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4 - 1D Displacement - Equation 3

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A.Auriault

FRONTAL DISPLACEMENT

I

III

Sor

IV

ER

T

A

W

II

F

R

O

N

T

OIL

Swi

MULTIPHASE FLOW

DARCY s law

k

r

r

q =

A grad P

Material balance

r (S)

div V +

=0

t

Equation of state

1

Ce =

P T

phenomena

Assumptions

- 1D Displacement

- 2 Non compressible & non miscible fluids

- Homogeneous and water wet medium

- Displacement of oil by injected water at steady flowrate

Playing forces : Viscous, Capillary & Gravity

Fractional flow :

fw = qw / qt

= water rate / (oil + water) rate

4

qT

qw

qo

ratio qw / qo only depends on water

saturation of the cross section

dx

DARCY

qo =

ko A dPo

o

dx

qw =

kw A dPw

w

dx

qw

fw =

qw + qo

5

dx

+

Sign convention for

Pg = gh

Gradient

g h

= g sin ( )

dx

qo =

ko A dPo

+ o g sin

o dx

qw =

kw A dPw

+ w g sin

w

dx

As Pc= Po-Pw

and using the 2 previous equations, on can derive:

1

fw =

A.ko dPc

(w o).g.sin()

o.qT dx

w.ko

1+

o.kw

ko&kw=f(Sw)

BUCKLEY-LEVERETT THEORY

no capillarity => PC=0

no gravity => = 0

fw

1

1

fw =

w .k o

1+

o.k w

Swi

1-Sor

Sw

BUCKLEY-LEVERETT THEORY

qT

qw

qo

dx

This model allows easy computation of the main parameters of the

displacement:

- Water saturation at the front

- Breakthrough time of water at the producing well

- Variation of fw and oil production as a function of time

From material balance:

x.

(A S w ). t =

t

in a slice of the porous media

of a thickness x,

during the time t

(f w . q ) . x . t

x

=

which flows during t

between the input and the

output of the slice

Sw is function of x & t

Slice saturation is constant (dSw=0)

q

dfw

dx

T

=

dt Sw A dSw

==> SPEED OF A SLICE WITH GIVEN SATURATION IS CONSTANT AS IT

ONLY DEPENDS ON THE SATURATION

10

x (Sw ) xi (Sw ) =

qT dfw

t

A dSw

fw

1

Graphical assessment of dfw/dSw in A:

fw2

fw1

= (fw2-fw1)/(Sw1-Sw2)

11

production

XA

Sw

injection

Swi

2 solutions !

1-Sor

need additional assumption : non continuity of saturation or

concept of front and of saturation at front SwF

12

x

xF

A

Swi SwF

Sw

1-Sor

Injected water is shown as the surface of the curve x(Sw) in between Swi and

==> Areas of the curves need to be equivalent i.e. :

XF

( S wF S wi ) =

x. dS

Sw F

Swi

A area in common

13

Swf

x f (Swf Swi ) =

x dSw

Swi

xf =

q T dfw

t

A dSw

q T df w

A dSw

df

S q

t (SwF - Swi ) = wf T w t dSw

S wi A dS

S wf

w S w

df w

dSw

f (S ) f w (Swi )

= w wf

Swf Swi

S wf

14

df w

dSw

f w (Swf ) f w (Swi )

=

Swf Swi

S wf

point where Sw=SwF

fw

1

WELGE METHOD:

Line tangent to curve fw(Sw)

starting at Swi gives the

saturation at front SwF

Swi

SwF1-Sor

15

Similarly, one could derive that the intersect of the tangent with

fw =1 gives the average saturation behind the front Swm

fw

1

Swi

1-Sor

Swm

Swi SwF

Sw

1-Sor

Swm

16

derives:

Vfront

q T df w

dx

=

=

dt Swf A dSw

Swf

df w

dSw

i.e. :

1

=

=

=

Swf Swi

Swm Swi

Swm Swi

Swf

Vfront

qT

1

=

A Swm Swi

17

DISPLACEMENT CHARACTERISTICS

L A.(Swm - Swi )

TBT =

=

Vfront

qT

L

V(Sw)

df w

qT

L

=

=

A dS w S

Tbreakthrou gh + t

w

=> fw as a function of time can therefore be derived

18

SATURATION PROFILES

Injection

Production

1-Sor

T4

T1

SwF

T2

T3= breakthrough

Swi

19

BUCKLEY-LEVERETT THEORY

- oil ahead of front at (1-Swi)

- oil + water behind front (Swm)

X(SwF) can be computed

Time at breakthrough can be computed

fw = F(t)

20

Pc Depends upon Sw

A k o dPc

1

o q T dx

fw =

k

1+ w o

o k w

21

x

Small injection rate

Sw

Swi

SwF

1-Sor

22

Pc depends upon Sw

- at front (SwF)

- at entry/injection side

- at producing side (SwF ==> 1-Sor)

Spreads front

- earlier water breakthrough

- unfavorable for homogeneous reservoir

23

IMPACT OF GRAVITY

A ko

(( w o ) g sin )

1+

o qT

fw =

w ko

1+

o k w

+

Sign convention for

- Gravity tends to keep water down

- fw proportional to the difference of densities

- better recovery of oil displaced by water

- Gravity accelerates water

- bad impact on stability of front & recovery

24

IMPACT OF GRAVITY

injection from bottom to top

Sw

Swi

SwF

1-Sor

25

CONCLUSIONS

forces)

26

BACK-UP

A.Auriault

x

xF

A

Swi

SwF

Sw

1-Sor

Injected water is shown as the surface of the curve x(Sw) in between Swi and

==> Areas of the curves need to be equivalent i.e. :

xF (SwF Swi ) = Sw

Swi x dSw

F

A area in common

28

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