Continuouswave Modulation
Problem 2.1
(a) Let the input voltage vi consist of a sinusoidal wave of frequency ~ f c (i.e., hal f the desired carrier frequency) and the message signal m( t):
v. = A cos Or f t)+m(t)
1 C C
Then, the output current io is io = a1 vi + a3 vi
= a1 [A cos(lT f t)+m( t.) ]+a3[A cos(lT f thm( t)] 3
c c c c
= a1 [Accos(lTfct)+m(t)] + ia3A~ [cos(3rrfct)+3coS(lTfct)]
+ ~t~ m(t)[1+cos(2rrfct)] + 3a3AcCOS(lTfct)i(t) + a3m3(t)
Assume that met) occupies the frequency interval W < f < W. Then, the amplitude spectrum of the output current i is as shown below.
o
I (f) o
3f c
W 0 W
3f c
2
2
2W
2W
51
From this diagram we see that in order to extract a OSBSe wave, with carrier frequency f c
fran i , we need a bandpass filter with midband frequency f and bandwidth Zvl, which
o c
satisfy the requirement:
that is,
Therefore, to use the given nonlinear device as a product mmodulator, we may use the following configuration:
A cos(1Tf t)
c c
m (t)
Nonlinear
device
BPF
3'a A2 met) COS(21Tf t)
'2 3 c c
(b) To generate an AM wave with carrier frequency fc we require a sinusoidal component of frequ'ency f to be added to the DSBSe generated in the manner described above. To achieve
. c _
thi s requirement, we may use the following configuration involving a pair of the nonlinear
devices and a pair of identical bandpass filters.
A cos (1Tf t)
c c
m (t)
Nonlinear
device
BPF
A cos(1Tf t)
c c
Nonlinear
device
BPF
AM wave
52
3 2
The resulting AM wave is therefore 2" a3 Ac[AO+m(t)]coS(2rrfct). Thus, the choice of the dc
level AO at the input of the lower branch controls the percentage modulation of the AM wave.
Problem 2.2
Consider the squarelaw characteristic:
(1)
where al and ~ are constants. Let
(2)
Therefore substitutingEq. (2) into (1), and expanding terms:
v~t) • a1A.r + ~: m(t)] COS(211fct)
+ alm(t) + a2m 2(t) + a2Ac2cos2(21tfct)
(3)
The first term in Eq. (3) is the desired AM signal with ka = 2az!al. The remaining three terms are unwanted terms that are removed by filtering.
Let the modulating wave m(t) be limited to the band W < f~ W, as in Fig. 1(a). Then, from Eq. (3) we find that the amplitude spectrum lv 2(0 I is as shown in Fig. 1(b). It follows therefore that the unwanted terms may be removed from v2(t.) by designing the tuned filter at the modulator output of Fig. P'2.2 to have a midband frequency fc and bandwidth 2W, which satisfy the requirement that fc> 3W ..
IM(f)1
(a)
Ie
w 0
Figure 1
53
Problem 2.3
The generation of an AM wave may be accomplished using various devices; here we describe one such device called a switching modulator. Details of this modulator are shown in Fig. P2.3a, where it is assumed that the carrier wave c(t) applied to the diode is large in amplitude, so that it swings right across the characteristic curve of the diode. We assume that the diode acts as an ideal switch, that is, it presents zero impedance when it is forwardbiased [corresponding to c(t) > 0]. We may thus approximate the transfer characteristic of the diodeload resistor combination by a piecewiselinear characteristic, as shown in Fig. P2.3b. Accordingly, for an input voltage "i (t)
consisting of the sum of the carrier and the message signal:
(1)
where Im(t)1 «AC' the resulting load voltage v2(t) is
( ) _ { VI (t),
V2 t 
0,
c(t) > 0 c(t) < 0
(2)
That is, the load voltage v2(t) varies periodically between the values VI (t) and zero at a rate equal to the carrier frequency fe In this way, by assuming a modulating wave that is weak compared with the carrier wave, we have effectively replaced the nonlinear behavior of the diode by an approximately equivalent piecewiselinear timevarying operation.
We may express Eq. (2) mathematically as
(3)
where gT (t) is a periodic pulse train of duty cycle equal to onehalf, and period To = 1lfc' as in
o
Fig. 1. Representing this gT (t) by its Fourier series, we have
o
1 2 00 ( 1) nI
gT (t) = 2 +  L; 1 cos [2nfct(2n 1)]
o n n
n=l
(4)
Therefore, substituting Eq. (4) in (3), we find that the load voltage v2(t) consists of the sum of two components:
1. The component
54
which is the desired AM wave with amplitude sensitivity ka = 4nAC' The switching modulator is therefore made more sensitive by reducing the carrier amplitude Ae; however, it must be maintained large enough to make the diode act like an ideal switch.
2. Unwanted components, the spectrum of which contains delta functions at 0, ±2fC' ±4fe' and so on, and which occupy frequency intervals of width 2W centered at 0, ±3fC' ±5fC' and so on, where W is the message bandwidth.
Fig. 1: Periodic pulse train
The unwanted terms are removed from the load voltage v2(t) by means of a bandpass filter with midband frequency t; and bandwidth 2W, provided thatfe > 2W This latter condition ensures that the frequency separations between the desired AM wave the unwanted components are large enough for the bandpass filter to suppress the unwanted components.
55
Problem 2.4
(a) The envelope detector output is
vet) = A 11+ llcos(2rrf t) 1
c m
which is illustrated below for the case when II =2.
v Ct)
3A c
t
2 1 1
3f 2f 3f
In In In
o
1 3f In
1 2
2f 3f
In In
1 f In
We see that vet) is periodic with a period equal to f , and an even function of t, and so
we may express vet) in the form: m
<XI
v( t) = aO + 2 I: an cos(2n1T fmt) n=1
where
1/2f
aO = 2f f m v( t)d t
m 0
1/3f 1/2f
= 2A f f m [1+2 cos(2rrf t)]dt + 2A f J m [12cos(2rrf t)]dt
c mO' m c m 1 /3f m
m
A 4A
= ~ + 1T c Sin(2'3)
(1)
1/2f
an = 2f f m v( t ) cos(2mr f t) dt
mOm
1/3f
= 2Acfm f m [1+2cos(2nfmt)]cos(2mrfmt)dt
o
56
1 !2f
+ 2A f J m [12cos(2'rrf t)]cos(2mrf t)dt
c m 1/3f m m
m
Ac 2 Ac 'l
rm [2 sine ~)  sin(nrr)] + (n+1)1T {2 sin[~(n+1)]  sin[1T(n+1)]}
Ac 2'rr
+ (n1)1T {2 sin[3"(n1)]  sin[1T(n1)]}
(2)
For n=O, Eq. (2) reduces to that shown in Eq. (1).
(b) For n= 1, Eq. (2) yields
A (n + 1.)
a 1 = c 21T 3
For n=2, it yields
Therefore, the ratio of secondharmonic amplitude to fundamental amplitude in vet) is
=
313
=
0.452
57
Problem 2.5
(a) The demodulation of an AM wave can be accomplished using various devices; here, we describe a simple and yet highly effective device known as the envelope detector. Some version of this demodulator is used in almost all commercial AM radio receivers. For it to function properly, however, the AM wave has to be narrowband, which requires that the carrier frequency be large compared to the message bandwidth. Moreover, the percentage modulation must be less than 100 percent.
An envelope detector of the series type is shown in Fig. P2.5, which consists of a diode and a resistorcapacitor (Rf") filter. The operation of this envelope detector is as follows. On a positive halfcycle of the input signal, the diode is forwardbiased and the capacitor C charges up rapidly to the peak value of the input signal. When the input signal falls below this value, the diode becomes reversebiased and the capacitor C discharges slowly through the load resistor Rz. The discharging process continues until the next positive halfcycle. When the
input signal becomes greater than the voltage across the capacitor, the diode conducts again and the process is repeated. We assume that the diode is ideal, presenting resistance rr to
current flow in the forwardbiased region and infinite resistance in the reversebiased region. We further assume that the AM wave applied to the envelope detector is supplied by a voltage source of internal impedance R; The charging time constant (rf + Rs) C must be short
compared with the carrier period lIfe' that is
(1)
so that the capacitor C charges rapidly and thereby follows the applied voltage up to the positive peak when the diode is conducting.
(b) The discharging time constant RzC must be long enough to ensure that the capacitor discharges slowly through the load resistor Rz between positive peaks of the carrier wave, but not so long that the capacitor voltage will not discharge at the maximum rate of change of the modulating wave, that is
1 1
« RiC«fe W
(2)
where W is the message bandwidth. The result is that the capacitor voltage or detector output is nearly the same as the envelope of the AM wave.
58
Problem 2.6
Let
(a) Then the output of the squarelaw device is
2 V2(t) = alVl(t) + a2vl (t)
= a1AJ1 + kam(t)]cos(21tfct)
+ _!a2A;[1 + 2kam(t) + k;m 2(t)] [1 + cos(41tfct)] 2
(b) The desired signal, namely ¥c2kam(t), is due to the ~vt(t)  hence, the name "squarelaw detection". This component can be extracted by means of a lowpass filter. This is not the only contribution within the baseband spectrum, because the term 112 ¥c2ka2m2(t) will give rise to a plurality of similar frequency components. The ratio of wanted signal to distortion is 2Ikam(t). To make this ratio large, the percentage modulation, that is, I kam(t) I should be kept small compared with unity.
59
Problem 2.7
The squarer output is
v1(t) = A2 [1+k m(t)]2 coS2(errf t)
c a c
The ampl itude spectrum of v 1 (t) is therefore as follows, assuming that m( t) is limited to the interval W < f < W:
Since fc > 2W, we find that 2fc2W > 2W. Therefore, by choosing the cutoff frequency of the lowpass filter greater than 2W, but less than 2f c 2W, we obtain the output
A2
v2(t) = 2c [1+kam(t)]2
Hence, the squarerooter output is
A c
v3(t) =  [1+k met)]
12 a
AC
which, except for the dc component  , is proportional to the message signal m(t).
