Calculation of the stress in soil in our software is described in the following chapters:
Stress analysis is based on the existence of soil layers specified by the user during input. The
program further inserts fictitious layers at the locations where the stress and lateral pressure
(GWT, points of construction, etc.) change. The normal stress in the ith layer is computed
according to:
where:
hi
If the layer is found below the ground water table, the unit weight of soil below the water
table is specified with the help of input parameters of the soil as follows:
where:
sat
where:
where:
porosity
volume of soil
Vp
volume of voids
Gd
Unit weight of water is assumed in the program equal to 10 kN/m3 or 0.00625 ksi.
Assuming inclined ground behind the structure ( 0) and layered subsoil the angle , when
computingthe coefficient of earth pressure K, is reduced in the ith layer using the following
expression:
where:
where:
ef
This expression in its generalized form describes so called concept of effective stress:
where:
ef
Drained layer
Undrained layer
short - term
effective stress
total stress
long - term
effective stress
effective stress
In layered subsoil with different unit weight of soils in individual horizontal layers the
vertical total stress is determined as a sum of weight of all layers above the investigated point
and the pore pressure:
Pile Group
Analyses performed in the "Pile Group" program can be divided into two groups:
Analytical solution - calculation of the vertical bearing capacity of a pile group for
cohesive and cohesionless soils and the determination of settlement
Analysis of a pile group using the spring method together with the determination of
reinforcement of piles
Analytical Solution
Analysis of the vertical bearing capacity of a pile group can be performed for:
The actual verification analysis is carried out according to the factors of safety or the theory
of limit states.
The verification is performed for the vertical load only. Load due to moments and shear
forces is not considered. To account for horizontal actions of the pile group calls for choosing
the spring method in the frame "Settings".
The analytical methods also allow for calculating the pile group settlement.
The same methods as for the analysis of an isolated pile are used to calculate the vertical
bearing capacity of a pile group:
NAVFAC DM 7.2
Effective stress
CSN 73 1002
where:
n
Rc
g
The actual verification analysis is carried out according to the factors of safety or the theory
of limit states.
UFC 3-220-01A
where:
, expressed in degrees
Seiler-Keeney formula:
where:
nx
ny
s
Input efficiency
User-defined input of the degree of efficiency in the range of 0.5 - 1.0.
Literature:
Pochman, R.; Simek, J.: Pilotove zaklady - Komentar k CSN 73 1002. 1st edition, Prague,
Vydavatelstvi norem, 1989, 80 p.
Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC 3-220-01A): Design of deep foundations - Technical
instructions, Chapter 5-3, 1997.
Venkatramaiah, C.: Geotechnical Engineering. Second edition, New Delhi (India): New Age
International Publishers, 1995.
Cohesive Soil (Analysis for Undrained Conditions)
where: l
- length of piles
bx,by - plane dimensions of the base of an earth body in the form of a block
)
cus - average undrained shear strength along the piles (
cub
Ncg
where:
for condition:
for condition:
where: bx - minimum width of pile group (shorter layout size of the pile cap)
Note: The earth body is represented by a block with its base given by a plane containing feet
of individual piles and having vertical walls found in the distance of one pile diameter from
the axes of outer piles. This earth block subjected to overall load caused by the pile group
resists by shear along the walls - skin friction and by bearing capacity at its base.
The actual verification analysis is carried out according to the factors of safety or the theory
of limit states.
When performing the analysis according to the factor of safety the program carries out the
verification analysis for a pile group in compression:
where:
where: Rg
n
Rc
t
g
Vd
When performing the analysis according to the theory of limit states the program carries out
the verification analysis for a pile group in a cohesive soil:
Cohesionless soil
The analysis of a pile group in a cohesionless soil is developed based on the linear theory of
settlement (Poulos). The load-settlement curve for a pile group and the value of the total
settlement sg is increased by so-called group settlement factor gf.
