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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network
Optimization Proposal

ZTE corporation

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
1.1
1.2

Overview...........................................................................................................2
Abstract..............................................................................................................2
Customer Benefit...............................................................................................4

2
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3
2.4.4
2.4.5
2.4.6
2.4.7
2.4.8
2.4.9
2.5
2.5.1
2.5.2
2.6
2.7
2.7.1
2.7.2
2.7.3
2.8
2.8.1
2.8.2
2.8.3
2.8.4
2.9

Service Contents Introduction........................................................................4


Network Audit Service........................................................................................5
Single Site Check...............................................................................................
System Hardware Health Check........................................................................
System Parameters Health Check...................................................................
System Performance Check............................................................................
Network performance evaluation service.........................................................14
DT and CQT Evaluation...................................................................................
OMC and NetMAX-C Performance evaluation.................................................
Network Performance Management.................................................................19
Daily Performance Management work.............................................................
Weekly Performance Management work..........................................................
Monthly Performance Management work.........................................................
Network Performance Improvement.................................................................32
Resource Balance Analysis and Optimization..................................................
Elaborate Neighbor List Optimization...............................................................
Elaborate PN Optimization...............................................................................
Cell Coverage Optimization with GIS...............................................................
Special Topic for Access Success Rate Optimization.......................................
Special Topic for Call Drop Rate Optimization..................................................
Special Topic for Handoff Optimization.............................................................
Special Topic for Multi-carrier Handoff Optimization.........................................
Service Bearer Ability Analysis for Wireless Network.......................................
Drive Testing Service.......................................................................................58
DT and CQT.....................................................................................................
Adjustment, implement and validation..............................................................
Trouble Shooting and Complaints Analysis......................................................59
Intelligent Optimization Service........................................................................61
Intelligent Coverage Optimization Based on the CDT and ACP.......................
Intelligent Coverage Optimization Based on the NetMAX-C and T-Phone.......
Indoor Coverage Optimization Based on the NetMAX-C and Gecko...............
Special Optimization Service...........................................................................65
The Evaluation System of 1X Subscribers QoE..............................................
The Evaluation System of EVDO Subscribers QoE........................................
Special Topics for EVDO Optimization.............................................................
VIP Districts Optimization.................................................................................
Optimization Service Reports List....................................................................75

3
3.1
3.2
3.3

Organization...................................................................................................76
Organization Principle......................................................................................76
Organization Structure.....................................................................................77
Position Definition............................................................................................78

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
3.3.5
3.3.6
3.3.7

Project Manager...............................................................................................
Network Optimization Manager........................................................................
System Engineer..............................................................................................
Network Optimization Engineer........................................................................
BSS Engineer..................................................................................................
Test Engineer...................................................................................................
Support staff.....................................................................................................

Project Report Mechanisms..........................................................................81

5
5.1
5.2
5.3

Service Work Flow.........................................................................................81


Project Preparation..........................................................................................82
Performance Test.............................................................................................84
Optimization Implement...................................................................................86

6
6.1
6.2

Service Requirements and Range................................................................88


Equipment requirements..................................................................................88
Document Requirements.................................................................................89

Responsibility Matrix.....................................................................................89

8
8.1
8.2
8.3

Resource Requirements and Configuration................................................93


Human resources requirement and configuration............................................93
Equipment resource requirement and configuration.........................................94
Other Configuration..........................................................................................95

FIGURES
Figure 2-1 Flow chart of single site check...............................................................................6
Figure 2-2 Flow chart of system hardware health check.........................................................9
Figure 2-3 Flow chart of system parameters health check....................................................11
Figure 2-4 Flow chart of system performance check............................................................13
Figure 2-5 Flow of DT and CQT evaluation...........................................................................15
Figure 2-6 Flow chart of OMC and NetMAX-C evaluation.....................................................18
Figure 2-7 Flow chart of network performance monitoring....................................................20
Figure 2-8 Flow chart of TOP N analysis..............................................................................21
Figure 2-9 Flow chart of customers complaints handling.....................................................23
Figure 2-10 Flow chart of network malfunction check...........................................................24
Figure 2-11 Flow chart of New Site and Expansion Site Optimization...................................26
Figure 2-12 Flow chart of VIP area communication support.................................................29
Figure 2-13 Flow chart of network performance analysis and suggestions...........................31
Figure 2-14 Flow chart of resource balance analysis and optimization.................................33

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Figure 2-15 Diagram of one-way issues...............................................................................35


Figure 2-16 Diagram of two-way issues................................................................................35
Figure 2-17 Flow chart of neighbor list optimization..............................................................38
Figure 2-18 Flow chart of PN optimization............................................................................41
Figure 2-19 Overshooting analysis based on NetMAX-C......................................................43
Figure 2-20 GIS analysis of overshooting based on NetMAX-C...........................................43
Figure 2-21 Pilot pollution analysis by NetMAX-C.................................................................44
Figure 2-22 GIS analysis of pilot pollution based on NetMAX-C...........................................44
Figure 2-23 Weak coverage analysis based on NetMAX-C..................................................45
Figure 2-24 GIS analysis of weak coverage based on NetMAX-C........................................45
Figure 2-25 Indoor or corner drop analysis based on NetMAX-C.......................................46
Figure 2-26 GIS analysis of indoor or corner issues based on NetMAX-C.........................46
Figure 2-27 Flow chart of cell coverage optimization based on NetMAX-C...........................47
Figure 2-28 Flow chart of access success rate optimization based on NetMAX-C...............49
Figure 2-29 Call drop reason analysis based on NetMAX-C.................................................50
Figure 2-30 Call drop analysis based on NetMAX-C.............................................................50
Figure 2-31 Flow chart of call drop rate optimization based on NetMAX-C...........................51
Figure 2-32 Cell handoff analysis based on NetMAX-C........................................................53
Figure 2-33 Carrier neighbor list match rate analysis based on NetMAX-C..........................54
Figure 2-34 Flow chart of handoff optimization.....................................................................55
Figure 2-35 Flow chart of Multi-carrier Handoff Optimization................................................57
Figure 2-36 Intelligent analysis users complaints based on NetMAX-C...............................60
Figure 2-40 Intelligent Coverage Optimization Based on the CDT and ACP.........................62
Figure 2-37 1X network coverage analysis based on NetMAX-C..........................................62
Figure 2-38 DO network coverage analysis based on NetMAX-C.........................................63
Figure 2-39 Intelligent coverage optimization based on the NetMAX-C and T-Phone...........64
Figure 2-41 Indoor Coverage Optimization Based on the NetMAX-C and Gecko.................65
Figure 2-42 CDF of voice users QoE...................................................................................66
Figure 2-43 Diagram of pre-warning users QoE optimization...............................................66
Figure 2-44 Call drop analysis for QoE optimization.............................................................67
Figure 2-45 VIP users QoE distribution................................................................................68
Figure 2-46 Procedure of service classification and QoE evaluation....................................69
Figure 2-47 EVDO cell coverage analysis based on NetMAX-C...........................................71
Figure 2-48 EVDO cell capacity analysis based on NetMAX-C............................................72
Figure 2-49 Abis link capacity analysis based on NetMAX-C................................................73

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Figure 2-50 VIP areas traffic district based on NetMAX-C....................................................74


Figure 2-51 Diagram of high precision map..........................................................................74
Figure 2-52 Cell coverage analysis based on NetMAX-C.....................................................75
Figure 3-1 Optimization project team structure.....................................................................78
Figure 5-1 Radio network optimization basic flow.................................................................82

TABLES
Table 2-1 Rank of 1X subscribers QoE................................................................................65
Table 2-2 EVDO service classification..................................................................................68
Table 2-3 Optimization service report list..............................................................................75
Table 7-1 Responsibility Matrix.............................................................................................90
Table 8-1 Project human resources requirement and configuration condition.......................93
Table 8-2 Project equipment requirement and configuration condition..................................94

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

1 Overview
1.1 Abstract
This technical proposal is written for the telecom operator, which includes all detailed
services, procedures, optimization suggestion for key KPIs, organization, resource
(human & tools) and time schedule during network optimization. By going through this
paper as well as the coming details of discussion between the telecom operator and
ZTE, the telecom operator shall understand what and how are such Services carried
out by ZTE. As always committed, we ZTE definitely do all of our best for providing bestin-class Services for the telecom operator.
ZTE insists the ideal of giving the best resource to customer all the time. In the practice
of optimization work in service areas, ZTE establishes 2 ideals with Enhance and
Deepen gradually. There are Enhance the efficiency of basic optimization and Deepen
performance optimization level. Providing expert level technical support, keeping
network quality and in forefront of peers is our service tenet. Network optimization
cooperation mode which is closely cooperated and mutually integrated can push
optimization result more rapidly and efficiently. We will have seven kinds of measures to
ensure optimal results.

Typical

Industry

Applications

Comprehensive

application

of

various

industries
Focusing on small flow with regular online and Police link (Reverse video upload) and
other hot industry issues currently, our company organizes the expert team and focuses
on the special topic research, achieve industry users requirements.

