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PZT/epoxy Composites

Controlling Torsional Motion

for

ROBERT C. WETHERHOLD*

NANDAKUMAR PANTHALINGAL

of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

State University of New York

Buffalo, NY 14260-4400

AND

Department

ABSTRACT: Thin layers of the piezoceramic PZT (Lead Zirconate/Titanate) have been used to actuate and sense bending motion of thin, flexible structures. However, because of its transverse

isotropy (mm6 symmetry), a pure PZT piezoceramic is unable to

generate or sense twisting motion for applications including

beams, plates or shell panels. The use of a polyvinylidene fluoride

2

(PVF

) polymer possessing orthotropy (mm2 symmetry) allows

sensing of twisting, but is not stiff enough to provide actuation

because of its low modulus and typically low thickness. One possible method for generating a more powerful twisting actuation is to

construct a piezoceramic/polymer composite element which is orthotropic in the plane and stiff enough to provide actuation. With

the requirement of orthotropy in mind, composites have been fabricated by cutting rods from a PZT plate and placing them in an

32

31 and d

epoxy matrix. The piezoelectric coupling coefficients d

have been measured for these composites. The ratio d

(

/

3

)

1 is ap2

proximately 2, which demonstrates the required orthotropy and

thus demonstrates our ability to produce the desired twisting actuation. A plate theory analysis provides information on the optimum

orientation angle of the PZT/epoxy composite to provide twisting

actuation and sensing. This theory predicts that the PZT/epoxy

will demonstrate a factor of 40 improvement in actuation power

over the PVF

2 for a sample geometry.

where a flexible structure is involved in a slewing maneuver

(Leo, 1992; Leo and Inman, 1993). See Figure 1, where the

twisting in question is a rotation about the x-axis. The requirement for serving as a twisting A/S is that the material

involved must be orthotropic, that is, it must possess an

mm2 symmetry (notation of Nye, 1960). A polyvinylidene

fluoride (PVF2) material possesses such symmetry, and can

be used as a sensor (Lee, 1987). The PVF2 material is very

compliant, and is normally made very thin because of its

high poling field; it has little actuating ability. In this paper,

we review the material symmetry requirements for a twisting A/S. We then discuss the fabrication of a novel

PZT/epoxy actuator and demonstrate its efficacy through a

plate analysis.

PLATE

EQUATIONS

the assumption of a state of generalized plane stress, we may

write the piezoelectric constitutive equations applicable to a

thin plate (Lee, 1987; Lee and Moon, 1989). These constitutive equations for the (in-plane) strains S, and the electric

displacement D, in the Voigt-contracted form are

INTRODUCTION

of &dquo;thin&dquo; structural elements such as beams,

and curved panels have been successfully

used with piezo-electric actuators/sensors. These actuators/sensors (A/S), typified by thin lead zironate-lead

titanate (PZT) plates, supply an in-plane expansion or contraction which can cause or sense the local bending of the

element. There are many control issues that arise in the

application of the A/S, but the basic types of motion which

can be supplied or sensed are restricted. If PZT elements

are placed on the top and bottom of the structure, they can

supply a bending motion if acting in opposed fashion, or

can supply an extensional (in-plane) motion if acting in the

same fashion. The PZT plates cannot, however, supply or

sense twisting motion, because of the innate material symmetry they display after their normal fabrication and poling.

Controlling twisting is important in cases where a beam is

Aplates,

varietydisks,

*Author to whom

576

correspondence

field; T, are (in-plane) stresses; E, are electric field compo-

a particular symmetry class, the number of non-zero coefficients (s,,, d,,, €,~) is reduced. We examine the equations as

applied to a piezoelectric material possessing an orthotropic

symmetry (class mm2) like PVF2. This class is of particular

These

similar in form to materials possessing transverse isotropy

in the xix~ plane (class mm6). This fact, as will be shown

later, will be a prime motivation towards developing a

PZT/epoxy composite. For an orthotropic material, Equations (1) and (2) become

should be addressed

JOURNAL

OF INTELLIGENT MATERIAL

SYSTEMS

AND

Downloaded from jim.sagepub.com at INDIAN INST OF TECHNOLOGY-New Delhi on September 24, 2016

577

From these equations it is seen that the normal and the shear

strains are uncoupled in the materials coordinate system.

The form of the piezoelectric constitutive equations remains

the same for a transversely isotropic material like PZT, but

the number of independent non-zero constants is reduced by

the following equalities.

We

assume

that

field is

applied

across

the 3 direction

(with E3

E5).

In

Equation (7),

given by

are

because normally only the 3 direction is sufficiently thin to

permit poling and to enable sufficiently large electric fields.

We may invert Equation (3) to get it in the stiffness form

or

= cos

sin 6; 0 is rotation angle about the 3 axis

0, n

into geometric (primed) axes.