12
Problem 2.8
(a) For fc = 1.25 k Hz , the spectra of theimessage signal met), the product modulator output s( t), and the coherent detector output v( t ) are as follows, respectively:
60
M(f)
1
f (kHz)
1
S (f)
1.25
o
1. 25
V(f)
o
(kHz)
1
(b) For the case when fc = 0.75, the respective spectra are as follows:
M( f)
_______________ ~~_. __ ~~~~~~f (kHz)
1 1
S(f)
V(f)
·~~~~f (kHz) 61
1
o
1
To avoid sidebandoverlap, the carrier frequency fc must be greater than or equal to
kHz. The lowest carrier frequency is therefore 1 kHz for each sideband of the
modulated wave s( t) to be uniquely determined by m( t).
Problem 2.9
The two AM modulator outputs are
SI (t) = Ac[1 + kam(t)]cos(21tfct) S2(t) = AJI  kam(t)]cos(21tfct)
_ . Subtracting ~(t) from 81 (t):
s(t) = s2(t)  sl(t)
= 2kaAcffi(t)cos(21tfct)
which represents a DSBSC modulated wave.
62
Problem 2.10
(a) Multiplying the signal by the local oscillator gives:
Ac
= ~ met) {cos(2~6ft) + cos[2~(2fc+~f)t]}
Low pa ss fil ter ing leaves:
Thus the output signal is the message signal modul ated by a sinusoid of fr equency M.
(b)
If met) = cos(2~f t), m
Problem 2.11
A2
= 2c [1+COS(4~ct)]m2(t)
Therefore, the spectrum of the multiplier output is
A2 00 A2 00 00
Y(f) = 2c J M(~JM(f~)dA + 4c [J M(A)M(f2fcA)dA + J M(A)M(f+2fcA)d>"]
~ ~ ~
where M( f) = F[m( t)].
( b)
At f=2f , we have c
63
A2 = =
+ r [f M ( A) M (  A) d A + f M ( A) M ( 4 f c  A) d A] .
_GO _CD
Since M(_A) _ M*(A), we may write
A2 =
Y (2f ) = 2c f M( A)M(2f A)dA
c _= c
= =
IM( A) ,2dA + f M( A)M(4f A)dAJ c
(1)
=
=
With met) limited to W < f < Wand fc > W, we find that the first and third integrals reduce to zero, and so we may simplify Eq. (1) as follows
where E is the signal energy (by Rayleigh's energy theorem). Similarly, we find that
The bandpass filter output, in the frequency domain, is therefore defined by
A2 c
V (f) '" 4 E srt o(f2f ) + o(f+2f )]
c c
Hence,
A2
vet) '" 2c E M cos(4nfct)
Problem 2.12
The mul tiplexed signal is
Therefore,
where M, (f) = F [m, (t)] and M2(f) = F [~(t)]. The spectrtm of the received signal is
therefore
R(f) = H (f)S (f)
A
= 2c H (f) [M, (ff )+M, (f+f )+ l: M2(ff) l: M2(f+f )]
c c J c J c
To recover m, (t), we multiply r(t), the inverse Fourier transform of R(f), by cos(211f t) and then pass the resulting output through a lowpass filter, producing a signal with ~he following spectrum
The condition H(fc+f) = H*(fcf) is equivalent to H(f+fc)=H(ffc); this follows from the fact that for a realvalued impulse response h(t), we have H(f)=H*(f). Hence, substituting this condition in Eq. ('), we get
The lowpass filter output, therefore, has a spectrum equal to (Ac/2) H(ffc)M,(f).
Similarly, to recover ~(t), we multiply ret) by sin(21Tfct), and then pass the
r esul ting Signal through a lowpass filter. In thi s case, we get an output wi th a
65
66
Problem 2.13
When the local carriers have a phase error $, we may write
cos(2"1rfct + $) = cos(2"1rfct)cos $  sin(2"1rfct) sin $
In this case, we find that by multiplying the received signal ret) by cos(2nfct+$), and passing the resulting output through a lowpass filter, the corresponding lOwPass filter output in the receiver has a spectrum equal to (Ac/2) H(ffc) [COS$ M,(f)  sin$ M2(f)]. This indicates that there is crosstalk at the demodulator outputs.
66
Problem 2.14
The transmitted signal is given by
(a) The envelope detection of set) yields
To minimize the distortion in the envelope detector output due to the quadrature component, we choose the DC offset Vo to be large. We may then approximate YI (t) as
which, except for the DC component Ac Va, is proportional to the sum mz(t) + mr(t).
(b) For coherent detection at the receiver, we need a replica of the carrier Accos(2nfct). This requirement can be satisfied by passing the received signal set) through a narrowband filter of midband frequency I; However, to extract the difference mz(t)  mr(t), we need sin(2nfct), which
is obtained by passing the narrowband filter output through a 90°phase shifter. Then, multiplying set) by sin(27ifct) andt lowpass filtering, we obtain a signal proportional to mz(t)  mr(t).
(c) To recover the original loudspeaker signals mz(t) and mr(t), we proceed as follows:
•
Equalize the outputs of the envelope detector and coherent detector .
Pass the equalized outputs through an audio demixer to produce mz(t) and mr(t) .
•
67
Problem 2.15
To ensure 50 percent modulation, ka = 1, in which case we get
set) = Ac( 1 + ~)cOS(2nfct) 1 + t
(b) set) = Acm(t)cos(2nfct)
A
(c) set) = 2C[m(t)cos(2nfct)  m(t)sin(2nfct)]
Ac[ 1 t ]
(d) set) = "2 2cos(2nfct) + 2sin(2nfct)
l+t l+t
As an aid to the sketching of the modulated signals in (c) and (d), the envelope of either SSB wave is
Plots of the modulated signals in (a) to (d) are presented in Fig. 1 on the next page.
68
2
 0
.s
2
10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
1
 0
.c
.......
1
10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0.5

.3 0
0.5
10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0.5
'0 0
.......
0.5
10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
time F'ju..re I
69
Problem 2.16
Consider first the modulated signal
set) = ~m(t)COS(2nfet)  ~m(t)Sin(2nfet)
(1)
Let S(j) = F[s(t)], M(j) = F[m(t)], and M(f) = f[m(t)] where met) is the Hilbert transform of the message signal met). Then applying the Fourier transform to Eq. (1), we obtain
1 1 A A
S(f) = 4[M(f  fJ + M(f + fJ]  4}M(f  fe)  M(f + fe)]
(2)
From the definition of the Hilbert transform, we have
M(f) = jsgn(f)M(f)
where sgn(j) is the signum function. Equivalently, we may write
1 A
.M(f  fe) = sgn(f  fe)M(f  fJ }
1 A
.M(f + fJ = sgn(f + fJM(f + fJ }
(i) From the definition of the signum function, we note the following for f> 0 = andf> fe:
sgn(f  fJ = sgn(f + fe) = +1
Correspondingly, Eq. (2) reduces to
1 1
S(f) = 4[M(f  fe) + M(f + fJ] + 4[M(f  fJ  M(f + fJ]
1
= 2M(f  fJ
In words, we may thus state that, except for a scaling factor, the spectrum of the modulated signal set) defined in Eq. (1) is the same as that of the DSBSC modulated signal forf> fe
(ii) For t> 0 andf <fe' we have
70
sgn(f  fe> = 1 sgn(f + fe> = +1
Correspondingly, Eq. (2) reduces to
= °
In words, we may now state that for f <fc' the modulated signal s(t) defined in Eq. (1) is zero.
Combining the results for parts (i) and (ii), the modulated signal set) of Eq. (1) represents a single sideband modulated signal containing only the upper sideband. This result was derived for i> 0. This result also holds for f < 0, the proof for which is left as an exercise for the reader.
Following a procedure similar to that described above, we may show that the modulated signal
set) = ~m(t)cos(21tfct) + ~m(t)Sin(21tfct)
(3)
represents a single sideband modulated signal containing only the lower sideband.
71
Problem 2.17
An error M in the frequency of the local oscillator in the demodulation of an SSB signal, measured with respect to the carrier frequency fc' gives rise to distortion in the demodulated signal. Let the local oscillator output be denoted by A~ cos(21t(fc + M)t). The resulting demodulated signal is given by (for the case when the upper sideband only is transmitted)
1 '
vo(t) =  AcAc [m(t)cos(21tMt) + m(t)sin(21tMt)]
4
This demodulated signal represents an SSB wave corresponding to a carrier frequency M.
The effect of frequency error Af in the local oscillator may be interpreted as follows:
_(a.) If the SSB wave s(t) contains the upper sideband and the frequency error M is positive, or equivalently if s(t) contains the lower sideband and M is negative, then the frequency components of the demodulated signal v o( t) are shifted inward by the amount Af compared with the baseband signal m(t), as illustrated in Fig. I(b).
(b) If the incoming SSB wave s(t) contains the lower sideband and the frequency error Mis positive, or equivalently if s(t) contains the upper sideband and M is negative, then the frequency components of the demodulated signal vo(t) are shifted outward by the amount Af, compared with the baseband signal m(t). This is illustrated in Fig. Ie for the case of a baseband signal (e.g., voice signal) with an energy gap occupying the interval fa < f < fa' in part (a) of the figure.
72
M(f}
o I. (a)
I. + ~I 0 (bl
Ib~I I.~I 0 I.+~I (e)
Fig. 1
73
1
1
1
Problem 2.18
(a sb ) The spectrum of the message signal is illustrated pelow:
Correspondingly f the output of the upper first product modulator has the following s pee tr lID :
t M(t!. )
.~) a
The output of the lower first product modulator has the spectrum:
The output of the upper low pass filter has the spectrum:
74
The output of the lower low pass fil ter has the spectrum:
~ M Cf f.)
2J  b
The output of the upper second product modulator has the spectrum:
The output of the lower second product modulator. has the spectrum:
o
Adding the two second product modulator outputs, their upper sidebands add constructively while their lower sidebands cancel each other.