Powerful optimization tools Strong Optimization support


Our network optimization applied to the NetMAX-C network optimization system has
industry-leading optimization analysis capabilities, can track a single user, rendering
Coverage area and other powerful analysis capabilities, Combined with a rich network of

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excellent engineers, network optimization experience, the perfect combination of support


can play a strong network optimization.

Excavate Network hidden trouble Ensure development of the network stably


Through the system hardware check and End to end thematic analysis, excavating of
hidden problems that exist in the network to identify resource bottleneck, lay a solid
basis for stable development of Network in the future.

Enhance the user experience User scenario optimization


Network optimization and user experience will be combined to enhance the user
perception as a core objective of network optimization, from the user using the mobile
Internet in a typical region of poor business sense of the starting scene, and explore
options for our customers to enhance business awareness, through the comparison
before and after optimization effectively improve the user experience, and process
guidance to deal with the problem daily network optimization and reduce customer
complaints; KPI while upgrading the network, improve the overall user experience,
shape the industry brand.

Rationalize the network optimization process Guide the daily network


optimization
In the joint network optimization process, the ZTE network and customer optimization
engineers to explore together, to rationalize the daily process of network optimization,
network optimization routine used in the future.

Establish network optimization case database Strengthen the knowledgesharing


Typical scenarios of typical cases of complaints and handling, processing and output
approach to technical documentation, and technical documents to the classification,
establish network optimization

case database, and gradually extended to the case

database worldwide, strengthen the knowledge Share degrees.

Terminal Potential Analysis Ensure the network support

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The terminal and wireless network support business development in close connection
with up to support operators finish front-end service the full-analysis, summary and
analysis of processes, play on other business areas of guidance, promotion function,
Close to background and front-end linked to the wireless network to full load from the
front-end business.

1.2 Customer Benefit


The services will bring the following benefits to the telecom operator:
1.

Preventive and daily optimization solution to maintain the network stability

2.

Professional solutions to solve the network puzzles

3.

QoE oriented optimization to increase users perception of the network and network
operating revenue.

4.

Proactive optimization solution with NetMAX supported can improve the network
optimization efficiency and reduce the operational cost. NetMAX can store the CDT
file reported by MS and thus greatly reduce the DT/CQT.

5.

In-depth optimization of the entire network coverage and a panoramic geographic


view with NetMAX supported. With massive data about the entire network and rich
experiences of ZTE's engineers, it will effectively optimize the coverage in areas
beyond the reach of traditional DTs, such as the indoor coverage (in the office or
residential house) and other non-road importance scenarios, so as to improve the
overall performance of the entire network and show the change in a vivid way.

2 Service Contents Introduction


ZTE provides a complete suite of full lifecycle and tailor-made service solutions,
including Network Audit Service, Network Performance Management Service and
Network Performance Improvement Service with self developed competitive tools.

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

As a periodical and mandatory work, Network Audit Service include system hardware
health check, system parameters health check and system performance check which will
help to reduce the risk the system degrading and damage and pave the way for the
network performance management.
Network Performance Management Service will help you to achieve the network
performance stability by monitoring and analysis of the network as daily basis during
service duration.
End user satisfaction and quality of experience oriented, Network Performance
Improvement Service will maximum your network performance and your revenue.
Intelligent Optimization Service will help you to analysis and optimize the coverage
which cannot be known from DT. It will reduce the DT/CQT, RF optimization cycle, and it
provides the quick solution of indoor coverage.
Special Optimization Service provides the QoE evaluation, VIP analysis and
optimization, and some special topics.

2.1 Network Audit Service


Networks basic health refers to the hardware and parameter configuration of
communication system and the reasonable indicators, impact resistance, sustainability
of network performance.
As the network elements arent built at the same time, maybe the project lasts for a long
period of time formed by different agencies or engineers. The perspective is different in
different periods and institutions in the network design phase, therefore its likely to result
in the confusion of network design which will bring the networks basic health issues.

2.1.1 Single Site Check

Description

Before network commissioning, the network have been checked carefully to ensure the
normal work of each single site. And before network optimization, in order to prevent

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problem single site from affecting the whole network performance and network
optimization process, it still needs to choose some from all the sites in the network to
verify whether the site engineering quality can satisfy the network operation.
The ACP needs accuracy site information. So the site check will be very important to the
radio frequency optimization.
During the single site check stage, it mainly needs to check whether the site RF
parameters accord with its designed values, and whether there exist serious alarms,
whether the single site can work normally, etc.

Flow

Figure 2-1 Flow chart of single site check

Deliverables

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NO.

Description

Content

The Single Site Check Plan

Plan and check items

The Single Site Check Report for

Parameters and alarms check on OMC

XX Service Area

Antenna and cabling system check


Site performance check

2.1.2 System Hardware Health Check

Description

Reasonable network topology: according to the traffic distribution of existing network,


traffic migration law and topography, site topology checking reports are given.
Traffic and capacity analysis: BSC capacity analysis, including a variety of signal
processing board and resources for capacity and load analysis of plate, for example,
SDU / CMP / SE / VE and other boards; capacity and load analysis of base stations and
cell , including the traffic, CE, transmit power, soft handoff factor, multi-carrier traffic
balance and the base station board's CPU load; interface capacity and load testing,
including Abis, A8/A9, and other devices interface and internal interface devices.
According to the current network's traffic situation and the prediction of future
development, the analysis reports about BSS, base station, cell, and a variety of
interfaces and load capacity will be given to find out the bottlenecks of network capacity
for optimization and expansion proposal.
Alarm management ZTE's OMC offers a variety of alarm function and alarm box
functions, through the alarm information; we can clean up the hardware issues, solve
network problems, and reduce network risks.
Invisible board trouble checking: the invisible trouble of some boards and elements
will not be reflected in the alarm management interface so we need manual screening
and testing to find out it. For example, a CE unit is not working properly; all calls
assigned to the CE will be failure. The unit's task is to find these hidden faults, and gives
summary reports.

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

ZTE's hardware health check service can help remove the hidden network hardware
troubles and supply optimization and expansion of recommendations to meet the
requirements of existing and future development of the resource bottleneck to ensure
the healthy development of the network, satisfy the telecom operator s requirements
about health checks from traffic to capacity.

Flow

Figure 2-2 Flow chart of system hardware health check

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Deliverables
NO.

Description

Content

System Hardware Health

Scheme and contents of hardware health

Check Plan

check

System Hardware Health

Traffic and capacity analysis

Check Report

Alarm management
Invisible board trouble checking

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2.1.3 System Parameters Health Check

Description

System parameters can be divided into several categories as global level, cell level,
carrier level according to the location, ranging from large to small impact. It can also be
divided into RF parameters and BSS parameters based on the objects.
ZTE provides professional parameters checking tools, making strict security range check
and logic check of RF and BSS parameters, output the unreasonable parameters list
and add detailed explanation of parameters in the checking reports. The parameters
checking tools have realized the fixed checking rules such as BASEID configuration
check, Lac and Reg_zone consistency check, the registration period check, PN check,
carrier power configuration check.
In parameters checking tools, we can customize parameters checking rules on-demand,
filter and output the parameters which do not meet the rules. So it is easy to realize RF
and BSS parameters overall checks.
In general, the parameters of cell level and carrier level can more easily make error. So
we should check these parameters according to the network design topology structure
such as PN, link cell configuration, cell radius and search window.
ZTE parameters checking tools can satisfy the telecom operator parameters check
requirements. According to the health checks of network wireless parameters, it can
discover the unreasonable parameters and provide some helpful suggestion for network
healthy development.

Flow

Figure 2-3 Flow chart of system parameters health check

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Deliverables

NO.
1

Description

Content

System Parameters Health

Scheme and contents of parameters health

Check Plan

check

Improper Parameters list

Improper Parameters list

System Parameters Health

Global/BTS/CELL/Carrier parameters check

Check Report

result

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NO.

Description

Content
Parameters modify list

2.1.4 System Performance Check

Description

OMC's raw performance data records all aspects of 1x and DO network performance
data such as traffic, mobility, call, handoff, failure reasons, access and paging channels,
a variety of interfaces, radio frequency systems, single board CPU, etc. Its the
foundation of network performance monitoring.
CNO2 provides a platform which is more convenient to analysis and monitor
performance data. With the platform, its easily to carry out the monitoring and analysis
of access, call drop, handoff in BSS, and handoff between BSS, RSSI and a variety of
channel performance.
Through the feedback data of network from engineer in front, the team of network
optimization experts behind can not only provide superior network performance
evaluation, but also supply performance evaluation for a single user. Its a full track for
user perception.
OMC and CNO2 provide a comprehensive network evaluation system with which you
can monitor and analysis the network performance to identify the lack of KPI for
optimization so as to enhance the whole network performance to satisfy the telecom
operators performance parameter inspection and optimization requirements.

Flow

Figure 2-4 Flow chart of system performance check

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Deliverables
NO.

Description

Content

System Performance

Scheme and contents of performance

Check Plan

check

System Performance

BSC/BTS/CELL resource analysis

Check Report

Important KPI analysis


Other important performance analysis,
such as RSSI

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2.2 Network performance evaluation service


You can understand the overall performance of local networks and the problems that
may exist in some regions from test evaluation report. Test evaluation report includes the
following elements:

2.2.1 DT and CQT Evaluation

Description

DT/CQT test can be classified into major road tests in urban and non-urban areas; major
roads generally include highways, national highways, provincial roads, railways and
some important buildings. Through DT/CQT test, we can know the coverage and
performance of these places.
The main indicators of DT/CQT are
1.

