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Design of Clutch and Brakes

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2-1

TOPICS

2.1

INTRODUCTION

2.2

CLUTCHES

2.3

2.3.1. Uniform pressure theory

2.3.2. Uniform wear theory

2.3.3. Maximum torque transmitted by new clutch

2.3.4. Maximum torque transmitted by old clutch

2..3.5. Maximum torque transmitted by multi plate

clutch

2.4

CONICAL CLUTCH

2.5

CENTRIFUGAL CLUTCH

2.6

CLUTCHES

2.7

DISC BRAKES

2.8

DRUM BRAKES

2.8.1. Short shoe external drum brake

2.8.2. Long shoe external drum brakes

2.8.3. Double shoe external drum brakes

2.8.4. Long shoe internal drum brakes

2.9

BAND BRAKES

2.9.1 self-energizing band brake

2.10.

CONCLUSION

Chapter 2

Design of Clutch and Brakes

2-2

A clutch is a device that permits the smooth, gradual connection of two shafts

rotating at different speeds. A brake enables the controlled dissipation of energy

to slow down, stop or control the speed of a system. This chapter describes the

basic principles of frictional clutches and brakes and outlines design and

selection procedures for disc clutches, disc and drum brakes.

2.1. INTRODUCTION

When a rotating machine is started, it must be accelerated from rest to the

desired speed. A clutch is a device used to connect or disconnect a driven

component from a prime mover such as an engine or motor. A familiar

application is the use of a clutch between an engines crankshaft and the

gearbox in automotive applications. The need for the clutch arises from the

relatively high torque requirement to get a vehicle moving and the low torque

output from an internal combustion engine at low levels of rotational speed. The

disconnection of the engine from the drive enables the engine to speed up

unloaded to about 1000 rpm where it is generating sufficient torque to drive the

transmission.

The clutch can then be engaged, allowing power to be transmitted to the

gearbox, transmission shafts and wheels. A brake is a device used to reduce or

control the speed of a system or bring it to rest. Typical applications of a clutch

and brake are illustrated in Figure 10.1. Clutches and brakes are similar devices

providing frictional, magnetic or mechanical connection between two

components. If one component rotates and the other is fixed to a non-rotating

plane of reference the device will function as a brake and if both rotate then as

a clutch.

Whenever the speed or direction of motion of a body is changed there is

force exerted on the body. If the body is rotating, a torque must be applied to

the system to speed it up or slow it down. If the speed changes, so does the

energy, either by addition or absorption.

2-3

=

(2.1)

Where T is the torque (N m); and I is the mass moment of inertia (kgm 2).

The mass moment of inertia can often be summing the individual values for the

disc and cylinder mass moments of inertia.

Torque is equal to the ratio of power and angular velocity. In other words,

torque is inversely proportional to angular velocity. This implies that it is usually

advisable to locate the clutch or brake on the highest speed shaft in the system

so that the required torque is a minimum. Size, cost and response time are

lower when the torque is lower.

The disadvantage is that the speed differential between the components can

result in increased slipping and associated frictional heating potentially causing

overheating Examples.

Friction type clutches and brakes are the most common. Two or more surfaces

are pushed together with a normal force to generate a friction torque (see

Figure 2.2). Normally, at least one of the surfaces is metal and the other a high

friction material referred to as the lining. The frictional contact can occur

radially, as for a cylindrical arrangement, or axially as in a disc arrangement.

The function of a frictional clutch or brake surface material is to develop a

substantial friction force when a normal force is applied. Ideally a material with

a high coefficient of friction, constant properties, good resistance to wear and

chemical compatibility is required. Clutches and brakes transfer or dissipate

significant quantities of energy and their design must enable the absorption and

transfer of this heat without damage to the component parts of the

surroundings.

With the exception of high volume automotive clutches and brakes, engineers

rarely need to design a clutch or a brake from scratch. Clutch and brake

2-4

assemblies can be purchased from specialist suppliers and the engineers task is

to specify the torque and speed requirements, the loading characteristics and

the system inertias and to select an appropriately sized clutch or brake and the

lining materials.

2.2. CLUTCHES

The function of a clutch is to permit the connection and disconnection of two

shafts, either when both are stationary or when there is a difference in the

relative rotational speeds of the shafts. Clutch connection can be achieved by a

number of techniques from direct mechanical friction, electromagnetic coupling,

hydraulic or pneumatic means or by some combination. There are various types

of clutches as outlined in Figure 2.3.

SQUARE JAW

SPIRAL JAW

TOOTHED

DISC

MECHANICAL

FRICTION

DRUM

CONE

ROLLER

OVER RUNNING

SPRANG

SPRING WOUND

MAGNETIC PARTICLES

HYSTERESIS

ELECTRICAL

MAGNETIC

EDDY CUURENT

PNEUMATIC

AND

DRY FLUID

FLUID COUPLING

HYDRAULIC

HYDRAULIC

Figure 2.2. Clutch classification

The devices considered here are of the friction type. Clutches must be designed

principally to satisfy four requirements:

1. The necessary actuation force should not be excessive.

2. The coefficient of friction should be constant.

3. The energy converted to heat must be dissipated.

4. Wear must be limited to provide reasonable clutch life.

Alternatively the objective in clutch design can be stated as maximization of a

maintainable friction coefficient and minimization of wear. Correct clutch design

and selection are critical because a clutch that is too small for an application will

slip and overheat and a clutch that is too large will have a high inertia and may

overload the drive.