The stiffness matrix and dielectric coupling coefficient

vector are given in the geometric coordinate system by

geometric or primed coordinate system obtained by rotating

the geometric axes with respect to the material axes by an

angle 0 about the z-axis, the constitutive Equation (6) will

appear

as

plane and perpendicular to the mid-surface, we can now

write the stresses acting at any point on the lamina with a

rotation angle 0 in term of the midplane strains and curvatures

Figure 1. Structural elements requiring torsional actuation: a) flexislewing frame; b) eccentrically loaded beam.

ble

as

where Sl, S 2, S6 are the midplane strains and x;, x2, x66

are the curvatures. Having obtained the equation for the

stresses acting on a lamina, we proceed to find the forces

and moments acting on a composite laminate of height h

made of &dquo;n&dquo; orthotropic laminae (like PVF2) stacked

together in the 3 direction. (This laminate may include

laminae which are not piezoelectric.)

Using standard definitions for force and moment resultants on a plate (Whitney, 1987), we may write the laminate

constitutive equations in the matrix notation

Downloaded from jim.sagepub.com at INDIAN INST OF TECHNOLOGY-New Delhi on September 24, 2016

578

and

piezoelectric

force and

moment

resultants

where (zk-,, zk) are signed distances from midplane to (bottom, top) of kth lamina; zk = (zk + zk-1)/2 is signed distance to lamina centroid; hk is the thickness of the kth

lamina; ~3 is the electric field applied across the kth lamina.

duced

axis.

To

UNDER THE APPLICATION OF A FIELD E3

by

an

in

plane

poling

a material where d31 is different from ~32; the trans-

to have

To generate a twisting moment M6 in the geometric coordinate system (twisting along the x-axis shown in Figure

lb), it is sufficient to generate in-plane shear strains 1: ~2

which are unequal in at least two laminae. In accommodating the unequal shear strains, the laminate will twist.

The critical test, then, for a twisting actuator material is to

determine if a non-zero shear strain can be generated.

It is seen from Equation (17) that to generate the desired

shear strain under the application of a field E3, the material

must have a non-zero d36 piezoelectric coupling coefficient.

A transversely isotropic material does not shear under the

application of an electric field E3 if its material coordinate

axes coincide with its geometric axes [Equation (3)]. Let us

see if it is possible to have a non-zero value of d3, by rotating

the geometric axes with respect to the material axes. The d36

coefficient is given by

ways of doing this is by making a composite of PZT and an

epoxy polymer with the required orthotopic material symmetry. One possible way to do this would be the &dquo;slice and

dice&dquo; technique (Savakus et al., 1981) with the spacing of

slices and the width of epoxy fill made different in the xl and

x,. directions. This would create a composite with 1-1 connectivity ; each phase is continuous in only one spatial direction (the x3 axis). A stronger mismatch of ~31 and d32 (and

thus larger and more desirable d36) can be created by making a PZT/epoxy composite with 2-2 connectivity. See

Figure 2; each phase is continuous in two spatial directions.

The required orthotropic symmetry is thus created in a

material with reasonable stiffness and thickness, suitable for

actuation as well as sensing. This material has been produced and its coupling coefficients measured while applying

an electrical field (Panthalingal, 1992). In the following, the

amount of twisting which can be generated by the

PZT/epoxy is determined by a laminated plate analysis and

compared with PVF2.

For

TWISTING CALCULATIONS

d36

transversely isotropic

be non-zero under an in-plane rotation about

axis. Hence a twisting moment can never be pro-

verse

can never

the poling

Consider

three-layer

Downloaded from jim.sagepub.com at INDIAN INST OF TECHNOLOGY-New Delhi on September 24, 2016

stacking

579

Table 1. Elastic and

Figure

3.

bottom PZT/Ep actuator layers are positioned with their

poling directions opposed, so that their surfaces which

adhere to the Al beam can be connected to the common

ground (See Figure 3). For simplicity, the actuator is

assumed to completely cover the Al. The entries of the

terms of Equations (15) and (16) experience reductions in

form since the laminate is balanced and antisymmetric. The

laminate stiffness matrices simplify to

by electrical resistance strain gage; other properties are

calculated from micro-mechanics models (Panthalingal,

1992; Halpin, 1984). A typical actuation voltage of 300 V is

applied to both actuators. In Figure 4, we see the twisting

curvature x6 which can be generated, given as a function of

the actuator off-axis angle 0. A peak is reached over a wide

range of angles, starting at approximately 0 = 25 . This

relative insensitivity to the actuator angle offers a useful

design flexibility. To compare the actuating ability of this

PZT/Ep with a PVF, actuator, a similar calculation was performed for PVF2. The PVF, is essentially mechanically isotropic ; see Table 1 for properties (Lee, 1987). The same

layer thicknesses were used, although fabricating a 0.76 mm

thick PVF, would be problematic. The same available voltage of 300 V was applied. The results are plotted in Figure

5, and indicate a much smaller useful range of actuator

angle.