Forward link Received Power Distribution map and Coverage Statistics (Percentage

of different received power level)


2.

Uplink Required Mobile Station Transmit Power Distribution map and Coverage

Statistics (Percentage of different Mobile Station Transmit Power level)


3.

Forward link Pilot Ec/Io Distribution map and Coverage Statistics (Percentage of

different Pilot Ec/Io level)


4.

Forward link FER Distribution Legend and Coverage Statistics (Percentage of

different FER level)


5.

The statistic of the network KPI (include: No. of calls initiated by user, No. of call

setup success, No. of call setup failure, No. of drop call)


6.

The map of actual test dropped calls

7.

The map of pilot pollution

8.

The evaluating map for VIP area

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

9.

The map of coverage hole

10. The description and analysis that network are existing specific problem

Flow

Figure 2-5 Flow of DT and CQT evaluation

Deliverables

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1

Description

Content

DT and CQT Network Evaluation

the main DT map as described above

Report

the static of coverage, CSSR, CDR,


HOSR, etc

abnormal events analysis

2.2.2 OMC and NetMAX-C Performance evaluation

Description

ZTE have two methods to evaluate the network performance


1.

Regular Evaluation

It aims to provide a basis evaluation to the overall network performance, based on the
collection and analysis of the overall network KPI by OMC data.
2.

NetMAX-C-based Network Evaluation

NetMAX-C-based network evaluation is a process to evaluate indicators at both network


and cell levels with CDT (call detail tracing) analysis tools, through collecting all CDT
data reported by end-users within the network. The indicators evaluated involve mainly
network coverage, quality, and interference, etc. They help network engineers to locate
existing network problems exactly, providing an accurate basis for network planning and
optimization.
The main contents are
i.

1X: Call Setup Success Rate

ii.

1X: Voice Call Blocking Rate

iii.

1X: CS Radio Drop Rate

iv.

1X: Voice Soft Handoff Success Rate

v.

1X: Carrier Neighbor Matching Rate

vi.

1X: Ec/Io Distribution

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

vii.

1X: Pilot Distribution

viii. 1X: PS Call Success Rate


ix.

DO: Global Radio Net Connection Successful Rate

x.

DO: Global Radio Drop Rate

xi.

Forward RLP Data ReTransmission Rate

xii.

DO: Global Soft Handoff Success Rate

xiii. DO: Global Session Setup Success Rate

Flow

Figure 2-6 Flow chart of OMC and NetMAX-C evaluation

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

Deliverables

NO.
1

Description
Network Evaluation based on OMC

Content
KPI analysis and evaluation, problem
analysis, etc

Network Evaluation based on

KPI analysis

NetMAX-C

Carrier Neighbor Matching Rate


Access Ec/Io and Pilot Distribution,
etc

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2.3 Network Performance Management


2.3.1 Daily Performance Management work
2.3.1.1 Network performance monitoring service

Description

Daily monitoring of the OMCand real-time tracking the KPI indicator of network, these
indicators include the BSC and cell's traffic, access success rate , call drop rate, handoff
success rate . Through the analysis of abnormal indicators, network hardware and
software problems, RF problems and parameter problem can be detected timely, the
relevant solution and methods are given timely. We try to be the first to discover the
problem and the first to solve the problem.
ZTE provides CNO2, which is a KPI statistics and analysis tool of professional network
element level. Using this tool,

the efficiency of the daily network optimization can be

greatly improved through real-time statistics and analysis of KPI based on the daily
Network optimization needs.
Based on the returned data, our team of network optimization experts can show the key
indicators, such as traffic, access failures, dropped calls, call time in the GIS and can
know and analyze the network performance timely and accurately, so as to guide the
optimization.
The requirements of the telecom operator can be satisfied well through the long-term
monitoring of network performance in the service period using performance monitoring
tools such as OMC, CNO2, and submitting network performance monitoring report to the
telecom operator according to the required time.

Flow

Figure 2-7 Flow chart of network performance monitoring

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

Deliverables

NO.

Description

KPI indicators monitoring template

KPI Monitoring and Analysis Report

Content

KPI list and abnormal KPI analysis

2.3.1.2 TOP N Analysis

Description

Through OMC statistical analysis and TOP N analysis about cell(such as access failures,
call drops, handoff, prior to the retransmission rate), network optimization engineers
analyze and optimize in-depth, to explore the hidden problems in network and give
solutions to

the common problems, so as to ensure the healthy operation of the

network.

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

Through NetMAX-C statistical analysis and TOP N analysis, we can know the problems
met by VIP users and all network users; we optimize the user experience while
optimizing the hidden problem in network.

Flow

Figure 2-8 Flow chart of TOP N analysis

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

Deliverables
NO.

Description

TOP N Cell List

Work Order Parameters to modify records

TOP N Cell Handling Report

2.3.1.3 Deal with Customers Complaint

Description

Customers complaint is the most direct reflection of network problem, customer will
complain to Customer Service Center if they get any communication problem with
Network (such as call failure, call drop, poor voice quality etc.). Complaint sheet must
include the following content: customers name, contact, handphone type, call type,
opposites number and handphone type, where, when, description about the problem.
After receiving complaint, Customer Service Center will filter it and forward complaint
sheet which is belong to Optimization Side to RF team. RF team will visit customer by
phone or person to collect information about complaint. Analyze the problem, if the
problem is caused in RF side, RF team will test in problem area, analyze the data, and
export a plan to solve it. If the problem is not caused by RF side, forward it to other team
and assist them to solve it.
In order to ensure that network performs steadily during heavy traffic time, such as
conference period, tour midseason, etc, emergent test and capacity expansion should
be done because of heavy traffic.
The purpose of test is to make sure that hardware works well and the signal strength in
VIP area is strong. The method of capacity expansion includes adding new carrier and
communication vehicle.

Flow

Figure 2-9 Flow chart of customers complaints handling

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

Deliverables

NO.

Description

Content

Customer Complaint Record

detail of complaint

Track Report of Customer Complaint

analysis process and conclusion

Handling

2.3.1.4 Network Malfunction Check

Description

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

Hardware fault check is an important work of daily maintenance. Because hardware fault
degrades network performance and worsens customer experience severely, BSS
engineers will continuously monitor background alarms, and then they distribute the
alarms to maintenance engineers, and analyze performance improvement after the
hardware fault is solved. Also, Optimization engineer and test engineers will assist the
test after the hardware trouble is eliminated if necessary.

Flow

Figure 2-10 Flow chart of network malfunction check

Deliverables

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NO.

Description

Content

Alarm and hardware fault list

detail of alarm and hardware

Hardware fault handling report

analysis process and conclusion

2.3.1.5 New Site and Expansion Site Optimization

Description

In order to meet the coverage or capacity, it is usually to install new site or expand site.
For expansion site, we should plan frequency and other configuration reasonably.
For new site, we should plan frequency, neighbor list, PN and engineering parameters
reasonably. After the site is on-air, we should do some testing and optimization:
DT, make sure the neighbor list and PN is reasonable
Test in user-intensive area, make sure coverage is good in this area.

Flow

Figure 2-11 Flow chart of New Site and Expansion Site Optimization

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Deliverables
NO.

Description

Content

New/Expansion Site

DT resultcoverage, handoff, etc

Optimization report

Performance monitorKPI

2.3.2 Weekly Performance Management work


2.3.2.1 Customers Complaint Management Service

Description

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We will collect complaint information, including pending, processing and closed


complaint. For the unclosed complaint, if it is belong to RF Team, continue to deal with it
until it is closed (ask expert for support if it is necessary), if it is belong to other team,
urge and track until it is closed.

Deliverables
NO.

Description

Content

Customers complaint

Record of customer complaint, include the

record

handling state and responsible team of


the complaint

2.3.2.2 Network Performance Analysis and Optimization

Description

The main purpose of weakly analysis is to monitor network performance, filter cells with
bad KPIs and optimize them.
It is suggested to use TOP-N method because:
Firstly, there is intrinsic relation among all KPIs.
Secondly, bad KPI is relative; it may be different between one network and another.
Lastly, it is convenient to deal with the worst KPI cells.

Deliverables
NO.

Description

Content

TOP N handling record

the detail of handling the TOP N cell

KPI analysis

KPI analysis of this week, and the reason


of the bad KPI if its necessary.

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2.3.3 Monthly Performance Management work


2.3.3.1 Customers Complaint Management Service

Description

We will collect complaint information, including pending, processing and closed


complaint. For the unclosed complaint, if it is belong to RF Team, continue to deal with it
until it is closed (ask expert for support if it is necessary), if it is belong to other team,
urge and track until it is closed.
In addition, we will sort all complaint information, focus on similar complaint. For the
similar complaint, propose solution to solve it and prevent the same complaint.

Deliverables
NO.