POSITIVE CONTACT

2-5

interference between mating components. Figure 2.4 shows a square jaw and

Figure 2.5 shows a multiple serration positive contact clutch. This principle can

be combined with frictional surfaces as in an automotive synchromesh clutch.

As helical gears cannot be shifted in and out of mesh easily, the pragmatic

approach is to keep the gears engaged in mesh and allow the gear to rotate

freely on the shaft when no power is required but provide positive location of

the gear on the shaft when necessary.

Friction clutches consist of two surfaces, or two sets of surfaces, which can be

forced into frictional contact. A frictional clutch allows gradual engagement

between two shafts. The frictional surfaces can be forced together by springs,

hydraulic pistons or magnetically. Various forms exist such as disc, cone and

radial clutches. The design of the primary geometry for disc clutches is

described in Section 2.2.1.

Centrifugal clutches engage automatically when the shaft speed exceeds

some critical value. Friction elements are forced radially outwards and engage

against the inner radius of a mating cylindrical drum (Figure 2.10). Common

applications of centrifugal clutches include chainsaws, overload releases and gokarts.

a) Jaw Clutch

b) Friction clutch

Fig.2.3. Types of clutches

The selection of clutch type and configuration depends on the application.

Table 2.1 can be used as the first step in determining the type of clutch to be

used.

Table 2.1. Clutch selection criteria

Type of

clutch

Cone

clutch

Characteristics

Typical applications

the wedge which reduces the axial drives for machine tools

force required to transmit a given

2-6

torque

Single disc Used when diameter is not restricted.

Simple construction

The power transmitted can be

Multiple

increased by using more plates

disc

allowing a reduction in diameter

Centrifuga Automatic engagement at a critical

l

speed

Automobile drives

Machine tool head stocks,

Motorcycles

Electric

motor

drives.

Industrial diesel drives

Clutches are rarely designed from scratch. Either an existing design is available

and is being modified for a new application or a clutch can be bought in from a

specialist manufacturer. In the latter case the type, size and the materials for

the clutch lining must be specified. This requires determination of the system

characteristics such as speed, torque, loading characteristic (e.g. shock loads)

and operating temperatures. Many of these factors have been lumped into a

multiplier called a service factor. A lining material is typically tested under

steady conditions using an electric motor drive. The torque capacity obtained

from this test is then de rated by the service factor according to the particular

application to take account of vibrations and loading conditions. Table 2.2 gives

an indication of the typical values for service factors.

Table 2.2 Service factors

Description of

general

system

Steady power

source,

steady load,

no shock or

overload

Steady power

source with

some

irregularity of

load up to 1.5

times nominal

power

Small

electric

motors,

turbine

Types of driver

IC engines

( 4 to 6

IC

cylinders )

Engines

Medium to

(2 or 3

large

cylinder

electric

s)

motors

Single

cylinde

r

engine

generators, centrifugal

pumps, fans, machine

tools

1.5

1.7

1.9

2.2

wood, metal and

textiles, conveyor belts

Large conveyor belts,

large machines,

reciprocating pumps

1.8

2.0

2.4

2.7

2.0

2.2

2.4

2.7

Frequent

start-stops

over loads

cycling, high

inertia starts,

high power

pulsating

power source

2-7

pumps, cranes, hoists

Stone crushers, roll

mills, heavy mixers,

single cylinder

compressors

2.5

2.7

2.9

3.2

3.0

3.2

3.4

3.7

Disc clutches can consist of single or multiple discs as illustrated in

Figures 2.11, 2.12 and 2.13.Generally multiple disc clutches enable greater

torque capacity but are harder to cool. Frictional clutches can be run dry or wet

using oil. Typical coefficients of friction are 0.07 for a wet clutch and 0.45 for a

dry clutch. While running a clutch wet in oil reduces the coefficient of friction it

enhances heat transfer and the potential for cooling of the components. The

expedient solution to the reduction of the friction coefficient is to use more discs

and hence the use of multiple disc clutches.

b) Engaged position

Fig.2.7. Single plate clutch (both sides effective)

2-8

Two basic assumptions are used in the development of procedures for disc

clutch design based upon a uniform rate of wear at the mating surfaces or a

uniform pressure distribution between the mating surfaces. The equations for

both of these methods are outlined in this section.

2.3.1. UNIFORM PRESSURE THEORY

The assumption of a uniform pressure distribution at the interface between

mating surfaces is valid for an unworn accurately manufactured clutch with rigid

outer discs.

The face of a disc which has a contact surface beginning from inner radius (ri)

and extending to outer radius (ro) is shown in Fig.2.8.

In a newly assembled clutches, intensity of pressure acting on the plate may be

assumed uniform over the entire surface because of the perfect fit between the

two surfaces (since the machine components are manufactured to exact

tolerance).

i.e.