An immediate settlement of the pile group increased by the group settlement factor is
provided by:
Calculation of the stress in soil in our software is described in the following chapters:
Stress analysis is based on the existence of soil layers specified by the user during input. The
program further inserts fictitious layers at the locations where the stress and lateral pressure
(GWT, points of construction, etc.) change. The normal stress in the ith layer is computed
according to:
where:
hi
If the layer is found below the ground water table, the unit weight of soil below the water
table is specified with the help of input parameters of the soil as follows:
where:
sat
where:
where:
porosity
volume of soil
Vp
volume of voids
Gd
Unit weight of water is assumed in the program equal to 10 kN/m3 or 0.00625 ksi.
Assuming inclined ground behind the structure ( 0) and layered subsoil the angle , when
computingthe coefficient of earth pressure K, is reduced in the ith layer using the following
expression:
where:
where:
ef
This expression in its generalized form describes so called concept of effective stress:
where:
ef
Drained layer
Undrained layer
short - term
effective stress
total stress
long - term
effective stress
effective stress
In layered subsoil with different unit weight of soils in individual horizontal layers the
vertical total stress is determined as a sum of weight of all layers above the investigated point
and the pore pressure:
Earth pressure increment in a soil or rock body due to surcharge is computed using the theory
of elastic subspace (Boussinesq).
Earth pressure increment in the point inside the soil or rock body due to an infinite strip
surcharge is obtained from the following scheme:
where:
Pile Analysis
Analyses available in the program "Pile" can be divided into three main groups:
Pile settlement
Analytical solution
Spring method
Analytical Solution
The analytical solution assumes that the pile total compressive resistance Rc is derived as a
sum of the pile base resistance Rb and the pile shaft resistance Rs (developed due to friction of
the surrounding soil along the shaft). The following generally accepted methods are
implemented into the program:
NAVFAC DM 7.2
Tomlinson
CSN 73 1002
For the above specified methods it is possible to choose one of the following verification
methodologies:
Classical way
EN 1997-1
When running the compression pile analysis, the pile self-weight is introduced depending on
the setting in the frame "Load". As for the tensile pile, the pile self-weight is always taken
into account automatically. Based on the input load the program itself performs the
verification analysis for either compression or tensile pile.
NAVFAC DM 7.2
Tomlinson
This widely used method adopts undrained shear strength parameters to calculate the pile
bearing capacity. It further assumes that the pile shaft resistance depends on the pressure due
to overburden surcharge.
The pile shaft resistance is given by:
adhesion in the jth layer (shear stress between the pile skin and the surrounding
soil)
As, j - area of pile shaft in the jth layer
empirical adhesion coefficient (depends on the type of soil, type of pile, etc.) in
j the jth layer
cu, j - undrained cohesion in the j-th layer (undrained shear strength)
where: ca, j -
The empirical adhesion coefficient is back calculated by the program. Its values, however,
can be manually adjusted in the "Add new soil" dialog window.
The pile base resistance is given by:
where:
qb
Ab
cu
The effective stress method allows to calculate the vertical bearing capacity of an isolated
pile in both cohesive and non-cohesive soils. This method is suitable for drained conditions i.e. conditions that prevail after sufficient time passed the construction.
where: qs, j
p,j
0, j
Asj
where:
qp
Ab
Np
p
Verification
Verification of pile bearing capacity depends on the verification methodology selected in the
"Piles" tab:
Actual analyses (e.g. assessment of the pile base resistance) are the same for both options they differ only by incorporation of design coefficients, combinations and in the way of
demonstrating the structure safety. Design coefficients (verification parameters) are specified
in the "Piles" tab.
If the verification analysis according to CSN 73 1002 is selected, the verification is carried
out exclusively according to the Commentary to CSN 73 10002.
When running the verification analysis according to the theory of limit states, it is possible to
introduce the required values of design coefficients in the "Piles" tab.
The program performs verification of the compression pile as:
where:
Rc
Rb
Rs
b
s
Vd
Wp
where:
Rsdt
Rs
st
Vd
Wp
Micropile
Both the root section and micropile tube (micropile cross-section) are examined for both
cases. When examining the micropile tube the analysis may include excpected lifetime of the
micropile.
Verification Based on Safety Factor
The program performs verification analysis of the micropile tube and root:
Verification of the cross-section (tube)
Both, internal stability of section and coupled section bearing capacity, are verified.