(c) To modify the modulator to transmit only the lower sideband, a single sign change is required in one of the channels. For example, the lower first product modulator could mul tiply the message signal by sin(21Tf t). Then, the upper sideband would be cancelled
and the lower one transmitted. 0
75
Problem 2.19
m
( t) Product po l(t) Highpass ~2 (t) Product \T3(t) s
lLowpass
modulator filter modulator filter (t)
COS(27Tf t) c
(a) The fir st product modulator output is
.. v1(t) = met) cos(2'1rfct)
The second product modulator output is
v 3 ( t) = v 2 ( t) co s [2 'Ir( f c + f b) t]
The amplitude spectra or m(t), v1 (t), v2(t), v3(t) and set) are illustrated on the next page:
We may express the voice signal met) as met) = 21 [m (t) + m (t)]
+ 
*
where m+ (t) is the preenvelope of m( t), and m_ (t) .. m+ (t) is its complex conjugate. The
Fourier transforms of m (t) and m (t) are defined by (see Appendix 2)
+
M (f)
1 <M(f),
=
0,
f 0,
=
2M (f) , f > 0
M (f)
+
f < a
f > a
f < a
Comparing the spectrum of s( t) with that of m( t), we see that s( t) may be expressed in terms of m (t) and m (t) as follows:
+ 
set) = t m+(t)exp(j2mbt)+ t m_(t)exp(j2mbt)
= F [me t )+jm( t)] ex p(j27Tfb t)+ ~m( t )jm( t) ]exp( j27Tfb t) = ir m(t)cos(2mbt)+ ir m(t)sin(2mbt)
(b) With set) as input, the first product modulator output is
v1 (t ) = set) cos(2nfct)
76
81
IM(f) I
IM(f ) I
a
______________________________ ~~~ f
f f Of f
b a a b
f f f
c b c
o
f f +f
c c b
E +fa 0 ff Dba
Is (f) I
f
f +f 0 ff
b a b a
77
Problem 2.20
(a) Consider the system described in Fig. la, where u(t) denotes the product modulator output, as shown by
Message signal mit)
Product u(l) Bandpass
modulator filter
H(j)
t Modulated signal sit}
(a)
Modulated signal
. s(l)
Product utt ) Lowpass
modulator filter
t Demodulated signal vo(1)
(b)
Figure 1: (a) Filtering scheme for processing sidebands. (b) Coherent detector for recovering the message signal.
Let H(j) denote the transfer function of the filter following the product modulator. The spectrum of the modulated signal set) produced by passing u(t) through the filter is given by
S(f) = U(f)H(f)
A
= 2C[M(f  fJ + M(f + fc)]H(f)
(1)
where M(j) is the Fourier transform of the message signal met). The problem we wish to address is to determine the particular H(j) required to produce a modulated signal set) with desired spectral characteristics, such that the original message signal met) may be recovered from set) by coherent detection.
The first step in the coherent detection process involves multiplying the modulated signal set) by a locally generated sinusoidal wave A'ccos(2nfct), which is synchronous with the carrier wave Accos(2nfct), in both frequency and phase as in Fig. lb. We may thus write
78
vet) = A'ecos(2nfet)s(t)
Transforming this relation into the frequency domain gives the Fourier transform of vet) as
A'
V(f) = i[S(f  fe> + S(f + fe)]
(2)
Therefore, substitution of Eq. (1) in (2) yields
A A'
V(f) = TM(fHH(f  fe> + H(f + fe>]
A A'
e e
+ 4[M(f  2fe>H(f  fe) + M(f + 2fe>H(f + fe)]
(3)
(b) The highfrequency components of vet) represented by the second term in Eq. (3) are removed by the lowpass filter in Fig. 1 b to produce an output v oCt), the spectrum of which is given by the remaining components:
A A'
Vo(f) = TM(fHH(f  fe> + H(f + fJ]
(4)
For a distortionless reproduction of the original baseband signal met) at the coherent detector output, we require Vo(f) to be a scaled version of M(f). This means, therefore, that the transfer
function H(f) must satisfy the condition
H(f  fJ + H(f + fJ = 2H(fe)
(5)
where Hife), the value of H(f) at f = fe' is a constant. When the message (baseband) spectrum M(f) is zero outside the frequency range  W 5:.f 5:. W, we need only satisfy Eq. (5) for values off in this interval. Also, to simplify the exposition, we set Hife) = 112. We thus require that H(f) satisfies the condition:
W5:.f5:.W
(6)
Under the condition described in Eq. (6), we find from Eq. (4) that the coherent detector output in Fig. Ib is given by
A A'
e e
vo(t) = 2m(t)
(7)
79
Equation (1) defines the spectrum of the modulated signal set). Recognizing that set) is a bandpass signal, we may formulate its timedomain description in terms of inphase and quadrature components. In particular, set) may be expressed in the canonical form
(8)
where s/t) is the inphase component of set), and sQ(t) is its quadrature component. To determine s/(t), we note that its Fourier transform is related to the Fourier transform of set) as follows:
{S(J  Je) + S(J + JJ, SI(J) =
0,
W~J~W
(9)
elsewhere
Hence, substituting Eq. (1) in (9), we find that the Fourier transform of s/t) is given by
W~J~W
(10)
where, in the second line, we have made use of the condition in Eq. (6) imposed on H(j). From Eq. (10) we readily see that the inphase component of the modulated signal set) is defined by
(11)
which, except for a scaling factor, is the same as the original message signal met).
To determine the quadrature component sQ(t) of the modulated signal set), we recognize that its Fourier transform is defined in terms of the Fourier transform of set) as follows:
{j[S(JJ )S(J+J)] W~J~W
SQ(J) = e e
0, elsewhere
(12)
Therefore, substituting Eq. (11) in (12), we get
(13)
80
This equation suggests that we may generate sQ(t), except for a scaling factor, by passing the message signal met) through a new filter whose transfer function is related to that of the filter in Fig. 1a as follows:
H Q(f) = j[H(f  fe>  H(f + fen
W~f~W
(14)
Let m' (t) denote the output of this filter produced in response to the input met). Hence, we may express the quadrature component of the modulated signal set) as
(15)
Accordingly, substituting Eqs. (11) and (15) in (8), we find that set) may be written in the canonical form
(16)
There are two important points to note here:
1. The inphase component sit) is completely independent of the transfer function H(j) of the bandpass filter involved in the generation of the modulated wave set) in Fig. la, so long as it satisfies the condition of Eq. (6).
2. The spectral modification attributed to the transfer function H(j) is confined solely to the quadrature component sQ(t).
The role of the quadrature component is merely to interfere with the inphase component, so as to reduce or eliminate power in one of the sidebands of the modulated signal set), depending on the application of interest.
81
Problem 2.21
(a) Expand ing s( t), we get
s( t) = 1.2 a A A eos(21Tf t) cos (21Tf t) m cern
_ "::"821 A A sin(2nf t ) sin(2nf t) + 21 (1a) A A eos(2nf t) eos(2nfmt)
me e m em e
+ 21 (1a) A A sin(e1Tf t) sin(21Tf t)
m e c m
= 21 A A cos(2nf t) eos(2nf t)
m c c m
+ 21 A A (12a) sin(21Tf t) sin(21Tfmt)
m c c
Therefore, the quadrature component is:
_!_AA (12a) sin(21Tf t)
 2 em m
(b) After adding the carrier, the signal will be:
s(t) =
The envelope equal s
= A c
1
[1 + 2 A eos(21Tf t)] d(t)
m m
where d( t) is the distortion, defined by
(c) d(t) is greatest when a = O.
82
Problem 2.22
Consider an incoming narrowband signal of bandwidth 10 kHz, and midband frequency which may lie in the range 0.5351.605 M Hz. It is required to translate this signal to a fixed frequency band centered at 0.455 MHz. The problem is to determine the range of tuning that must be provided in the local oscillator.
Let [, denote the midband frequency of the incoming signal, and j; denote the local oscillator frequency. Then we may write
0.535 < !c < 1.605
and
where both fe and j; are expressed in MHz. That is,
j;=fe0.455
When fe=0.535 MHz, we get I. = 0.08 MHz; and when!c= 1.605 MHz, we get Ii= 1.15 MHz. Thus the required range of tuning of the local oscillator is 0.081.15 MHz.
83
Problem 2.23
Let s(t) denote the multiplier output, as shown by
s(t) = A g(t) cos(211'fct)
where fc lies in the range fO ~o fO+W. The amplitude spectra of s Ct ) and g(t) are related as follows:
I G (f) I
I G (0) I
w
o f f W c 0
Is (.f) I
~ AIG(O) I
f w c.
f f f +W c 0 c
o
f c
f +W c
84
With vet) denoting the bandpass filter output, we thus find that the Fourier transform of v( t) is approximately given by
1 6f 6f
V(n ="2 A G(fcfO) fO 2 ~ If I s fo+ 2
The rms meter output is therefore (by using Rayleigh's energy theorem)
co
Vrms = [J l (t) dt] 1/2
_co
co
= [f
=
_co
Problem 2.24
For the PM case,
set) = A cos[2rrf t + k met)].
c c p
The angle equals
6i(t) = 2rrfct + kp met).
The instantaneous frequency,
Ak Ak
f. (t ) = f c + _E.._  L ~ 15 (t  nTO)'
1 2rrTO n '"
is equal to f c
discontinuities.
SCi)
+ Akp/2nTO except for the instants that the message At these instants, the phase shifts by kpA/TO radians.
signal
has
For the FM case, fi (t) = fc + kf met)
O~~~~~~++~~~~~~i
A
c;.
Problem 2.25
Ol_df>lA..1
The instantaneous frequency of the mixer is as shown below: "
t
:rhe . presence of negative frequency merely indicates that the phasor representing the difference frequency at the mixer output has reversed its direction of rotation.