Uniform pressure, p = constant

(2.2)

2-9

2.3.2. UNIFORM WEAR THEORY

In old clutches or worn out clutches, uniform pressure theory is not valid

because the friction surfaces tend to wear by material removal. In order that the

surface maintains contact all over area, the wear must be uniform over the

entire area of contact. The wear rate is proportional to frictional work that is

proportional to the product of normal pressure and velocity of rubbing. However,

the rubbing velocity is the product of radius and angular velocity (); and

angular velocity of shafts and discs is constant, for uniform wear:

Uniform wear rate, pr = constant

(2.3)

2.3.3. MAXIMUM TORQUE TRANSMITTED BY NEW CLUTCH

The following notations are used in the derivation

ro = Outer diameter of friction disc (mm)

ri = Inner diameter of friction disc (mm)

2-10

N/mm2

W = (Axial force) Axial thrust (normal force between friction faces of discs)

applied by toggle mechanism (by springs).

T = torque transmitted by friction (N-m)

Consider elemental annular ring on disc clutch

Consider an elementary ring of thickness dr at radius r from the center. The

axial thrust W provided by the springs produces a pressure p at radius r on the

contact surfaces. Relative rotation of these surfaces sets up tangential friction

forces dF distributed over the elemental area as shown in Fig.2.2.

From the symmetry of the element about the center, differential area of the

elemental ring,

dA = 2rdr

Differential normal force on the element perpendicular to the plane of disc,

dW = pdA = p (2rdr)

Differential frictional force distributed over the entire differential element,

dF = dW

Frictional torque on the ring element, dT = dF r = dW r = 2pr2dr

Consider total face of the clutch disc

The normal force acting on the entire face W = dW =p (2rdr) = 2prdr = p

(r r)

So uniform pressure intensity, p =

Frictional torque produced on the annular surface, T =dT = 2 pr2dr

= 2prdr = 2pr2dr = 2p = 2 = W

This equation represents the torque capacity of a clutch with a single frictional

interface. In practice clutches use an even number of frictional surfaces. For a

clutch with N faces the torque capacity is given by:

T = NW

This friction force will be acting tangential to the circle of radius rm which can

be called the friction mean radius.

2.3.4. MAXIMUM TORQUE TRANSMITTED BY OLD CLUTCH

For uniform wear, uniform wear rate, pr = Constant

For a constant angular velocity the maximum pressure will occur at the smallest

radius.

pmax ri = Constant

Eliminating the angular velocity and constant from the above two equations

gives a relationship for the pressure as a function of the radius:

p = pmax

2-11

The value for the maximum permissible pressure is dependent on the clutch

lining material

From the symmetry of the element about the center, area of the elemental ring,

dA = 2rdr

Axial force or normal reaction on the element perpendicular to the plane of disc,

dW = pdA = p 2rdr = pmax 2rdr = pmax 2 ri dr

Frictional force distributed over the entire differential element,

dF = dW = (pmax 2 ri dr) = 2pmax ri dr

Frictional torque on the differential element,

dT = dF r = dW r = 2pmax ri rdr

Mean friction radius according to Uniform wear theory

The actuating force or axial thrust that needs to be supplied by the spring to

transmit the torque,

W = pmax (2 ri dr) = 2pmaxri dr = 2pmaxri (ro ri)

So maximum pressure intensity, pmax =

Frictional torque on the entire surface, T = 2pmax ri rdr = 2pmax ri rdr

= 2 rdr = rdr = W

Note that the above equation indicates a lower torque capacity than the uniform

pressure assumption. This is because the higher initial wear at the outer

diameter shifts the centre of pressure towards the inner radius.

Clutches are usually designed based on uniform wear. The uniform wear

assumption gives a lower torque capacity clutch than the uniform pressure

assumption.

2.3.5. MAXIMUM TORQUE TRANSMITTED BY MULTI PLATE CLUTCH

A multi-plate system used for large transmission forces or limited-space

applications. Multiple clutches are more difficult to cool, so they are appropriate

for high load, low speed applications. The operation of multi-plate clutch is very

similar to the single plate clutch but there is an increase in the number of

contact surfaces, so increase in effective friction torque. The number of contact

surfaces are one less that the total numbers of plates in the clutch. Let n1 is

numbers of driving discs and n2 is numbers of driven discs. Therefore numbers

of friction surfaces, N = n1+ n2 1.

(2.7)

2-12

The maximum torque for any outer radius r o is found to occur when ri = 0.577 ro.

This useful formula can be used to set the inner radius if the outer radius is

constrained to a particular value.

The preliminary design procedure for disc clutch design requires the

determination of the torque and speed, specification of space limitations,

selection of materials. The procedure for determining the initial geometry is

itemized below.

1. Determine the service factor.

2. Determine the required torque capacity, T.

3. Determine the coefficient of friction.

4. Determine the outer radius ro.

5. Find the inner radius ri.

6. Find the axial actuation force required.

EXAMPLES

Example 2.1

A clutch is required for transmission of power between a four-cylinder internal

combustion engine and a small machine. Determine the radial dimensions for a

single face dry disc clutch with a moulded lining which should transmit 5 kW at

1800 rpm (Figure 2.15). Base the design on the uniform wear assumption.

