COOKING TERMINOLOGIES

A la king---Food that is generally served in a white sauce with mushrooms, green peppers, and pimentos A la mode---Generally refers to ice cream served on top of pie or cake Aging---The term applied to meat being held at a temperature of 34-36 degrees F. for the purpose of making the meat more tender Al dente---Refers to slightly chewy or being tough to the bite Antipasto---An Italian appetizer Appetizer---A small serving of food served before, after, or as the first course of a meal to stimulate the appetite Arrowroot---Used as a thickening agent in certain soups and sauces, bringing out a high sheen Au gratin---Foods covered with a sauce, sprinkled with cheese or bread crumbs, or both, and baked to a golden brown Bake---To cook by dry heat, usually in an oven Barbecue Sauce---A highly-seasoned tomato-base sauce Barbecue---To cook over the embers or coals of an open fire Baste---To ladle drippings over a piece of meat being cooked as a roast to make it juicy and to prevent dryness Batter---A mixture of flour, sugar, eggs, milk, etc. which can be poured Béarnaise sauce---A Hollandaise sauce with a tarragon vinegar mixture added for use with meat and fish Beat---To lift a mixture with a spoon or an electric mixer to inject air and make the mixture smooth and creamy Bisque---A thick, rich cream soup generally made from shellfish Blacken---To coat fish or meat with pepper and/or other spices, then searing the meat in a hot skillet producing meat that is black on the outside but tender on the inside Blanch---To scald, make white, to partially cook an item, to place fruits or nuts in boiling water to remove the skins, or to dip vegetables in boiling water in preparation for freezing, canning, or drying Blend---To mix thoroughly two or more ingredients Boiling point---The temperature reached when a mixture maintains a full bubbling motion on its surface Boil---To cook in a liquid, generally water, in which large bubbles rise quickly and steadily so that all the liquid is agitated Bordelaise---A brown sauce flavored with red wine usually served with beef entrees Bouillon---A liquid similar to a stock, but cleaner and richer in flavor Braise---To cook meat by searing in fat, then simmering in a covered dish in a small amount of liquid or to brown meat or vegetables in hot fat, then to cook slowly in a small amount of liquid Brandy---An alcoholic liquor distilled from wine or fruit juices Bra ten---German term for roast. Breading---To coat an item with a mixture of flour, egg, and bread crumbs

Brew---To cook in hot liquid until the flavor is extracted Brine---A liquid of salt and water or vinegar used in pickling Brioche---A roll made of light sweet dough, originated in France Broil---To cook by exposing the food directly to the heat Broth---The liquid that meat, fish, poultry, or vegetables have been simmered in Buffet---A table of ready-to-eat hot and/or cold foods, self-service generally with the exception of the hot foods Cacao---Cocoa, chocolate Cacciatore---An Italian term for sauteed chicken that is baked with a highly seasoned (basil and oregano) tomato sauce, diced mushrooms, and chives; also sometimes referred to as hunter-style Canadian Bacon---Trimmed, pressed, smoked loin of pork that may be purchased cooked or uncooked Canapé---An appetizer, toasted bread, or cracker covered with a tasty paste and garnished Candying---To cook certain fruits or vegetables in a heavy sweet syrup Caramelize---To heat granulated sugar to a golden brown color for the purpose of flavoring and coloring other food Carte du jour---Menu of the day Casserole---A one-pot meal baked and served in an earthenware or glass dish Caviar---The salted eggs or roe of the sturgeon and other certain fish Chablis---A white, good-bodied wine, sometimes referred to as white Burgundy Chicory---A salad green from the endive family Chiffonier---Finely shredded or chopped vegetables used in soups or salad dressings Chop---To cut into small pieces using a knife or other sharp utensil Cider---The juice from pressed apples used as a beverage or to make vinegar Citron---A lemon-like fruit with thicker skin, larger, and with less acid Clarify---To make a liquid clear by adding beaten egg white and egg shells. The egg jells in the hot liquid and cloudiness adheres to it and then the liquid is strained Coat spoon---When a mixture forms a thin, even film on a spoon Coat---To cover the surface of one food with another Cobbler---A deep dish pie, generally made with fruit Cocktail---An appetizer served before or as the first course of a meal, an alcholic beverage served before the dinner, or a cut shell-fish with a tart sauce served at the start of a meal Coddle---To cook or simmer an item just below the boiling point for a short length of time Condiment---A seasoning for food, a spicy or pungent relish Consommé---A clear, strong flavored soup Core---To remove the central seed part of certain fruits, such as apples or pears

