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Powers, Roots & Exponents

Addition and Subtraction go together

Multiplication and Division go together

(a+b) a +b



(a b) a


( )= 2

(ab) =a b


Same with roots too....


a+b and (a b) a b

(ab)= a b

a a
( )=
b b



Negative power simply means Reciprocal

Negative power has NOTHING to do with the negative sign of the base
Negative power cannot be brought into the base

( 3)

= (
) = ( ) = ( )

---- Notice how the negative sign inside the bracket remains even after the negative power has been removed
by taking the reciprocal.
Powers of powers can be multiplied

2 3

((a) ) = a
= a
2 3 5
(((a ) ) ) = a
= a
4 3
( 4 3)
((a) ) = a
= a
In a simple equation, if powers are equal, the bases are equal and vice versa

If a = x , then a= x

If m =m , then y=z
Learn the square table in page 87 of your text book. Will help in Special Identities and Factorisation.

Profit, Loss & Discount

For a successful business, MP > SP > CP

SP can be calculated in 2 ways.

(1) With CP as the base, and applying percentage for Profit or Loss
(2) With MP as the base, and applying Discount

Taking CP as 100 solves most problems easily


Typical word problems

1. SP of 20 pens is equal to the CP of 25 pens. Find the gain percentage.

Let CP of 25 pens = Rs. 100.

So, SP of 20 pens is also = Rs. 100
Which means CP of 1 pen = 100/25 = Rs. 4
And SP of 1 pen = 100/20 = Rs. 5
Profit is Rs. 1 when CP is Rs. 4
Hence calculate gain percentage

2. A dealer allows 10% on MP and still wants to gain 8%. What % above CP must he mark his goods?

Let CP = Rs. 100

So SP is 8% more, which is Rs. 108. [in this case CP is the base for percentage]
MP is above SP ---- meaning, there is a number above 108 which when reduced by the
discount (10%) gives you 108. [in this case SP is the base for percentage].
So MP 10% of MP = 108. Solve this to find MP. MP is Rs. 120.
Now to the last part of the question... CP is Rs. 100, MP is Rs. 120. What's the
percentage? [again CP becomes the base for percentage]. It's 20 percentage!

Simple Interest

SI = PRT / 100

Amount = P + SI

These formulas work ONLY when T is in years!! So if time is given in months or days, convert it to
years. 3 months would be 3/12 years. 70 days would be 70/365 days.... etc. [A year is always taken to
have 365 days]

Interest is calculated from the day after the money is borrowed but including the day the money is

Taking Principal as 100 solves most problems easily

Typical word problems

1. A sum of money put at 9% per annum simple interest amounts to 10160 in 3 years. What will it
amount to in 2 years in 8% per annum.

Let Principal be P. So P + (PRT/100) = 10160

Substitute values.... P + (P x 9 x 3 / 100) = 10160. Solve for P, which would be 8000
Now that P is found, finish the last part of the question.... SI = (8000 x 8 x 2) / 100.
Add this to Principal (8000) to get the Amount. The answer is 9280.

2. At what rate percentage per annum simple interest will a sum of money treble itself in 16 years?

Let Principle be Rs. 100.

Treble is 3 times... which means the Amount has to become 300.... which means interest is
Rs. 200.
So from the formula 200 = (100 x R x 16) / 100
Find R.... It is 12.5%

Special Products as Identities

Here are the 4 identities you need to know.

(a+b) =a +2 a b+b

(a b) =a

( x+a )( x+b)= x +(a+b) x+ab

(a+b)(a b)=a

2 a b+b

Typical problems
When numbers are given and asked to solve using identities find the nearest number for which it's easiest to
find the square.
Some Examples....