Service factor = 2, coefficient of friction = 0.35, maximum pressure = 1.55

MN/m2.

Solution

Service factor is 2.

Power, P = 2 5 = 10 KW

Angular velocity, = = 188.5 rad/s

Torque, T = = = 53.05 Nm

Based on uniform wear assumption

T = W = 2pmax ri (ro ri)

= 0.35 2 1.55 106 0.577 ro (ro 0.577 ro)

53.05 = 656 103 ro3 outer radius, ro = 0.043 m

Inner radius, ri = 0.577 0.043 m = 0.025 m

The actuating force, W = 2pmaxri (ro ri) = 2 1.55 106 0.025 (0.043

0.025)

= 4382.522 N

So the clutch consists of a disc of inner and outer radius 25 mm and 43 mm

respectively, with a moulded lining having a coefficient of friction value of 0.35

2-13

force of 4.4 kN.

Example 2.2

A disc clutch, running in oil, is required for a vehicle with a four-cylinder engine.

The design power for initial estimation of the clutch specification is 90 kW at

4500 rpm. Determine the radial dimensions and actuating force required. Base

the design on the uniform wear assumption. Service factor = 2.7, coefficient of

friction = 0.35, maximum pressure = 1.55 MN/m2.

Solution

Service factor is 2.7.

Power, P = 2.7 90 = 243 KW

Angular velocity, = = 471.239 rad/s

Torque, T = = = 515.662 Nm

Based on uniform wear assumption

T = N W = N 2pmax ri (ro ri)

= 2 0.35 2 1.55 106 0.577 ro (ro 0.577 ro)

515.662 =1312 103 ro3 outer radius, ro =0.073 m

Inner radius, ri = 0.577 0.073 m = 0.042 m

The actuating force, W = N2pmaxri (ro ri) = 22 1.55 106 0.042 (0.073

0.042)

= 25360.2 N

So the clutch consists of a disc of inner and outer radius 42 mm and 73 mm,

respectively, with a a coefficient of friction value of 0.35 and a maximum

permissible contact pressure of 1.55 MPa and an actuating force of 25.36 kN.

Example 2.3

A multiple disc clutch, running in oil, is required for a motorcycle with a threecylinder engine. The power demand is 75 kW at 8500 rpm. The preliminary

design layout indicates that the maximum diameter of the clutch discs should

not exceed 100 mm. In addition, previous designs have indicated that a

moulded lining with a coefficient of friction of 0.068 in oil and a maximum

permissible pressure of 1.2 MPa is reliable. Within these specifications determine

the radii for the discs, the number of discs required and the clamping force.

Service factor = 3.4.

Solution

Service factor is 2.7.

Power, P = 3.4 75 = 255 KW

2-14

Torque, T = = = 286.48 Nm

Outer radius, ro = 0.05 m

Inner radius, ri = 0.577 0.05 m = 0.029 m

Numbers of friction surfaces can be determined from T = N 2pmax ri

286.48 = N 0.068 2 1.2 106 0.029 N = 23.23

This must be an even number, so the number of frictional surfaces is taken as N

=24. This requires 13 driving discs and 12 driven discs to implement.

The clamping force, W = 2pmaxri (ro ri) = 2 1.2 106 0.029 (0.05 0.029)

= 4591.752 N

2.4. CONICAL CLUTCH

A conical clutch transmits power from one shaft to another through the friction

forces on the conical surfaces. It is able to transmit a larger torque than disc

clutches with the same outside diameter and actuating force, because of

increase in frictional area and the wedge action that takes place. It is most

suitable for low speed applications such as synchromesh device of gearboxes.

In this clutch as shown in Fig.2.13, the cone with friction on the outer surface is

placed on driving shaft and the cup is placed on the driven shaft. The two

inclined surface are pressed against each other by a helical spring.

The clutch, in fact, is a frustum of cone bounded by inner radius ri and outer

radius ro as shown in Fig.2.14.

2-15

Outer Diameter, Do = Dm + b sin

Inner diameter, Di = Dm b sin

For calculating frictional torque or frictional radius in a cone clutch the same

assumptions as made in case of plate clutch are valid in respect of pressure. It

may be either a uniform pressure between the contact surfaces or a uniform

wear of contact surfaces.

Even though a cone clutch is compact in size and need a less strong spring to

maintain contact, compared to a plate clutch of same capacity, it is not much

preferable because of the Examples caused by effect of wear on cone surface.

Firstly a small amount of wear affects the perfect fit between the cone and the

cup and it requires a considerable axial movement. Secondly for smaller cone

angle (less than 100) the cup and cone lock together and becomes difficult to

draw out or disengage.

2.5. CENTRIFUGAL CLUTCH

Majority of small engines such as squirrel cage motor, lawn mowers, chainsaws,

go-karts uses centrifugal clutch.