1. Internal stability of section
where: Ncr -
where: Q
Nmax
SFr
The program performs verification analysis of the micropile tube and root:
where:
Nmax
Ncrd
standard critical normal force, calculated in dependence on the method set in the
"Micropiles" tab
reduction coefficient of critical force, entered in the "Micropiles" tab (limit
states)
where: Ncr mf
stress in steel, calculated according to the way of load (section loaded only by
normal force or by combination of bending moment and normal force)
Rsd - design strength of steel
where: s -
where:
Nmax
Qrd
where: Q -
When calculating the tube bearing capacity (micropile cross-section) the program
differentiates between a micropile loaded in tension or in compression.
In case of tension the program determines coupled section bearing capacity (strength of
cement mixture is not considered).
In case of compression the program examines both, coupled section bearing capacity and
internal stability of section, depending on the method set in the "Micropiles" tab.
In the case of coupled section bearing capacity, the micropile tube is examined against the
failure due to load caused by normal force or by combination of bending moment and normal
force.
When determining the coupled section bearing capacity it is possible to involve influence of
the expected life time of the micropile.
Micropile Lifetime
The micropile life time is introduced by reducing the area of the reinforcing tube using the
reduction coefficient of the influence of corrosion of steel tube re and coefficient Fut taking
into account connection of the micropile and the surrounding soil.
where: D
t
Fut
re
Literature:
BS EN 14199:2005 Execution of special geotechnical works. Micropiles British-Adopted
European Standard / 30-Mar-2005 / 52 pages ISBN: 0580457249.
where:
s - stress in steel
N - normal force acting in section
As - area of the steel part of the micropile cross-section
where:
As
Ac
Rsd
Rcd
buckling coefficient
area of the steel part of the micropile cross-section
area of the cement mixture part of the micropile cross-section
design strength of steel
design strength of cement mixture in compression
Design strengths are equal to standard values in the verification based on the factor of safety.
Design strengths of steel and cement mixture are calculated in the verification based on the
theory of limit states as follows:
where: N
Nc,u
Rsd
A cross-section loaded by combination of bending moment and normal force requires the
determination of neutral axis, dividing the cross-section into tensile and compressed part.
When searching the position of neutral axis, influence of buckling is included, i.e. normal
force is increased by dividing it by coefficient of buckling . The neutral axis is searched
following the procedure known from the dimensioning of concrete cross-sections, reinforced
by steel, as a limit equilibrium method. Compression is transmitted by a part of a steel tube
and cement mixture filling. Tension is taken by the remaining part of the steel tube, cement
mixture in tension is not considered.
The bearing capacity in bending is determined by the following formula:
Ac,c
ts,t
ts,c
tc,c
Rcd
Design strengths are equal to standard values in the verification based on the factor of safety.
Design strengths of steel and cement mixture are calculated in the verification based on the
theory of limit states as follows:
where:
M
Mu
Rsd
Influence of Buckling
where:
lcr
i
where: Rsd -
design strength of steel (in calculation based on factor of safety design strength
is equal to standard strength)
Internal stability of section examines the failure of a micropile due to buckling into the
surrounding soil. The crucial step for the determination of internal stability of section is the
calculation of the normal force Ncr that depends on the micropile length, the surrounding soil
and other effects. User can choose one of the following solution methods in the "Micropiles"
tab for calculating critical normal force Ncr:
Salas theory
Vas-Souche theory
The micropile bearing capacity can be determined computationally using one of the
approaches available in the literature and standards. The program "Micropile" provides a set
of methods representing the basic approaches to the solution of bearing capacity of the
micropile root. The analysis is accrued out according to setting in the "Micropiles" tab
employing one of the following procedures:
Lizzi theory
- average limit friction on root skin is specified
Littlejohn
- grouting pressure is specified
theory
Zweck theory - method depends on geostatic stress and soil parameters of surrounding soil
Bowles theory
method depends on geostatic stress and soil parameters of surrounding soil
the way the micropile is built and soil parameters of surrounding soil are
Vas theory
specified
root in rock
- rock parameters of surrounding soil are specified
Bustamante
- method depends on parameters of SPT or pressiometric tests (PMT)