Description

Content

Customers complaint

Record of customer complaint, include the

record

handling state and responsible team of


the complaint
The type of the customer complaint
analysis

2.3.3.2 VIP area Communication Support

Description

VIP is the important subscriber group whose member has a high ARPU. VIPs contribute
most of profits for operator; therefore, engineers shall pay much attention to this group of
subscribers. VIP area usually includes commercial buildings, high-grade residential
areas, airport lounges, and etc. Engineers shall test in VIP areas in busy hours every
month to collect DT/CQT data, and then analyze test data in order to ensure that
network performance of VIP areas is perfect.
When engineers are doing network test, they must pay attention to the coverage, voice
quality, RF parameters, and Engineering parameters.

Flow

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

Figure 2-12 Flow chart of VIP area communication support

Deliverables
NO.

Description

Content

Plan for VIP area test

DT areas and CQT areas

VIP area test report

Coverage, Problem analysis ,test record

2.3.3.3 Network Performance Analysis and Suggestions

Description

Optimization engineers give report about monthly network performance and analyze
network

performance

to

release

suggestions

about

handling

hardware

optimization, capacity expansion, which includes items as below:

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fault,

ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

Performance analysis, parameters analysis and corresponding solution.


Resource utility ratio, such as page channel utilization ratio, access channel utilization
ratio, and corresponding solution.

Flow

Figure 2-13 Flow chart of network performance analysis and suggestions

Deliverables

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NO.
1

Description

Content

Performance and

BSC/BTS/Interface/Wireless Resource utility ratio

Resource utility ratio

Network performance analysis

Analysis report

Expansion suggestion

2.4 Network Performance Improvement


2.4.1 Resource Balance Analysis and Optimization

Description

BSC Resource Analysis: Capacity and loading analysis of all signal-process modules
and vocoder modules, such as SDU/CMP and so on.
BTS and Cell Resource Analysis: Check-up of traffic, CE, transmitting power,
handover factor, load balance of multi-carrier and CPU load.
Interface Resource Analysis: Interfaces of inner-equipment and inter-equipment, such
as Abis, A8/A9 and A10/A11.
Wireless Resource AnalysisPaging channel, access Channel, WalshCode, etc.
Conclusion reports addressing optimization or expansion advice for all aspects including
BSC, BTS, Carrier, and all kinds of interfaces, based on present capacity and future
development prediction.

Flow

Figure 2-14 Flow chart of resource balance analysis and optimization

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

Deliverables

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NO.
1

Description

Content

Resource Balance Analysis

Scheme and contents of Resource Balance

and Optimization Plan

Analysis

Resource Balance Analysis

BSC/BTS/Interface/Wireless Resource utility

and Optimization Report

ratio and balance analysis


Resource optimization and expansion
suggestion
The result of optimization and expansion

2.4.2 Elaborate Neighbor List Optimization

Description

Neighbor issues impact CSSR, CDR, and HSR etc. It is necessary to maintain a correct
neighbor list for every sector.
Optimization experts check and analyze present neighbor list for every sector and
optimize neighbor miss issues, neighbor mismatch issues. And there is a new solution:
neighbor reconstruction.
1.

Neighbor miss and neighbor mismatch issues


i.

Cause
a)

Overshooting cells

b)

Wrong neighbors, who may also cause fake PN confusion issues.

c)

Neighbor miss: As the network expansion and environment changes, the


neighbor list hasnt been updated with the change of actual handoff
relation.

ii.

Check-up methods
a)

Neighbor miss check-up

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

With careful check-up of every handoff in call records, it is easy to get a list of
handoff failure because of not-configured neighbor PN and figure out the
necessary neighbor.
b)

One-way issues check-up

Scenario: Cell B is in the linkcell of Cell A, and Cell C is in the linkcell of Cell
B. If Cell A and Cell C has the same PNoffset, it is called a one-way issue.
Figure 2-15 Diagram of one-way issues

One-way issues may cause handoff failure and call drop.


c)

Two-way issues check-up

Scenario: Cell B and Cell C are in the linkcell of Cell A and Cell D is in the
linkcell of Cell B. If Cell C and Cell D have the same PNoffset, it is called a
two-way issue.
Figure 2-16 Diagram of two-way issues

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Two-way issues may cause handoff failure and call drop.


d)

Over-distance neighbor check-up

First estimate the coverage radius of every cell by the analysis of call records.
If the distance of a linkcell to the source cell is over a certain distance
threshold corresponding to the radius of the source and destination cell, such
linkcell will be marked as over distance linkcell.
iii.

Solutions
a)

Delete redundant neighbors

b)

Correct mismatch neighbors

c)

Add missing neighbor

d)

Correct PN confusion issues

e)

RF optimization for overshooting sectors

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

2.

Neighbor reconstruction
In order to improve network optimization efficiency and reduce human cost, based
on years of network optimization experience, ZTE have achieved the intelligent
neighbor optimization method by comprehensive analysis of OMM performance
statistics, Site Info and call records.
RF engineers can reconstruct neighbor lists of the whole network or selected sites
in several hours after all necessary data is ready. Generate an optimal neighbor list
which can be directly imported into the OMM server by RF experts. The optimal
neighbor list solves most of the neighbor mismatch and neighbor missing issues
and significantly improves neighbor match rate.
Neighbor reconstruction is a new and efficient solution for neighbor list optimization.

Flow

Figure 2-17 Flow chart of neighbor list optimization

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Deliverables

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

NO.

Description

Content

Neighbor List

Scheme and contents of Neighbor List

Optimization Plan

Optimization

Neighbor List

Neighbor list optimization based on OMC and

Optimization or

NetMAX-C

reconstruction

(Neighbor miss check-up, One-way and Two-way

Report

issues check-up, Over-distance neighbor checkup)


Neighbor list optimization based on DT and CQT
data (Neighbor miss check-up, handoff analysis)

2.4.3 Elaborate PN Optimization

Description

PN confusion issues impact CSSR, CDR, and HSR and so on. It is necessary to make
sure that the reuse of each PN has met the requirement of distance.
ZTE can check and solve the PN confusion by the aspects below:
1.

Same PN interference optimization


Analyze the handoff records to list same PN confusion issues, including call drops
caused by the issue, and provide a platform to analyze and solve those issues.

2.

Adjacent PN interference optimization


Analyze the handoff records to list adjacent PN confusion issues, including call
drops caused by the issue, and provide a platform to analyze and solve those
issues.

3.

PN Reconstruction
Optimization expert team reconstruct PN reuse plan for selected district or the
whole network, based on the feedback data by the field engineers, and provide the
advantages below:
i.

Different PN groups for indoor and outdoor coverage sectors.

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

ii.

Reserve some PN groups for future development.

Flow

Figure 2-18 Flow chart of PN optimization

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Deliverables

NO.

Description

Content

PN Optimization Plan

Scheme of PN Optimization

PN Optimization or

Same/Adjacent PN interference

Reconstruction Report

optimization Record
Result of PN Reconstruction
PN Reuse Information

2.4.4 Cell Coverage Optimization with GIS

Description

Basing on the call records, performance statistics data and configuration data,
optimization experts analyze the cell coverage issues with the help of geographic
information system. Cell coverage analysis and optimization are focused on solving the
following issues: overshooting issues, pilot pollution issues, weak coverage issues and
corner problem. And it is convenient to use DT and CQT to help to analyze and
optimize such issues if necessary.
Cell coverage optimization is a special and efficient way to improve CSSR, CDR, HSR
and other KPI.
1.

Overshooting issues

Overshooting issue happens when a cells radio coverage is beyond planned radius and
reaches the area where should be covered by other cells. Overshooting leads to pilot
pollution even PN confusion.
Based on the chip difference between the pilots and the reference pilot in the active set,
the relation of the neighbors, and the bearing of the antennas, Expert team can figure
out the overshooting sectors and the sectors that are influenced by it.

Figure 2-19 Overshooting analysis based on NetMAX-C

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Figure 2-20 GIS analysis of overshooting based on NetMAX-C

Overshooting issues can be solved by normal RF optimization methods.


2.

Pilot pollution issues

An area is a pilot pollution area where the sum of pilots in active set and candidate set of
a mobile are more than 4 and the Ec/Io of every pilot is between -13 to -18 dB. Pilot
pollution causes weak Ec/Io and call drop issues. Pilot pollution is a serious coverage
problem that must be solved.
The pilot pollution districts are combination coverage of several cells. The district they
covered together may be pollution district. Expert team can make a statistic for all pilot
pollution districts.

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

Figure 2-21 Pilot pollution analysis by NetMAX-C

Figure 2-22 GIS analysis of pilot pollution based on NetMAX-C

3.

Weak Coverage

Weak coverage may lead to call drop at the coverage edge of sector due to a
continuously signal fading and cannot handoff to another sector in time.
It is very difficult to find out a weak coverage district by traditional way. For example, DT
cannot find a poor coverage of an indoor coverage sector, but by means of analyzing call
records, it is easy to find out every district of weak coverage.

Figure 2-23 Weak coverage analysis based on NetMAX-C

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Figure 2-24 GIS analysis of weak coverage based on NetMAX-C

In order to exactly locate the weak coverage district and evaluate the district in more
detail, it is convenient to use DT and CQT by the guide of the analysis above.
Poor coverage issues can be solved by normal RF optimization methods.
4.