It engages automatically when the shaft speed exceeds a certain

magnitude.Fig.2.9 depicts a spring controlled centrifugal clutch. It comprises

two or more friction shoes that, when the driving shaft on which they are

mounted has reached a certain speed, overcome the force of restraining springs

by the action of centrifugal force and move outwards to press against the inner

surface of the rim mounted on the driven shaft. In this way, the transmission of

power to the driven shaft is gradually and automatically increased, so that

smooth engagement is possible.

If W be the weight of the shoe and r be the radius of the center of gravity

from the axis of rotation and N be the speed of the driver in rpm, then

centrifugal force F is given by:

F = r2

If P be the spring force provided by restraining springs opposing the centrifugal

force, the radial force between shoe and pulley is:

F P = r2

2-16

If R be the internal radius of the pulley; n be the number of shoes; and the

coefficient of friction between the shoe and the drum, then the torque

transmitted:

The maximum torque transmitted, T = nR r2 P = A2 P .Where A is

constant for a given centrifugal clutch.

2.6. BRAKES

The basic function of a brake is to absorb kinetic energy and dissipate it in the

form of heat. An idea of the magnitude of energy that must be dissipated can be

obtained from considering the familiar example of a car undergoing an

emergency stop in 7 s from 60 mph (96 km/h). If the cars mass is 1400 kg and

assuming that 65 per cent of the cars weight is loaded on to the front axles

during rapid braking then the load on the front axle is

1400 9.81 0.65 = 8927 N

E = m(vi2 - vf 2)

This will be shared between two brakes so the energy that must be absorbed by

one brake is where m is mass (kg); Vi, initial velocity (m/s); Vf, final velocity

(m/s).

By substituting the values we have E = 161.8 kJ

If the car brakes uniformly in 7 s, then the heat that must be dissipated is

23.1kW. From your experience of heat transfer from say 1 kW domestic heaters

you will recognize that this is a significant quantity of heat to transfer away from

the relatively compact components that make up brake assemblies.

There are numerous brake types as shown in Figure 2.19. The selection and

configuration of a brake depends on the requirements. Table 2.4 gives an

indication of brake operation against various criteria. The brake factor listed in

2-17

Table 2.4 is the ratio of frictional braking force generated to the actuating force

applied.

Brakes can be designed so that, once engaged the actuating force applied is

assisted by the braking torque. This kind of brake is called a self-energizing

brake and is useful for braking large loads. Great care must be exercised in

brake design. It is possible and sometimes desirable to design a brake, which

once engaged, will grab and lock up (called self-locking action).

A critical aspect of all brakes is the material used for frictional contact. Normally

one component will comprise a steel or cast iron disc or drum and this is

brought into frictional contact against a geometrically similar component with a

brake lining made up of one of the materials listed in Table 2.3. Section 2.3.1

gives details about the configuration design of disc brakes and Section 2.3.2

introduces the design of drum brakes.

SHORT SHOE

DRUM

LONG SHOE

BAND

CALIPER

DISC

FULL DISC

MECHANICAL

FRICTION

DISC

ELECTRICAL

MAGNETIC

ELECTIRCAL ON

ELECTRICAL OFF

AUTOMATIC

PNEUMATIC

HYDRAULIC

AND

Figure 2.19 Brake classification

TYPE OF BRAKES

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS

Differential band brake

Winches, hoist, excavator, tractors

External drum brake (leading trailing Mills, elevators, winders

edge)

Internal drum brake (leading trailing Vehicles (rear axles on passenger cars)

edge)

Internal drum brake (two leading Vehicles (rear axles on passenger cars)

edges)

Internal drum brake (duo-servo)

Caliper disc brake

Full disc brake

2-18

Vehicles and industrial machinery

Machine tools and other industrial

machinery

Disc brakes are familiar from automotive applications where they are used

extensively for car and motorcycle wheels. These typically consist of a cast iron

disc, bolted to the wheel hub. This is sandwiched between two pads actuated by

pistons supported in a calliper mounted on the stub shaft.

When the brake pedal is pressed, hydraulically pressurized fluid is forced into

the cylinders pushing the opposing pistons and brake pads into frictional contact

with the disc. The advantages of this form of braking are steady braking, easy

ventilation, balancing thrust loads and design simplicity. There is no selfenergizing action so the braking action is proportional to the applied force. The

use of a discrete pad allows the disc to cool as it rotates, enabling heat transfer

between the cooler disc and the hot brake pad. As the pads either side of the

disc are pushed on to the disc with equal forces the net thrust load on the disc

cancels.

With reference to Figure 2.21, the torque capacity per pad is given by4

T = Fre where re is an effective radius

The actuating force assuming constant pressure is given by F = Pmax (ro- ri)

Or assuming uniform wear, F = Pmax ri (ro- ri)

Where (in radians) is the included angle of the pad, ri is the inner radius of the

pad and ro is the outer radius of the pad.

