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# Closed Loop Control of Buck Converter

## (Average Current Mode Control)

Theory
Linear regulators have been traditionally used for getting regulated DC of desired magnitude and polarity
from unregulated DC supply. But linear regulator has the following disadvantages:
1. It has a transistor which works in active mode. Hence, for regulating the output voltage, it dissipates
the excess power as ohmic losses. So, large heat sinks are required.
2. It uses a 50 Hz transformer which is noisy, bulky & heavy.
Switch mode power supplies make use of power semiconductor devices like MOSFET along with inductors
and capacitors(non-disspitive elements). The power semiconductor devices are used as switches(either in
saturation or cut-off), thus the losses are reduced by considerable amount(since the on-state losses when
device is in active mode is more than in case of saturation or cut-off mode of device operation). Hence, the
efficiency of the power converter is increased considerably(> 90%).

## Figure 1: Block Diagram

The Buck Converter is the simplest SMPS configuration. It is a step-down DC-DC converter(i.e. regulated
DC output voltage is less than the regulated/unregulated DC input voltage). It is equivalent to a step-down
transformer in AC system and is a non-isolated type DC-DC converter. As shown in Fig. 1, buck converter
has a capacitor and an inductor at its output stage. The state of the switch is controlled by the signal at
the gate terminal of the switch. In continous conduction mode, the transfer function relating output voltage
to input voltage for a Buck converter is:
VO = D Vin
where D: Duty cycle of the switch
D=

TON
T

Closed loop operation of any SMPS is necessary or else, if the load is suddenly decreased, the capacitor
voltage may keep on building up, ultimately damaging it. There are two types of control possible viz. :
1. Voltage Mode Control
2. Current Mode Control

In this example, average current mode control has been implemented. The reference current & actual current
through the inductor are compared and based on the error, the modulating signal is generated for controlling
the duty cycle of the switch. The carrier wave is a 20 kHz sawtooth waveform. The modulating signal is
compared with the carrier wave to generate the control signal for the switch. A limiter is present in the control
circuit to limit the modulating signal between 0 & 1 in case the error is too large(to avoid overmodulation).
Buck converters find application in:
1. Notebook PCs
2. Point of load converters used in servers
3. Advance telecom & datacom systems
Nowadays, buck converters are available as integrated cicuits in various packages.

Implementation In Matlab
Circuit Overview
The circuit diagram in Fig.2 shows the implementation in Matlab.

## Setting Parameters for various blocks used:

1. Solver Options (model configuration parameters  solver)
(a) Type: fixed-step
(b) Solver: discrete (no continuous states)
(c) Fixed-step size: 0.5e-6
(d) Simulation time: 2e-3
2. Powergui Block (Simulink Library Browser  Simscape  SimPowerSystems  Powergui)
(a) Simulation type: discrete
(b) Sample time(s): 0.5e-6
3. DC Voltage Source (Simulink Library Browser  Simscape  SimPowerSystems  Electrical
Sources  DC voltage Source)
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## (a) Amplitude: 50V

4. IGBT/diode (Simulink Library Browser  Simscape  SimPowerSystems  Power Electronics
IGBT/Diode)
(a) Internal resistance Ron : 1e-7
(b) Snubber resistance Rs : inf
(c) Snubber capacitance Cs : 0
5. Diode (Simulink Library Browser  Simscape  SimPowerSystems  Power Electronics  Diode)
(a) Resistance Ron : 1e-7
(b) Inductance Lon : 0 H
(c) Forward voltage Vf : 0 V
(d) Snubber resistance Rs : 1e6
(e) Snubber capacitance Cs : inf
6. Series RLC branch (Simulink Library Browser  Simscape  SimPowerSystems  Power
Electronics  Series RLC branch)
(a) Inductance: 1e-3
(b) Capacitance: 47e-6
(c) Resistance: 5
7. Discrete time PID controller (Simulink Library Browser  Simulink  Discrete  Discrete time
PID controller)
(a) Type: PI
(b) Form: Parallel
(c) Integrator method: Forward Euler
(d) Sample time (-1 for inherited): 0.2e-6
(e) P: 150
(f) I: 10000
(g) Upper saturation limit: 1
(h) Lower saturation limit: 0
(a) Time values: [0 1/20e3]
(b) Output values: [0 1]
(a) Constant value: 2.4
operator)
12. Multimeter (Simulink Library Browser  Simscape  SimPowerSystems  Measurements
Multimeter)

## Matlab Simulation Plots

The inductor current & output voltage waveforms of the simulation in Matlab are shown in Fig. 3:

## Figure 3: Output Voltage & Inductor Current Waveforms in Matlab

Circuit Overview
The circuit diagram in Fig.4 shows the implementation in PSCAD.

## Setting Parameters for arious block used:

1. Run Time Setting
(a) Duration of run = 2 103 s
(b) Solution Time Step = 0.5 106 s
2. Voltage source: (Master Library  Sources  [Single Phase Voltage Source Model 2])
(a) Source Impedance : Ideal
(b) Source Type : DC
(c) Magnitude = 50 V
(d) Ramp up Time = 0 s
3. IGBT: (Master Library  HVDC Facts  [IGBT])
(a) Enable snubber circuit: No
(b) Thyristor ON Resistance = 1 107
4. Diode: (Master Library  HVDC Facts  [Diode])
(a) Enable snubber circuit : No
(b) Thyristor ON Resistance = 0.01
5. Real constant: (Master Library  Miscellaneous  [Real and Integer Constants])
(a) Real Constant Value = 2.4

## 6. PI control: (Master Library  CSMF  [PI])

(a) Proportional gain = 150
(b) Integral time constant = 0.015 s
(c) Maximum limit = 1
(d) Minimum limit = 0
7. VCO: (Master Library  CSMF  [VCO])
8. Comparator: (Master Library  CSMF  [Comparator])
(a) Output Type: Level
Note:
1. All the basic elements are available in the components
2. In order to generate a saw tooth wave of amplitude 0 to 1 V, we have to use VCO followed by a gain
block of 0.002777

The inductor current & output voltage waveforms of the simulation in PSCAD are shown in Fig.5:

## Figure 5: Output Voltage & Inductor Current Waveforms in PSCAD

Implementation In PSIM
Circuit Overview
The circuit diagram in Fig.6 shows the implementation in PSIM.

