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1-D Displacement

A.Auriault

FRONTAL DISPLACEMENT

I
III
Sor

IV
ER
T
A
W

II
F
R
O
N
T

OIL

Swi

MULTIPHASE FLOW

In 3 dimensions and for each fluid


DARCY s law

k
r
r
q =
A grad P

Material balance

r (S)
div V +
=0
t

Equation of state

1
Ce =
P T

Assumptions needed to ease understanding of the physical


phenomena

FRONTAL DISPLACEMENT THEORY

Assumptions
- 1D Displacement
- 2 Non compressible & non miscible fluids
- Homogeneous and water wet medium
- Displacement of oil by injected water at steady flowrate
Playing forces : Viscous, Capillary & Gravity
Fractional flow :

fw = qw / qt
= water rate / (oil + water) rate

(qw, qt expressed in reservoir conditions)


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FRONTAL DISPLACEMENT THEORY

qT

qw
qo

In a cross section of thickness dx,


ratio qw / qo only depends on water
saturation of the cross section

dx
DARCY

qo =

ko A dPo

o
dx

qw =

kw A dPw

w
dx

qw
fw =
qw + qo
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FRONTAL DISPLACEMENT THEORY

If the sample is titled then:

dx

+
Sign convention for

Gravity ==> Pressure effect


Pg = gh

Gradient

g h
= g sin ( )
dx

Gravity+ viscous forces for 2 fluids


qo =

ko A dPo

+ o g sin
o dx

qw =

kw A dPw

+ w g sin
w
dx

FRONTAL DISPLACEMENT THEORY

As Pc= Po-Pw
and using the 2 previous equations, on can derive:

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fw =

A.ko dPc

(w o).g.sin()
o.qT dx

w.ko
1+
o.kw

As Pc is a function of Sw ==> dPc/dx=f(Sw) and


ko&kw=f(Sw)

==> fw only depends on Sw

BUCKLEY-LEVERETT THEORY

Assuming only viscous forces :


no capillarity => PC=0

no gravity => = 0

fw
1

1
fw =
w .k o
1+
o.k w
Swi

1-Sor

Sw

BUCKLEY-LEVERETT THEORY

qT

qw
qo

dx
This model allows easy computation of the main parameters of the
displacement:
- Water saturation at the front
- Breakthrough time of water at the producing well
- Variation of fw and oil production as a function of time

SPEED OF A SLICE OF A GIVEN SATURATION Sw


From material balance:
x.

(A S w ). t =
t

Variation of quantity of water


in a slice of the porous media
of a thickness x,
during the time t

(f w . q ) . x . t
x
=

Variation of quantity of water


which flows during t
between the input and the
output of the slice

Sw is function of x & t
Slice saturation is constant (dSw=0)

q
dfw
dx
T

=
dt Sw A dSw
==> SPEED OF A SLICE WITH GIVEN SATURATION IS CONSTANT AS IT
ONLY DEPENDS ON THE SATURATION
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LOCATION OF A SATURATION SLICE (of a given Sw)

Integration with time gives:

x (Sw ) xi (Sw ) =

qT dfw

t
A dSw

fw
1
Graphical assessment of dfw/dSw in A:

fw2
fw1

= Tangent on A to the curve fw (Sw)


= (fw2-fw1)/(Sw1-Sw2)

Swi Sw1 Sw2 1-Sor

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LOCATION OF A SATURATION SLICE

production

XA

Sw
injection

Swi

2 solutions !

1-Sor

Not possible to have 2 saturations at the same location XA =>


need additional assumption : non continuity of saturation or
concept of front and of saturation at front SwF
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LOCATION OF THE FRONT

How to derive XF, i.e. location of the front at a given time t ?

x
xF
A
Swi SwF

Sw
1-Sor

All injected water is located behind the front.