The relationship between the average and the maximum pressure for the

uniform wear assumption is given by

=

2-19

For an annular disc brake the effective radius is given by the following equations

re =

( assuming uniform pressure)

re =

(assuming uniform wear)

For circular pads the effective radius is given by re = r, where values for is a

function of the ratio of the pad radius and the radial location, R/r. The actuating

force for circular pads can be calculated using:

F = R2 Pav

Example 2.4

A caliper brake is required for the front wheels of a sports car with a braking

capacity of 820 N m for each brake. Preliminary design estimates have set the

brake geometry as ri = 100 mm, r0 =160 mm and = 45. A pad with a

coefficient of friction of 0.35 has been selected. Determine the required

actuating force and the average and maximum contact pressures.

Solution

The torque capacity per pad = 820/2 = 410 Nm

The effective radius (assuming uniform wear) is

re == = 0.13 m

The actuating force is given by

F = = = 9.011 kN

The maximum contact pressure is given by

Pmax = = = 1.912 MN/m2

The average pressure is given by

Pav = Pmax = 1.912 = 1.471 MN/m2

2.8. DRUM BRAKES

Drum brakes apply friction to the external or internal circumference of a

cylinder. A drum brake consists of the brake shoe, which has the friction

material bonded to it, and the brake drum. For braking, the shoe is forced

against the drum developing the friction torque. Drum brakes can be divided

into two groups depending on whether the brake shoe is external or internal to

the drum. A further classification can be made in terms of the length of the

brake shoe: short, long or complete band.

Short shoe internal brakes are used for centrifugal brakes that engage at a

particular critical speed. Long shoe internal drum brakes are used principally in

automotive applications. Drum brakes (or clutches) can be designed to be selfenergizing. Once engaged the friction force increases the normal force

nonlinearly, increasing the friction torque as in a positive feedback loop. This

can be advantageous in braking large loads, but makes control much more

difficult. One Example associated with some drum brakes is stability. If the brake

2-20

has been designed so that the braking torque is not sensitive to small changes

in the coefficient of friction, which would occur if the brake is worn or wet, then

the brake is said to be stable. If a small change in the coefficient of friction

causes a significant change to the braking torque the brake is unstable and will

tend to grab if the friction coefficient rises or the braking torque will drop

noticeably if the friction coefficient reduces.

2.8.1. SHORT SHOE EXTERNAL DRUM BRAKE

The schematic of a short shoe external drum brake is given in Figure 2.22. If the

included angle of contact between the brake shoe and the brake drum is less

than 45, the force between the shoe and the drum is relatively uniform and can

be modelled by a single concentrated load Fn at the centre of the contact area. If

the maximum permissible pressure is pmax the force Fn can be estimated by

Fn = Pmax rw

Where w is the width of the brake shoe (m); and is the angle of contact

between the brake shoe and the lining (rad).

The frictional force, Ff, is given by Ff = Fn

Where is the coefficient of friction.

The torque on the brake drum is T = Ffr = Fnr

Summing moments, for the shoe arm, about the pivot gives

Mpivot = aFa bFn + cFf = 0

Fa = = Fn

Note that for the configuration and direction of rotation shown in Figure 2.22,

the friction moment Fnc adds with the actuating moment, aFa. Once the

actuating force is applied the friction generated at the shoe acts to increase the

braking torque. This kind of braking action is called self-energizing.

2-21

If the brake direction is reversed the friction moment term Fnc becomes

negative and the applied load Fa must be maintained to generate braking

torque. This combination is called self-de-energizing. From Eq. 2.34, note that if

the brake is self-energizing and if c > b then the force required to actuate the

brake is zero or negative and the brake action is called self-locking. If the shoe

touches the drum it will grab and lock. This is usually undesirable with

exceptions being hoist stops or over-running clutch type applications.

2.8.2. LONG SHOE EXTERNAL DRUM BRAKES

If the included angle of contact between the brake shoe and the drum is greater

than 45 then the pressure between the shoe and the brake lining cannot be

regarded as uniform and the approximations made for the short shoe brake

analysis are inadequate. Most drum brakes use contact angles greater than 90.

Brake shoes are not rigid and the local deflection of the shoe affects the

pressure distribution. Detailed shoe analysis is possible using finite element

software. For initial synthesis/specification of brake geometry, a simpler analysis

suffices.

The following equations can be used (with reference to Figure 2.23), to

determine the performance of a long shoe brake.

The braking torque is given by

T = wr2(cos 1 cos 2)

Where is the coefficient of friction; w, width of the brake shoe (m); r, radius of

drum (m);

Pmax, maximum allowable pressure for the lining material (N/m 2); angular

location (rad); (sin )max, maximum value of sin; 1, centre angle from the shoe

2-22

pivot to the heel of the lining (rad); and 2, centre angle from the shoe pivot to

the toe of the lining (rad).

This is based on the assumption that the local pressure P at an angular location

is related to the maximum pressure by

P=

The local pressure P will be a maximum when = 90. If 2 < 90 then the

pressure will be a maximum at the toe. The relationship given in Eq. 2.38

assumes that there is no deflection at the shoe or the drum, no wear on the

drum and that the shoe wear is proportional to the frictional work and hence the

local pressure.

Note that if = 0 the pressure is zero. This indicates that frictional material near

the pivot or heel of the brake does not contribute significantly to the braking

action. For this reason, common practice is to leave out the frictional material

near the heal and start it at an angle typically between 1=10 and 1=30.

