You are on page 1of 41

Comprehensive Weld Inspection Solutions

From Manual to Automated NDT Technologies


Olympus offers a wide range of innovative testing products to meet all
requirements related to the following technologies and inspection techniques:
pulse-echo (PE), TOFD, combined TOFD/PE, phased array UT, linear scans, and
sectorial scans.
Solutions
Ultrasound / Eddy Current / Phased Array

Microscope Imaging / Optical Metrology

X-Ray Fluorescence / XRD Analysis

Remote Visual Inspection / Videoscopes

www.olympus-ims.com

NOVEMBER 2015 / Vol. 18/ No. 4

www.aws.org

Digital Radiography Update


Company Enhances
Enhances Quality
Quality
Program
Inspection Tips
Bridge Inspection

New OmniSc
can Solution for Weld Inspections
New phased array
a probes,
o
w
wedges, and improved
o
software
e for use with the O
OmniScan phased array
r
flaw detector increase
r
the effficiency of weld inspections.

Compound Scan
New software now offers the ca
apability to perform compound scans in which a single-gro
oup compound scan
generates similar coverage as tw
wo sectorial scans.

Higher probability of detection


n
Inspection of thicker material
Higher inspection speed
Shorter setup and calibration time
Faster data analysis

Weld Series Probes

D
Dual
Matrix Array
ra Probess
NEW A31 and A32 Weld
Series phased array
probes and wedges
simplify inspections with
improved signal-to-noise
ratio and ergonomic
design.

For Info, go to www.aws.org/adindex

Compound scan

NEW Dual matrix array


(DMA) probes consisting
of two matrix array probes
s
generate transmit-receive
longitudinal (TRL) sound
beams to drastically
improve signal-to-noise
ratio.

www.olympus-ims.com
m

AWS MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION


Join or Renew:

Mail: Form with your payment, to AWS

Call: Membership Department at (800) 443-9353, ext. 480

Fax: Completed form to (305) 443-5647

Online: www.aws.org/membership

8669 NW 36 St, # 130


Miami, FL 33166-6672
Telephone (800) 443-9353
FAX (305) 443-5647
Visit our website: www.aws.org

CONTACT INFORMATION
q New Member q Renewal
q Mr. q Ms. q Mrs. q Dr.

Please print Duplicate this page as needed

Last Name:_______________________________________________________________________________
First Name:___________________________________________________________________ M.I:_______
Birthdate: _____________________________ E-Mail:____________________________________________
Cell Phone (

)__________________________ Secondary Phone (

)______________________

Were you ever an AWS Member? q YES q NO If YES, give year________ and Member #:____________________
Company (if applicable):___________________________________________________________________
Address:________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
City:_____________________________________State/Province:__________________________________
Zip/PostalCode:_____________________Country:______________________________________________
Who pays your dues?: q Company q Self-paid Sex: q Male q Female
Education level: q High school diploma q Associates q Bachelors q Masters q Doctoral
q Check here if you learned of the Society through an AWS Member? Members name:_______________________Members # (if known):________
q

INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP
Please check each box that applies to the Membership or service youd like, and then add the cost together to get your Total Payment.
q AWS INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP (One Year)......................................................................................................$86

wo Years SAVE $25 New Members Only....................................$147

q New Member Initiation Fee ...........................................................................................................................................$12

OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO AWS INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS ONLY:


A.) OPTIONAL Book Selection (Choose from 25 titles; up to a $192 value; includes shipping & handling)
q Individual Members in the U.S..................................................................................................................................$35
q Individual Members outside the U.S (includes International shipping)...........................................................................$85

ONLY ONE SELECTION PLEASE. For more book choices visit www.aws.org/membership
q
(CD-ROM only) q
q Welding Metallurgy
Welding Handbook Selections: q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 4) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 3) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 2) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 1)
Pocket Handbook Selections: q PHB-1 (Arc Welding Steel) q PHB-2 (Visual Inspection) q PHB-4 (GMAW / FCAW)

B.) OPTIONAL Welding Journal Hard Copy (for Members outside North America)
q Individual Members outside North America (note: digital delivery of WJ is standard)..............................................$50
INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP TOTAL PAYMENT..................................................................................$_____________
NOTE: Dues include $16.80 for Welding Journal subscription and $4.00 for the AWS Foundation.

STUDENT MEMBERSHIP
Please choose your Student Membership option below.
q AWS STUDENT MEMBERSHIP (One Year)...................................................................................................................$15
Digital delivery of Welding Journal magazine is standard for all Student Members.

q AWS STUDENT MEMBERSHIP (One Year)...................................................................................................................$35


Includes one-year Welding Journal hard copy subscription. Option available only to students in U.S., Canada & Mexico.

