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A symptom is a signal that is felt or noticed by the person who has it, but may not be easily seen by
anyone else. For example, weakness, aching, and feeling short of breath may be symptoms of
pneumonia. We should know some of the general signs and symptoms of cancer. But remember,
having any of these does not mean that we have cancermany other things cause these signs and
symptoms, too. If we have any of these symptoms and we last for a long time or get worse, we need
to find or go to the hospital for early treatment. We have two symptoms like general symptoms and
certain symptoms of cancer disease. We have 5 for the general symptoms of cancer disease :I.

Unexplained weight loss

Most people with cancer will lose weight at some point. When we lose weight for no known
reason, its called an unexplained weight loss. An unexplained weight loss of 10 pounds or
more may be the first sign of cancer. This happens most often with cancers of the pancreas,
stomach, esophagus (swallowing tube), or lung.

II. Fever
Fever is an abnormal condition of the body, characterized by undue rise in temperature,
quickening of the pulse, and disturbance of various body functions. Fever is very common
with cancer, but it more often happens after cancer has spread from where it started. Almost
all patients with cancer will have fever at some time, especially if the cancer or its treatment
affects the immune system. (This can make it harder for the body to fight infection.) Less
often, fever may be an early sign of cancer, such as blood cancers like leukemia or
III. Fatigue
Fatigue is extreme tiredness that does not get better with rest. It may be an important
symptom as cancer grows. It may happen early, though, in some cancers, like leukemia.
Some colon or stomach cancers can cause blood loss thats not obvious. This is another way
cancer can cause fatigue.

IV. Pain
Pain may be an early symptom with some cancers like bone cancers or testicular cancer. A
headache that does not go away or get better with treatment may be a symptom of a brain
tumor. Back pain can be a symptom of cancer of the colon, rectum, or ovary. Most often,
pain due to cancer means it has already spread (metastasized) from where it started.
V. Skin changes
Along with cancers of the skin, some other cancers can cause skin changes that can be seen.
These signs and symptoms include; Darker looking skin (hyperpigmentation), Yellowish
skin and eyes (jaundice), Reddened skin (erythema), Itching (pruritis), and Excessive hair
This is 5 general symptoms for the cancer disease. We need to take care with the general symptoms
because we can think this symptoms is a simple symptoms but we need to know this symptoms can
become the big symptoms for the disease like cancer. In addition, we also have symptoms of certain
cancers that is :

Change in bowel habits or bladder function

Long-term constipation, diarrhea, or a change in the size of the stool may be a sign of colon
cancer. Pain when passing urine, blood in the urine, or a change in bladder function (such as
needing to pass urine more or less often than usual) could be related to bladder or prostate
cancer. Report any changes in bladder or bowel function to a doctor.

ii. Sores that do not heal

Skin cancers may bleed and look like sores that dont heal. A long-lasting sore in the mouth
could be an oral cancer. This should be dealt with right away, especially in people who
smoke, chew tobacco, or often drink alcohol. Sores on the penis or vagina may either be
signs of infection or an early cancer, and should be seen by a health professional.

iii. White patches inside the mouth or white spots on the tongue
White patches inside the mouth and white spots on the tongue may be leukoplakia.
Leukoplakia is a pre-cancerous area thats caused by frequent irritation. Its often caused by
smoking or other tobacco use. People who smoke pipes or use oral or spit tobacco are at
high risk for leukoplakia. If its not treated, leukoplakia can become mouth cancer. Any
long-lasting mouth changes should be checked by a doctor or dentist right away.

iv. Unusual bleeding or discharge

Unusual bleeding can happen in early or advanced cancer. Coughing up blood in the sputum
(phlegm) may be a sign of lung cancer. Blood in the stool (which can look like very dark or
black stool) could be a sign of colon or rectal cancer. Cancer of the cervix or the
endometrium (lining of the uterus) can cause abnormal vaginal bleeding. Blood in the urine
may be a sign of bladder or kidney cancer. A bloody discharge from the nipple may be a
sign of breast cancer.

