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AEC

C227879

C. C. C. SKIKDA

Rev. 0; January 2003

Technical & Economical Bid. First Phase


Gas Turbine Description

Page i

INDEX
1

GENERAL

DESCRIPTION

1
2

INLET

AIR

&

EXHAUST

GAS

SYSTEM

2
2.1

Inlet

air

compartment

2
2.2

Exhaust

Gas

Section

2
3

COMPRESSOR

SECTION

3
4

COMBUSTION

CHAMBER

3
5

TURBINE

SECTION

4
6

GAS

TURBINE

ACCESSORIES

4
6.1

Gas

Fuel

System

4
6.2

Liquid

Fuel

System

5
6.3

Compressor

Water

Wash

Package

5
6.3.1

On-Line

and

Off-Line

Compressor

Water

Wash

5
6.3.2

OnLine

Manifold

and

Nozzles

Manifold

and

Nozzles

5
6.3.3

OffLine
5

AEC

C227879

C. C. C. SKIKDA

Rev. 0; January 2003

Technical & Economical Bid. First Phase


Gas Turbine Description
6.3.4

Water

Wash

Page ii
Skid

6
6.4

Water/steam

Injection

System

6
6.5

Package

Enclosures

7
7

COMBINED

ACCESSORIES

7
7.1

Lube

and

Seal

Oil

System

7
7.2

Hydraulic

Power

Unit

8
7.3

Electrical

System

8
7.4

Starting
8

System

AEC
C. C. C. SKIKDA

C227879
Rev. 0; January 2003

Technical & Economical Bid. First Phase


Gas Turbine Description

Page 1 of 8

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

In the proposed Single Shaft arrangement, the Gas Turbine rotor is connected to the Steam Turbine at the
compressor end, thus improving the alignment control and providing an axial exhaust optimal for combined cycle
applications.
The base mounted Gas Turbine consists of:
Generator;
Static Excitation;
Starting Package;
Electrical Package;
Inlet System;
Exhaust System;
Gas fuel System;
Liquid Fuel System;
Compressor Water Wash;
Modulating Inlet Gate Vanes;
Low NOx Combustion System;
Lube and Seal oil Package;
Hydraulic Fluid System;
Lagging and enclosures;
Compartment ventilation, heating and installation.

AEC
C. C. C. SKIKDA

C227879
Rev. 0; January 2003

Technical & Economical Bid. First Phase


Gas Turbine Description

Page 2 of 8

The gas turbine contains two radial bearings to support the turbine rotor and one dual direction thrust bearing to
maintain the rotor-to-stator axial position. The bearings are located in two housings so that removal of the turbine
casing is not required for bearing maintenance. All bearings are pressure lubricated by oil supplied from the main
lubrication oil system. Bearing protection includes vibration sensors and bearing metal/oil drain thermocouples.
The major components of the turbine are described below:

INLET AIR & EXHAUST GAS SYSTEM

2.1

Inlet air compartment

Air that is drawn into the Gas Turbine is filtered via inlet filters. This compartment uses high efficiency media
filters, with the pertinent accumulated dust control, thereby maintaining the inlet pressure drop bellow a preset upper
limit. This design provides single stage high efficiency filtration for prolonged periods without frequent
replacements. An appropriate filter medium will be provided based on the site specific environmental conditions.
Water spray and mist will be removed by using a moisture separator. The moisture separator imposes several
directional changes to the air flow. This directional changes will cause the water droplets to drop out of the air
stream and be drained from the separator.
This system is fully equipped with all the pertinent instrumentation for temperature indication and differential
pressure indication and alarm.
From the filter and moisture control compartment the inlet air duct directs ambient air into the compressor inlet air
manifold. This manifold is design to provide a smooth flow pattern into the axial flow compressor. Required sound
attenuation measures are provided to meet the noise levels.
2.2

Exhaust Gas Section

The exhaust system arrangement includes the bearing housing and the inner and outer cones of the exhaust diffuser.
All these parts are joint by a strut system that provides a low stress and rigid support for variations of load and
temperature.
After exiting the last turbine stage, the exhaust gases enter the exhaust diffuser section in which a portion of the
dynamic pressure is recovered as the gas expands thus improving the gas turbine performance. All the parts of the
exhaust system section, with the exception of the expansion joint, are fabricated from a high strength low alloy steel
material. The exhaust diffuser is connected to the exhaust transition by means of an expansion joint made of a high
temperature resistant material. Its primary function is to accommodate the axial growth of the unit due to thermal
expansion and to prevent any external load from being imposed upon the exhaust manifold.