## Setting parameters for various blocks used:

1. Simulation Control
(a) Time step = 0.5 106
(b) Total time = 2 103
2. IGBT
(a) Transistor Resistance = 107
3. On-Off Controller [ON1] (Elements >> Other >> Switch Controllers >> On-Off Controller)
4. Diode [D]
(a) Diode Resistance = 107
5. PI
(a) Gain = 150
(b) Time constant = 0.015
6. Limiter [LIM] (Elements  Control  Limiter)
(a) Lower Limit = 0
(b) Upper Limit = 1
7. Triangular wave voltage generator [VTRI]
(a) V peak to peak = 1
(b) Frequency = 20 kHz
(c) Duty Cycle = 1
(d) DC Offset = 0

## PSIM Simulation Plots

The inductor current & output voltage waveforms of the simulation in PSIM are shown in Fig. 7:

## Figure 7: Output Voltage & Inductor Current Waveforms in PSIM

Implementation in SaberRD
Circuit Overview
The circuit diagram in Fig.8 shows the implementation in SaberRD.

## Setting parameters for various blocks used:

Power Converter Section
1. Simulation Control
(a) Time step = 0.5 106
(b) End time = 2 103
(c) Step-size Control: Fixed(Go to Advanced Simulation Options)

2. DC Voltage Source:
(Libraries  Generic Parts  Sources  Electrical  [Voltage Source,Constant Ideal DC Supply])
(a) Vdc = 50V
3. Diodes:
(Libraries  Generic Parts  Electronics  Semiconductor Devices  Diodes  [Diode, Ideal(PWL)])
(a) Von = 0.7V
4. Switch:
(Libraries  Generic Parts  Digital  [Switch, Power Semiconductor])
5. Current Sensor:
(Libraries  Generic Parts  Measurement & Detection  Electrical  [Sensor,Current,3 point])
Converts current flowing through the sensor into var datatype with magnitude same as the current
and no unit. (var datatype is used in Control Systems in SaberRD)
6. Capacitor:
(Libraries  Generic Parts  Electronic  Passive Elements  [Capacitor])
(a) C = 47F
(b) V(0) = 0V
7. Inductor:
(Libraries  Generic Parts  Electronic  Passive Elements  [Inductor])
(a) L = 1mH
(b) I(0) = 0A
8. Resistor:
(Libraries  Generic Parts  Electronic  Passive Elements  [Resistor])
(a) R = 5
9. Same Page Connector:
(Libraries  Generic Parts  Schematic Connections  [Same Page Connector])
This is similar to Goto-From block in MATLAB.
Control Section
Control systems in SaberRD always work in var datatype. We need to use Domain Converters to convert
from electrical/mechanical to var or vice versa.
1. Constant:
(Libraries  Generic Parts  Sources  Continous Control  [Control Source, Constant])
(a) c = 2.4
2. Summing Point:
(Libraries  Generic Parts  Control Systems  Math Operations  [Difference])
3. PI Controller:
(Libraries  Generic Parts  Control Systems  Continous  [Proportional-Integral])
(a) kp = 150.0
(b) ki = 10000.0
4. Quantity Limiter:
(Libraries  Generic Parts  VDA Fundamentals  Control  [Quantity Limiter])
(a) qmin = 0.0
(b) qmax = 1.0
5. Var to Voltage Converter:
(Libraries  Generic Parts  Domain Converters  [Interface, Var to Voltage])
This is required for converting var datatype to voltage signal which is given as input to comparator.
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## 6. Comparator: (Libraries  Generic Parts  Digital  [Comparator, Ideal Logic Out])

7. Sawtooth Wave Generator:
(Libraries  Generic Parts  Sources  Electrical  [Voltage Source,Pulse])
(a) amplitude = 1
(b) period = 50s
(c) rise time = 49.999 s
(d) fall time = 1 ns
8. Logic Clock: (Libraries  Generic Parts  Digital  [Logic Clock])
(a) duty = 1

## SaberRD Simulation Plots

The inductor current & output voltage waveforms of the simulation in SaberRD are shown in Fig. 9:

## Figure 9: Inductor Current & Output Voltage Waveforms in SaberRD

Acknowledgments
This work was carried out at IIT Bombay as a part of the project Simulation Centre for Power Electronics
and Power Systems, through the National Mission on Power Electroincs Technology (NaMPET), Phase 2,
sponsored by the Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Govt. of India.
This specific document was contributed by
1. Ajinkya Sinkar ( ajinkyasinkar@gmail.com )
2. Shrikant Mali ( bb.shrikant@gmail.com )
3. V. Sai Suresh ( saisuresh60@gmail.com )
4. Sandeep V. Nair ( sandeepvnair89@gmail.com )
References
1. M.H. Rashid, Power Electronics:Circuits, Devices & Applications, Pearson Publication 2009
2. Ned Mohan, Power Electronics:A First Course, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012
3. M.B. Patil, V. Ramanarayanan and V.T. Ranganathan, Simulation of Power Electronic Circuits,
Narosa Publishing House 2009

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