Thickening or lump in the breast or other parts of the body

Many cancers can be felt through the skin. These cancers occur mostly in the breast, testicle,
lymph nodes (glands), and the soft tissues of the body. A lump or thickening may be an early
or late sign of cancer and should be reported to a doctor, especially if youve just found it or
notice it has grown in size. Keep in mind that some breast cancers show up as red or
thickened skin rather than the expected lump.

vi. Indigestion or trouble swallowing

Indigestion or swallowing problems that dont go away may be signs of cancer of the
esophagus (the swallowing tube that goes to the stomach), stomach, or pharynx (throat). But
like most symptoms on this list, they are most often caused by something other than cancer.
vii. Recent change in a wart or mole or any new skin change
Any wart, mole, or freckle that changes color, size, or shape, or that loses its sharp border
should be seen by a doctor right away. Any other skin changes should be reported, too. A
skin change may be a melanoma which, if found early, can be treated successfully.

viii. Nagging cough or hoarseness

A cough that does not go away may be a sign of lung cancer. Hoarseness can be a sign of
cancer of the voice box (larynx) or thyroid gland.
Cancer disease is a very dangerous and can kill people when we dont care about this symptoms. We
should to know and take care about this symptoms listed and do the early treatment when we feel
sick like this symptoms. This listed above are the more common ones seen with cancer because the
another symptoms is not on the listed.
We scared when we see other people having trouble with cancer and sacred with symptoms of cancer
but we must prevent this cancer from becoming worse by using several ways such as:

Early treatment/ Get regular medical care

We know that doing early treatment is a way to overcome a good because it meant for us to
know with more accurate about health we are. We need to get early treatment while still
small. If our health poor, we also need to continue to seek treatment to avoid getting cancer.
If we do not do early treatment, the disease easily enter our body, especially cancer.
Therefore, we need to get early treatment no matter we are healthy or sick so we can prevent
disease before pain. Regular self-exams and screenings for various types of cancers such
as cancer of the skin, colon, cervix and breast can increase chances of discovering cancer
early, when treatment is most likely to be successful. Ask the doctor about the best cancer
screening schedule. Take cancer prevention into your own hands, starting today. The
rewards will last a lifetime.

ii. Dont smoke/ Don't use tobacco

Using any type of tobacco puts you on a collision course with cancer. Smoking has been
linked to various types of cancer including cancer of the lung, mouth, throat, larynx,
pancreas, bladder, cervix and kidney. Xhewing tobacco has been linked to cancer of the oral
cavity and pancreas. Even if you don't use tobacco, exposure to secondhand smoke might
increase your risk of lung cancer. Avoiding tobacco or deciding to stop using it is one
of the most important health decisions you can make. It's also an important part of cancer

prevention. If you need help quitting tobacco, ask your doctor about stop-smoking products
and other strategies for quitting.

iii. Eat a Healthy Diet

Although making healthy selections at the grocery store and at mealtime can't guarantee
cancer prevention, it might help reduce your risk. Consider these guidelines:
#Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. Base your diet on fruits, vegetables and other
foods from plant sources such as whole grains and beans.
#Avoid obesity. Eat lighter and leaner by choosing fewer high-calorie foods, including
refined sugars and fat from animal sources.
#If you choose to drink alcohol, do so only in moderation.The risk of various types of
cancer including cancer of the breast, colon, lung, kidney and liver increases with
the amount of alcohol you drink and the length of time you've been drinking regularly.
#Limit processed meats. A report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer,
the cancer agency of the World Health Organization, concluded that eating


amounts of processed meat can slightly increase the risk of certain types of cancer.
In addition, women who eat a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil and
mixed nuts might have a reduced risk of breast cancer. The Mediterranean diet focuses on mostly
on plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes and nuts. People who
follow the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, like olive oil, over butter and fish instead of
red meat.
iv. Exercise Regularly
Few things are as good for you as regular physical activity. While it can be hard to find the
time, its important to fit in at least 30 minutes of activity every day. More is even better, but
any amount is better than none. Sitement Cancer Center give 3 tips for the exerceis regularly
such as; Choose activities you enjoy. Many things count as exercise, including walking,
gardening and dancing, Make exercise a habit by setting aside the same time for it each day.
Try going to the gym at lunchtime or taking a walk regularly after dinner and Stay
motivated by exercising with someone.