Cottage pudding---Cake served with a warm sweet sauce Cracklings---Crisp remains left after the fat has been fried out Cream---To beat until soft and fluffy, generally applies to shortening and sugar Creole---Usually a soup or sauce containing tomatoes, onions, green peppers, celery, and seasoning Crepe---French word for pancake Croissant---A crescent shaped roll Croquette---A ground food product, held together with the addition of a thick cream sauce and eggs, formed into balls or cones, breaded and fried in oil Croutons---Small cubes of bread browned to a golden color in the oven or deep fat fryer, generally served with soups or salads Cube---To cut into even, bite-size pieces Cuisine---A characteristic style of preparing food Cure---To preserve by pickling, salting, or drying Cut in---A part blended into another part Cutlet---A small flattened boneless piece of meat, generally referring to pork and veal Deglaze---Adding water, wine, or other liquid to a pan in which meats have been sauteed or roasted to dissolve the crusted juice that has dried on the bottom and sides of the pan Demiglace---A rich brown stock reduced to only half of its original amount by simmering Demitasse---A small cup of black coffee Deviled---An item flavored with hot condiments such as pepper, mustard, or tabasco Dice---To cut into small cubes or squares Dissolve---To cause a dry substance to become fluid or to absorb into liquid Dot---To spot small particles of butter over the top of something Dough---A thick, soft uncooked mass of moistened flour and other ingredients Drawn butter---Melted butter Dredge---To coat an item with dry ingredients such as flour Dress---To trim or clean poultry or fish Drippings---The fat and natural juice that drips from roasted meats Du jour---French word meaning of the day Dust---To sprinkle an item with flour or sugar Emulsify---A liquid mixture suspended in another mixture (generally eggs and oil) to prevent separation Entree---Main course of the meal Epicure---A lover of food and wine Extract---Drawing flavors from certain foods, used to flavor other food items Fine herbs---A combination of three or four herbs chopped very fine

Flambeau---To serve on a flaming torch Florentine---With spinach Fold---To mix, using a motion beginning vertically down through the mixture, continuing across the bottom of the bowl and ending with an upward and over movement Fondant---An icing made by boiling sugar and water to the point of crystallization then whipping it into a creamy mass Fondue---A style of preparing foods which involves dipping vegetables, meats, breads into various heated sauces Frappe---Frozen or partly frozen to the consistency of mush for dessert items French Toast---Bread dipped in a batter of eggs and milk and fried til golden brown on both sides Fricassee---Pieces of chicken, lamb, or veal stewed in liquid and served in a sauce made from the same liquid Fritters---Food dipped or coated with a batter and fried to a golden brown in oil Garbanzo beans---Dried or canned Chick peas Garnish---To decorate a dish with an item to improve its look Gherkin---A small sweet or sour pickled cucumber Giblet---The gizzard, heart, and liver of Poultry Glaze---To coat or cover an item with a glossy coating Goulash---A rich, savory brown stew and generally the main seasoning is paprika Gourmet---A connoisseur of fine foods and drink Grate---To rub or wear into small particles, by rubbing on the rough surface of a grater Griddle---A large, flat heavy pan with heat applied from the bottom Grits---Coarsely ground hominy Gruyere---A type of Swiss cheese made in France and Switzerland and has smaller holes than true Swiss cheese Gumbo---A rich creole-type soup consisting of chicken broth, onion, celery, green peppers, okra, tomatoes, and rice Hard Sauce---A dessert sauce made of butter, lemon extract, sugar, and vanilla Head cheese---Jellied, spiced, pressed meat from the hog's head Herbs---Savory leaves such as tarragon, sage, basil, parsley, oregano, etc. Hollandaise---A rich, creamy sauce made of butter, egg yolks, and lemon juice Hominy---Hulled Indian corn used for a cereal food, coarsely ground or broken Homogenize---To break up fat globules into small particles, generally referring to milk Hors d'oeuvres---An appetizer typically served before a meal Hush puppies---A Southern deep fried food consisting of corn meal, milk, onions, baking powder, etc. Infusion---Liquid extracted from tea, herbs, or coffee Irish stew---A white lamb stew generally made with lamb, carrots, turnips, potatoes, onions, dumplings, and seasonings Jambalaya---A combination of meat or seafood and rice cooked together