CLOSURE

between bending and twisting. For the voltage excitation

shown in Figure 3, the expansional piezoelectric force and

moment resultants N~, MP simplify to

invert the system of Equations (15) and (16) to solve for the

midplane strains and curvatures. Of particular interest is the

twisting curvature x6. Determining the twisting curvature

thus involves not only the generated piezoelectric twisting

moment M~ but also the stiffness of the laminate, including

the PZT/epoxy composite actuator layer. Unlike the compliant PVF2, the PZT/epoxy possesses a significant stiffness.

A series of calculations has been performed for the threelayer laminate using the properties of Table 1. All layers

have equal thickness of 0.76 mm (0.030 in).

Using laminated plate theory, the material symmetry requirements for a torsional actuator have been reviewed. A

PZT/epoxy composite possesses the required symmetry as

well as significant stiffness. Such a composite has been

made and its orthotropic piezoelectric properties measured.

Downloaded from jim.sagepub.com at INDIAN INST OF TECHNOLOGY-New Delhi on September 24, 2016

580

Yoshida-Honmachi

HIROO OKANAN

Osaka Technical College

26-12 Saiwai-cho

Osaka 572,

Neyagawa City,

MASAKATSU KANEYOSHI

PZT/Ep is capable of on the order of 40 times greater actuation power than PVF, for a sample laminate. The orientation of the actuator is important to ensuring its proper performance, although there can be considerable design

flexibility in the orientation angle.

REFERENCES

HALPIN, J. C. 1984. Revised Primer on Composite Materials. Lancaster,

PA: Technomic Publishing Co., Inc.

LEE, C-K. 1987. "Piezoelectric Laminates for Torsional and Bending

Modal Control: Theory and Experiment", Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell

AND

Japan

HIROSHI TANAKA

Hitachi Zosen Corp.

Sakurajima 1-3-40

Konohana-ku, Osaka 554, Japan

ABSTRACT : In this article, an attempt is made to apply the

fuzzy set theory to structural vibration control of earthquakeexcited and wind-excited oscillations. The numerical examples of

SDOF and 2DOF models show that the fuzzy control technique is

useful for reducing the amplitude and acceleration of structural

oscillation due to earthquake. Experiments on structural vibration

control are conducted using a system of prestressing tendons with

springs connected to a stepping motor system with fuzzy control

rules. The model is subject to base motions produced by a small

shaking table, and a fluctuating flow generated by a fan. These experimental results confirm the efficiency of fuzzy control for structural vibration problems.

University.

LEE, C-K. AND F. C.

Torsion and Bending Sensors and Actuators", J. Acoust. Soc. Am. ,

85:2432-2439.

LEO, D. J. 1992. "Active Control of a Sewing Frame", MS Thesis,

SUNY-Buffalo.

LEO, D. J. AND D. J. INMAN. 1993. "Modeling and Control Simulations of

a Slewing Frame Containing Active Members", Smart Mater. Struc. J. ,

2:82-95.

NYE, J. F. 1960. Physical Properties of Crystals, London: Oxford Univ.

Press.

PANTHALINGAL, N. 1992. "Piezoelectric Composites of PZT/Epoxy for

Sensing and Actuating Torsional Motion", MS Thesis, SUNY-Buffalo.

SAVAKUS, H. P., K. A. KLICKER AND R. E. NEWNHAM. 1981. "PZTEpoxy Piezoelectric Transducers", Mater. Res. Bull. , 16:677-680.

UMLAND, J. W., D. J. INMAN AND H. T. BANKS. 1991. "Damping in Coupled Rotation and Bending-An Experiment", Proc. Amer Control Conf.,

Boston, MA, Amer. Auto. Contr. Council 91CH2939-7, (May 1991) V. 3

p 2994-2999.

WHITNEY, J. M. 1987. Structural Analysis of Laminated Anistropic Plates.

Lancaster, PA: Technomic Publishing Co., Inc.

Investigation on Fuzzy

Active Control

HITOSHI FURUTA

Department of Civil Engineering

Kyoto University

INTRODUCTION

such

tall

and

buildings, towers,

flexiblestructures,

ANY

bridges, have already been designed using

as

total design. Recently, active control has played an important role for the control of vibrations due to earthquake or

wind.

It seems that many researchers are trying to reduce vibration response as much as possible even if the system of active control should become complicated. On the contrary,

the present study has been carried out aiming to develop a

simple and practical system with sufficient efficiency and

robustness. From this viewpoint, fuzzy control is applied.

Since the algorithm of fuzzy active control (FAC) is very

simple, the calculation time is short. The simplicity of the

structure of the system can provide high reliability and

robustness. It is very easy to change and modify control parameters to adjust any vibration condition.

The present article starts by setting fuzzy control rules

and selecting adequate membership functions. Then tuning

of various parameters is done through some numerical

simulations. Finally, the efficiency of fuzzy control will

be proved based on the experimental results of a small

model.

Downloaded from jim.sagepub.com at INDIAN INST OF TECHNOLOGY-New Delhi on September 24, 2016

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