AEC
C. C. C. SKIKDA

C227879
Rev. 0; January 2003

Technical & Economical Bid. First Phase


Gas Turbine Description
3

Page 3 of 8

COMPRESSOR SECTION

The air inlet system and associated duct work, deliver air to the compressor. The compressor is axial flow designed.
The rear stages of the compressor have larger diameters to help balance thrust. Inter-stage bleeds for surge control at
starting and cooling compressor is equipped with a Variable Guided Vanes system to improve the compressor low
speed surge characteristics as well as part load performance. Reduced IGV angles can cause a higher pressure drop
an a resultant temperature depression of the air flow. In case the ambient conditions could lead to ice formation, an
air recirculation system from the compressor discharge to the inlet system will be implemented. When inlet bleed
heating systems are required, the inlet bleed heat is also used for compressor pressure ratio operating limit control.
Inter-stage air extraction is used as well for sealing air for turbine nozzles, wheelspaces, and bearings.
Compressor blades are made from corrosion resistant material.
The casing is composed of the different casings which in conjunction with the compressor stationary blading, form
the compressor stator. The casing bore is maintained to close tolerances with respect to the rotor blade tips for
maximum aerodynamic efficiency. Borescope ports are provided at various locations for limited component
inspection. In addition casings are horizontally split for ease of handling and maintenance.

COMBUSTION CHAMBER

The combustion system uses a multi-chamber design in which combustion chambers are arranged around the
periphery of the compressor discharge casing. Combustion chambers are connected to adjacent chambers by
crossfire tubes. This system also includes the fuel nozzles, spark plug ignition system, flame detectors, and crossfire
tubes fixed between the different combustion chamber envelops. Hot gases, generated from burning fuel in the
combustion chambers, are used to drive the turbine. Each combustion liner, fuel nozzle, and transition piece may be
individually replaced if needed for maintenance.
These major components of the combustion system are:
Dual Low NOx Combustors designed to minimize emissions;
Combustion liners, with thermal barrier coatings for longer inspection intervals;
Transition pieces for direction of hot gases;
Spark Plugs;
Crossfire tubes enabling flame from the fired chambers to propagate to the unfired chambers;

AEC
C. C. C. SKIKDA

C227879
Rev. 0; January 2003

Technical & Economical Bid. First Phase


Gas Turbine Description

Page 4 of 8

Flame detectors for continuously monitoring for presence or absence of flame.


High-pressure air from the compressor discharge is directed around the transition pieces and into the annular spaces
that surround each chamber liners. This air enters the combustion liners through small holes and slots that cool the
liner, and through other holes that control the combustion process. Fuel is supplied to each combustion chamber
through a nozzle designed to disperse and mix the fuel with the proper amount of combustion air within the liner.
The combustion system is of the Low NOx type with water injection for liquid fuel burning.
Low NOx combustors are conceived for natural gas. In the normal mode of operation, the natural gas is premixed
with air before entering the combustion zone. In the premix mode, the combustion occurs at a much lower
temperature generating consequently less NOx.
As premix operation is only suitable for fuel gas, water injection permits to obtain an acceptable NOx level when
GT used liquid fuel as secondary fuel.

