PHYSICS 2001 National Qualifying Examination

SOLUTIONS
SECTION A - Multiple Choice
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11 Q12 Q13 Q14 Q15 Q16 Q17 Q18 Q19 Q20 B. 1KW. E. 6,000 m/s. E. equal: the original charge is shared equally between the two balls. A. A. Only the R clearly. E. The incident ball is at rest and the hit ball moves at 2 m/s. E. its wavelength is too short. D. Successive wave crests have less distance to travel when the source is approaching you. B. 80 kW. D. They are the same. D. 5 m. C. A. deflected up. B. 2 N/m. E. Parallel and 2 cm across. C. 1 Ohm. A. A. C. B goes out, A dims, C brightens. A. E. Yes, the yacht experiences a wind and can tack into it.

Explanations Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Power has units of Watts (W). A Watt is a Joule (J) per second, and 1 kJ per second is 1 kW. Only answer E has the correct units. Since steel is a conductor, charge can move between the balls. Since the balls are identical each has the same charge after contact. Circuit A applies twice the battery voltage. Circuits B and D apply zero voltage. Circuits C and E apply apply the battery voltage. The highest applied voltage makes the light brightest. Only blue light can be seen through the filter. The white paper and blue B reflect the blue component of the illuminating light equally well. Hence the B cannot be seen against the background. The red R, however, does not reflect blue light well and hence looks dark against the background. It can be seen. Options B and C do not conserve momentum. The kinetic energy of each ball is proportional to the square of its speed. The initial kinetic energy is 22 = 4 units. Option B has 2 units. Option D has 12

Q6

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SOLUTIONS

2001 Physics NQE

+ 32 = 10 units. Option E has 4 units and therefore is the only one that conserves both energy and momentum. Q7 Options A, B, and C are unrelated to diffraction, which occurs for all waves. Visible light has a wavelength of about 0.5 micrometers, which means that diffraction is only strong around objects of this size. On the micron scale light does diffract around corners! For everyday objects the wavelength of visible light is much too short for diffraction to be easily visible. The relevant physics is the Doppler effect, described in D. Every second 2000 kg of water moving at 10 m/s enters the turbine. The kinetic energy of this water is (mv2)/2 = 2000 x100/2 = 100,000 J = 100 kJ. The corresponding power in the water’s kinetic energy is 100 kJ/s = 100 kW. This is converted with an efficiency of 0.8, for an electrical power output of 80 kW. According to Newton’s first law, the forces are equal in magnitude. The speed of a wave is the product of its frequency and wavelength. Hence its wavelength is the speed divided by the frequency (this is also the only combination giving the correct units). (10 m/s) / (2 Hz) = 5 m. An electron is negatively charged and hence will be attracted by the positive charge and repelled by the negative one. Hence options D and E are not correct. Electric field lines at a point are tangential to the electrical force on a test charge at that point. Hence the acceleration of a charge is parallel to the local field line. Hence option A is not correct. Once the electron is moving the acceleration vector and velocity vector will point in different directions. Option B has them in the same direction. Hence option C is the correct trajectory. A positive potential on the upper plate attracts the electron beam and hence deflects it upwards. It would only be deflected downwards by a negative potential on the top plate. Since the springs are identical, each contributes half the total extension x of the combined spring. Each also exerts the same force F as the combined spring, but with half the total extension. Therefore the combined spring exerts the force of a single spring when at twice the single spring extension. Its spring constant K is therefore half the spring constant k of a single spring. Mathematically: F = Kx = k(x/2) implies K = k/2. This is solved by sketching a ray diagram, and using similar triangles. Rays emerge parallel to the optical axis and twice as far from it. The resistors connecting the two branches have no voltage across them, due to the symmetry of the circuit. The circuit is then two 3 Ohm branches in parallel, for a total resistance of 3/2 Ohm.

Q8 Q9

Q10 Q11

Q12

Q13 Q14

Q15

Q16

1 cm

f

2f

2 cm

Q17

All current in the circuit must pass through light A. Therefore it is the brightest.

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SOLUTIONS

2001 Physics NQE

Q18

If D blows then B goes out because it is no longer part of a circuit. This increases the total resistance following A in the circuit, since the parallel branch BD is lost. Hence A dims. If A dims the voltage drop across C must increase, hence it brightens. Since the violet light has a higher refractive index in the prism, it is refracted more. Refraction occurs at both air-prism interfaces. E is incorrect because the red ray is being refracted towards the normal at both interfaces. As far as the yacht drifting down the river is concerned there is a breeze, and it can be used to gain speed in the conventional way. It is expected that this option will be selected after elimination of the other options.