Get Screening Tests

There are a number of important screening tests that can help protect against cancer. Some
of these tests find cancer early when they are most treatable, while others can actually help
keep cancer from developing in the first place. For colorectal cancer alone, regular
screening could save over 30,000 lives each year. Thats three times the number of people
killed by drunk drivers in the United States in all of 2011. Talk to a health care professional
about which tests you should have and when.

vi. Maintain a healthy weight and be physically active

Maintaining a healthy weight might lower the risk of various types of cancer, including
cancer of the breast, prostate, lung, colon and kidney. Physical activity counts, too. In
addition to helping you control your weight, physical activity on its own might lower the
risk of breast cancer and colon cancer. Adults who participate in any amount of physical
activity gain some health benefits. But for substantial health benefits, strive to get at least
150 minutes a week of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous aerobic
physical activity. You can also do a combination of moderate and vigorous activity. As a
general goal, include at least 30 minutes of physical activity in your daily routine and if
you can do more, even better.
vii. Get immunized
Cancer prevention includes protection from certain viral infections. Talk to doctor about
immunization against:

Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B can increase the risk of developing liver cancer. The hepatitis
B vaccine is recommended for certain high-risk adults such as adults who are
sexually active but not in a mutually monogamous relationship, people with sexually
transmitted infections, intravenous drug users, men who have sex with men, and health
care or public safety workers who might be exposed to infected blood or body fluids.


Human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that can lead to
cervical and other genital cancers as well as squamous cell cancers of the head and
neck. The HPV vaccine is recommended for girls and boys ages 11 and 12. It is also
available to both men and women age 26 or younger who didn't have the vaccine as

viii. Protect yourself from the sun

While the warm sun is certainly inviting, too much exposure to it can lead to skin cancer,
including serious melanoma. Skin damage starts early in childhood, so its especially
important to protect children. these tips;

Avoid midday sun. Stay out of the sun between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., when the sun's
rays are strongest.


Stay in the shade. When you're outdoors, stay in the shade as much as possible.
Sunglasses and a broad-brimmed hat help, too.


Cover exposed areas. Wear tightly woven, loosefitting clothing that covers as much
of your skin as possible. Opt for bright or dark colors, which reflect more ultraviolet
radiation than pastels or bleached cotton


Don't skimp on sunscreen. Use generous amounts of sunscreen when you're outdoors,
and reapply often.


Avoid tanning beds and sunlamps. These are just as damaging as natural sunlight.

ix. Avoid risky behaviors

Another effective cancer prevention tactic is to avoid risky behaviors that can lead to infections
that, in turn, might increase the risk of cancer. For example:

Practice safe sex. Limit your number of sexual partners, and use a condom when you have sex.
The more sexual partners you have in your lifetime, the more likely you are to contract a
sexually transmitted infection such as HIV or HPV. People who have HIV or AIDS have a
higher risk of cancer of the anus, liver and lung. HPV is most often associated with cervical
cancer, but it might also increase the risk of cancer of the anus, penis, throat, vulva and vagina.


Don't share needles. Sharing needles with an infected drug user can lead to HIV, as well as
hepatitis B and hepatitis C which can increase the risk of liver cancer. If you're concerned
about drug abuse or addiction, seek professional help.

Rujukan : :
Mayo clinic :
Siteman Cancer Center :
Margaret Snooks (2009), Health Psychology: Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural