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First of all the Salem Witch Trials was way before any of this.

Those trials in America were influenced by


the European witch hunts in the early modern period, a widespread moral panic suggesting that
malevolent Satanic witches were operating as an organized threat to Christendom during the 15th to
18th centuries. Many people were subsequently accused of being witches, and were put on trial for the
crime, with varying punishments being applicable in different regions and at different times. While early
trials fall still within the Late Medieval period, the peak of the witch hunt was during the period of the
European wars of religion, peaking between about 1580 and 1630. The witch hunts declined in the early
18th century. In Great Britain, their end is marked by the Witchcraft Act of 1735. TENS of THOUSANDS
were executed for this irrational fear. The Salem Witch Trials themselves were a series of hearings and
prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between 1692 &1693. The trials
resulted in the executions of TWENTY people, most of them women, and all but one by hanging. You
can see from the time that this was influenced by the European witch hunts and corresponds with
settlements in America by the Europeans.
Bourgeosie phase I did not use in class, but I'm going to assume the most reasonable definition. (Before
this, there were multiple attempts by Louis XV and XVI but they all failed. ex: calling of Assembly of
Notables...) It was the early phase of the Revolution (began 1789), the least radical phase (relative, of
course), when the Third Estate (comprised of the ever powerful bourgeosie middle class and the
commoners and working class) defied Louis the XVI to become the National Assembly (a climax of many
causes, such as hunger, heavy taxation, debt, stupid nobles and clergy who like to keep their money to
themselves, and a bad winter and harvest, which may be affected by the Little Ice Age, but don't quote
me). He locked them out of their meeting room, but obviously they could just meet somewhere else.
So in a tennis court nearby they (the Third Estate and some allies from the other estates) pledged the
Tennis Court Oath to change the government and write a new constitution (one month later, they wrote
the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. Like the Declaration of Independence, but it was more
welcoming in terms of who the rights were given too). Worried, Louis XVI gathered troops at Versailles.
Angry, the populace stormed the Bastille on the pretext of liberating the prisoners (6 in total lol), but it
was mainly to get GUNS. Armed, they killed the one in charge of the Bastille and paraded his head on a
pike. Simultaneous PEASANT UPRISINGS caused the National Assembly to end traditional obligations
essentially ENDING THE FEUDAL SYSTEM AS THEY KNEW IT.
Meanwhile, the economy worsens in Paris. Angered by rumors of Marie Antoinette hording grain, the
WOMEN OF PARIS march to Versailles, forcing the royal family to RELOCATE TO PARIS. The National
Assembly becomes the Legislative Assembly, which would restructure French society by limiting
monarchial power, abolishing the nobility, and seizing Church lands. Thus, many Catholics joined the
COUNTER REVOLUTION against the French Revolution. Around this time, nations around France,
namely Austria and Prussia (long history with France) saw France in danger of the ancien regime
collapsing. Intervention by Austria, Prussia, and other monarchies (by 1791 Austria and Prussia
threatened to intervene in support of the monarchy and the Legislative Assembly DECLARED WAR
AGAINST THEM. After a bad start, people across France responded patriotically to foreign invasions and
gave national support, leading to a long period of war and fighting both inside and outside France. As an
understatement, it was a tumultuous time.
The transition to the Reign of Terror (not sure about the Great Fear, but I'd guess it's between these)
Louis XVI fails to escape from Paris, and is imprisoned by the Legislative Assembly. The National
Convention is created by his death in 1798 by the GUILLOTINE, a hallmark of the REIGN OF TERROR.

The National Convention had convicted him of treason, sentenced him to death, and proclaimed France
a REPUBLIC. This status would change frequently over time.
In the TERROR, the NATIONAL CONVENTION is led by the radical group of JACOBINS, the most
radical middle-class democrats. Divided into two groups, the GIRONDISTS and the MOUNTAIN, the
Mountain was undoubtedly the more radical of the group, and much more prone to violence. At the peak
of the Mountain was Robespierre, a former lawyer. Robespierre and his allies unleashed a period of
repression, and he formed the rather ironic COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY, who basically executed
thousands of innocent people, leading to inhumane prisons and deaths. They'd created special courts to
seek out and punish the "enemies of the Revolution". In general, this period was marked by EXTREME
RADICALITY AND VIOLENCE, "terror", restriction of women's rights (despite their early efforts in the
Revolution in the Bourgeosie phase), etc.
By 1794, the Revolution had no domestic or foreign enemies (outside wars). But when Robespierres
allies were executed and repressed, their loyalty to him vanished and he was executed. The
CONSERVATIVES of the National Convention took over. They undid many radical reforms and
decreased the violence and power of the working class. They also created the DIRECTORY, the
executive authority created by the National Convention after Robespierre was executed. Important things
about it include that despite the fact that it lost the election of 1797, it refused to give up power,
effectively ENDING THE REPUBLICAN PHASE of the Revolution. Political authority now depended on
COERCIVE FORCE rather than elections. This set up the stage for the rise of Napoleon - perfect, as he
was a brilliant, young French general with the invasion of Egypt to his name.
Napoleon seized power of France in 1799. He takes over and makes many reforms, such as the
NAPOLEONIC CODES. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and
specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified (good things). Despite his reforms,
however, the Napoleon system limited free speech and prohibited criticism of government. Also restricted
many individual rights. Continued the oppression of womens rights from the Terror.. His military prowess
shows promise to a TIRED, AND WAR-STRICKEN France. He is filled with ambition and wanted to
dominate Europe, then the Americas, by creating a VAST EMPIRE. He was also the first popular
authoritarian country (absolute dictatorship) in Europe, In 1801, Napoleon negotiated with the Catholic
Church to form the Concordat of 1801 (a "concordat" is an agreement or treaty, especially one between
the Vatican and a secular government relating to matters of mutual interest. There are many throughout
history, and usually are important). This agreement gave French Catholics the right to freely practice
their religion, but kept the French governments authority to nominate bishops and retain priests on the
state payroll.
Cue the Napoleonic Empire and Wars (1803 1815 or 1799 - 1815, depending on how far you take it).
He easily defeats Austria and Prussia, who ally with him for a time (they switch sides a lot). Napoleons
ambition would lead to his downfall. He expanded his Napoleonic Empire throughout Europe before
being stopped by BRITAIN. The weaker French navy stood no change against the island naval power of
the then-indomitable British Empire ("the sun never sets on the British Empire", a really sad quote
actually). He turned away from Britain, then sought to dominate the Americas by fighting Spain and
Portugal on the Iberian Peninsula, THE PENINSULAR WAR (18071814), but was once again thwarted
with the help of Britain. (This would also indirectly help fuel the LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS and
the HAITIAN REVOLUTION, for reasons you probably understand). Of course, the European countries
did not simply let him ravage Europe. The Wars of Coalition comprised of seven coalitions, where
various nations of Europe tried to defeat Napoleon. Somewhere close to his defeat in the Peninsular
War, Napoleon attempts to invade Russia (1812). He wasn't stupid enough to invade in winter, and
amassed probably the largest land army (thousands of soldiers) to invade. But many things didn't go as
he expected. Russia was smart - when Napoleon attempted to take Moscow, he burned the city to the
ground rather than give the French troops a place to live and plunder. By the time they retreated, it was
winter (much longer than Napoleon expected). They were bombarded with Russian attacks, cold, and
burned fields (no resources).