TURBINE SECTION

The energy from hot pressurized gas produced by the compressor and combustion section is converted to
mechanical energy in the turbine section,. The turbine section is comprised of the combustion wrapper, turbine rotor,
turbine shell, exhaust frame, exhaust diffuser, nozzles and diaphragms, stationary shrouds, and aft bearing assembly.
The turbine rotor is cooled by air extracted from last compressor stages. This air is also used to cool the turbine first
stages buckets plus the rotor wheels and spacers.
The turbine section commands stages of nozzles (stationary blades) with air cooling provided to the stages for
prevention from overheating. The first stages nozzles are cooled by a combination of film cooling (gas path surface),
impingement cooling, and convection cooling in the vane and sidewall regions. The last stage uses convection
cooling only.
Borescope ports are provided at various locations for component inspection

GAS TURBINE ACCESSORIES

6.1

Gas Fuel System

The gas fuel system modulates the gas fuel flow to the turbine. The principal components of the gas fuel system
include the gas throttle, overspeed trip, pressure regulating and vent valves, gas isolation valve, etc. A fuel gas
filter/separator is provided in a location immediately outside of the turbine enclosure.

AEC
C. C. C. SKIKDA

C227879
Rev. 0; January 2003

Technical & Economical Bid. First Phase


Gas Turbine Description
6.2

Page 5 of 8

Liquid Fuel System

The Liquid Fuel System contains the fuel pump, fuel filter, fuel oil pressure regulating valve, etc. Gauges are
provided for convenient local monitoring of the liquid fuel system critical parameters.
6.3

Compressor Water Wash Package

6.3.1

On-Line and Off-Line Compressor Water Wash

Compressor water wash is used to remove fouling deposits which accumulate on compressor blades and to restore
unit performance. Deposits such as dirt, oil mist, industrial or other atmospheric contaminants from the surrounding
site environment, reduce air flow, lower compressor efficiency, and lower compressor pressure ratio, which reduce
thermal efficiency and output of the unit. Compressor cleaning removes these deposits to restore performance and
slows the progress of corrosion in the process, thereby increasing blade wheel life.
Online cleaning is the process of injecting water into the compressor while running at full speed and some
percentage of load. Offline cleaning is the process of injecting cleaning solution into the compressor while it is
being turned at cranking speed. The advantage of online cleaning is that washing can be done without having to
shut down the machine. Online washing, however, is not as effective as offline washing; therefore online
washing is used to supplement offline washing, not replace it.
The onbase compressor washing features are described and illustrated below.
6.3.2

OnLine Manifold and Nozzles

The online washing components consist of two piping manifolds, spray nozzles (one in the forward bellmouth and
one in the aft bellmouth), and an on/off control valve which is also controlled by the turbine control panel. The
turbine control system is equipped with software to perform an automatic online wash by simply initiating the
wash from the turbine control panel.
6.3.3

OffLine Manifold and Nozzles

Off-line washing is a manual operation because of the large number of manual valves on the turbine which need to
be manipulated in order to perform an offline wash. During off-line washing, cleaning solution (water and/or
detergent) is injected into the compressor while it is being turned at crank speed. The cleaning solution is sprayed
into the compressor inlet, covering the entire circumference. This should continue until the runoff is free of
contaminants.

AEC
C. C. C. SKIKDA

C227879
Rev. 0; January 2003

Technical & Economical Bid. First Phase


Gas Turbine Description
6.3.4

Page 6 of 8

Water Wash Skid

The offbase water wash skid is used for injecting cleaning solution into the compressor for offline cleaning. The
skid contains a water pump, a detergent storage tank, etc.
In addition, the water wash skid is equipped with the following features:
Water storage tank with freeze protection if needed;
Immersion heaters to heat the water to 180F (82C);
Enclosure for outdoor installation.
6.4

Water/steam Injection System

The thermal NOx are generated in the "flame front" of the liner at the highest temperature zone.
The NOx generation is tightly linked to the temperature and any slight temperature drop involves a significant
decrease of the NOx without affecting the combustion efficiency.
The water injection is made to reduce the temperature in the primary zone when liquid fuel burning.
The injection rate (water/steam to liquid fuel ratio) is a function of the requested reduction of the NOx emission
level.
The water/steam injection affects the gas turbine performances as follows:
Increase in output;
Decrease of the efficiency (increase of the heat rate).
The water/steam injection device is associated to each fuel nozzle assembly.
The necessary water flow is introduced in the fuel nozzle assembly in order to reach a proper distribution of the
water into the highest temperature zones.
On the face of the combustion chamber cover, a connecting device is arranged to connect each nozzle to the water
manifold.