Injected water is shown as the surface of the curve x(Sw) in between Swi and
==> Areas of the curves need to be equivalent i.e. :

XF

( S wF S wi ) =

x. dS
Sw F

Swi

As both curves have the

A area in common
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LOCATION OF THE FRONT

At front, the following can be written


Swf

x f (Swf Swi ) =
x dSw
Swi

xf =

q T dfw

t
A dSw

i.e. combining the 2 equations

q T df w

A dSw

df
S q
t (SwF - Swi ) = wf T w t dSw
S wi A dS
S wf
w S w

For a given time t, and as qT, and A are constant

df w

dSw

f (S ) f w (Swi )
= w wf
Swf Swi
S wf

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WELGE TANGENT METHOD

df w

dSw

f w (Swf ) f w (Swi )
=
Swf Swi
S wf

==> Line joining points A to B is tangent to the fw(Sw) curve at the


point where Sw=SwF

fw
1

WELGE METHOD:
Line tangent to curve fw(Sw)
starting at Swi gives the
saturation at front SwF

Swi

SwF1-Sor

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WELGE TANGENT METHOD

Similarly, one could derive that the intersect of the tangent with
fw =1 gives the average saturation behind the front Swm
fw
1

Swi

1-Sor
Swm

Swi SwF

Sw
1-Sor

Swm

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SPEED OF THE FRONT

Applying on the front what has been derived previously, one


derives:

Vfront

q T df w
dx
=
=

dt Swf A dSw

Swf

Welge tangent method gives:

df w

dSw

i.e. :

f w (Swf ) f w (Swi ) f w (Swm ) f w (Swi )


1

=
=
=
Swf Swi
Swm Swi
Swm Swi
Swf
Vfront

qT
1
=

A Swm Swi
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DISPLACEMENT CHARACTERISTICS

If L is the distance in between injection and production sides

L A.(Swm - Swi )
TBT =
=
Vfront
qT
L

(BT stands for Breakthrough)

At any time dt after breakthrough, we get

V(Sw)

df w
qT
L
=
=

A dS w S
Tbreakthrou gh + t
w

=> At dt, V(Sw) can be computed, then dfw/dSw and then fw at t


=> fw as a function of time can therefore be derived

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SATURATION PROFILES

Injection

Production

1-Sor
T4
T1

SwF

T2

T3= breakthrough

Swi

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BUCKLEY-LEVERETT THEORY

Displacement of oil by water along 1 direction :


- oil ahead of front at (1-Swi)
- oil + water behind front (Swm)

Speed of a slice of saturation is known and constant


X(SwF) can be computed
Time at breakthrough can be computed
fw = F(t)

Very useful for quick look screening of water injection process

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IMPACT OF CAPILLARY EFFECTS

Pc Depends upon Sw

A k o dPc
1

o q T dx
fw =
k
1+ w o
o k w

Problem difficult to solve

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IMPACT OF CAPILLARY EFFECTS

x
Small injection rate

High injection rate

Sw
Swi

SwF

1-Sor

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IMPACT OF CAPILLARY EFFECTS

Pc depends upon Sw

Effect sensitive to Sw discontinuities


- at front (SwF)
- at entry/injection side
- at producing side (SwF ==> 1-Sor)

Most important impact at front

Spreads front
- earlier water breakthrough
- unfavorable for homogeneous reservoir

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IMPACT OF GRAVITY

A ko
(( w o ) g sin )
1+
o qT
fw =
w ko
1+
o k w

+
Sign convention for

Injection from bottom


- Gravity tends to keep water down
- fw proportional to the difference of densities
- better recovery of oil displaced by water

Injection from top


- Gravity accelerates water
- bad impact on stability of front & recovery

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IMPACT OF GRAVITY

With impact of gravity


injection from bottom to top

Sw
Swi

SwF

1-Sor

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CONCLUSIONS

Displacement of oil by water in 1 direction (impact of viscous


forces)

Qualitative impact of capillary and gravity forces

Method with limitations

Need numerical simulator to study 3-dimensional effects

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BACK-UP
A.Auriault

LOCATION OF THE FRONT

How to derive XF, i.e. location of the front at a given time t ?

x
xF
A
Swi

SwF

Sw
1-Sor

All injected water is located behind the front.


Injected water is shown as the surface of the curve x(Sw) in between Swi and
==> Areas of the curves need to be equivalent i.e. :

xF (SwF Swi ) = Sw
Swi x dSw
F

As both curves have the


A area in common
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