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Peyman Maroufi

Petroleum Engineering department

LOGO

Soran

university

Reservoir Deliverability

Reservoir deliverability

Reservoir deliverability is defined as the oil or gas production rate achievable

from reservoir at a given bottom-hole pressure.

It is a major factor affecting well deliverability.

Reservoir deliverability determines types of completion and artificial lift

methods to be used.

A thorough knowledge of reservoir productivity is essential for production

engineers.

Reservoir Deliverability

Reservoir deliverability depends on several factors including the following:

Reservoir pressure

Pay zone thickness and permeability

Reservoir boundary type and distance

Wellbore radius

Reservoir fluid properties

Near-wellbore condition

Reservoir relative permeabilities

such as transient flow, steady state flow, and pseudosteady state flow.

An analytical relation between bottom-hole pressure and production rate can be

formulated for a given flow regime. The relation is called inflow performance

relationship (IPR).

Reservoir Deliverability

Flow Regimes

When a vertical well is open to produce oil at production rate q, it creates a pressure funnel

of radius r around the wellbore, as illustrated by the dotted line in Fig. 3.1a.

In this reservoir model,

the h is the reservoir thickness,

k is the effective horizontal reservoir

permeability to oil,

mo is viscosity of oil,

Bo is oil formation volume factor,

rw is wellbore radius,

pwf is the flowing bottom hole pressure,

p is the pressure in the reservoir at the

distance r from the wellbore center line.

radial flow pattern as depicted in Fig. 3.1b.

Reservoir Deliverability

Transient Flow

Transient flow is defined as a flow regime where/when the radius of pressure

wave propagation from wellbore has not reached any boundaries of the

reservoir.

During transient flow, the developing pressure funnel is small relative to the

reservoir size. Therefore, the reservoir acts like an infinitively large reservoir

from transient pressure analysis point of view.

production engineering.

Reservoir Deliverability

For gas wells, the transient solution is

pseudo-pressure

Reservoir Deliverability

Steady-State Flow

Steady-state flow is defined as a flow regime where the pressure at any

point in the reservoir remains constant over time.

The constant-pressure boundary can be an aquifer or a water injection well.

A sketch of the reservoir model is shown in Fig. 3.2, where pe represents the pressure

at the constant-pressure boundary.

Assuming single-phase flow, the following theoretical relation can be derived from

Darcys law for an oil reservoir under the steady-state flow condition due to a circular

constant pressure boundary at distance re from wellbore:

Reservoir Deliverability

PseudoSteady-State Flow

Pseudosteady-state flow is defined as a flow regime where the pressure at

any point in the reservoir declines at the same constant rate over time.

A no-flow boundary can be a sealing fault, pinch-out of pay zone, or boundaries

of drainage areas of production wells

A sketch of the reservoir model is shown in Fig. 3.3, where pe represents the

pressure at the no-flow boundary at time t4.

Assuming single-phase flow, the following theoretical relation can be derived from

Darcys law for an oil reservoir under pseudosteady-state flow condition due to a

circular no-flow boundary at distance re from wellbore:

Reservoir Deliverability

Reservoir Deliverability

Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR)

IPR is used for evaluating reservoir deliverability in production engineering.

The IPR curve is a graphical presentation of the relation between the flowing

bottom-hole pressure and liquid production rate.

A typical IPR curve is shown in Fig. 3.5.

This plot is defined as inflow

performance relationship (IPR) curve

and is very useful in estimating well

capacity, designing tubing string, and

scheduling an artificial lift method.

Reservoir Deliverability

The magnitude of the slope of the IPR curve is called the productivity index (PI or

J), that is,

flow region.

Reservoir Deliverability

In single phase flow this is a straight line but when gas is moving in the reservoir, at a

pressure below the bubble point, this in not a linear relationship.

All reservoir inflow models represented by Eqs. (3.1), (3.3), (3.7), and (3.8)were

derived on the basis of the assumption of single-phase liquid flow.

This assumption is valid for undersaturated oil reservoirs, or reservoir portions where

the pressure is above the bubble-point pressure.

These equations define the productivity index (J) for flowing bottom-hole pressures

above the bubble-point pressure as follows:

Reservoir Deliverability

for radial transient flow around a vertical well,

Reservoir Deliverability

Since the productivity index (J) above the bubble-point pressure is independent of

production rate, the IPR curve for a single (liquid)-phase reservoir is simply a

straight line drawn from the reservoir pressure to the bubble-point pressure.

If the bubble-point pressure is 0 psig, the absolute open flow (AOF) is the

productivity index (J) times the reservoir pressure.

Reservoir Deliverability

Reservoir Deliverability

Fig.(4) Illustrative comparison of liquid and

two-phase IPR curves.

Reservoir Deliverability

Example Problem 3.1 Construct IPR of a vertical well in an oil reservoir. Consider

(1) transient flow at 1 month, (2) steady-state flow, and (3) pseudosteady-state flow.

The following data are given:

Reservoir Deliverability

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