Let N denote the number of beat cycles in one period. Then, noting that N is equal to the shaded area shown above, we deduce that
Since f 0"[ « 1, we have
Therefore, the number of beat cycles counted over one second is equal to
86
Problem 2.26
The instantaneous frequency of the modulated wave s(t) is as shown below:
f C
_____ ...J ~ ' _
I I
I I
_________ _ll ~~ ~ t
TOT 2 2
f. (t.) l.
f +L!.f c
We may thus express s(t) as follows \ COS(2wfct),
=, COS[21£(fc+~f)t], L co s [ 21£ f c t) ,
s(t)
The Fourier transform of s(t) is therefore
T/2
S(f) = f COS(21£fct) exp(j21£ft) dt
...PO
T t <  ~
T T
2~t~2
! < t
2
T/2
+ f COS[21£(f +~f)t] exp(j21£ft) dt
T/2 c
co
+ f COS(21£f t) exp(j21£ft) dt
T/2 c
 co
= f
COS(21£f t) exp(j21£ft) dt c
T/2
+ f {COS[21£(f +~f)t  COS(21£f t)} exp(j21£ft) dt
T/2 C c
(1)
87
The second term of Eq. (1) is recognized of two RF pulses of unit amplitude, one having a fr equency equal to f. Hence,
c follows:
as the difference between the Fourier transforms having a frequency equal to fc+6f and the other assuming that f T » 1, we may express S(f) as
c
S(n ::
+ ~ sinc[T(ffc6f)]  ~ sinc[T(ffc)]' f > 0
Problem 2.27
For SSB modulation, the modulated wave is
Ac
s(t) = 2 [m(t) cos(2nf t) ± met) sin(2nf t)],
c c
the minus sign applying when transmitting the upper sideband and the plus sign applying when transmitting the lower one.
Regardless of the .sign, the envelope is
(a) For upper sideband transmission, the angle,
1 met»~ e,(t) = 2nfct + tan (m(t) •
"
The instantaneous frequency is,
= f c
where' denotes time derivative.
(b) For lower sideband transmission, we have
and
88
Problem 2.28
~
(a) The envelope of the FM wave set) is
The maximum value of the envelope is
a =A Q
max c
and its minimum value is
= A c
Therefore,
a ~
max 2
= 1+13 a .
mln
This ratio is shown plotted below for 0 ( 13 ( 0.3:
1.1
1.005
1.02
1.044
1
L
o
~
0.1
•
0.2
I 0.3
(b) Expressing set) in terms of its frequency components:
89
The mean power of s(t) is therefore
The mean power of the unmodulated carrier is
Therefore,
which is shown plotted below for 0 ~ s ~ 0.3:
1.045
1.005
1.02
1.1
T
o
0.1
0.2
0.3
90
(c) The angle 6i (t), expressed in terms of the inphase component, s.r(t) , and the quadrature component, s (t), is:
 ~
6i(t) 2lTft+ 1 sx(t)
= tan [s (t)]
c
a
2lTft+ tan 1 [ssin(2rrfmt) ]
=
c
Since 1 3
tan (x) = x  x 13 + ••• , The harmonic distortion is the power ratio of the third and first harmonics:
Problem 2.29
(a) The phasemodulated wave is
s(t) = A cos[2lTf t + k A cos(2rrf t)]
c c p m m
= Ac cos[2nfct + Sp cos(2nfmt)]
= Ac cos(2nfct) cos[Sp cos(2nfmt)]  Ac sin(2nfct) sin[Bp cos(2nfrnt)] (1)
91
If 8p ~ 0.5, then
cos[8p cos(21Tfmt)] =
sin[8p COS(21Tfmt)] = 8p COS(21Tfmt)
Hence, we may rewrite Eq. (1) as
set) = Ac COS(21Tf t)  8 A sin(21Tf t) COS(21Tf t)
c p c c m
A cos(2nf t ) 1 A sin [21T (f c +f m) t]
= 8
c c 2 P c
1 Ac sin[21T (fcfm)t]
8
2 p (2 )
.The.spectrum of set) is therefore
S(f)
= 21 A [0 (ff ) + 0 (f+f )]
c c c
(b) The phasor diagram for set) is deduced from Eq. (2) to be as follows:
Lower sidefrequency
Carrier
< Upper sidefrequency
1
/.4~2 A
" _/" P c
/
/
The corresponding phasor diagram for the narrowband FM wave is as follows:
92
, ,
,
Upper sidefrequency
2nf t m
Carrier
Lower sidefrequency
Comparing these two phasor diagrams, we see that, except .. for a phase difference, the narrowband PM and FM waves are of exactly the same form. /"
Problem 2.30
The phasemodulated wave is
set) = A cos[21rf t + 6 cos(21rf t)]
c c p m
The complex envelope of s( t) is
set) = Ac exp[j6p cos(21rfmt)]
Expressing set) in the form of a complex Fourier series, we have
CO)
set) = 1: Cn exp(j2nnfmt)
n= ......
where
1/2f
cn = fm J m set) exp(j2nnfmt) dt 1/2f
m
1/2f
= A f J m exp[j6 cos(2nf t)  j2nnf t] dt
c m 1/2f p m m
m
(1)
Let 2rrf t = n/2  cj>. m
Then, we may rewrite Eq. (1) as
A . n/2
c =  ~ exp( J~1T)! exp[j6p sin(cj» + jncj>] dcj>
n 31T /2
93
The integrand is periodic wi th respect to cp wi th a period of 2rr. Hence, we may rewr i te this expression as
A . 'IT
C (.J!!!!..) f
cn = 2'IT exp  2
exp[jBp sin(cp) + jncp] dcp
However, from the definition of the Bessel function of the first kind of order n, we have
1 'IT
In(x) = 2'IT f exp(j x sincp  njcp) dcp 'IT
Therefore,
,We may thus express the PM wave set) as
set) = Re[s(t) exp(j2'ITfct)]
00
= Ac Re[ E . J_n(Bp) exp( j~'IT) expQ2'ITnfmt) exp(j2'ITfct)]
ne ......
00
n= .....
= A E
c
The bandpass filter only passes the carrier, the first upper sidefrequency, and the first lower sidefrequency, so that the resulting output is
s (t) = A JO(B) cos(2'ITf t) + A J ,(B ) cos[2'IT(f +f )t  ~2]
o c P c c  p c m
+ A J,(B) cos[2'IT(f f )t + ~2]
c P c m
= Ac JO(Bp) cos(2'ITfct) + Ac J_,(Bp) sin[2n(fc+fm)t]
 A J,(B) sin[2'IT(f f )t]
c p c m
But
Therefore,
so(t) = Ac Jo(Bp) cos(2nfct)
 Ac J,(Bp) {sin[2'IT(fc+fm)t] + sin[2n(fcfm)tJ}
= A JO(B) cos(2rrf t )  2 A J,(B) cos(2rrf t ) sin(2'lTf t)
c p c c p m c
The envelope of so(t) equals
94
The phase of SO(t) is
1 [2 J1 (8p) (
~(t) = tan Jo(8p) cos 2~fmt)]
The instantaneous frequency of so(t) is
fi ( t ) = fc + _1 dlj> ( t ) 2~ dt
Problem 2.31
(a) From Table A4.1, we find (by interpolation) that JO(8) is zero for
8 = 2.44,
8 = 5.52,
8 = 8.65,
8 = 11.8,
.and so on.
(b) The modulation index is
8 llf kf Am
= r = f
m m Therefore,
Since JO(e) = 0 for the first time when e = 2.44, we deduce that k _ 2.44 x 103
f  2
= 1.22 x 103 hertz/volt
Next, we note that JO(e) = 0 for the second time when e = 5.52.
Hence, the corresponding
value of Am for which the carrier component is reduced to zero is
95
Bfm Am = E"" f
5.52 x 103
=
1.22 x 103
= 4.52 volts
Problem 2.32
For B = 1, we have
JO(l ) = 0.765
J1 (1) = 0.44
J2(1 ) = 0.115 Therefore, the bandpass filter output is (assumi~g a carrier amplitude of 1 volt)
= 0.765 cos(21Tf t) c
+ 0.44 {cos[2n(fc+fm)t]  cos[2n(fcfm)t]}
+ 0.115 {cos[2n(fc+2fm)t] + cos[2n(fc2fm)t]} , and the amplitude spectrum (for positive frequencies) is
c.oS&
t
0. 22
0.058
t f
t ;;, It 2£
c:. ;", 0.22
o
ff
c. M
f
c
96
Problem 2.33
(a) The frequency deviation is
~f = kf Am = 25 x 103 x 20 = 5 x 105 Hz
The corresponding value of the modulation index is
. e = ~f = m
= 5
The transmission bandwidth of the FM wave, using Carson's rule, is therefore
BT = 2fm(1+S) = 2x100 (1+5) = 1200 kHz = 1.2 MHz.
(b) Using the un Iver saf curve of Fig. 331:, we find that for e=5:
Br
~f = 3
Therefore,
BT = 3x500 = 1500 kHz = 1.5 MHz
(c) If the amplitude of the modulating wave is doubled, we find that
~f = 1 MHz and e = 10
Thus, using Carson's rule we obtain
BT = 2x100 (1+10) = 2200 J.<Hz = 2.2 MHz Using the universal curve of Fig. 3'3b, we get
and BT = 2.75 MHz.
(d)
If f is doubled, S = 2.5. m
Then, using Carson's rule, BT = 1.4 MHz.
universal curve, BrI~f = 4, and
BT = 4M = 2 MHz.
97
Using the
Problem 2.34
(a) The angle of the PM wave is
ei(t) = 2nfCt + kp met)
= 2nfct + kp Amcos(2~fmt) = 2nf t + e cos(2nf t)
c p m
where ep = k A. The instantaneous frequency of the PM wave is therefore p m
1 dei(t) fi(t) = 2n dt
We see that the maximum frequency deviation in a PM wave varies linearly wi th the . modulation frequency fm.
Using Carson's rule, we find that the transmission bandwidth of the PM wave is approximately (for the case when ap » 1)
BT = 2 ( f + a f) = 2f ( 1 + a ) = 2f map
. m p m m p
This shows that BT varies linearly with fm.
(b) In an FM wave, the transmission bandwidth BT is approximately equal to 2M, if the modulation index a »1. Therefore, for an FM wave, BT is effectively independent of the modulation frequency fm.
