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Stress in a Soil Body

Calculation of the stress in soil in our software is described in the following chapters:

Geostatic stress in soil body, computation of uplift pressure

Effective / total stress

Stress increment due to surcharge

Stress increment under footing

Geostatic Stress, Uplift Pressure

Stress analysis is based on the existence of soil layers specified by the user during input. The
program further inserts fictitious layers at the locations where the stress and lateral pressure
(GWT, points of construction, etc.) change. The normal stress in the ith layer is computed
according to:

where:

hi

thickness of the ith layer

unit weight of soil

If the layer is found below the ground water table, the unit weight of soil below the water
table is specified with the help of input parameters of the soil as follows:

for option "Standard" from expression:

where:

sat

saturated unit weight of soil

unit weight of water

- for option "Compute from porosity" from expression:

where:

where:

porosity

specific weight of soil

unit weight of water

volume of soil

Vp

volume of voids

Gd

weight of dry soil

Unit weight of water is assumed in the program equal to 10 kN/m3 or 0.00625 ksi.
Assuming inclined ground behind the structure ( 0) and layered subsoil the angle , when
computingthe coefficient of earth pressure K, is reduced in the ith layer using the following
expression:

where:

- unit weight of the soil in the first layer under ground


i - unit weight of the soil in the ith layer under ground
- slope inclination behind the structure

Effective/Total Stress in a Soil

Vertical normal stress z is defined as:

where:

- vertical normal total stress

ef

- submerged unit weight of soil

- depth bellow the ground surface

- unit weight of water

This expression in its generalized form describes so called concept of effective stress:

where:

- total stress (overall)

ef

- effective stress (active)

- neutral stress (pore water pressure)

Total, effective and neutral stress in the soil


Effective stress concept is valid only for normal stress , since the shear stress is not
transferred by the water so that it is effective. The total stress is determined using the basic
tools of theoretical mechanics, the effective stress is then determined as a difference between
the total stress and neutral (pore) pressure (i.e. always by calculation, it can never be
measured). Pore pressures are determined using laboratory or in-situ testing or by calculation.
To decide whether to use the total or effective stresses is no simple. The following table may
provide some general recommendations valid for majority of cases. We should realize that the
total stress depends on the way the soil is loaded by its self weight and external effects. As for
the pore pressure we assume that for flowing pore water the pore equals to hydrodynamic
pressure and to hydrostatic pressure otherwise. For partial saturated soils with higher degree
of it is necessary to account for the fact that the pore pressure evolves both in water and air
bubbles.
Assume conditions

Drained layer

Undrained layer

short - term

effective stress

total stress

long - term

effective stress

effective stress

In layered subsoil with different unit weight of soils in individual horizontal layers the
vertical total stress is determined as a sum of weight of all layers above the investigated point
and the pore pressure:

where: z - vertical normal total stress


- unit weight of soil
- unit weight of soil in natural state for soils above the GWT and dry layers
- unit weight of soil below water in other cases
d - depth of the ground water table below the ground surface
z - depth bellow the ground surface
w - unit weight of water

Pile Group

Analyses performed in the "Pile Group" program can be divided into two groups:

Analytical solution - calculation of the vertical bearing capacity of a pile group for
cohesive and cohesionless soils and the determination of settlement

Analysis of a pile group using the spring method together with the determination of
reinforcement of piles

Analytical Solution

Analysis of the vertical bearing capacity of a pile group can be performed for:

cohesionless soil (analysis for drained conditions)

cohesive soil (analysis for undrained conditions)

The actual verification analysis is carried out according to the factors of safety or the theory
of limit states.
The verification is performed for the vertical load only. Load due to moments and shear
forces is not considered. To account for horizontal actions of the pile group calls for choosing
the spring method in the frame "Settings".
The analytical methods also allow for calculating the pile group settlement.

Cohesionless Soil (Analysis for Drained Conditions)

The same methods as for the analysis of an isolated pile are used to calculate the vertical
bearing capacity of a pile group:

NAVFAC DM 7.2

Effective stress

CSN 73 1002

The pile group vertical bearing capacity is provided by:

where:

n
Rc
g

- number of piles in a group


- vertical bearing capacity of an isolated pile
- pile group efficiency

The actual verification analysis is carried out according to the factors of safety or the theory
of limit states.