Julienne---To cut into long, very thin strips Karo---A fairly thin, light or dark corn syrup Kebob or Kabob---Small cubes of meat and/or vegetables roasted on a skewer Knead---To place dough on a flat surface and work it, pressing down with your hands, then folding over and over again Kosher---Meat that is butchered and processed according to the Hebrew religious laws Kumquat---A small citrus fruit resembling a small orange, about the size and shape of an olive Leek---A plant from the green onion family with little or no bulb and fairly long broad, mild-flavored green stems. The green stems are used to season or flavor foods Legumes---Dried vegetables such as beans, lentils, and split peas Lentil---A flat edible seed of the pea family generally used in soup Limburger Cheese---Soft, rich, odorous, ripened cheese originally made in Belgium London Broil---A broiled flank steak, sliced on the bias and generally served with a rich mushroom or Bordelaise sauce Lyonnaise---To prepare and serve with onions Marinade---A brine or pickling solution in which meat can be soaked before cooking to alter or enrich the flavor Marinate---To let food stand in a liquid that will add flavor and tenderize Marrow---Soft tissue from the center of beef and veal bones Marsala---A semi-dry Italian sherry wine Masking---To coven an item completely with a sauce or another ingredient Mayonnaise---A rich salad dressing emulsified by whipping together eggs, oil, and vinegar Melt---To dissolve or make liquid by heating Menu---The list of foods served or Bill of Fare Meringue---Egg whites and sugar beaten together to form a white frothy mass, generally used to top pies and cakes Mincemeat---A blended mixture of finely chopped cooked beef, currants, apples, suet, and spices Mince---To cut food into very small, fine pieces Minestrone---A thick Italian soup made with vegetables, dried legumes, and pasta Minute Steak---A small, fairly thin, boneless sirloin steak Mirepoix---A mixture of fairly fine, diced vegetables such as carrots, onions, and celery Mixed grill---A combination of any four broiled or grilled items, generally lamb chop, bacon, sausage, and tomato slices Mixing---To combine two or more ingredients Mocha---A flavoring made of coffee and chocolate Mold---A metal form in which you can shape certain foods to make them look more attractive Mornay sauce---A rich cream sauce with eggs and Parmesan cheese added Mousse---A frozen dessert made mainly with whipped cream, sweetening, and flavoring

Mozarella---A fairly soft Italian cheese with a rubbery texture and is great to use in making pizza Mutton---The flesh or meat of a mature sheep Napoleons---A French pastry made my separating the layers of pastry with a cream filling and topping with an icing Nougat---Generally a confection of pasty consistency, containing sugar, almonds, and pistachio nuts Omelet---Beaten eggs, seasoned, fried with butter or grease in a pan until it starts to puff then folded over or rolled Panache---Two or more kinds of one item in a dish, mixing colors Papaya---A tropical fruit from which the juice can be used to tenderize certain meats Parboil---To partially cook or boil in water Pare---To cut off the outer covering or skin with a knife or other sharp tool Parfait---Different colored ice creams served in a tall parfait glass with syrup and often fruit, topped with whipped cream, chopped nuts, and a cherry Parmesan---A hard Italian cheese, usually sold in the grated or powdered form Pastry bag---A duck cloth, cone bag with a metal or plastic tip at the small end used to decorate foods Pate---A paste of ground meat or liver Peel---To strip off an outer covering or skin Petite---French word for Small Petits fours---Small cakes iced with fondant and decorated Pilaf or Pilau---Rice cooked in chicken stock with minced onions and seasonings Pimiento---Sweet red peppers, canned Piquant---Generally a sauce that is sharp and tart to the taste Planked---Meat or fish served on a board usually garnished with duchess potatoes and vegetables Poach---To cook in water that bubbles only slightly Popovers---Quick, puffed-up hot bread made of milk, sugar, eggs, and flour generally containing a fruit mixture Pot pie---Meat and vegetables in a rich creamy sauce, covered with a pie crust Poulet---French word meaning Chicken Proof---To let yeast dough rise by setting it in a warm, moist place of at least 85 degrees F Puree---Any type of food cooked to a pulp Ramekin---A small shallow baking dish in which foods can be baked and served in Rasher---A thin slice of bacon Ravioli---Small, square noodle dough cases filled with seasoned ground meat, grated seasoned cheese, or finely chopped seasoned vegetables and served with a meat or mariana sauce Reduce---To concentrate a liquid by simmering for a long time Remoulade sauce---A highly seasoned cold sauce similar to tartar sauce, but using mustard and ground pepper added Render---To cook the grease out of animal fat