Corner issues

In wireless network, a corner issue means a call drop in a small handoff district due to
quickly signal fading before handoff procedure completed which may lead to handoff
failure or even call drop. It is a common coverage problem at corner of street or
movement between indoor and outdoor.

Figure 2-25 Indoor or corner drop analysis based on NetMAX-C

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Figure 2-26 GIS analysis of indoor or corner issues based on NetMAX-C

In order to exactly locate the corner issue district and evaluate the district in more
detail, it is convenient to use DT and CQT by the guide of the analysis above.
Corner issues can be solved by normal RF optimization methods.

Flow

Figure 2-27 Flow chart of cell coverage optimization based on NetMAX-C

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

Deliverables

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

NO.

Description

Content

Cell coverage analysis

Overshooting analysis and optimization

and optimization report

Pilot pollution analysis and optimization

Wear coverage analysis and


optimization

Corner issues analysis and


optimization

2.4.5 Special Topic for Access Success Rate Optimization

Description

Access success rate denotes whether the subscriber can successfully access the
network quickly and efficiently. It is essential to subscriber experience.
KPI about access: Radio connection setup success rate, Page response rate, Radio
network setup success rate, Session setup success rate.
Optimization experts analyze the call records, performances statistics, and subscribers
complaints, giving out solutions to the neighbor list issues, PN confusion issues and
coverage issues etc., and improve the access success rate and subscribers experience.

Flow

Figure 2-28 Flow chart of access success rate optimization based on NetMAX-C

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Deliverables
NO.

Description

Content

Access analysis and

Resources overload optimization

optimization report

Configuration parameter optimization

Hardware fault handling

coverage analysis and optimization

TOP N analysis and optimization

ECAM/Access handoff optimization(if its


necessary)

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2.4.6 Special Topic for Call Drop Rate Optimization

Description

Call drop rate is a key KPI for the radio network and subscribers are always sensitive to
this KPI, especially in weak coverage districts.
Experts team analyze the call records, performances statistics, and subscribers
complaints, and give out solutions to solve the neighbor list issues, PN confusion issues
and coverage issues etc.. And launch a special NetMAX-C optimization topic for the
worst district. It will surely reduce call drop rate and improve subscribers experience.
For example, expert team analyzes the call records and statistics data, and figure out
the call drop reason of a certain network as below:

Figure 2-29 Call drop reason analysis based on NetMAX-C

At sector level, cell drop reasons will be in more detail as following:

Figure 2-30 Call drop analysis based on NetMAX-C

So, the field engineer will have an easy and convenient way to understand where and
why there are call drops and figure out a corresponding solution quickly.

Flow

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Figure 2-31 Flow chart of call drop rate optimization based on NetMAX-C

Deliverables
NO.

Description

Content

Call Drop analysis and

Resources overload optimization

optimization report

Configuration parameter optimization

Hardware fault handling

coverage problem analysis and


optimization

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2.4.7 Special Topic for Handoff Optimization

Description

Handoff success rate directly impact network services. It might cause call drops and low
data rate.
Parameters, such as Search window size, neighbor configuration, handoff threshold and
so on, impact the handoff success rate.
Relative KPI: Soft hand off success rate, softer hand off success rate, inter-frequency
handoff success rate.
Expert team analyzes call records, performance statistics and subscribers complaints to
improve the relative KPI.
1.

Handoff Success Rate Analysis


Due to the mobility of MT in wireless network, Lower handoff success rate may
cause high call block rate, high FER high call drop ratio. Some factors Such as
Poor coverage, neighbor list mismatch, neighbor list missing, neighbor list priority
unreasonable configuring, PN reuse resource blocked and equipment failure which
can affect on handoff.

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

Figure 2-32 Cell handoff analysis based on NetMAX-C

2.

Neighbor List Match Rate Analysis


Neighbor list hitting rate used to estimate the quality of neighbor list configuration.
Handoff between cells which did not configure each other as neighbor will not fail
certainly because active set cells neighbor was combined before send NGLIST
message to terminals.
But that Neighbor list missing will certainly lead to slower searching rate, longer
handoff delay, poor EcIo and poor FER which decrease the quality of voice call.

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Figure 2-33 Carrier neighbor list match rate analysis based on NetMAX-C

Flow

Figure 2-34 Flow chart of handoff optimization

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

Deliverables

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

NO.
1

Description
Handoff Analysis and

Content

optimization Report

Neighbor list mismatch analysis and


optimization

Neighbor list missing optimization

PN confuse optimization

Handoff Parameter optimization

One-Way/Two-Way optimization

TOP N optimization

2.4.8 Special Topic for Multi-carrier Handoff Optimization

Description

Analyze multi-carrier distribution and inter-frequency handoff success rate in the critical
sectors and improve Handoff success rate and inter-frequency assignment success rate.
Main jobs
1.

Plan multi-carrier district.

2.

Plan and optimize parameters.

3.

Different transmitting power for different carriers.

4.

Different neighbor list for different carriers in critical sectors.

5.

Database-assistance inter-frequency handoff parameters optimization, including


critical sectors, Ec/Io and RDT threshold setting etc.

6.

MS-assistance inter-frequency handoff parameters optimization, including handoff


threshold for static and dynamic handoff etc.

7.

DT test verify the handoff.

8.

Load balance parameters for multi-carrier, including keep threshold and inter-carrier
assignment threshold etc.

9.

Overload control parameters, including max user count, max QoS user count, idle
timer for traffic channel etc.

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Flow

Figure 2-35 Flow chart of Multi-carrier Handoff Optimization

Deliverables

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

NO.
1

Description

Content

Handoff Analysis and

Parameter optimization record

optimization Report

DT test analysis and verification

OMC KPI analysis and verification

2.4.9 Service Bearer Ability Analysis for Wireless Network


Aiming at launching a new special service, ZTE optimization engineers analyze the
requirement and cost of the network bearer with the telecom operator engineers.

Determinate the typical requirements of the service after the communion with the
market crew

Analyze the requirement of the special service from any aspects, such as network
bearer capacity, service simulation requirement and so on.

Estimate the cost based on the requirement analysis.

Assists the telecom operator engineers to summarize the procedure, and give out
analysis reports to guide the analysis in other service area.

2.5 Drive Testing Service


2.5.1 DT and CQT
ZTE network performance monitoring system can monitor the full range of network
performance. If there are problems on some cells or some areas, we will offer the
services DT or CQT on specific business areas.
DT test can be classified into major road tests in urban and non-urban areas; major
roads generally include highways, national highways, provincial roads and railways. The
two kinds of tests can be measured by different indicators. The network testing range is
the region which needs to be optimized and planned in the current network period.
The choice of test sites should follow the following principles: 50% of test sites is the hot
and important spots with more telephone traffic, such as: business center, railway

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

stations, airports, Important traffic roads, large user groups, the District of Embassy,
party, government, military location, Telecom business office, Telecommunications
Office, under the base station, etc. 80% of test points should be selected in urban areas
and 20% in the suburbs. 60% of test points should be chosen in the room.

2.5.2 Adjustment, implement and validation


According to evaluation result and optimization report, provide corresponding
implementing service, such as the adjustment of parameter, antennas, system hardware
and so on, as well as validation after adjusting, until the optimization target is met to
ensure the optimization efficiency.

2.6 Trouble Shooting and Complaints Analysis


ZTE provides end-to-end communication guarantee service, improves users actual
experience and responds actively to users complaint. Aiming at the inconvenience
network fault and hidden trouble bring to users, the fault is classified. Sort various user
complaint collected by the telecom operator business department to orient the fault and
reduce user complaint handling period to the maximum extent.
Start from the scene research on bad experience of user using mobile internet service in
typical area; explore suitable the telecom operator user experience promoting solution.
Through efficiency comparison before and after optimization, improve end users service
experience; summarize method to guide daily EVDO network optimization and problem
handling to reduce customer complaint.
Instruction about statistical method of user complaint times:
1.

The statistical complaint must be caused by wireless network problems and must
be valid complaint which can be solved through network optimization.

2.

The complaints with same content made by several times by the same user must
be calculated as once.

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3.

The complaints with same problem made by several times under the same wireless
environment must be calculated as once.

4.

Complaints about short message, charges, value-added- cannot be calculated as


valid complaint.

5.

Assuming ZTE network performance is influenced by the force majeure stipulated


by laws such as tsunami, earthquake, flood and so on, a large quantity of network
complaints caused accordingly cannot be calculated as valid complaint.

Figure 2-36 Intelligent analysis users complaints based on NetMAX-C

2.7 Smart Optimization Service


2.7.1 Smart Coverage Optimization Based on the NetMAX-C and ACP
As a comprehensive coverage optimization solution newly developed by ZTE, the smart
coverage optimization service based on the Call Detail Trace (CDT) and Auto Cell Plan

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(ACP) has combined the two technologies and thereby greatly improved the automaticity
and accuracy of network optimization. It features high efficiency and low costs.
Compared with the NetMAX-C-based analysis, traditional DTs and call quality tests
(CQTs) cannot detect the network coverage problems from the planar perspective and
the coverage optimization based on DTs and CQTs neglects its impact on the whole
network. Usually, the performance in the target areas is improved after the optimization,
but that in some other areas deteriorates and even more problems arise. The ACP
automatically generates a scheme to adjust RF parameters for each cell, and the data
on the whole plane is optimized. Thereby the network optimization can be performed
quickly and effectively.
Traditional ACP-based coverage optimization schemes cost a lot and the division of
propagation models is not detailed. However, if the engineers integrate the ACP
technology with the CDT coverage evaluation and analysis, they will be able to quickly
pick out the areas with coverage problems, which help reduce the investment in network
evaluation substantially and make propagation model calibration more accurate.