By the time he returned, his reputation was basically extinguished. Only a tiny fraction made it back to
France, and Austria and Prussia deserted Napoleon and allied with England and Russia against France
(told you they had a history). Note that these were the major powers in play. Napoleon was exiled,
escaped (swam back from his island), and then was defeated at the battle of Waterloo, Belgium in 1815.
He was exiled a final time to St. Helena in the middle of nowhere, where he died.
Afterwards, the Revolution basically ended, but in some ways it carried on. The Reestablishment of
Order and the Impact of the French Revolution can generally describe 1815-1850, after Waterloo. After
the French Revolution, ensuing events, and the spread of its ideas monarchy, international borders, the
nobility, and the Church were in danger. Monarchs, especially, feared for their power. In 1815,
representatives of Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia, France, and other European nations met to
reestablish political order in Europe in the CONGRESS OF VIENNA (AUSTRIA). Their objective was to
create a strong and stable France, and thus reestablished the French monarchy. Their rather lenient
punishment of France (they didn't really take land, but reset their borders to pre-revolution times), was a
good thing, especially when you compare it to how hard Germany took things after WWI. The victorious
allies also placed Louis XVIII on the French throne, who ruled as a constitutional monarch. The
conservative Charles X followed, his repudiation of the constitution made the masses angry, forcing him
to resign. Louis Philippe took over (1830-1848), who agreed to accept the constitution and extend voting
privileges.
One key person (you might need to know more, I just learned this one) was Metternich, the Austrian
foreign minister that led the victorious allies in creating a comprehensive peace settlement that would
safeguard the conservative order. He believed that a strong and stable France had to be offset by a
balance of power (opposed Greek independence from the Ottomans later), leading to the HOLY
ALLIANCE, where Austria, Russia, and Prussia formed a separate alliance from the Congress of Vienna
to repress revolutionary and nationalist movements similar to the French Revolution. In 1820, they used
military force to defeat liberal revolutions in Spain and Italy. Generally, they attempted to stop the force of
revolutionary ideas by repressing republican and nationalist ideas in universities and the press.
Yet the nationalistic and liberal ideas remained in Europe in the 1800s. National self-determination
(NATIONALISM) and democratic reform expanded, despite the conservative monarchs actions. In 1821,
for instance, Greek patriots launched an independence movement. European artists and writers rallied
European political support for intervention successfully. After years of struggle, Russia, France, and
Great Britain forced the Ottoman Empire to recognize Greek independence in 1830.
That was not the end of the struggle for independence. In Revolutions of 1848, also known poetically as
the Spring of Nations or the Springtime of the Peoples, it was the most widespread revolutionary wave in
European history, but reactionary forces regained control in each case, and the revolutions collapsed
typically within a year. It was a series of political upheavals influenced by French Revolutionary
ideas, democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. Began in France where
monarchy and the regime of Louis Philippe was overthrown to create the Second French Republic
(1848). However, revolutions failed in Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary. They failed to obtain their
nationalist and republican objectives, and monarchs retained aristocratic and military support. In any
case, reformers gave adult men voting rights, abolished slavery in colonies, ended death penalty, and
legislated the ten hour work day, but the desires of the workers conflicted with the desires of the middle
class. It was essentially a move away from the ancien regime, though it was not entirely successful.
In another reestablishment of order, France elects Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) as president in 1848.
Elected president, but three years later he overturned the constitution and proclaimed himself Emperor.
I'm also going to tack on that in Britain, revolutionary violence made the British aristocracy and its
conservative Tories very much afraid of mass movements and democracy. In 1815, the British
government passed Corn laws, which limited the importation of foreign grains and increased the
wealthys profits over the poor, which now had to pay more for grain. The opposing side was the
Chartists, English reformers who increased power of the House of Commons and redistributed votes

from agricultural to industrial districts, increased number of voters by almost 50 percent. Their radical
demands were defeated, but new labor and economic reforms addressing the grievances of workers
were put in place. Conservatives still had the upper hand but nationalism and desire for democratic
reform led to further revolutions and change.