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SUBJECT

EXTRACTION
SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION
OIL AND GREASE REMOVAL
THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
HIGH PRESURE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

OIL AND GREASE


MUZAFFAR BIN ZAINAL ABIDEEN
JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN ALAM SEKITAR,
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM,
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

DEFINITION:
The term oil is meant to indicate a
water insoluble organic material that is
a liquid at room temperature.
The term grease means a water
insoluble organic material that is a
solid or semi-solid at room
temperature.

METHODS OF ANALYSIS
The standard method described for oil and
grease are suitable for biological lipids and
mineral hydrocarbon.
It may be suitable for most industrial
wastewaters or treated effluents.
The method is not applicable to
measurement of low boiling fractions that
volatilize at temperatures below 70oC.

METHODS OF ANALYSIS
A. Partition-gravimetric method
B. Partition-infrared method
- for samples that contain volatile hydrocarbons
- method of choice for low levels of oil and
grease (< 10 mg/L).
C. Soxhlet method
- when relatively polar, heavy petroleum
fractions are present, or when the levels of
non-volatile greases may challenge the
solubility limit of the solvent.

Partition-gravimetric Method
Dissolved or emulsied oil and grease is extracted from
water by extrac?on with CFC by means of a separatory
funnel.
The CFC layer is then ltered into a weight container and
the solvent evaporated. The total gain weight of the
container is due to the oil and grease.
If A is the total gain in weight of tared ask less
calculated residue, and B, from solvent blank, the amount
of oil and grease in the sample can be calculated to be:
mg/L oil and grease = (A-B) x 1000 / mL sample
Some interference may occur, CFC has the ability to
dissolve not only oil and grease but also other organic
substances.

Par33on-Infrared Method

The extraction procedure is identical to that of the partitiongravimetric method.


Faster than the partition-gravimetric Method

However, the infrared detection permits the measurement of many


relatively volatile hydrocarbons.
Thus, the lighter petroleum distillates, with the exception of
gasoline, may be measured accurately.
A good instrumentation will allow for the measurement of as little
as 0.2 mg/L of oil and grease.

The water samples were extracted as in the


gravimetric method.
A series of standards using a standard oil such
as n-hexadecane or stearic acid over the range of
interest was prepared.
Standard and samples were scanned from 3200
cm-1 to 2700 cm-1 with solvent in the reference
beam.
By using the peak maximum at 2930 cm-1, the
concentration of oil and grease in the samples
can be determine using the following formula:
mg/L oil and grease = A x 1000 / mL sample
where, A = mg of oil and grease in extract as
determined from calibration plot.

Initial Stage: Acidification


Second stage: filtration to remove oil and grease from
the aqueous phase. Filtration effectively separates
oil & grease and allow low-molecular-weight and
soluble materials to escape in the filtrate.
Third Stage: CFC-113 Extraction. The solvent can
penetrate the sample readily after the drying of the
filtered material is done to remove water
Accomplish the grease separation in a 4 hour
extraction period