Figure 2-37 Flow chart of coverage optimization based on NetMAX-C and ACP

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ZTE CDMA Radio Network Optimization Proposal

Figure 2-38 Smart Coverage Optimization Based on the CDT and ACP

2.7.2 Smart Coverage Optimization Based on the NetMAX-C and T-Phone


Coverage is an eternal topic about radio networks. ZTE uses the NetMAX-C and precise
algorithms to perform smart analysis on network problems, exports information about the
areas with coverage problems such as weak coverage, overshooting, and pilot pollution,
so that the operator will be aware of those areas and then introduce network
optimization and more network construction.
Figure 2-39 1X network coverage analysis based on NetMAX-C

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Figure 2-40 DO network coverage analysis based on NetMAX-C

Through the NetMAX-C smart analysis, ZTEs radio network optimization (RNO)
engineers export information about the areas with coverage problems. For areas where
drive tests (DTs) are needed but vehicles cannot move easily, the test engineers just
need a T_PHONE handset to collect various radio data. After that, the RNO engineers
will analyze problems with the ZXPOS software to work out a pertinent RF adjustment
scheme or propose deployment of new sites.

Figure 2-41 smart coverage optimization based on the NetMAX-C and T-Phone

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2.7.3 Indoor Coverage Optimization Based on the NetMAX-C and Gecko


In the 3G era, with more mobile network subscribers, the average traffic in buildings is
becoming denser. Most services will be indoor it is expected that 90% of the EVDO
PS services will be indoor and 80% of the commercial subscribers that can bring high
values to the operator will work indoors. In the tall office buildings, plazas, and areas
densely populated with mobile subscribers, outdoor macro cells cannot meet the
demand on coverage capacity any more.
Through the NetMAX-C-based smart analysis, ZTE exports information about the indoor
distribution systems that have blind zones. If it is hard to deploy indoor distribution
systems due to the property owners rejects or difficulties in engineering, the engineers
can use the Gecko to achieve low-cost coverage with a and quickly eliminate blind
zones. At the same time, for massive subscriber flows and high traffic, the engineers can
use the Gecko to achieve large-capacity coverage.

Figure 2-42 Indoor Coverage Optimization Based on the NetMAX-C and Gecko

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2.8 QoE Evaluation and Optimization Service


2.8.1 The Evaluation System of 1X Subscribers QoE
ZTE has established a subscribers QoE (Quality of experience) evaluation system by
taking account of accessing failure events, call drop events, abnormal calls, highly FER
events and bad ECIO events. The system evaluates the subscribers access feeling,
continued feeling, voice quality feeling and the feeling in idle state.
The aim of the evaluation system is to evaluate and optimize the subscribers QoE.
The evaluation system marks every subscribers QoE, and divides subscribers into four
ranks:

Table 2-1 Rank of 1X subscribers QoE


Score

Ranks

[95,100]

excellent

[80,95]

good

[60,80]

acceptable

[0,60]

bad

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Figure 2-43 Flow chart of 1X Subscribers QoE Evaluation

Figure 2-44 CDF of voice users QoE

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1.

Pre-warning users care


The subscribers who always feel bad should be given more concerns because they
may quit the network soon because of bad QOE. Those users are called prewarning users.
For excample as the following figure shows , high call drop rates was the main
cause that makes the pre-warning user(IMSI: 460030982705023) felt bad.
Figure 2-45 Diagram of pre-warning users QoE optimization

Expert team analyzes the call records of this IMSI and lists all sectors that the user
roamed in. It was convenient to analyze the drop cause and get a solution to
improve this users QOE as below:
Figure 2-46 Call drop analysis for QoE optimization

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2.

VIP care
The VIP subscribers have the high APU values and high loyalty to the network.
Maintaining good relationships with VIP subscribers will not only affect the current
operating performance and may affect the development prospects of the network.
So to enhance the VIP subscribers QOE is one of the most important things.
The NetMAX-C can do this job very well. The VIP subscribers are divided into
different groups according to their feature. Concerning about every VIP groups
QOE changing. The CDT gives the solution to improve the quality of the network
that affects them before they get a bad feeling.
Figure 2-47 VIP users QoE distribution

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2.8.2 The Evaluation System of EVDO Subscribers QoE


1.

QoE of service
EVDO networks support various applications based on data exchanging, different
application duration. Data rate and other KPI must be considered during user
feeling evaluation. But there are different key points for different application. For
example, call drop rate is more essential to data rate in MSM application, the MSN
users pay more attention to send and receive the message right away, but data rate
is much more essential than call drop in FTP download applications. So, it is
needed to identify the service type of the subscribers before evaluation their QoE.
The measure of service classification and actual corresponding applications are
showing as below:
Table 2-2 EVDO service classification
Service Type

Actual Application

Download1

Excellent FTP/BT download, excellent VOD etc.

Download2

Normal FTP/BT download, normal VOD etc.

BigBurst

Website visiting etc.

LittleBurst

MSN, WAP etc.

Symmtrcl

VOIP, Video conferencing etc.

Upload

Upload, adjunct sending etc.

Other

Other (Call ratio of other type is generally less than 3%)

The purpose of service classification is to assign a service type to every actual


application. One application has only one service type. The KPI to compare with
thresholds of service models is calculated at the beginning of the classification, a
service type will be assigned when the matching from the application property and
one service model is confirmed. In case that one actual call measures up to two or
more service models, the classification must be executed in the order: Symmtrcl >
Download1 > Download2 > Upload > BigBurst > LittleBurst > Other.
The procedure of service classification is shown in the picture below:

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Figure 2-48 Procedure of service classification and QoE evaluation

Evaluate the QoE of each subscriber base on different service type.


2.

KPI of subscribers
KPI in EVDO are divided into three classes:
i.

Data rate relative KPI;


It consists of DRC rate, FL/RL RLP rate, FL schedule rate; RL burst rate and
FL/RL RLP retransmission rate. These KPI reflect users feeling in the
procedure of data communication.

ii.

Connection relative KPI;


Connection setup success ratio, connection setup failure rate due to overload,
connection drop rate, page response rate etc. Those KPI reflect the users
experience in the beginning and end of the connections.

iii.

User habit relative KPI.


Online duration, average connection duration, forward/reverse throughput.
Those KPI have little relative to the network performance, but it can be applied
to analyze users behavior habit and predict user behavior.
Just as 1X QoE evaluation, EVDO QoE evaluation can be use to optimize prewarning user sand pay close attention to VIP care.

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2.8.3 Special Topics for EVDO Optimization


2.8.3.1 EVDO Cell Coverage Analysis
Evaluation of cell forward RF performance bases on cells DRC rate. Compared to
forward physical burst rate, the advantage of cells DRC rate is continual sampling of
DRC value during connection and DRC reflect real forward C/I value.
Forward RF evaluated from two dimensions: Connection and user.
There are three aspects in RF evaluation except cell DRC average rate, including oneway delay distribution, active set size distribution. One-way delay distribution shows
samples in different distance from base station. Active set size distribution shows one
PNs samples ratio, two PNs samples ratio, three PNs samples ratio, four PNs samples
ratio by active set size statistics. DRC rate distribution shows different DRC Value
samples ratio in cell coverage.
In cell active set topic analysis, it lists all the active set which includes the analyzing cell,
and the corresponding DRC, the analyzing cell serving ratio and the corresponding
users connection records and so on.

Figure 2-49 EVDO cell coverage analysis based on NetMAX-C

From the analysis above, it is possible to figure out the reasons for low DRC to guide the
cell coverage optimization.

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2.8.3.2 EVDO Cell Capacity Analysis


EVDO forward link is time duplex, which is shared by multiple forward users. Although
reverse link is code duplex, the interference caused by multi-user reduces the reverse
throughput as users increase above a certain number. It is mainly said that EVDO QoE
decrease as users increase.
Cell capacity evaluation includes forward and reverse link. Forward capacity is
measured according to each users available physical bandwidth, which means the
users schedule rate when there is any queued data traffic. Reverse capacity is
measured by reverse load weight, which is calculated according to RAB busy ratio,
maximum user number, minimum user number.
In order not to mislead by the users in bad RF condition, it is necessary to consider the
data rate in bad RF condition and good RF condition. If users data rate is very bad in
good RF condition, the corresponding cell needs expansion.
Relative KPI: super-busy call rate, user forward/reverse physical average through put.
Use call records to analyze the present cell capacity and give out the expansion advice
for cells and carriers.