Efficiency of a Pile Group

UFC 3-220-01A

for axial spacing of piles in the group: 3d

for axial spacing of piles in the group: 6d

La Barr (CSN 73 1002):

where:

nx - number of piles in the x direction


ny - number of piles in the y direction
- angle having tangent
s
d

, expressed in degrees

- axial spacing of piles


- diameter of piles

Seiler-Keeney formula:

where:

nx
ny
s

- number of piles in the x direction


- number of piles in the y direction
- axial spacing of piles

Input efficiency
User-defined input of the degree of efficiency in the range of 0.5 - 1.0.
Literature:
Pochman, R.; Simek, J.: Pilotove zaklady - Komentar k CSN 73 1002. 1st edition, Prague,
Vydavatelstvi norem, 1989, 80 p.
Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC 3-220-01A): Design of deep foundations - Technical
instructions, Chapter 5-3, 1997.
Venkatramaiah, C.: Geotechnical Engineering. Second edition, New Delhi (India): New Age
International Publishers, 1995.
Cohesive Soil (Analysis for Undrained Conditions)

The bearing capacity of an earth block is provided by:

where: l
- length of piles
bx,by - plane dimensions of the base of an earth body in the form of a block
)
cus - average undrained shear strength along the piles (
cub
Ncg

- undrained shear strength at the base of piles


- cohesion group bearing capacity factor

where:
for condition:

for condition:
where: bx - minimum width of pile group (shorter layout size of the pile cap)
Note: The earth body is represented by a block with its base given by a plane containing feet
of individual piles and having vertical walls found in the distance of one pile diameter from
the axes of outer piles. This earth block subjected to overall load caused by the pile group
resists by shear along the walls - skin friction and by bearing capacity at its base.
The actual verification analysis is carried out according to the factors of safety or the theory
of limit states.

Analysis According to the Safety Factor

When performing the analysis according to the factor of safety the program carries out the
verification analysis for a pile group in compression:

where:

Rg - vertical bearing capacity of a pile group


Vd - maximum vertical force (including the pile cap self weight)
self weight of piles (only when the option "Consider the self weight of pile"
Wp is checked)

SFcp - factor of safety for a pile group in compression


Analysis According to the Theory of Limit States
When performing the analysis according to the theory of limit states the program carries out
the verification analysis for a pile group in a cohesionless soil:

where: Rg
n
Rc
t
g
Vd

- vertical bearing capacity of a pile group


- number of piles in the group
- vertical bearing capacity of an isolated pile (Rb + Rs)
reduction coefficient of total resistance
- pile group efficiency
- maximum vertical force (including the pile cap self weight)
self weight of piles (only when the option "Consider the self weight of pile" is
Wp checked)

When performing the analysis according to the theory of limit states the program carries out
the verification analysis for a pile group in a cohesive soil:

where: Rg - vertical bearing capacity of a pile group


Vd - maximum vertical force (including the pile cap self weight)
self weight of piles (only when the option "Consider the self weight of pile" is
Wp checked)
t - reduction coefficient of total resistance
When performing the verification analysis according to EN 1997-1 the pile group vertical
bearing capacity in a cohesive soil is reduced by the coefficient of base resistance (t = b).

Pile Group Settlement

Cohesionless soil
The analysis of a pile group in a cohesionless soil is developed based on the linear theory of
settlement (Poulos). The load-settlement curve for a pile group and the value of the total
settlement sg is increased by so-called group settlement factor gf.
An immediate settlement of the pile group increased by the group settlement factor is
provided by:

where: sg - pile group settlement


gf - group settlement factor for a cohesionless soil (according to Pile Buck Inc. 1992)
s0 - settlement of a single pile (determined, e.g. from the load-settlement curve)
d - pile diameter
bx - minimum width of pile group
Cohesive soil
The pile group settlement in a cohesive soil is determined as the settlement of a substitute
foundation at a depth of 0,67*L, having a width B and a length B'.
Analyses to calculate settlement are described in more detail in "Settlement analysis".

