

1st Law: The path of each planet
around the Sun is an ellipse with
the Sun at one focus.
2nd Law: The line from the Sun to
any planet sweeps out equal areas
of space in equal time intervals.
3rd Law: The square of the orbital
period of a planet is directly
proportional to the cube of the average distance
of the planet from the Sun (for all planets).
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Energy Conservation and Satellite Motion

Recall the following:
Object in motion possesses KE due to its
motion.
Object above Earth's surface possesses PE
by virtue of its position.
Satellite in orbit possesses KE and PE.
Sum of KE and PE is constant at all points in the
orbit.

Energy Conservation and Satellite Motion

PE, KE, and speed in circular orbit:
Unchanged.
distance between the
satellite and center of
the attracting body
does not changePE is
the same everywhere.
no component of force acts
along the direction of motionno change in
speed and KE.
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Energy Conservation and Satellite Motion

Elliptical Orbit Varies.
PE is greatest when the satellite
is farthest away (apogee).
PE is least when the satellite
is closest (perigee).
KE is least when PE is the
most and vice versa.
At every point in the orbit,
sum of KE and PE is the same.
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Energy Conservation and Satellite Motion

When satellite gains altitude and moves against
gravitational force, its speed and KE decrease
and decrease continues to the apogee.
Past the apogee, satellite moves
in the same direction as the force
component and speed and KE
increase. Increase continues
until past the perigee and cycle
repeats.
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Escape Speed
First probe to escape the solar system was
Pioneer 10, launched from Earth in 1972.
Accomplished by directing the probe into the
path of oncoming Jupiter

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Escape Speed
When a projectile achieves escape speed from
Earth, it
A. forever leaves Earth's gravitational field.
B. outruns the influence of Earth's gravity, but
is never beyond it.
C. comes to an eventual stop, returning to Earth at
some future time.
D. All of the above.

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Escape Speed
When a projectile achieves escape speed from
Earth, it
A. forever leaves Earth's gravitational field.
B. outruns the influence of Earth's gravity, but
is never beyond it.
C. comes to an eventual stop, returning to Earth at
some future time.
D. All of the above.

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Escape Speed
Voyages to the Moon, Mars, and beyond begin
with launches that exceed escape speed from
Earth.