(109) = (100+9)

[while 109 is also = 110 1, taking it as 100 + 9 makes the

calculation easier]

(46) = (50 4)

[while 46 is also = 40 + 6, taking it as 50 4 makes the the

calculation easier]

20.6 X 19.9 = (20 + 0.6) X ( 20 0.1)

[ use identity (x+a)(x+b) ]

96.5 X 103.5 = (100 3.5) X (100 + 3.5)

[ use identity (a+b) (ab) ]

Typical problems



By inspection it is found that

And also,
This is of the form 2ab, where a = 4m and b = 3n.
Hence b is the term that needs to be added, which is

So the expression becomes

16m is (4m)

2. If

--- what needs to be added to this expression to make it a perfect square?

= 2

And the perfect square thus obtained is (4m 3n)
, find

x2 +







Simply square both sides of the given equation once, for the first question, and
twice for the second question. Answers are 6 and 34 respectively.


Pull out common terms (proper grouping might be required for this step)
Use Identities

Typical problems
1. Factorise

2. Factorise

As much as it's tempting to use the identity (a b) and (a+b) , DON'T!!

Look at the bigger picture..... 25 and 36 are prefect squares
So this expression can be written as , [5( x y)] [6 (x+ y)] and so is of the

The answer is (11 x+ y)( x 11 y)
1 can be pulled out from the second bracket and written as
(11 x+ y)( x+11 y)

25( x y) 36( x+ y)

52 m n 117 m n

Pull out common terms and then find which identity can be used.
Answer is 13 m n (2 m 3 n)(2 m+3 n)

Linear Equations

Linear Equations are equations that when plotted in a graph would give a straight line.
They can have one or two variables but he power of the variables must always be 1.

Solving Linear Equations

First try to open brackets

Next work on fractions
The group the x terms on one side and the constant terms on the other. [ ALWAYS JUSTIFY moving a
term in one of the following way --- Multiplying or Dividing both sides by_______
Adding ________ to both sides
Subtracting ________ from both sides
Find x.
ALWAYS substitute x in the given equation to see if it satisfies

For word problems......

Convert the English sentences to Math.

Don't introduce more than one variable. More variables, more the trouble!!
Solve for x
ALWAYS substitute x in the given English sentences to see if it satisfies.


Every linear equation has a unique line on the graph sheet

Lines parallel to the X-axis are of the form y = a (examples --- y = 2, y = 3/4, y = 5 etc....)
Lines parallel to the Y-axis are of the form x = a (examples --- x = 5, x = 4/7, x = 7.5 etc....)

x = 0 is the equation for Y-axis

y = 0 is the equation for X-axis
Quadrants run anticlockwise

A linear equation with no constant term will ALWAYS pass through the origin

3 x+2=0 ----- Does not pass through the origin [ 2 is the constant term]
x+3 y=7 ----- Does not pass through the origin [ 7 is the constant term]
4 y=2.5 x ----- Passes through the origin
y=abx 2 ----- Does not pass through the origin [ - 2 is the constant term]
y=0 ----- Passes through the origin

A set of values (x, y), called ordered pairs, that satisfy a linear equation is called its Solution. And
when plotted, all set of ordered pairs (x, y) that are the Solutions will lie on the line represented by the

To solve an equation............... 2x 3y = 12
First put x = 0 and find y. (any value can be put, but 0 and 1 are easiest)
Then put y = 0 and find x.
Then put x = 1 and find y.
Tabulate the values thus obtained. These are the ordered pairs




Plot these points and draw a line.

Check with more values of x and y to see if they lie on the same straight line


Learn to find the difference between 'f' and 'x'.

'f' is the frequency --- the number of times an observation occurs.
Assume a class where 10 students get >90, and 15 students get >80 and 20 students get >70.
So the frequency of >90 is 10, because >90 has occurred 10 times.
Similarly if the shoe size 12 has been bought by 50 customers, then 50 is the frequency of shoe
size 12.

( f i x i)
( f i)

Here is the formula for Mean:

If Mean is given but one value of the data is missing, you should be able to find the missing data using
the above formula

Drawing Pie charts requires calculation of the Central angle of the Sector in the Circle

Here is the formula:

(Value of the component)or ( percentage)

360 deg
(total value)or 100

In the above formula the percentage goes with 100