With the direction of rotation shown in Figure 2.23 (i.e. the brake is selfenergizing), the magnitude of the actuation force is given by

Fa =

Where Mn is the moment of the normal forces (Nm); Mf, the moment due to the

frictional forces (Nm); and a, the orthogonal distance between the brake pivot

and the line of action of the applied force (m).

The normal and frictional moments can be determined using Eqs 2.40 and 2.41,

respectively. If the geometry and materials are selected such that Mf = Mn, then

the actuation force becomes zero. Such a brake would be self-locking. The

slightest contact between the shoe and drum would bring the two surfaces into

contact and the brake would snatch giving rapid braking. Alternatively values for

the brake geometry and materials can be selected to give different levels of selfenergization depending on the relative magnitudes of Mn and Mf.

Mn = (2 1) (sin 22 sin 21)

Mf = r (cos 1 cos 2) + (cos 22 cos 21)

If the direction of rotation for the drum shown in Figure 2.22 is reversed, the

brake becomes self-de-energizing and the actuation force is given by

Fa =

Example 2.5.

Design a long shoe drum brake to produce a friction torque of 75 Nm to stop a

drum rotating at 140 rpm. Initial design calculations have indicated that a shoe

lining with = 0.25 and using a value of pmax = 0.5 106 N/m2 in the design will

give suitable life. Assume the trial values for the brake geometry, say r = 0.1 m,

b = 0.2 m, a = 0.3 m, 1 = 30, 2 = 150. Using Eq. 2.37 and solving for the

width of the shoe.

2-23

The moment of the normal force with respect to the shoe pivot

Mn = (150 30) (sin 300 sin 60) = 512.8 Nm

Mf = 0.1 (cos 30 cos 150) + (cos 300 cos 60)

= 75.77 Nm

Fa = = = 1456.8 N

2.8.3. DOUBLE SHOE EXTERNAL DRUM BRAKES

For a single block brake (see Figure 2.23) the force exerted on the drum by the

brake shoe must be supported by the bearings. To balance this load and provide

a compact braking arrangement two opposing brake shoes are usually used in a

caliper arrangement as shown in Figure 2.24. The following equations can be

used (with

For the double long shoe external drum brake illustrated in Figure 2.24, the lefthand shoe is self-energizing and the frictional moment reduces the actuation

load. The right-hand shoe, however, is self-de-energizing and its frictional

moment acts to reduce the maximum pressure which occurs on the right-hand

brake shoe. The normal and frictional moments for a self-energizing and self-deenergizing brake are related by:

Mn =

Mf =

Where Mn is the moment of the normal forces for the self-de-energizing brake

(Nm); Mf is the moment due to the frictional forces for the self-de-energizing

brake (Nm); and pmax, the maximum pressure on the self-de-energizing brake

(N/m2).

2.8.4. LONG SHOE INTERNAL DRUM BRAKES

Most drum brakes use internal shoes that expand against the inner radius of the

drum. Long shoe internal drum brakes are principally used in automotive

2-24

and linings supported on a back plate bolted to the axle casing. The shoes are

pivoted at one end on anchor pins or abutments fixed on to the back plate (see

Figure 2.28). The brake can be actuated by a double hydraulic piston expander,

which forces the free ends of the brake apart so that the non-rotating shoes

come into frictional contact with the rotating brake drum. A leading and trailing

shoe layout consists of a pair of shoes pivoted at a common anchor point as

shown in Figure 2.28.The leading shoe is identified as the shoe whose expander

piston moves in the direction of rotation of the drum.

The frictional drag between the shoe and the drum will tend to assist the

expander piston in forcing the shoe against the drum and this action is referred

to as self-energizing or the self-servo action of the shoe. The trailing shoe is the

one whose expander piston moves in the direction opposite to the rotation of

the drum. The frictional force opposes the expander and hence a trailing brake

shoe provides less braking torque than an equivalent leading shoe actuated by

the same force. The equations developed for external long shoe drum brakes

are also valid for internal long shoe drum brakes.

Example 2.6

Determine the actuating force and the braking capacity for the double internal

long shoe brake illustrated in Figure 2.29.The lining is sintered metal with a

coefficient of friction of 0.32 and the maximum lining pressure is 1.2MPa. The

drum radius is 68 mm and the shoe width is 25mm.

2-25

Solution

B=

0.0152+ 0.0552

= 0.05701 m

As the brake lining angles relative to the pivot, brake axis line, are not explicitly

shown on the diagram, they must be calculated. 1 = 4.745, 2 = 124.7.

As 2 > 900, the maximum value of sin is sin 90 = 1 = (sin )max

For this brake with the direction of rotation as shown, the right-hand shoe is selfenergizing. For the right-hand shoe:

The moment of the normal force with respect to the shoe pivot

Mn = (124.7 4.745) (sin 249.4 sin 9.49)

= 153.8 Nm

Mf = 0.068 (cos 4.745 cos 124.7) + (cos 249.4 cos 9.49) = 57.1 Nm

a = 0.055 + 0.048 = 0.103 m

The actuating force, Fa = = = 938.9 N

The torque applied by the right-hand shoe is given by

Tright shoe = wr2(cos 1 cos 2)

= 0.320.0250.0682(cos 4.745 cos 124.7) = 69.54 Nm

The torque applied by the left-hand shoe cannot be determined until the

maximum operating pressure pmax for the left-hand shoe has been calculated.