Problem 2.35
The filter input is
v1(t) = get) set)
= get) cos(2~f t  ~kt2) c
The complex envelope of v1(t) is
~ 2
v 1 (t) = g ( t) ex p (  j~ kt )
The impulse response h( t) of the filter is defined in terms of the complex impulse response h(t) as follows
With
h(t)
= cos(2~f t + ~kt2), c
we have
98
The
~~f t\o.e. complex envelope+filter output
vo(t) =jh(t)* vi (t)
= i l~g(T) eXp(_j~kT2) exp[j~k(tT)]2dT
is therefore (.see. Ifppe:7'lcL, x. z)
.~
= ~ exp(j~kt2) 1 geT) exp(j2~ktT) dr
..DO
Hence,
This'shows that the envelope of the filter output is, except for the scale factor of 1/2, .equal to the magnitude of the Fourier transform of the input signal get), with kt playing the role of frequency f.
Problem 2.36
The overall frequency multiplication ratio is
n = 2x3 = 6
Assume that the instantaneous frequency of the FM wave at the input of the first frequency mul tiplier is
fi1(t) = fc + ~f cos(2~fmt)
The instantaneous frequency of the resulting FM wave at the output of the second frequency multiplier is therefore
fi2(t) = nfc + n~f cos(2~mt)
Thus, the frequency deviation of this FM wave is equal to
n~f = 6x10 = 60 kHz
and its modulation index is equal to
n /).f 60
= 5 = 12 fm
The frequency separation of the adjacent sidefrequencies of this FM wave is unchanged at fm = 5 kHz.
99
Problem 2.37
(a) Figure 1 shows the simplified block diagram of a typical FM transmitter (based on the indirect method) used to transmit audio signals containing frequencies in the range 100 Hz to 15 kHz. The narrowband phase modulator is supplied with a carrier signal of frequency fI = 0.2 MHz by a
crystalcontrolled oscillator. The desired FM signal at the transmitter output is to have a carrier frequency I; = 100 MHz and a minimum frequency deviation !1f= 75 kHz.
In order to limit the harmonic distortion produced by the narrowband phase modulator, we restrict the modulation index ~l of this modulator to a maximum value of 0.3 radians. Consider
then the value ~l = 0.2 radians, which certainly satisfies this requirement. The lowest modulation frequencies of 100 Hz produce a frequency deviation of !1fI = 20 Hz at the narrowband phase modulator output, whereas the highest modulation frequencies of 15 kHz produce a frequency deviation of !1fI = 3 kHz. The lowest modulation frequencies are therefore of immediate concern, as they produce a much lower frequency deviation than the highest modulation frequencies. The requirement is therefore to ensure that the frequency deviation produced by the lowest modulation frequencies of 100 Hz is raised to 75 kHz.
Baseb sign
and Frequency
al Narrowband Frequency FM
+ Integrator ~ phase + multiplier + Mixer r+ multiplier f.+
modulator n, "2
to.1MIiZ t9.5MHZ
Crystal Crystal
controlled controlled
oscillator oscillator signal
Figure 1
To produce a frequency deviation of !1f = 75 kHz at the PM transmitter output, the use of frequency multiplication is obviously required. Specifically, with !1fI = 20 Hz and !1f = 75 kHz, we require a total frequency multiplication ratio of 3750. However, using a straight frequency multiplication equal to this value would produce a much higher carrier frequency at the transmitter output than the desired value of 100 MHz. To generate an FM signal having both the desired frequency deviation and carrier frequency, we therefore need to use a twostage frequency multiplier with an intermediate stage of frequency translation as illustrated in Fig. 1. Let nl and n2 denote the respective frequency multiplication ratios, so that
!1f = 75000
!1f 1 20
3750
(1)
100
The carrier frequency n J't at the first frequency multiplier output is translated downward to (12  nJ't) by mixing it with a sinusoidal wave of frequency 12 = 95 MHz, which is supplied by a second crystalcontrolled oscillator. However, the carrier frequency at the input of the second frequency multiplier is required to equalfjn2. Equating these two frequencies, we thus get
Hence, withfr = 0.1 MHz,h = 9.5 MHz, andfc = 100 MHz, we have
100 9.5  O.lnl =  n2
(2)
Solving Eqs. (1) and (2) for nl and n2, we obtain
nl = 75 n2 = 50
(b) Using these frequency multiplication ratios, we get the set of values indicated in the table below:
Table Values of Carrier Frequency and Frequency Deviation at the Various Points in the Wideband Frequency Modulator of Fig. 1
At the First At the Second
At the Phase Frequency Frequency
Modulator Multiplier At the Mixer Multiplier
Output Output Output Output
Carrier 0.1 MHz 7.5 MHz 2.0 MHz 100 MHz
frequency
Frequency 20Hz 1.5 kHz 1.5 kHz 75 kHz
deviation 101
Problem 2.38
(a) Let L denote the inductive component, C the capacitive component, and Co the capacitance of each varactor diode due to the bias voltage Vb acting alone. Then, we have
Co = 100 V~1/2 pF
and the corresponding frequency of oscillation is
Therefore,
Solving for Vb' we get Vb = 3.52 volts
(b) The frequency multiplication ratio is 64. Therefore, the modulation index of the FM wave at the frequency multiplier input is
5
13 = 64 = 0.078
This indicates that the FM wave produced by the combination of L, C and the varactor diodes is a narrowband one, which in turn means that the amplitude A of the modulating wave is small compared to Vb. We may thus express the instantaneous f~equency of this FM wave as follows:
=
107 A
{1 + 0.266 [1 ~_m_ sin(2'11f t)]1/2}1/2
 3.52 m
2121T
107 Am. 1/2
:=  {1 + 0.266 [1  7.04 sln(21Tfmt)]}
2121T
= 106 [1  0.03 Am Sin(2mrmt)]1/2 := 106 [1 + 0.015 A sin(21Tf t)]
m m
102
is
With a modulation index of 0.078, the corresponding value of the frequency deviation
ss = B fm
= 0.078 x 104 Hz
Therefore,
0.015 A x 106 = 0.078 x '104 m
where A is in volts. Solving for A , we get
m m
Am = 52 x 103 volts.
Problem 2.39
The transfer function of the RC filter is
H(f) j21TfCR
= 1+j21TfCR
If 21TfCR « 1 for all frequencies of interest, then we may approximate H(f) as
H( f) ~ j21TfCR
However, multiplication by j21Tf in the frequency domain is equivalent to differentiation in the time domain. Therefore, denoting the RC filter output as v1(t), we may write
v1(t) ~ CR ds(t) dt
d t
= CR dt {Ac cos[21Tf ct + 21lkf f met) dt]} o
t
= CR A [21Tf + 21Tkfm(t)] sin[21Tf t + 21Tkf f met) dt]
c c c 0
The corresponding envelope detector output is
Since kftm(t)j < fc for all t, then
kf
v2(t) ~ 21Tf CR A [1 + f met)]
 c c
c
which shows that, except for a dc bias, the output is proportional to the modulating signal met).
103
Problem 2.40
The envelope detector input is
vet) = set)  s(tT)
= A cos[2'1Tf t+ 4>(t)]  A cos[2'1Tf (tT) + 4>(tT)]
c c c c
2lTf (2tT) + 4>(t) + 4>(tT) 2nf T + 4>(t)  cj>(tT)
= 2A sin [ c ] sin [ c ]
c 2 2
(1)
where
4>(t) = ~ sin(2lTfmt)
The phase difference cj>(t)  cj>(tT) is
4>(t)  4> (tT ) = ~ sin(2'11f t)  s sin[2'1Tfm(tT)]
m
= ~[sin (2lTf m t)  sin(2nf t) cos(2lTfmT) + cos(2nf t) sin(2nfmT) ]
m m
::: ~[sin(2'11f t)  sin(2lff t) + 2lff T cos(21Tf t)]
m m m m
= 2lT AfT cos (2nf t)
m where
Therefore, noting that 2lTfcT = n/2, we may write
2nf T + 4>(t)  cj>(tT)
sinE c ] ::: sinE nf T + nMT cos(2lTf t)]
2 c m
= 12 cos[n~fT cos(21Tf t)] + 12 sin[lT~fT cos(2nf t)]
m m
= I~ + I~ nArT cos(2lTf t)
m
where we have made use of the fact that n~fT «1. We may therefore rewrite Eq. (1) as
vet)
::: 2/~ A [1 + lT~T cos(2nf t)] sin[lTf (2tT) + 1(t) + p(tT)]
c m c 2
Accordingly, the envelope detector output is
a ( t) ::: 2 12 A [1 + IT MT cos ( 2 nf t)]
c m
which, except for a bias term, is proportional to the modulating wave.
104
Problem 2.41
(a) In the time interval t(T ,/2) to t+(T ,/2), assume there are n zero crossings. The phase difference is 6i(t+T,/2)  6i(tT,/2) = nne Also, the angle of an FM wave is
t
= 2nfct + 2nkf f met) dt. o
Since met) is assumed constant, equal to m" 6i(t) = 2nfct + 2nkfm,t. Therefore, 6i(t+T,/2)  6i(tT,/2) = (2nfc + 2nkfm,) [t+T,/2  (tT,/2)].
= (2 nf c + 2nk fm,) T 1 •
But
f. (t) = 1
d 6i (t) dt
= 2nf c + 2nkrn, •
Thus,
Eli (t+T ,/2)  6i (tT ,/2) = fi (t) T,.
But this phase difference also equals nne So,
f i (t ) T 1 = nn
and
fi(t) = nn/T,
(b) For a repetitive ramp as the modulating wave, we have the following set of waveforms
105
set)
t
Limiter
outp_u_t_jl_J_l_J~~~}~~~ttt1iitilHHtrII
t
LotJ_ ~ fl'f~e;..