STUDENT MEMBERSHIP TOTAL PAYMENT......................................................................................$_____________

PAYMENT INFORMATION
Payment can be made (in U.S. dollars) by check or money order (international or foreign), payable to the American Welding Society, or by charge card.
q Check q Money Order q AMEX

q Diners Club q MasterCard

q Visa

q Discover

q Other

CC#:____________ / ____________ / ____________ / ____________ Expiration Date (mm/yy) ________ / ________


Signature of Applicant:_________________________________________ Application Date:_______________________
OFFICE USE ONLY
Source Code: IT
REV. 11/14

Check #:_______________________________ Account #____________________________________


Date:_________________________________ Amount:_____________________________________

Type of Business (Check ONE only)


A
q Contract construction
B
q Chemicals & allied products
C
q Petroleum & coal industries
D
q Primary metal industries
E
q Fabricated metal products
F
q Machinery except elect. (incl. gas welding)
G
q Electrical equip., supplies, electrodes
H
q Transportation equip. air, aerospace
I
q Transportation equip. automotive
J
q Transportation equip. boats, ships
K
q Transportation equip. railroad
L
q Utilities
M
q Welding distributors & retail trade
N
q Misc. repair services (incl. welding shops)
O
q Educational Services (univ., libraries, schools)
P
q Engineering & architectural services (incl. assns.)
Q
q Misc. business services (incl. commercial labs)
R
q Government (federal, state, local)
S
q Other
01
02
03
04
05
20
21
06
10
12
13
22
07
08
14
09
11
15
17
16
18
19

q
q Manager, director, superintendent (or assistant)
q Sales
q Purchasing
q Engineer welding
q Engineer design
q Engineer manufacturing
q Engineer other
q Architect designer
q Metallurgist
q Research & development
q Quality control
q Inspector, tester
q Supervisor, foreman
q Technician
q Welder, welding or cutting operator
q Consultant
q Educator
q Librarian
q Student
q Customer Service
q Other

Technical Interests (Check all that apply)


A
q Ferrous metals
B
q Aluminum
C
q Nonferrous metals except aluminum
D
q Advanced materials/Intermetallics
E
q Ceramics
F
q High energy beam processes
G
q Arc welding
H
q Brazing and soldering
I
q Resistance welding
J
q Thermal spray
K
q Cutting
L
q NDT
M
q Safety and health
N
q Bending and shearing
O
q Roll forming
P
q Stamping and punching
Q
q Aerospace
R
q Automotive
S
q Machinery
T
q Marine
U
q Piping and tubing
V
q Pressure vessels and tanks
W
q Sheet metal
X
q Structures
Y
q Other
Z
q Automation
1
q Robotics
2
q Computerization of Welding

November 2015 Vol. 18 / No. 4

Features

17
Cover photo: Replacement of the Jim
Thorpe Bridge (SR 903) over the Lehigh
River in Jim Thorpe Borough, Carbon
County, Pa. (Photo courtesy of High
Steel Structures, LLC, Lancaster, Pa.)

INSPECTION TRENDS (ISSN 1523-7168) is


published quarterly by the American Welding
Society. Editorial and advertising offices are located
at 8669 NW 36th St., Suite 130, Miami, FL 33166;
telephone (305) 443-9353. Printed by R. R.
Donnelley & Sons Co., Senatobia, Miss.
Subscriptions $30.00 per year for noncertified,
nonmembers in the United States and its
possessions; $50.00 per year in foreign countries;
$20.00 per year for noncertified members and
students; $10.00 single issue for nonmembers and
$7.00 single issue for members. American Welding
Society is located at 8669 NW 36th St., Suite 130,
Miami, FL 33166; telephone (305) 443-9353.
Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and
additional mailing offices.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to
Inspection Trends c/o American Welding Society,
8669 NW 36th St., Suite 130, Miami, FL 33166.
Readers of Inspection Trends may make copies of
articles for personal, archival, educational, or
research purposes, and which are not for sale or
resale. Permission is granted to quote from articles,
provided customary acknowledgment of authors
and sources is made. Starred () items excluded
from copyright.

AWS MISSION STATEMENT


The mission of the American Welding Society
is to advance the science, technology, and
application of welding and allied joining
processes woldwide, including brazing, soldering,
and thermal spraying.