As the left-hand shoe is self-de-energizing the normal and frictional moments

can be determined using Eqs 2.47 and 2.48.

Mn = =

Mf = =

The left-hand shoe is self-de-energizing. So, Fa = = 938.9 N

938.9 = Pmax = 0.5502 106 N/m2

2-26

= 0.320.0250.0682(cos 4.745 cos 124.7) = 31.89 Nm

The total torque applied by both shoes is:

T = Trigth shoe + Tleft shoe = 69.54 + 31.89 = 101.4 Nm

From this example, the advantage in torque capacity of using self-energizing

brakes is apparent.

Both the left-hand and the right-hand shoes could be made self-energizing by

inverting the left-hand shoe, having the pivot at the top. This would be

advantageous if rotation occurred in just one direction. If, however, drum

rotation is possible in either direction, it may be more suitable to have one

brake self-energizing for forward motion and one self-energizing for reverse

motion.

2.9. BAND BRAKES

One of the simplest types of braking device is the band brake. This consists of a

flexible metal band lined with a frictional material wrapped partly around a

drum. The brake is actuated by pulling the band against the drum as illustrated

in Figure 2.30. For the clockwise rotation shown in Figure 2.30, the friction forces

increase F1 relative to F2.The relationship between the tight and slack sides of

the band is given by

= e

where F1 is the tension in the tight side of the band (N); F2, tension in the slack

side of the band, is coefficient of friction; and , is angle of wrap (rad).

The point of maximum contact pressure for the friction material occurs at the

tight end and is given by:

pmax =

Where w is the width of the band (m).

The torque braking capacity is given by T = (F1 F2) r

The relationship, for the simple band brake shown in Figure 2.30, between the

applied lever force Fa and F2 can be found by taking moments about the pivot

point.

(Fac F2a) = 0 Fa = F2

2-27

Example 2.7: Design a band brake to exert a braking torque of 85 Nm. Assume

the coefficient of friction for the lining material is 0.25 and the maximum

permissible pressure is 0.345 MPa. Take radius of drum as 90 mm, angle of wrap

as 225 and width of band as 50 mm. Assume a = 0.08 m and c = 0.15 m.

Solution

F1 = pmaxrw = 0.345 106 0.09 0.05 = 1552.5 N

F2 = = = 581.65 N

The torque braking capacity is given by T = (1552.5 581.65) 0.09 = 87.38

Nm

The actuating force is given by Fa = F2 = 581.65 =32.2 N

2.9.1. SELF-ENERGIZING BAND BRAKE

The brake configuration shown in Figure 2.30 is self-energizing for clockwise

rotation. The level of self-energization can be enhanced by using the differential

band brake configuration shown in Figure 2.31. Summation of the moments

about the pivot gives:

Fac F2a + F1b = 0

So the relationship between the applied load F a and the band brake tensions is

given by:

Fa =

Note that the value of b must be less than a, so that applying the lever tightens

F2 more than it loosens F1. Substituting for F1 in Eq. 2.54 gives

Fa =

The brake can be made self-locking if a < be and the slightest touch on the

lever would cause the brake to grab or lock abruptly. This principle can be used

to permit rotation in one direction only as in hoist and conveyor applications.

2-28

Practical braking systems comprise an energy supplying device, a control

device, a transmission device for controlling the braking force and the brakes

themselves. For example, in the case of a braking system for passenger cars the

braking system could control the brake pedal, a vacuum booster, master

hydraulic fluid cylinder, brake fluid reservoir, a device to warn the driver of a

brake circuit failure, a sensor to warn of low brake fluid level, valves, hydraulic

cylinders, springs, pads and discs. For heavy vehicles, say two to three tonnes

and over, the force required for braking can become greater than a person can

exert. In such cases some assistance needs to be given to the driver. This can

be achieved by using a servo mechanism that adds to the drivers effort, for

example a vacuum-assisted brake servo unit, or by using power operation in

which case the drivers effort is simply for control purposes and is not

transmitted directly to the brakes.

The performance of braking systems in, say, and automotive applications has

been significantly enhanced over the purely mechanical variants described so

far by the use of sensors, actuators and sophisticated control systems. An

example is antilock braking systems (ABS), which are closed loop control

devices within the braking system.

The objective of ABS is to prevent wheel lock-up during braking and as a result

retain greater steering control and vehicle stability. The principal components of

an ABS system are a hydraulic modulator, wheel-based sensors and the engine

control unit (ECU).

2.2. CONCLUSION

Clutches are designed to permit the smooth, gradual engagement or

disengagement of a prime mover from a driven load. Brakes are designed to

decelerate a system. Clutches and brakes are similar devices providing

frictional, magnetic or direct positive connection between two components. In

2-29

component rotates and the other is fixed to a non-rotating plane of reference

the device will function as a brake and if both rotate then as a clutch.

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