,,"fplAl
106
Problem 2.42
The complex envelope of the modulated wave set) is
s ( t ) = a ( t) ex p [ j <j>( t) ]
Since aCt) is slowly varying compared to exp[ j<j>(t)], the compl ex envelope set) is restricted effectively to the frequency band  BT/2< f ~ BT/2. An ideal frequency discriminator consists of a differentiator followed by an envelope detector. The output of the differentiator, in response to set), is
d
= dt {aCt) exp[j<j>(t)]}
= aCt) exp[j<j>(t)] [_,_ da(t) + j d<l>(t)]
aCt) dt dt
Since aCt) Ls slowly varying compared to <j>(t), we have
IdCP(t)j » 1_'_ da(t), . dt aCt) dt ,
Accordingly, we may approximate v (t) as o
v (t) !:! j aCt) d<j>(t) exp[j<j>Ct)]
o dt
However, by definition
t
<j>(t) = 21Tkf f met) dt o
Therefore,
vo(t) = j21Tkf aCt) met) exp[j<j>(t)]
Hence, the envelope detector output is proportional to aCt) met) as shown by
Problem 2.43
(a) The limiter output is
.
z(t) = sgn{a(t) cos[21Tfct + <j>(t)]}
107
Since aCt) is of positive amplitude, we have
z(t) = sgn{cos[2lTf t + cjl(t)]}
c
Let
1ji(t) = 2lTf t + cjl(t)
c
Then, we may write
GO
sgn[cos 1ji] = E cn exp(jn1ji)
n=GO 1 IT
cn = 2lT f sgn[cos 1ji] exp(jn1ji) d1ji
IT
1 IT/2 1 IT/2
= 2lT f (1) exp(jn1ji)d1ji + 2lT f (+1) exp(jn1ji) d1ji
IT IT/2
(1)
1
+ 2lT
IT
f (1) exp(jn1ji) d1ji IT/2
If n t 0, then
1 jnlT. jnlT jnlT . (jnlT)]
cn = 2lT(jn) [exp( 2 )+exp(JnlT)+exp( 2 )exp( 2 )exp(JnlT)+exp 2
= !n[2 sin(n;)sin(nlT)]
\ L(_1) (n1 )/2
= lTn '
0,
n odd
n even
.
If n=O, we find from Eq. (1) that c =0. Therefore, n
sgnl co s 1ji]
2
GO
IT
(_1)(n1)/2 exp(jn1ji) n
n= _GO
n odd
4 GO (_1)k
E 21<+ 1 cos[ 1ji(2k+ 1)]
IT k=O
We may thus express the limiter output as
108
4 DO (_1)k
z(t) =  ~ coS[2mfct(2k+1) + ~(t)(2k+1)]
n k=O 2k+ 1
(2 )
(b) Consider the term
cos[2nfct(2k+1) + ~(t) (2k+1)] =
Re{exp[j2nf t(2k+1)]exp[j~(t)(2k+1)]}
c .
:: Re{exp[j2nf t(2k+1)][exp(j~(t»]2k+1} c
The function exp[ j~(t)], representing the complex envelope of the FM wave wi th unit
amplitude, is effectively lowpass in nature. Therefore, this term represents a bandpass signal centered about ±f (2k+1). Furthermore, the Fourier transform of {exp[j~(t)]}2k+1 c
is equal to that of exp[j~(t)] convolved with itself 2k times. Therefore, assuming that tR+1
exp[j~(t)] is limited to the interval BT/2 ~ f ~ BT/2, we find that (exp[j~(t)~ is
limited to the interval (BT/2)(2k+1) ~ f ~ (BT/2)(2k+1).
Assuming that f c > BT, as is usually the case, we find that none of the terms corresponding to values of k greater than zer:o will overlap the spectrum of the term
corresponding to ke O; Thus, if the limiter output is applied to a bandpass filter of
bandwidth BT and midband frequency fc' all terms, except the term corresponding to k=O in Eq. (2), are removed by the filter. The resulting filter output is therefore
yet) = ~ cos[2nf t + ~(t)]
n c
We thus see that by using the amplitude limiter followed by a bandpass filter, the effect
of amplitude variation, represented by at t ) in the modulated wave s(t), is completely
removed.
Problem 2.44
(a) Let the FM wave be defined by
s(t)
t
= A cos[2nf t + 2nkf f met) dt]
c c 0
Assuming that fc is large compared to the bandwidth of s(t), we may express the complex envelope of set) as
_ t
set) = Ac exp[j2nkf f met) dt] o
But, by definition, the preenvelope of set) is';.;ee !ltpeflol;z J...)
109
s (t) = set) exp(j21ff t)
+ c
= set) + j ~(t)
where ~(t) is the Hilbert transform of set). Therefore,
t
set) + js(t) = Ac exp[j21fkf fo met) d t I exp(j21ffct)
Equating real and imaginary parts, we deduce that
t
~(t) = Ac sin[21ff ct + 2nkf fo met) dt]
(1)
(b) For the case of sinusoidal modulation, we have
The corresponding FM wave is
where
Expanding set) in the form of a Fourier series, we get
00
set) = A L In(6) cos[21f(f +nf )t]
c c m
n=_oo
Noting that the Hilbert transform of cos[21f(f +nf )t] is equal to sin[21f(f +nf )t], and using the linearity property of the Hilbert tr~ns~rm, we find that the Hilb~rt ~ransform of set) is
00
~(t) = A E J (6) sin[21f(f +nf ) t]
c n c m
n=_OO
= A sin[ 21ff t + 6 sine 21ff t)]
c c m
This is exactly the same result as that obtained by using Eq , (1) ~ In the case of sinusoidal modulation, therefore, there is no error involved in using Eq. (1) to evaluate the Hilbert transform of the corresponding FM wave.
Problem 2.45
(a) The modulated wave set) is
110
= Re{exp[~(t)] exp[j2~fct + j~(t)]} = Re{exp[j2~ct + j(~(t) + j~(t»]}
= Re{exp[j2~fct + j~+(t)]} (1)
where ~ (t) is the preenvelope of the phase function ~(t), that is, +
~+(t) = ~(t) + j~(t)
Expanding the exponential function exp[j~+(t)] in the form of an infinite series:
lID .n
= 1:: .L ~n(t)
n=O n! +
Taking the Fourier transform of both sides of this relation, we may write
ex p [ j ~ +( t) ]
(2)
lID
1:: n=O
F )2 n() () ",n1(t).
or n_ , we may express ~+ t as the product of ~+ t and y+
Hence,
where ~ (t ) ~ ~ (f), and '* denotes convolution. Since ~ (f) = a for f < 0, it follows
+ + +
that for all n ~ 0,
for f < a
Hence,
for f < a
By using the frequencyshifting property of the Fourier transform, it follows that
(3 )
Fr om Eq. (1),
set) = 21 {exp[j2~ t + j~ (t)] + exp[j2~f t  j~+*(t)]}
c + c
*
where ~+(t) is the complex conjugate of ~+(t). Therefore,
Applying the conjugatefunction property of the Fourier transform to Eq. (3), we find that
for f > ,1' • c
111
115
Hence, it follows that the spectrum of set) is zero for fc < f < fc' However, this spectrum is of infinite extent, because the expansion of set) contains an infinite number of terms, as in eq. (2).
(b) With
~(t) = B sin(2nfmt), we find that
~(t) = B cos(2nf t) m
Therefore,
~+(t) = B sin(2nf t)  jB cos(2nf t)
m m
=  jB[cos(2nf t) + j sin(2nf t)]
m m
Hence,
CD n
= L ~ exp( j2nnf t)
On. m
n=
The modulated wave s( t) is therefore
CD n
L nB, exp(j2nnf t)]
O . m
n=
= Re{
CD n
B
L , exp[j2n(f +nf )t]}
On. c m
n=
CD n
= L ~ cos[2n(f +nf )t]
On. c m
n=
112
Problem 2.46
After passing the received signal through a narrowband filter of bandwidth 8kHz centered on I; = 200kHz, we get
x(t) = Acm(t)cos(2nfct) + n'(t)
where n'(t) is the narrowband noise produced at the filter output, and n'J(t) and n' Q(t) are its inphase and quadrature components. Coherent detection of x(t) yields the output
The average power of the modulated wave is
where P is the average power of mit). To calculate the average power of the inphase noise component n' J( t) , we refer to the spectra shown in Fig. 1:
•
Part (a) of Fig. 1 shows the power spectral density of the noise n(t), and a superposition of the frequency response of the narrowband filter.
Part (b) shows the power spectral density of the noise n' J(t) produced at the filter output.
Part (c) shows the power spectral density of the inphase component n'J(t) of n'(t).
•
•
Note that since the bandwidth of the filter is small compared to the carrier frequency fc' we have approximated the spectral characteristic of n' (t) to be fiat at the level of 0.5 x 106 wattslHz. Hence, the average power of n' J( t) is (from Fig. lc):
(106 wattslHz) (8 x 103) = 0.008 watts
The output signaltonoise ratio (SNR) is therefore
10
0.008 = 1,250
Expressing this result in decibels, we have an output SNR of 31 dB.
113
;(J:) (IN.th/I''r )
r .. ) \t. i
:~ I ~I g 4e H, i I Iii
: i ~~;~.t.'.';."i"'~;.~ .
l
I I I i
.;......'4'=;;j.==i ....... +;+i...,..=~"+..._+.....,.+;jI_,_tt',....++J :t1CLiH.y1
Iii I
I I I
IccqI
114
Problem 2.47
From Problem 5.38, we note that the quadrature components of a narrowband noise have autocorrelations:
RN (T) = RN (T) = RN(T) cos(2nfcT) + RN(T) sin(2nfcT) r ~
where RN(T) is the autocorrelation of the narrowband noise, RN(T) is the Hilbert transform of RN(T), and fc is the band center. The crosscorrelations of the quadrature components are
(a) For a nsBse system,
RN (T) = RN (T) = RN(T) cos(2nfcT) + RN(T) sin(2nfcT)
I Q
RN N (T) = RN N (T) = RN(T) sin(2nfct)  RN(T) cos(2nfcT)
rQ (;)t
where f is the carrier frequency, and RN(T) is the autocorrelation function of the
. c
narrowband noise on the interval f  W < f < f + W.
c   c
. (b) For an SSB system using the lower sideband,
= RN N (T) = RN(T) sin(2n(fc ~)T)  RN(T) cos(2n(fc ~)T) blr:
where in this case, RN(T) is the autocorrelation of the narrowband noise on the interval fc W ~ f ~ fc'
(c) For an SSB system with only the upper sideband transmitted, the correlations are similar. to (b) above, except that (f c  ~) is replaced by (f c + ~), and the narrowband noise is on the interval fc ~ f ~ fc+ W.