Risotto---Rice baked with minced onions and meat stock and adding Parmesan cheese after baking Romaine---Mild flavored,long narrow, and crisp leaves of salad greens of which the outer leaves are a fairly dark green and the inner leaves are light in color Roquefort---A famous French blue vein cheese Roux---A mixture of fat and flour cooked together, usually in equal parts, over low heat until the flour and fat blend together smoothly and is used to thicken soups, sauces, gravies, and stews Royale---A mixture of cream and eggs baked into a custard for garnishing a consomme and broth Salami---A highly seasoned dried sausage made from pork, beef, or venison Sauerbraten---A sour beef pot roast that has been marinated 3-5 days in a vinegar solution to sour the beef and served with a sour sauce Saute---To quickly heat meat or vegetables in fat in an open pan Scald---To heat milk or cream just below the boiling point until a scum forms on the surface Scallion---The muscle of a sea mollusk which operates the opening and closing of the two shells Scone---A type of Scottish quick bread similar to a biscuit Score---To mark the surface of certain foods with shallow slits to improve appearance of increase tenderness Sear---To scorch or char the surface of meat quickly, sealing in the juices Shred---Cut into thin pieces, using the large holes of a grater or cheese shredder Simmer---To cook liquid just below the boiling point Smother---To cook in a covered container until tender or cover an item with another item completely Sole---A flat, white-meated fish found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Souffle---A very light, puffed up item, generally caused by folding beaten egg whites into a basic batter Spit---A pointed metal rod used for roasting meats over an open fire Spoon bread---A southern type of corn bread baked in a casserole and of a texture so that it must be served with a spoon Squab---A young pigeon that has never flown Steep---To soak in a hot liquid to extract flavor and color or to soften Stew---To cook meat and vegetables in liquid just below the boiling point Stir---To blend ingredients using a circular motion Stock---The liquid in which meat, poultry, fish, or vegetables have been cooked Stroganoff---Sauteed pieces of beef tenderloin, cooked gently using a sour cream sauce Tabasco sauce---A hot red pepper sauce Tapioca---A starch prepared from the roots of a bitter cassava plant for use in pudding and for thickening some soups Tartare---Steak Highly seasoned, ground beef steak served raw as an appetizer Tart---Small individual pies, filled with fruit or fruit and cream, without a crust on top Tenderloin---A strip of very tender meat generally referring to beef, pork, lamb, and veal Terapin---Fresh-water turtles, used as food

Torte---A fairly small, rich, decorated cake Tortilla---Mexican griddle cake, a flat, unleavened corn cake baked on a heated stone or iron Toss---To cause a rising and falling action for the purpose of blending ingredients together as in salads Truffle---Similar to the mushroom, a black fungus grown mainly in France they are used for seasoning and garnishing Truss---To bind or fasten with string or skewers such as preparing poultry for roasting Tureen---A large deep kettle in which soup is served, generally made of silver Venison---Deer meat Vermicelli---Long fine rods of pasta similar to spaghetti, but thinner Vichyssoise---A cream of potato soup that is served cold Wellington---Beef tenderloin baked in a rich dough until the meat is slightly rare and the crust is crisp and golden Welsh rarebit---Melted cheddar cheese, flavored with beer, mustard, and worcestershire sauce and served very hot over toast Whip---To beat rapidly to increase volume and incorporate air Wiener Schnitzel---A veal cutlet, breaded and fried Wild rice---The brown seed of a tall northern water grass, usually served with wild game Zest---A rind of lemon or orange

TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES AYALA BLVD, ERMITA MANILA

COLLEGE OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION HOME ECONOMICS

MARY ANN P. ARRietA BSIE-HE 2BB

PROF. BULIC

TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES AYALA BLVD, ERMITA MANILA

COLLEGE OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION HOME ECONOMICS

LANIE MABUAN

BSIE-HE 2BB PROF.BULIC TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES AYALA BLVD, ERMITA MANILA

COLLEGE OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION HOME ECONOMICS

ARNELYN JOY OBIEDIENTE BSIE-HE 2BB PROF.BULIC

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