Scheme of substitute foundation - settlement of pile group in cohesive soil

Stress in a Soil Body

Calculation of the stress in soil in our software is described in the following chapters:

Geostatic stress in soil body, computation of uplift pressure

Effective / total stress

Stress increment due to surcharge

Stress increment under footing

Geostatic Stress, Uplift Pressure

Stress analysis is based on the existence of soil layers specified by the user during input. The
program further inserts fictitious layers at the locations where the stress and lateral pressure
(GWT, points of construction, etc.) change. The normal stress in the ith layer is computed
according to:

where:

hi

thickness of the ith layer

unit weight of soil

If the layer is found below the ground water table, the unit weight of soil below the water
table is specified with the help of input parameters of the soil as follows:

for option "Standard" from expression:

where:

sat

saturated unit weight of soil

unit weight of water

- for option "Compute from porosity" from expression:

where:

where:

porosity

specific weight of soil

unit weight of water

volume of soil

Vp

volume of voids

Gd

weight of dry soil

Unit weight of water is assumed in the program equal to 10 kN/m3 or 0.00625 ksi.
Assuming inclined ground behind the structure ( 0) and layered subsoil the angle , when
computingthe coefficient of earth pressure K, is reduced in the ith layer using the following
expression:

where:

- unit weight of the soil in the first layer under ground


i - unit weight of the soil in the ith layer under ground
- slope inclination behind the structure

Effective/Total Stress in a Soil

Vertical normal stress z is defined as:

where:

- vertical normal total stress

ef

- submerged unit weight of soil

- depth bellow the ground surface

- unit weight of water

This expression in its generalized form describes so called concept of effective stress:

where:

- total stress (overall)

ef

- effective stress (active)

- neutral stress (pore water pressure)

Total, effective and neutral stress in the soil


Effective stress concept is valid only for normal stress , since the shear stress is not
transferred by the water so that it is effective. The total stress is determined using the basic
tools of theoretical mechanics, the effective stress is then determined as a difference between
the total stress and neutral (pore) pressure (i.e. always by calculation, it can never be
measured). Pore pressures are determined using laboratory or in-situ testing or by calculation.
To decide whether to use the total or effective stresses is no simple. The following table may
provide some general recommendations valid for majority of cases. We should realize that the
total stress depends on the way the soil is loaded by its self weight and external effects. As for
the pore pressure we assume that for flowing pore water the pore equals to hydrodynamic
pressure and to hydrostatic pressure otherwise. For partial saturated soils with higher degree
of it is necessary to account for the fact that the pore pressure evolves both in water and air
bubbles.
Assume conditions

Drained layer

Undrained layer

short - term

effective stress

total stress

long - term

effective stress

effective stress

In layered subsoil with different unit weight of soils in individual horizontal layers the
vertical total stress is determined as a sum of weight of all layers above the investigated point
and the pore pressure:

where: z - vertical normal total stress


- unit weight of soil
- unit weight of soil in natural state for soils above the GWT and dry layers
- unit weight of soil below water in other cases
d - depth of the ground water table below the ground surface
z - depth bellow the ground surface
w - unit weight of water

Increment of Earth Pressure due to Surcharge

Earth pressure increment in a soil or rock body due to surcharge is computed using the theory
of elastic subspace (Boussinesq).
Earth pressure increment in the point inside the soil or rock body due to an infinite strip
surcharge is obtained from the following scheme:

Computation of earth pressure due to infinite strip surcharge

A trapezoidal surcharge is automatically subdivided in the program into ten segments.