Figure 2-50 Flow chart of EVDO Cell Capacity Analysis

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Figure 2-51 EVDO cell capacity analysis based on NetMAX-C

2.8.3.3 Abis Link Capacity Analysis


Abis link impacts forward and reverse performance in EVDO. Through analysis for Abis
link DO forward flow control mechanisms and relevant KPI of packet loss/disorder, we
are able to know if the DO flow control parameter, Abis link delay, Abis link bandwidth,
Abis link packet loss/disorder is the constraint to DOs forward performance in order to
eliminate the bottleneck of the Abis link.
According to the connection records, we are able to evaluate the impact of Abis link to
the subscribers performance. The list of abnormal cell with Abis problems will be listed
to have adjustment or expansion.

Figure 2-52 Abis link capacity analysis based on NetMAX-C

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2.8.4 VIP Districts Optimization


Where are VIP districts coming from?
1.

Dense urban, high traffic districts, high packet through put districts.

2.

VIP roaming district according to QoE evaluation

3.

Other districts appointed by the telecom operator.

Optimization methods:
1.

Estimate and locate the exact issue position.

2.

Analyze by the aforesaid methods, e.g. neighbor analysis, PN analysis, cell


coverage analysis, EVDO cell capacity analysis, Abis link performance analysis,
EVDO cell coverage analysis and so on.

3.

Optimize the district according to step 2.

4.

Use DT and CQT if necessary.

For example, t is easy to determine the VIP district as traffic is displayed as the following
figure:

Figure 2-53 VIP areas traffic district based on NetMAX-C

With the help of high precision map, it is possible to estimate the main traffic distribution
districts, such as uptown and downtown.

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Figure 2-54 Diagram of high precision map

If it is difficult to locate the exact position, it is convenient to call the roaming users with
the help of user QoE evaluation and locate the position.
The coverage analysis of relative cell in the district:

Figure 2-55 Cell coverage analysis based on NetMAX-C

It is convenient to use neighbor optimization, PN optimization, cell coverage optimization


to optimize the VIP district by ZTE solution.

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2.9 Optimization Service Reports List


According to above optimization service in this chapter the main optimization reports
will be exported as following:

Table 2-3 Optimization service report list


S.N.

Documents Name

Remark

Network health check report

Network performance monitoring report

Periodic

1X subscribers experience evaluation

Comparison between pre

report

and post optimization

DO subscribers experience evaluation

Comparison between pre

report

and post optimization

TOP N sites &Cells optimization report

As per requirements

Neighbor optimization report

PN optimization report

Cell coverage analysis and optimization

report
9

EVDO special optimization report

10

VIP area optimization report

11

Customer complaint analysis report

As per requirements

12

DT and CQT test and optimization report

As per requirements

13

Access performance special optimization


report

14

Call drop performance special


optimization report

15

Handoff performance special optimization


report

16

Operation and Development of support


service analysis report

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Note:The above serial number is only for descriptionis not for the export sequence
of the reports. The export sequence of the reports will depend on the actual optimization
progress.

3 Organization
3.1 Organization Principle
Network optimization project is an organized, scientific management system project.
Before the project starting, we should analyze user requirement, network data, network
operating

conditions

and

other

information.

Confirm

the

project

objectives,

implementation methods, detailed plans, personnel division and resource arrangements


by project plan.
Network optimization project to project team as a unit takes charge of all responsibilities
of optimization. Project team configures staffs, equipments, transport, cost, etc. Team
results-oriented, organize and assess its members, to ensure successful implementation
of projects by project management means.
Consider the effectiveness and workload requirements, according to the size of the
network size and coverage area for the division principle, the establishment of one or
more project groups. Generally the smallest unit is local network, set up the project
team.

3.2 Organization Structure


Generally, each group of network optimization project set up the following positions:
Network optimization manager, project manager, network optimization engineer, test
engineer, system engineer, and BSS engineer. Additional support staffs include tower
worker, supporting engineer and other external support resources, these positions may
be provided by other equipment manufacturers or users support staff.

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In principle, the total numbers of a project group is about 5 to 10, according to operators
of the final acceptance of the KPI and the progress of the project to revise the staffing.
Project team takes charge of all coordination of internal and external human and
resources. The required equipment of optimization implementation will be provided or
configured by the ZTE in principle.

Figure 3-56 Optimization project team structure

3.3 Position Definition


3.3.1 Project Manager
The duties of a Project Manager are as follows:

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Firstly, take charge of establish a comprehensive, complete, practical working


implementation of the plan.
Secondly, take charge of solve the resource requirements, complete communication and
coordination with the customer.
Thirdly, take charge of report the progress of network optimization services to customer
and relevant departments.
Fourthly, take charge of all project sub-project management, coordination and control,
supervise sub-project team members to work. Urge the project team to complete plans
and objectives according to established project objectives.
Lastly, administer and evaluate optimization engineers, test engineers, station
engineers, and the background to support the work of engineers and support staff.

3.3.2 Network Optimization Manager


Manager should manage, coordinate and control all engineering projects, audit the
quality and process of the project; check project teams working achievement; deploy
and harmonize human resources, software and hardware. Network optimization
manager should take the primary responsibility for the optimization projects.

3.3.3 System Engineer


The duties of a system engineer are as follows:
Firstly, take charge of technical work all sided, guide network optimization engineer, test
engineer, BSS engineer, plan steps of the whole projects.
Secondly, explain the demands of network optimization, constitute working plan of
network optimization, and distribute tasks.
Thirdly, confirm network test reports and special reports submitted by network
optimization engineering, take charge of finding the root causes of holistic network
issues, and organize to find the solution of optimization and the implementation plan.

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Fourthly, supervise and evaluate the quality of all related work, and check the technical
work of the team members.
Fifthly, bring forward requirements of resource or cooperation, and seek help from the
project manager.
Lastly, organize to check the effect of network optimization, and take charge of the
technical support of network optimization acceptance.

3.3.4 Network Optimization Engineer


The duties of a network optimization engineer are as follows:
Firstly, collect and analyze CQT & DT data submitted by test engineer.
Secondly, find the cause of bad coverage and interference.
Thirdly, analyze test data and statistical performance data.
Lastly, complete the analysis of special test or area test, and submit the analysis reports
to the system engineer.

3.3.5 BSS Engineer


The duties of a BSS engineer are as follows:
Firstly, network data extraction, analysis and parameter modification, analysis of
performance reports, provide reference data optimization.
Secondly, validate the results of implementation.
Thirdly, monitor operational status and alarm of equipment, conductor processing
equipments failure.

3.3.6 Test Engineer


The duties of a test engineer are as follows:
Firstly, the network drive test by test tools, including the optimization of CQT, DT testing.

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Secondly, be able to

analysis, locating of general issues and network

barriers.
3.3.7 Support staff
Including the coordinator, tower workers and pilots so on
Firstly, finish the corresponding auxiliary work responsibilities.
Secondly, Professional pilots generally by the client as to guide our staff for network
drive test, survey the road and site identification, assist in statistics, records.
Lastly, the coordinator deal with the general external communication and daily work.

4 Project Report Mechanisms


These network devices between the port mode if not, will lead the crowd packet loss,
affecting rates
To ensure the project goes ahead smoothly, ZTE and the telecom operator work
together, and establish such rules for reporting.
Weekly report: every Monday, organized by project manager, related personnel report
project status and existent problems, and discuss the plan of the week.
Monthly report: on the first day of every month, organized by project manager, related
personnel report project status and existent problems, discuss the plan of the following
month and confirm milestones of the project for primary works.
Brief reports for key points: network optimization manager should feed back to the
project team for these serious issues. Also, network optimization manager should follow
these issues and inform the latest status to the project team by email.
Document output: weekly report, monthly report, network plan report, network
optimization report should be submitted on time.

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5 Service Work Flow


The processes of wireless network optimization can be divided three stage, there include
Project preparation, Performance Testing and Optimal adjustment. The following service
procedures are applicable to CDMA networks. For the network equipment of other
vendors, service procedures need to be adjusted.

Figure 5-57 Radio network optimization basic flow

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5.1 Project Preparation


1.

Project Start

After both sides signed the contract of the network optimization services, ZTE local office
Manager will be appointed as project manager.
2.

Project Coordination
i.

Input content: summarize the system problems raised by customers

ii.

Output content: Work plan"

iii.

Purpose: Through full communication with customer, to obtain the customer


overall evaluation for the system operations, and investigate the type and
severity of current system problem, to discuss the phase content of the work
wireless network optimization, scheduling and resource requirements.

iv.

Work content: Project manager coordinating the establishment of network


optimization team, the network optimization team compile detailed "work plan"
together for the customer: Project managers and clients held coordination
meeting, the project manager and project team leader will participate in project
coordination, communicate with customers to discuss the work plan (draft),
feedback customer idea, through the adjustment of plan content by internal
coordination mechanisms , ultimately with the customer achieved final
agreements. Project manager and project leader will modify "work plan,"
according to conference content, and submit a formal "work plan" to customer.
"Work

plan

should

explain

Phase

content,

scheduling,

manpower

requirements, equipment requirements and so on


3.

Set up Project team


i.

Conditions: According to the needs of human resources and equipments


defined by the working plan.

ii.

Working content: according to team member's quality and personal ability,


project leader arranges corresponding working position. Make sure the

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operation or management of equipments is in the charge of corresponding


members.