Q19

Q20

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SOLUTIONS

2001 Physics NQE

SECTION B - Short Answer Questions
Guidance for marking short and long answer questions The following answers, and detailed mark allocations, are provided as a guide only. Individual correct answers may differ from those provided. As a guide, half the marks may be given for a demonstration of the basic principles needed for solving the problem. The remaining half of the marks should be given for the detailed solution. Gaining the last mark, or two, requires clarity and accuracy in the solution. Q21 (a) The speed of the rotor tip relative to the helicopter is vt = 2πfL. Substituting in the given parameter values: vt = 2π x 9 x 5 = 283 m/s. The air-speed of the rotor tip is this speed plus the speed of the helicopter through the air vh. Hence we require vh + 283 m/s < 340 m/s or vh < 340 - 283 = 57 m/s. The maximum speed of the helicopter is 57 m/s, or about 200 km/hr. (b) The centripetal force required is 2 F = m(2π ) f 2 L = 0.1 x 39.5 x 81 x 5 = 1.6 x 103 N This force is spread over the glued area of 5 cm2 = 5 x 10-4 m2, and therefore corresponds to a force per unit area of F/A = (1.6/5) x 107 N/m2 = 3 x 106 N/m2. This is three times the glue's yield strength and hence the glue is not able to provide the required centripetal force. [2 marks] [1 mark]

[1 mark]

[1 mark]

[1 mark]

Total [6 marks] Q22 Without replacement, a small mass m of water leaving through the hole would lead to a drop in the water level. The change in gravitational potential energy of the water due to the drop h between the top of the water and the hole is mgh.
10cm 10cm D

(a) Ignoring effects such as viscosity, conservation of energy implies that this change is converted to kinetic energy in the stream (mv2)/2, where v is the stream speed:

[2 marks]
[1 mark] [1 mark]

mgh = 1 mv ⇒ v = 2gh 2
2

Inserting g = 9.8 m/s2 and h = 0.1 m: v = 2 × 9.8 × 0.1 = 1.96 = 1.4 m/s (b) Under the constant acceleration due to gravity g, the water takes time t to fall 2 through height H, where H = 1 gt ⇒ t = 2H / g 2 Inserting g = 9.8 m/s2 and H = 0.1 m, t = 2 × 0.1 / 9.8 = 0.0204 = 0.143 s In this time its horizontal velocity v = 1.4 m/s takes it the distance

[1 mark]

vt = 1.4 x 0.143 = 0.20 m.

[1 mark] Total [6 marks]

Q23

(a) The focal length of the convex lens is the distance between the centre

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SOLUTIONS

2001 Physics NQE

of the lens and the point where it focuses the parallel light rays to a point. Therefore, to measure its focal length one should setup the light source, the lens, and the screen in that order. The screen should be moved until the light focuses to the smallest, sharpest point. The distance scale is then used to measure the distance between the centre of the lens and the screen. Diagram.

[1 mark]

[1 mark] [1 mark]

screen light source convex lens

(b) If the concave lens is placed after the convex lens, with both focii at the same point, parallel light entering the convex lens will emerge as parallel light from the concave lens. Therefore arrange in order; the light source, the convex lens, the concave lens, between the convex lens and its focal point, and finally the screen. The screen is then moved to determine whether the output light is parallel. If the lit area changes size as the screen moves the focii are not coincident. By trial and error the distance between the lenses such that the focii are coincident may be found. The focal length of the concave lens, a negative number, is this distance minus the focal length of the convex lens. Diagram.

[1 mark]

[1 mark] [1 mark]

screen light source convex concave lens lens
N.B. This procedure also works with the order of the lenses swapped. Total [6 marks]

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Australian Science Olympiads

SOLUTIONS

2001 Physics NQE

SECTION C - Long Question
Q24 (a) There are two unknowns in this collision: the speeds of the head and ball after the collision: vhf and vbf . Momentum is conserved so:

Mv hi = Mv hf + mv bf

[2 marks]

where we have noted that the ball was initially stationary. We are also given that: vbf − vhf = ev hi ⇒ vhf = v bf − evhi Substituting this into the momentum conservation equation:

Mv hi = M v bf − ev hi + mvbf ⇒ M (v hi + evhi )= ( M + m)v bf ⇒ v bf =
which is the required expression for final the ball speed.

(

)

M (1 + e)v hi [2 marks] M +m

(b) The horizontal and vertical components of the ball’s velocity are:

v x = vbf cos θ , v y = vbf sinθ

[1 mark]

The time of flight t is given by: gt = 2v y ⇒ t = 2vy / g . The distance travelled is:

D = v x t = 2v x v y / g =

2 2 v sin θ cosθ g bf

[1 mark]

(c) This is a similar problem to part (b). Making the appropriate substitutions the first bounce distance

B1 = 2 vrx vry / g

[1 mark]

We need to sum all the bounce distances using the previous result, but halving the vertical velocity at each bounce

B = 2v rxv ry / g + 2v rx 1 v ry / g + 2v rx 1 v ry / g + L 4 2
rx ry

( =( 2v

v

) ( ( / g) 1+

1 2

+1 4

) ( + L) = ( 2v

rx ry

v / g 2 = 4v rxv ry / g = 2B1

)

)

The total bounce distance is twice the initial bounce distance. The more bounces there are, the closer this estimate is to the actual distance. (Give two marks for the correct terms in the series, and one mark for summing the series to 2, or to some number less than but close to 2.)

[3 marks]

(d) The rolling is stopped by the constant frictional force F. The work done by this force FR must equal the initial kinetic energy:

[1 mark] [1 mark] Total [12 marks]

mv 2 2 rx FR = 1 mvrx ⇒ R = 2 2F

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