Individual segments are treated as strip surcharges. The resulting earth pressure is a sum of
partial surcharges from individual segments.
Stress increment due to concentrated surcharge is computed as follows:

Surcharge related to point "O"

where:

Pile Analysis

Analyses available in the program "Pile" can be divided into three main groups:

Analysis of vertical bearing capacity

Pile settlement

Analysis of horizontal bearing capacity

Vertical Bearing Capacity

Analysis of pile vertical resistance can be carried out using:

Analytical solution

Spring method

Analytical Solution

The analytical solution assumes that the pile total compressive resistance Rc is derived as a
sum of the pile base resistance Rb and the pile shaft resistance Rs (developed due to friction of
the surrounding soil along the shaft). The following generally accepted methods are
implemented into the program:

NAVFAC DM 7.2

Tomlinson

Effective stress method

CSN 73 1002

For the above specified methods it is possible to choose one of the following verification
methodologies:

Classical way

EN 1997-1

When running the compression pile analysis, the pile self-weight is introduced depending on
the setting in the frame "Load". As for the tensile pile, the pile self-weight is always taken
into account automatically. Based on the input load the program itself performs the
verification analysis for either compression or tensile pile.

NAVFAC DM 7.2

Calculation of vertical pile resistance is performed according to the publication: NAVFAC


DM 7.2, Foundation and Earth Structures, U.S. Department of the Navy 1984, where all
approaches are described in more detail. The analysis provides the pile base resistance Rb and
the pile shaft resistance Rs.
For non-cohesive, the program takes into account the critical depth.

Tomlinson

This widely used method adopts undrained shear strength parameters to calculate the pile
bearing capacity. It further assumes that the pile shaft resistance depends on the pressure due
to overburden surcharge.
The pile shaft resistance is given by:

adhesion in the jth layer (shear stress between the pile skin and the surrounding
soil)
As, j - area of pile shaft in the jth layer
empirical adhesion coefficient (depends on the type of soil, type of pile, etc.) in
j the jth layer
cu, j - undrained cohesion in the j-th layer (undrained shear strength)

where: ca, j -

The empirical adhesion coefficient is back calculated by the program. Its values, however,
can be manually adjusted in the "Add new soil" dialog window.
The pile base resistance is given by:

where:

qb
Ab
cu

- unit pile base resistance


- pile base area
- undrained shear strength

Effective Stress Method

The effective stress method allows to calculate the vertical bearing capacity of an isolated
pile in both cohesive and non-cohesive soils. This method is suitable for drained conditions i.e. conditions that prevail after sufficient time passed the construction.

The pile shaft resistance is given by:

where: qs, j
p,j
0, j
Asj

- shaft resistance in the jth layer


- coefficients according to Bjerrum and Burland in the jth layer
- average effective stress due to overburden acting along the pile in the jth layer
- pile shaft area in the jth layer

The pile base resistance is given by:

where:

qp
Ab
Np
p

unit pile base resistance


pile base area
pile base resistance coefficient (according Fellenius)
effective stress due to overburden acting at pile base

Verification

Verification of pile bearing capacity depends on the verification methodology selected in the
"Piles" tab:

verification according to the factor of safety

verification according to the theory of limit states

verification according to EN 1997

Actual analyses (e.g. assessment of the pile base resistance) are the same for both options they differ only by incorporation of design coefficients, combinations and in the way of
demonstrating the structure safety. Design coefficients (verification parameters) are specified
in the "Piles" tab.
If the verification analysis according to CSN 73 1002 is selected, the verification is carried
out exclusively according to the Commentary to CSN 73 10002.

Verification According to the Theory of Limit States

When running the verification analysis according to the theory of limit states, it is possible to
introduce the required values of design coefficients in the "Piles" tab.
The program performs verification of the compression pile as:

where:

Rc
Rb
Rs
b
s
Vd
Wp

pile compressive resistance


pile base resistance
pile shaft resistance
partial factor on pile base resistance
partial factor on pile shaft resistance
extreme vertical load acting on a pile
pile self-weight

For tension pile the following verification applies:

where:

Rsdt
Rs
st
Vd
Wp

pile tensile resistance


pile shaft resistance
partial factor on tensile pile shaft resistance
extreme vertical load acting on a pile
pile self-weight

Micropile

The program performs verification analysis of micropiles (reinforced by steel tube)

based on limit states

based on factor of safety

Both the root section and micropile tube (micropile cross-section) are examined for both
cases. When examining the micropile tube the analysis may include excpected lifetime of the
micropile.
Verification Based on Safety Factor