AEC
C. C. C. SKIKDA

C227879
Rev. 0; January 2003

Technical & Economical Bid. First Phase


Gas Turbine Description
6.5

Page 7 of 8

Package Enclosures

Gas Turbine enclosures consist of several connected sections forming an all weather protective housing which may
be structurally attached to each compartment base or mounted on an off-base foundation. Enclosures provide
thermal insulation, acoustical attenuation, and fire extinguishing media containment. For optimum performance of
installed equipment, compartments include the following as needed:
Ventilation;
Heating;
Cooling
In addition, enclosures are designed to allow access to equipment for routine inspections and maintenance.
The exteriors of all compartments and other equipment are painted with either epoxy or alkyd primer prior to
shipment. The exterior surfaces of the inlet compartment and inlet and exhaust duct are painted with inorganic zinc
primer.
Interiors of all compartments are painted, with the turbine compartment interior receiving high-temperature paint.
The interior and exterior of the inlet system are painted with zinc rich paint.
Ac/dc lights are provided in the turbine enclosure.

COMBINED ACCESSORIES

7.1

Lube and Seal Oil System

The lubrication system provides clean, filtered oil at the required temperature and pressure to all bearings, the
starting package and the generator seal oil system. The lubricating provisions for the gas turbine, steam turbine, and
generator are incorporated in a common lubrication system. The system is vented to atmosphere through a mist
eliminator and includes the main following equipment: Oil reservoir mounted within the lube oil module base with
full capacity AC motor driven and seal oil pumps, DC motor driven emergency bearing and seal oil pump, DC
motor driven emergency seal oil pump, Dual oil to water heat exchangers and filters, lube oil mist eliminator, etc.
The oil cooling function is performed by dual oil-to-water heat exchangers. Water is cooled by means of air-coolers
by using n+1 redundancy criteria, thus guarantying the service continuity in case of failure of one air-cooler module.
Fans will be completely protected and at least one fan per section will be AC motor driven.

AEC
C. C. C. SKIKDA

C227879
Rev. 0; January 2003

Technical & Economical Bid. First Phase


Gas Turbine Description
7.2

Page 8 of 8

Hydraulic Power Unit

The Hydraulic Power unit supplies fire resistant fluid to actuators for the gas turbine IGVs fuel gas and liquid fuel
control valves, steam turbine stop and control valves and the gas turbine steam cooling system valves.
The hydraulic fluid is stored in the fluid reservoir constructed entirely of stainless steel. Removable cover plates
allow access to the reservoir for cleaning. A fluid level sight glass is included on the reservoir to monitor normal
operating level.
A desiccant type air dryer on top of the reservoir removes moisture from air inside the reservoir as well as air
breathed by the reservoir due to fluid level changes. Air is drawn through a filter and circulates around and through
bags of silica gel in a perforated canister.
AC motor driven, variable displacement, axial piston pumps with pressure compensation provide the system
pressure. The pressure compensator maintains a preset pressure throughout the flow range. A relief valve on the
pump discharge protects the system by bypassing pump output back to the reservoir in the event an overpressure
situation occurs.
Ball type isolation valves in the suction lines allow pump maintenance without draining the reservoir.
An air bleed valve is used to vent air from pump suction and discharge lines during pump startup.
Hydraulic Unit commands a cooling circuit and the pertinent selective conditioning and filtration facilities.
The fluid cooling function is accomplished by utilizing an air-to-fluid heat exchanger with motor driven fan,
diverting valve, relief valve, and temperature control devices. The system operates as needed, not continuously.
7.3

Electrical System

See description in Electrical System of Generation


7.4

Starting System

See description in Electrical System of Generation