Problem 2.48
x(t)
Bandpass filter
v (t)
Lowpass filter
y(t)
cos[21Tf t+8(t)] c
115
The signal at the mixer input is equal to s(t) + net), where set) is the modulated wave, and net) is defined by
with
The set) is defined by for DSBSC modulation
The mixer output is
vet) = [set) + n(t)]cos[2n:fct + Set)]
The postdetection lowpass filter removes the high frequency components of vet), producing the output
(1)
When the phase error Set) is zero, we find that the message signal component of the receiver output is ~Acm(t). The error at the receiver output is therefore
Ac
e(t) = yet)  2"m(t)
The meansquare value of this error is
2
E = E[e (t)]
116
(2)
Substituting Eq. (1) into (2), expanding the expectation, and noting that the processes met), Set), nJCt) and nQ(t) are all independent of one another, we get
2
Ac 2 2 1 2 2
E = 4E[m (t)]E[(cos Set))] + 4E[n[(t)]E[cos Set)]
2 2
Ac 2 Ac 2
+ 4E[m (t)]  2E[m (t)]E[cosS(t)]
We now note that
2 2 2 . 2 2
E[n[(t)]E[cos Set)] + E[nQ(t)]E[sm Set)] = «»
Therefore,
2 2
Ac 2 2 o N
E = 2 E [m (t)] E { [1  cos S (t) ] } + 4
2 where P = E[m (t)].
For small values of Set), we may use the approximation
2 crN 1  cosS(t) '"'  2
Hence,
117
Since Set) is Gaussiandistributed with zero mean and variance O'~, we have
4 4
E[S (t)] = 30's
The meansquare error for the case of a DSBSC system is therefore
118
Problem 2.49
Consider the case of a receiver using coherent detection, with an incoming singlesideband (SSB) modulated wave. We assume that only the lower sideband is transmitted, so that we can express the modulated wave as
(1)
where met) is the Hilbert transform of the message signal met). The systemdependent scaling factor C is included to make the signal component set) have the same units as the noise component n(t). We may make the following observations concerning the inphase and quadrature components of set) in Eq. (1):
1. The two components met) and met) are orthogonal to each other. Therefore, with the message signal met) assumed to have zero mean, which is a reasonable assumption to make, it follows that met) and met) are uncorrelated; hence, their power spectral densities are additive.
2. The Hilbert transform met) is obtained by passing m(t) through a linear filter with a transfer function  jsgn({). The squared magnitude of this transfer function is equal to one for all f Accordingly, we find that both m(t) and met) have the same power spectral density.
Thus, using a procedure similar to that in Section 2.11, we find that the inphase and quadrature components of the modulated signal set) contribute an average power of c' A~P /8 each, where P
is the average power of the message signal met). The average power of set) is therefore C2 A~P / 4. This result is half that in the DSBSC receiver, which is intuitively satisfying.
The average noise power in the message bandwidth W is WNo, as in the DSBSC receiver. Thus the channel signaltonoise ratio of a coherent receiver with SSB modulation is
(2)
As illustrated in Fig. la, in an SSB system the transmission bandwidth BT is Wand the midband frequency of the power spectral density StlJ) of the narrowband noise net) is offset from the carrier frequency t; by W/2. Therefore, we may express net) as
(3)
The output of the coherent detector, due to the combined influence of the modulated signal set) and noise n(t), is thus given by
119
(4)
As expected, we see that the quadrature component met) of the modulated message signal set) has been eliminated from the detector output, but unlike the case of DSBSC modulation, the quadrature component of the narrowband noise net) now appears at the receiver output.
The message component in the receiver output is CAcm(t)/4, and so we may express the average power of the recovered message signal as C2 A;P /16. The noise component in the receiver output is [nJCt)cos(nWt) + nQ(t)sin(nWt)]/2. To determine the average power of the output noise, we note the following:
1. The power spectral density of both nAt) and nQ(t) is as shown in Fig. lb.
2. The sinusoidal wave cos(nWt) is independent of both nAt) and nQ(t). Hence, the power
spectral density of n'I(t) = nI(t)cos(nWt) is obtained by shifting SN (f) to the left by
I
W12, shifting it to the right by W12, adding the shifted spectra, and dividing the result by 4. The power spectral density of n' Q(t) = nQ(t)sin(nWt) is obtained in a similar way. The
power spectral density of both n' I( t) and n' Q( t) , obtained in this manner, is shown sketched in Fig. lc.
From Fig. lc we see that the average power of the noise component n'I(t) or n' Q(t) is WNoI2. Therefore from Eq. (4), the average output noise power is WNoI4. We thus find that the output signaltonoise ratio of a system, using SSB modulation in the transmitter and coherent detection in the receiver, is given by
(SNR)o, SSB =
(5)
Hence, from Eqs. (2) and (5), the figure of merit of such a system is
(SNR)o (SNR)c SSB
= 1
(6)
where again we see that the factor C2 cancels out.
Comparing Eqs. (5) and (6) with the corresponding results for DSBSC modulation, we conclude thatfor the same average transmitted (or modulated message) signal power and the same average noise power in the message bandwidth, an SSB receiver will have exactly the same output signaltonoise ratio as a DSBSC receiver, when both receivers use coherent detection for the recovery of the message signal. Furthermore, in both cases, the noise performance of the receiver is the
120
as that obtained by simply transmitting the message signal itself in the presence of the same noise. The only effect of the modulation process is to translate the message signal to a different frequency band to facilitate its transmission over a bandpass channel.
N20 1Brl
rr   ,
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I
=t: IIe + W I IV 1;. + 2
o
1;.  Wife
,
f
(a)
_~o!!: 2 2
I
(h)
W 0 W (c)
I
Figure 1
121
Problem 2.50
The power spectral density of the message signal met) is as follows SM (f)
w
o
w
The average signal power is therefore
aD
W :: 2 J o
f
a  df w
:: aW
The corresponding value of the output signaltonoise ratio of the SSB receiver is therefore, (using the solution to Problem 2049)
.A2 P
(SNR )0 c
= 4WNo
A2 W
c a
= 4WNO
a A2
c
= ~ 122
Problem 2.51
(a) If the probability
then, with a probability greater than 1  01' we may say that yet) = {EA + A k met) + n (t)]2}1/2
c c a c
That is, the probability that the quadrature component ns(t) is negligibly small is greater than 1  ° 1 •
(b) Next, we note that if ka met) < 1, then we get overmodulation, so that even in the absence of noise, the envelope detector output is badly distorted. Therefore, in order to avoid overmodulation, we assume that ka is adjusted relative to the message signal met) such that the probability
Then, the probability of the event
yet) = A [1 + k met)] + n (t)
c a c
for any value of t, is greater than (1  01)(1  °2).
(c) When °1 and °2 are both small compared with unity, we find that the probability of the event
yet) = A [1 + k met)] + n (t)
c a c
for any value of t, is very close to unity. Then, the output of the envelope detector is approximately the same as the corresponding output of a coherent detector.
Problem 2.52
The received signal is
123
x(t) = A cos(2nf t) + net)
o c
= Ac cOS(2nfct) + nc(t) coS(2nfct)  ns(t) sin(2nfct) = [Ac + nc(t)] cos(2nfct)  ns(t) sin(2nfct)
The envelope detector output is therefore
aCt) = {[A + n (t)]2.+ n2(t)}1/2
e c s
For the case when the carriertonoise ratio is high, we may approximate this result as
aCt) = Ac + nc(t)
The term Ac represents the useful signal component.
2 The output signal power is thus Ac.
The power spectr al densities of n( t) and n (t) are as shown below: '1
r...., _
S (f) N
NO~ ,.. ,
____ J_ __ ~~ ~~~~f
I 0 I 2:C ~
~ S (f) i
NJ: t:Io
f c
2W
~~~~f
o w
w
The output noise power is 2NOW. The output signaltonoise ratio is therefore
(SNR )0
124
Problem 2.53
(a) From Section 1.12 of the textbook we recall that the envelope ret) of the narrowband noise nCt) is Rayleigh distributed; that is
where cr~ is the variance of the noise net). For an AM system, the variance cr~ is 2WNo. Therefore, the probability of the event that the envelope R of the narrowband noise net) is large compared to the carrier amplitude Ac is defined by
P(R?_ AJ = S: f R(r)dr
c
( 2 J
00 r r
= ex dr
Lc 2WNo p 4WNo
(1)
Define the carrier to noise ratio as
average carrier power p =
average norse power in bandwidth of the modulated message signal
(2)
Since the bandwidth of the AM signal is 2W, the average noise power in this bandwidth is 2WNo. The average power of the carrier is A~/2. The carriertonoise ratio is therefore
p =
(3)
4WNo
(b) We may now use this definition to rewrite Eq. (1) in the compact form
P(R?_Ac) = exp(p)
(4)
Solving peR _?_ AJ = 0.5 for p, we get
125
p = log2 = 0.69
Similarly, for peR ~AJ = 0.01, we get
p = log 100 = 4.6
Thus with a carriertonoise ratio IOlog100.69 = 1.6 dB, the envelope detector is expected to be well into the threshold region, whereas with a carriertonoise ratio IOlog104.6 = 6.6 dB, the detector is expected to be operating satisfactorily. We ordinarily need a signaltonoise ratio considerably greater than 6.6 dB for satisfactory intelligibility, and therefore threshold effects are seldom of great importance in AM receivers using envelope detection.
Problem 2.54
(a) Following a procedure similar to that described for the case of an FM system, we find that the input of the phase detector is
where
6( t) = k m( t ) P
with nQ(t) denoting is therefore,
nQ(t) + A
c
the quadrature noise component.
The output of the phase discriminator
na(t) yet) = kp met) + A
c
The message signal component of y( t) is equal to kp m( t). Hence, the average output signal power is k~ P, where P is the message signal power.
Wi th the post detection lowpass fil ter following the phase detector restricted to
126
2 the message bandwidth W, we find that the average output noise power is alNO/Ac.
Hence, the output signaltonoise ratio of the PM system is
(SNR)O =
(b) The channel signaltonoise ratio of the PM system is the same as that of the corresponding FM system. That is,
A2 c (SNR)O = 2WN o
The figure of merit of the PM system is therefore equal to ~ P.