The program performs verification analysis of the micropile tube and root:
Verification of the cross-section (tube)
Both, internal stability of section and coupled section bearing capacity, are verified.
1. Internal stability of section

standard critical normal force, calculated in dependence on the method set in


the "Micropiles" tab
Nmax - maximal normal force, entered in the frame "Load"
SFf - critical force safety factor, entered in the "Micropiles" tab

where: Ncr -

2. Coupled section bearing capacity

where: Rs - standard strength of steel, entered in the frame "Material"


stress in steel, calculated according to the way of load (section loaded only by
s normal force or by combination of bending moment and normal force)
SFs - safety factor of section resistance, entered in the "Micropiles" tab
Verification of the root

where: Q
Nmax
SFr

standard root bearing capacity, calculated in dependence on used method (see


"Bearing capacity of the micropile root section")
- maximal normal force, entered in the frame "Load"
- root resistance safety factor, entered in the "Micropiles" tab
-

Verification Based on Limit States

The program performs verification analysis of the micropile tube and root:

Verification of the cross-section (tube)


Both, internal stability of section and coupled section bearing capacity, are verified.
1. Internal stability of section

where:

Nmax
Ncrd

- maximal normal force, entered in the frame "Load"


- design critical normal force

standard critical normal force, calculated in dependence on the method set in the
"Micropiles" tab
reduction coefficient of critical force, entered in the "Micropiles" tab (limit
states)

where: Ncr mf

2. Coupled section bearing capacity

stress in steel, calculated according to the way of load (section loaded only by
normal force or by combination of bending moment and normal force)
Rsd - design strength of steel

where: s -

where: Rs - standard strength of steel, entered in the frame "Material"


ss - reliability coefficient of steel, entered in the "Micropiles" tab (limit states)
Verification of the root

where:

Nmax
Qrd

- maximal normal force, entered in the frame "Load"


- design root bearing capacity

standard root bearing capacity, calculated in dependence on used method (see


"Bearing capacity of the micropile root section")
reduction coefficient of root resistance, entered in the "Micropiles" tab (limit
r states)

where: Q -

Verification of the Micropile Tube

When calculating the tube bearing capacity (micropile cross-section) the program
differentiates between a micropile loaded in tension or in compression.
In case of tension the program determines coupled section bearing capacity (strength of
cement mixture is not considered).
In case of compression the program examines both, coupled section bearing capacity and
internal stability of section, depending on the method set in the "Micropiles" tab.

Coupled Section Bearing Capacity

In the case of coupled section bearing capacity, the micropile tube is examined against the
failure due to load caused by normal force or by combination of bending moment and normal
force.
When determining the coupled section bearing capacity it is possible to involve influence of
the expected life time of the micropile.

Micropile Lifetime

The micropile life time is introduced by reducing the area of the reinforcing tube using the
reduction coefficient of the influence of corrosion of steel tube re and coefficient Fut taking
into account connection of the micropile and the surrounding soil.

where: D
t
Fut
re

- external diameter of reinforcing tube


- wall thickness of reinforcing tube
- coefficient taking into account connection of micropile and surrounding soil
- coefficient of influence of corrosion of steel tube

Literature:
BS EN 14199:2005 Execution of special geotechnical works. Micropiles British-Adopted
European Standard / 30-Mar-2005 / 52 pages ISBN: 0580457249.

Bearing Capacity of Cross-Section Loaded by Normal Force

Tension normal force


In case of tension force, the stress in steel part of cross section is calculated using following
formula:

where:

s - stress in steel
N - normal force acting in section
As - area of the steel part of the micropile cross-section

Compressive normal force


Bearing capacity of the cross-section in compression, reduced by buckling coefficient, is
determined as:

where:

As
Ac
Rsd
Rcd

buckling coefficient
area of the steel part of the micropile cross-section
area of the cement mixture part of the micropile cross-section
design strength of steel
design strength of cement mixture in compression