5.2 Performance Test


The current stage corresponds to performance test, evaluation, and wireless network
optimization suggestion service.
1.

Set up a working team


i.

Purpose: Assign resource rationally, guarantee job schedule and job quality of
test stage.

ii.

Work content:
The project leader and the system analysis engineer assign manpower and
material resource according to the working plan ,including forming data
analysis network optimization DT group , network point test group , material
group etc. ,
The project leader is responsible for communicating with the customer,
deploying technician, navigation member, driver and means of transportation
for every group.

2.

Collect data
i.

Input content: Provide customer with Systematic original data

ii.

Output content: Test Schedule

iii.

Purpose: Collect and arrange the systematic original data, in order to provide
a basis for analysis, testing and optimization.

iv.

Work content:
Analysis group propose the need of original data and systematic material
group is responsible for communicating with customer to collect material

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Analysis group brings forward the testing scheme aiming at network


optimization content on basis of the whole material.
3.

DT
i.

Input content: Test scheme

ii.

Output content: DT report

iii.

Purpose: DT is fast and large-scale local test, providing basis for the whole
analyses valuation of the network situation.

iv.

work content: DT group uses DT instrument to test assigned area according to


test scheme, records the result, and put forward improvement suggestion, at
the same time writes DT report.

4.

CQT test
i.

Input content: Test scheme

ii.

Output content: CQT test report

iii.

Purpose: The CQT test is particular local test which focuses on the problem
area, providing basis for analysis and optimization of part area.

iv.

Work content: Point test group makes the


according to test scheme

call

test for problem area

, cooperating with the reason of fixing failure

position and put forwards solution suggestion , at the same time writes a
point test report
5.

Data analysis
i.

Input content: DT report, point test report

ii.

Output content: Optimization and adjusting scheme

iii.

Work content
Analysis group counts and extracts network performance index, estimating
that the network quality, composing system condition report, according to DT

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report and point test report analyzing existing problem, and putting forward
optimization adjusting measure, composing an optimization adjusting scheme
The project leader submits an optimization adjusting scheme to the customer,
under system analysis engineer cooperation communicates and discusses
feasibility and resource need of the scheme. According to customer idea
revises in time, makes agreement with the customer finally.

5.3 Optimization Implement


The current stage corresponds to project implementation and conforming module
1.

Set up a working team


i.

Purpose: Assign resource rationally, guarantee job schedule and job quality of
optimization adjusting stage.

ii.

Work content:
The project leader and the system analysis engineer assign manpower and
material resource according to the optimization adjusting scheme, forming
network optimization group , BTS optimization group etc. ,
The project leader is responsible for communicating with the customer,
deploying technician, navigation member, driver and means of transportation
for optimization group.

2.

The optimizing and adjusting of network


i.

Input content : Optimization adjusting scheme

ii.

Purpose
Adjusting allocation of resource on the network side rationally, lifting system
stability and carrying quality.

iii.

Work content:

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Network optimization group according to optimization adjusting scheme


finishes adjusting parameters of network side.
The material group according to optimization adjusting result, builds or revises
relative system material.
3.

The optimizing and adjusting of BTS


i.

Input content: Optimization adjusting scheme

ii.

Purpose:
Adjusting allocation of resource on the BTS side rationally, lifting stability of
the equipment, improve network quality.

iii.

Work content:
The BTS optimizing group according to optimization adjusting scheme,
finishes adjusting, failure maintenance of the antenna and wireless
parameters on the BTS side.
The material group according to the optimization adjusting result on the BTS
side builds or revises relative system material.

4.

The confirmation of optimization effect


i.

Purpose: Make impersonal exact evaluation of optimization adjusting effect.

ii.

Work content:
Analysis group extracts and counts the system performance index optimized,
evaluating network quality, writing system condition report, and comparing
with data before optimization.
Test group tests problem area again by DT or point test, writing DT report or
point test report, and comparing with data before optimization.
The project leader is responsible for communicating with the customers, by
local test and statics table methods and so on .according to working plan

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making assess index to evaluate effect after optimization adjusting. If


demonstration cannot satisfy customer need, then this wireless optimization
should return to test stage and restart.
After the customer approves optimization adjustment effect, the material group
arranges the relative report of analysis and test group composes optimization
adjusting summary report, contrasting with the index of system performance
before and after optimization and explaining.
5.

Project summary meeting


i.

Purpose: Make working summary of this project; submit relative system


material to customers

ii.

Work content:
The project leader sums up working quality of this stage on inside convention,
announces examining and award and punishment measure of the project
members.
The project leader and the system analysis engineer make a summary report
to customers on this wireless optimization, submit system material which is
relative with optimization and adjusting and make an explanation.
End this wireless network optimization after customer approves.

6 Service Requirements and Range


6.1 Equipment requirements
Equipment operates normally. All functions and performance of the equipments are
normal, no alarm happens.
To ensure equipment can renew ASAP when equipment has trouble, network equipment
should have some redundancy

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Customer should clear interference sources which affect network running to ensure
network operating normally under normal wireless network circumstance. If network
optimization team found that system index is bad due to external interference, customer
should contact to Radio Management Community to eliminate the interference.
Offer convenience to reach site. Companies who are responsible of electricity source,
transmission and repeater should cooperate with ZTE. Customers provide all kinds of
condition of convenience to get in or out of each site, which is convenient to cooperate
with electricity source, transmission, and repeater and other company.
Customer should offer maintaining terminal, to ensure that optimization engineer can get
data of system performance. Also, customer should offer printer to print data and reports
for related network performance and forward and reverse coverage of network.

6.2 Document Requirements


Both sided should agree the aim and content of network optimization. Customer should
offer previous reports about network plan and optimization.
Customer should offer network optimization team documents related to network
optimization such as BTS information, system parameters, and material. Customer
should ensure BTS information, system parameters, and material which are offered to
network optimization completely, exactly and on time. If network optimization team find
BTS information, system parameters, and material which is offered by customers
incorrect ,or incomplete, network optimization has power to require customers to padded
or revise BTS information, system parameters, and material.

7 Responsibility Matrix
The responsibility matrix depends on project phase, and it can be modified as per
customer requirements. Please see Table 7 -4

Table 7-4 Responsibility Matrix

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index

Work contents

customer

ZTE

Remark
S

Performance data
collection
1

Intercommunication

about customers
demands
2

Complain center data

collection
3

OMC data collection

Switches and MSC data

Single Base station

collection

Check
1

Antenna installation
check

Parameters check

BS status check

Collect problems;

Radio data collection

DT test

CQT test

Network evaluation

Voice service

prepare improvement
plan
5

BTS function
improvement

Check or spot-check the


improvement result

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index

Work contents

customer

ZTE

Remark

Network coverage

evaluation
2

Call success rate

Call drop rate

Call voice quality

Average call duration

Data service

Forward data rate

Backward data rate

Call delay

Performance evaluation

Network evaluation

Wireless suggestion

Export adjustment

Implementation of the

report

programs about BS
2

Confirm adjustment

programs about BS

project
1

Adjustment of antenna

Adjustment of system

parameter
3

Troubleshooting

Find the source of


interference

Eliminate the
interference source

authentication

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index

Work contents

customer

Add sites

ZTE

Remark

Acceptance and

The specific

summarization
1

both sides confirmed the

specific requirements of

requirements of

testing

test route, test


points and the
test time and so
on must be
confirmed

Test evaluation

Compose network

optimization analysis
report
4

Submit report and


intercommunication

Confirm whether the


results reach the
contract demands

Contract check and sign

Instruments
interface(contract should
define which side offer
these instruments)
1

Driving test equipment

Analysis equipment

Frequency scanning

equipment
4

Simulation equipment

Network planning

equipment

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8 Resource Requirements and Configuration


8.1 Human resources requirement and configuration
Table 8-5 Project human resources requirement and configuration condition
Project human requirement
position

configured

need

num

Plan time to

responsi

solve

bility

ber
Project manager

Optimization manager

RF Engineersystem

engineer
Back-ground support

engineer (system
engineer)
Test engineer

10

Tower engineer

Maintenance engineer

8.2 Equipment resource requirement and configuration


Table 8-6 Project equipment requirement and configuration condition
Project equipment requirement
Name

number

CNT

10

CNA

17

NetMAX-C

Test phone

10

Test SIM card

10

EVDO test card

10

Portable computer

19

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configured

need

Plan time to

responsi

solve

bility

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Project equipment requirement


Digital camera

Compass

Laser range finder

Gradient

configured

need

Plan time to

responsi

solve

bility

apparatus
GPS

10

Car Inverter

10

8.3 Other Configuration


Aimed at Optimization of the indoor part of the campus, ZTE provides hand-held test
devices T-phone, which can improve the efficiency of indoor distribution test, leading to
an increased distribution of the test area and better reflecting the signal condition of the
indoor distribution room.
Aimed at optimized for the project, ZTE

provides call detailed tracking of analysis

service , the rear network optimization expert team by analyzing the data through
dialogue can reflect and discover more comprehensively network problems and the
efficiency of the optimization will be improved significantly. In addition, the rear team of
experts can face the user to optimize and analyze, which has a direct promotion role of
the user experience.

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