For the case of sinusoidal modulation, we have
m( t) = A cos(2'1£f t)
m m
Hence,
1 2
The correspond ing val ue of the figure of merit for a PM system is thus equal to 2" Sp'
where S = k A. CA1 the other hand, the figure of merit for an FM system with sinusoidal
ppm 3 2
modulation is equal to 2" S. We see therefore that for a specified phase deviation, the
FM system is 3 times as good as the PM system.
Problem 2.55
(a) The power spectral densities of the original message signal, and the signal and noise components at the frequency discriminator output (for positive frequencies) are ill ustrated below:
Sp ect . .,'& del\~;~ of m ess"';::Se.
s~"..JL
lL_____j':t f (kHz) 4
Specf.,...Q.. dQ_l\s'l~ I of. S i3".....Q... = """p 01\ ~ ,'~ ,0.1:: "lisc.,..; nil I\CA.. t. 01 ou.~· puJ
4
8
12
127
5 ?e.(;.'t .... .& d<!!"s~tj o~ i\.oi~e...
Cc::> rvp co t\ Q ..... \ 0. \disc...'\' I !'VI. I\c ... Jor.
o v.\p ........ \
f(kHz)
o 48
(b) Each SSB mod ul.at ed wave contains only the lower sideband. Let Ak and kfO denote the
amplitude and frequency of the carrier used to generate the kth modulated wave, where f 0 = 4 kHz, and k = 1, 2, ••• , 12. Then, we find that the kth mod ulated wave occupies the frequency interval (k  1)fO~ If! ~ kfO• We may define this modulated wave by
where met) is the original message signal, and met) is its Hilbert transform. Therefore, the aver age power of sk( t) is A~ P /4, where P is the mean power of m( t) •
'fie may eXpress the output signaltonoise ratio
for the kth SSB mod ulated wave as follows:
where Ac is the carrier amplitude of the FM wave. For equal signaltonoise ratios, we must therefore choose the Ak so as to satisfy the condition
A2 k
~= = constant for k =
3k2 _ 3k + 1
1, 2, ••• , 12.
128
Problem 2.56
The envelope r(t) and phase v(t) of the narrowband noise n(t) are defined by
r(t) = VnI2(t) + n~(t)
I
'If{t) = tan 1 (nQ(t») nI(t)
For a positivegoing click to occur, we therefore require the following:
nQ(t) has a small positive value
Correspondingly, for a negativegoing click to occur, we require
nQ(t) has a small negative value d tan 1 (nQ(t») < 0
dt nI(t)
129
Problem 2.57
c.
o._o
Let H(f) be Vout(f)!Vin(f), or the transfer function of the filter. frequencies, the capacitor behaves as an open circuit. Then,
At low
R H(r) "':r + R
'" 
r
R
Thus, the low frequencies of the input are frequencymodulated. At high frequencieS, the capacitor behaves as a short circuit in relation to the resistor. Then,
R
H (f) ::!  ....... ,; ::! j2nfCR ,
R +
j2nfC
and
Frequency modulating the derivative of a waveform is equivalent to phase modulating the waveform. Thus, the high frequencies of the input are phase modulated.
Problem 2.58
(a) For the average power of the emphasi zed signal to be the same as the average power of the original message signal, we must choose the transfer function Hpe(f) of the preemphasis filter so as to satisfy the relation
co co 2
f SM( f) df = f IHpe I SM(f)df
co co
With
\ So W<f<W
, + (f/fO)2
SM( r) =1
o , elsewhere •
H (f) = k Cl .K)
+ f
pe 0
we have
W df W 130
f 2 = k2 f df
W1 + (fIfO) W Solving for k , we get
f
k = [_Q_ tan 1 (!!..._)] 1 12
W fO
(b) The improvement in output signaltonoise ratio obtained by using preemphasis in the transmitter and deemphasis in the receiver is defined by the ratio
(1)
D =
2W3
= :::
W f2 df
31 '2 2
W k 1 + (fIfO)
(2 )
Substi tuting Eq. (1) in (2), we get
2 1
(W/fO) tan (W/fo)
D = ___;~:__
1 3[(W/fO)  tan (W/fO)]
This result applies to the case when the rms bandwidth of the FM system is maintained
the same with or without preemphasis. When, however, there is no such constraint, we
find from Example 4 of Chapter 6 that the corresponding value of D is
(4 )
In the diagram below, we have plotted the improvement D (expressed in decibels) versus the ratio W/f 0 for the two cases; when there is a transmission bandwidth constraint and when there is no such constraint:
131
3
  
10 ~t8 » '0
doec;bJs
1
3.16
10
31.6
100
Problem 2.59
In a PM system, the power spectral density of the noise at the phase discriminator output (in the absence of preemphasis and deemphasis) is approximately constant • . Therefore, the improvement in output signaltonoise ratio obtained by using preemphasis in the transmitter and deemphasis in the receiver of a PM system is given by
W
f df o
D = ~
W
f IHde(f) 12df o
Wi th the transfer function Hde( f) of the deemphasis fil ter defined by
Hde(f) = 1 + 1
(j flf 0) ,
we find that the correspond ing value of D is
D = W
W df
f (f/f 0)2
0 1 + W/fo
= :
1
tan (W/f 0)
For the case when W = 15 kHz, f 0 = 2. 1 kHz, we find that D = 5, or 7 dB. The
corresponding value of the improvement ratio D for an FM system is equal to 13 d B (see
Example 4 of Chapter 5). Therefore, the improvement obtained by using preemphasis and
deemphasis in a PM system is smaller by an amount equal to 6 dB.
132
Problem 2.60
Matlab codes
% Amplitude demodulation %problem 2.60, CS: Haykin % Mathini Sellathurai
clear all Ac=1; mue=0.5; fc=20000; fm=1000; ts=1e5;
% message signal t=[0:250]*1e5; m=sin(2*pi*fm.*t); plot(t, m) xlabel('time (s)') ylabel('Amplitude') pause
% amplitude modulated signal u=AM_mod(mue,m,ts,fc); plot(t,u)
xlabel('time (s)') ylabel('Amplitude')
pause
% demodulated signal
[t1, dem1]=AM_demod(mue,u,ts,fc); plot(t1*ts, dem1)
xlabel('time (s)') ylabel('Amplitude')
axis([O 2.5e3 0 2])
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function u=AM_mod(mue,m,ts,fc) % Amplitude modulation
'loused in problem 2.60, CS: Haykin % Mathini Sellathurai
%
t=[0:length(m)1]*ts; c=cos(2*pi*fc.*t); m_n=m/max(abs(m)); u=(1+mue*m_n).*c;
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function [t, env]=AM_demod(mue,m,ts,fc) % Amplitude demodulation
%used in problem 2.60, CS: Haykin % Mathini Sellathurai
%
fS=1/ts; fsofc=round(fs/fc); n2=length(m);
v=zeros(1,round(n2/fsofc)); % initializing the envelope R_L=1000; % load
C=0.01e6; % capacitor
%demodulate the envelope 1=0; v(1)=m(1);
for k=1:fsofc:n2fsofc 1=1+2;
v(l)=m(k)*exp(ts/(R_L*C)/fsofc); % discharging v(1+1)=m(k+fsofc); %charging
end
% envelope
t =0:fsofc/2:(length(v)1)*fsofc/2; env=v;
135
Answer to Problem 2.60
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
10~~~~LL_~~~~~2__j 2.5
x 103
time (s)
Figure I: Message signal
136
1.5r~_'~' r ~07 ' , __ ~_,~,
0.5
o
0.5
1
1.5L_~ _L ~ L_ __
o 0.5 1.5 2 2.5
x 103
lime (s)
Figure 1. Amplitude modulated signal
2r. ~ __ _. __ ._~
1.8
1.6
0.2
OL_L L_ L L ~
o 0.5 1.5 2 2.5
x 103
time (s)
Figure 3: Demodulated signal
137
Problem 2.61
Matlab codes
% Problem 2.61 CS: Haykin
% phase lock loop and cycle slipping % M. Sellathurai
% time interval to=Ojtf=25j
% frequency step =0.125 Hz delf=0.125j
uO=[O delf*2*pi] j
[t,u]=ode23('lin',[tO tf],uO)j plot(t,u(:,2)/2/pi+delf)j xlabel('Time (s)')
ylabel('Li (t), (Hz)')
pause
% frequency step =0.51 Hz delf=0.5j
uO=[O delf*pi*2] 'j
[t,u]=ode23('lin',[tO tf],uO)j plot(t,u(: ,2)/2/pi+delf)j xlabel('Time (s)')j
ylabel('Li (t), (Hz)')j
pausej
% frequency step =7/12 Hz delf=7/12j
uO=[O delf*pi*2]'j
[t,u]=ode23('lin',[tO tf],uO)j plot(t,u(: ,2)/2/pi+delf)j xlabel('Time (s)');
ylabel('f_i (t), (Hz)')j
pausej
% frequency step =2/3 Hz delf=2/3j
uO=[O delf*pi*2] 'j
[t,u]=ode23('lin' ,[to tf],uO)j plot(t,u(:,2)/2/pi+delf)j xlabel('Time (s)')j
ylabel('f_i (t), (Hz)')j
138
function uprim =lin(t,u)
% used in Problem 2.61, CS: Haykin % PLL
% Transfer function (l+as)/(l+bs), % gain K=50/2/pi,
% natural frequency 1/2/pi % damping 0.707
% Mathini Sellathurai
uprim(1)=u(2) ; uprim(2)=(1/50+1.2883*cos(u(1)))*u(2)sin(u(1)); uprim=uprim I ;
139
Answer to Problem 2.61
0.02L~~~~~
o
5
10
15
20
25
Time (s)
Figure t : Variation in the instantaneous frequency of the PLL's voltage controlled oscillator for varying frequency step ~ f. (a) ~ f = 0.125 Hz
140
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
N
E.
E
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 5
10
15
20
25
Time (5)
Figufl,1: (b) ~ f= 0.5 Hz
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
N
E.
e:
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 5
10
15
20
25
Time (5)
Figure'!: (b) ~ f = 7/12 Hz
141
0.9.~_._._.__,
0.6
0.8
0.7
;::;0.5 ~
10
15
20
25
Time (5)
Figure 4: (b) ~ f = 2/3 Hz
142
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