Design strengths are equal to standard values in the verification based on the factor of safety.
Design strengths of steel and cement mixture are calculated in the verification based on the
theory of limit states as follows:

where: Rs - standard strength of steel, entered in the frame "Material"


ss - reduction coefficient of steel strength, entered in the "Micropiles" tab
standard strength of cement mixture in compression, entered in the frame
Rc "Material"
sc - reduction coefficient for cement mixture, entered in the "Micropiles" tab
The stress in the steel part of the cross-section is determined as:

where: N
Nc,u
Rsd

- normal force acting in section


bearing capacity of the cross-section in compression, reduced by influence of
buckling
- design strength of steel

Bearing Capacity of Cross-Section Loaded by Combination of Bending


Moment and Normal Force

A cross-section loaded by combination of bending moment and normal force requires the
determination of neutral axis, dividing the cross-section into tensile and compressed part.
When searching the position of neutral axis, influence of buckling is included, i.e. normal
force is increased by dividing it by coefficient of buckling . The neutral axis is searched
following the procedure known from the dimensioning of concrete cross-sections, reinforced
by steel, as a limit equilibrium method. Compression is transmitted by a part of a steel tube
and cement mixture filling. Tension is taken by the remaining part of the steel tube, cement
mixture in tension is not considered.
The bearing capacity in bending is determined by the following formula:

where: Rsd - design strength of steel


As,t - area of the tensile part of the steel micropile cross-section
As,c - area of the compressed part of the steel micropile cross-section

Ac,c
ts,t
ts,c
tc,c
Rcd

area of the compressed part of the cement mixture cross-section


location of the center of tensile steel part
location of the center of compressed steel part
location of the center of compressed cement mixture part
design strength of cement mixture in compression

Design strengths are equal to standard values in the verification based on the factor of safety.
Design strengths of steel and cement mixture are calculated in the verification based on the
theory of limit states as follows:

where: Rs - standard strength of steel, entered in the frame "Material"


ss - reliability coefficient of steel, entered in the "Micropiles" tab
standard strength of cement mixture in compression, entered in the frame
Rc "Material"
sc - reliability coefficient of cement mixture, entered in the "Micropiles" tab
The stress in the steel part of the cross-section is determined as:

where:

M
Mu
Rsd

- bending moment acting in section


- bearing capacity in bending
- design strength of steel

Influence of Buckling

The analysis is preceded by the determination of characteristics of an ideal cross-section, in


which the effect of cement mixture cross-section is transformed into steel. Slenderness of
element is determined as:

where:

lcr
i

- element buckling length


- radius of gyration of the ideal cross-section

where: E - modulus of elasticity of the ideal cross-section


I - moment of inertia of the ideal cross-section
standard critical normal force, calculated in dependence on the method set in the
Ncr "Micropiles" tab
Recounted slenderness p is determined next:

where: Rsd -

design strength of steel (in calculation based on factor of safety design strength
is equal to standard strength)

where: Rs - standard strength of steel, entered in the frame "Material"


ss - reliability coefficient of steel, entered in the "Micropiles" tab (limit states)
Buckling coefficient is determined according to slenderness p with the help of following
formulas:

Internal Stability of Section

Internal stability of section examines the failure of a micropile due to buckling into the
surrounding soil. The crucial step for the determination of internal stability of section is the
calculation of the normal force Ncr that depends on the micropile length, the surrounding soil
and other effects. User can choose one of the following solution methods in the "Micropiles"
tab for calculating critical normal force Ncr:

Geometric method (Euler)

Salas theory

Vas-Souche theory

Bearing Capacity of the Micropile Root Section

The micropile bearing capacity can be determined computationally using one of the
approaches available in the literature and standards. The program "Micropile" provides a set
of methods representing the basic approaches to the solution of bearing capacity of the
micropile root. The analysis is accrued out according to setting in the "Micropiles" tab
employing one of the following procedures:
Lizzi theory
- average limit friction on root skin is specified
Littlejohn
- grouting pressure is specified
theory
Zweck theory - method depends on geostatic stress and soil parameters of surrounding soil
Bowles theory
method depends on geostatic stress and soil parameters of surrounding soil
the way the micropile is built and soil parameters of surrounding soil are
Vas theory
specified
root in rock
- rock parameters of surrounding soil are specified
Bustamante
- method depends on parameters of SPT or pressiometric tests (PMT)