20

25

Transforming Pipeline Inspection with Digital Radiography


by Richard Mills / The advantages of digital radiography over wet film are
detailed for pipeline inspection / 17
Flexible Hose Manufacturer Steps Up Its Quality Program
by Mary Ruth Johnsen / A long-established company benefitted from
upgrades to its NDE and welding programs / 20
Tips for Shop Welding Inspection
by Carl Tacker /An experienced CWI shares what hes learned about thirdparty inspections / 23
Progress in Use of Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing in Steel
Bridge Fabrication
by Ronnie Medlock / Demand is growing for the use of phased array UT in
the steel bridge construction industry / 25

Departments
Editors Note................................6

Just the Facts..............................28

News Bulletins.............................8

The Answer Is ............................32

Mail Bag ....................................10

Certification Schedule................34

Print and Product Showcase ......12

Classifieds..................................36

Technology Notes ......................14

Advertiser Index ........................36

Mark Your Calendar...................16


Inspection Trends / Fall 2015

Editors Note

By Mary Ruth Johnsen


Dear Readers,

Publisher
Andrew Cullison, cullison@aws.org

Ive heard it said many times that


welding is a mature industry. In economic terms, a mature industry is one in which
the sector is in decline or is growing at a
pace slower than that of the overall economy. But Ive found that when it comes to
welding, when they call it mature, the
pundits also mean that its an industry resistant to change, that not much is altered
from year to year, and theres really nothing much new with regard to
processes and equipment. I dont necessarily agree with that. When I
visit companies, I find theyre often changing their procedures and looking for ways to improve their way of doing business. A case in point is
that of Penflex Corp., which youll see profiled beginning on page 20 of
this issue.
You can definitely call Penflex a mature company. After all, its
been in business since 1902 and became the first American manufacturer of flexible interlocked metal hose in 1906. You can even find one of
the original 1906 machines on its factory floor. Its there because it still
works well and there remains a demand for the type of metal hose it produced when the company first began. But what you probably wont realize when you look at that machine sitting inside Penflexs clean, modern
manufacturing facility amongst a variety of proprietary, state-of-the-art
equipment is that its been completely retrofitted.
Penflex has taken other steps to upgrade its operations. For instance, last year, it hired Dave Gregor, an AWS CWI/CWE and Level II
inspector, to examine and formalize all of its welding procedures and to
design and build a new NDE lab inside its manufacturing facility. The
company had previously outsourced its visual inspection and liquid penetrant testing jobs, but decided to bring those tasks in-house. The reasons? More control over the process, more timely inspections, and cost
savings over the long haul even though they had to allocate resources
and space for the lab. In addition, even though he was new to the flexible metal hose industry, the owners asked him to look over the companys entire operation to see if there were areas he felt could be improved. One area he noted was how product was moved around the
plant, so Gregor had a number of carts built to make the process less labor intensive.
Gregor said Penflexs owners, Robert and Nathanial Barker, understand that a quality system includes much more than just inspection and
is an ever-developing process.
When asked if the company had met its goals in building the lab
and formalizing its welding procedures, Robert Barker was quick to respond that the goal posts are always moving! I think thats true for
most businesses in our mature industry.

Inspection Trends / November 2015

Editorial
Editor
Mary Ruth Johnsen, mjohnsen@aws.org
Associate Editor
Kristin Campbell, kcampbell@aws.org
Assistant Editors
Melissa Gomez, mgomez@aws.org
Annik Babinski, ababinski@aws.org

Design and Production


Production Editor
Zaida Chavez, zaida@aws.org
Senior Production Coordinator
Brenda Flores, bflores@aws.org
Manager of International Periodicals
and Electronic Media
Carlos Guzman, cguzman@aws.org

Advertising
Manager of Sales Operations
Lea Paneca, lea@aws.org
Senior Advertising Sales Executives
Sandra Jorgensen, sjorgensen@aws.org
Annette Delagrange, adelagrange@aws.org
Senior Advertising Production Manager
Frank Wilson, fwilson@aws.org
Subscriptions Representative
Evelyn Andino, eandino@aws.org
American Welding Society
8669 NW 36th St., #130
Miami, FL 33166-6672
(800/305) 443-9353
Copyright
Copyright 2015 by American Welding Society in both printed and
electronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement
made or opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed
by the authors of specific articles are for informational purposes only
and are not intended for use without independent, substantiating
investigation on the part of potential users.

American Welding Society


EDUCAATION
T

2016 AWS
LLIVE CONFER
C
ENCE

 Workshop on Joining of Advanceed M


Materials
Miami, FL / January 13, 2016
 Resistancee Welding Seminar
FABTECH
A
/ Canada / March 22
24, 2016
 9th Internaational Seminar & Confeerence on
Advances in Resistance Welding
g
Miami, FL / April 1215, 2016
AWS, RWMA, and
a Swantec have joined forces too bring this
Seminar and Conference on Resistance Welding. Industry experts
from leading innstitutes and companies in the fielld of resistance
welding will givve a comprehensive overview of the latest
materials, weldding equipment, innovations and inndustrial
applications. Taake
a advantage of this unique oppoortunity to
network with thhe leaders in resistance welding.

 Internationnal Conference on Plasstics


Welding & Joining
New Orleanns,
ns LA / April 2527
2527, 20016
 Weld Craccking Conference
Houston, TXX / May 1011, 2016
 Welding Summit
Miami, FL / Summer of 2016

 3rd Welding Education, Skiills, and


Certification Conference
Sum
mmer of 2016
 Lasser Conference
Sann Francisco, CA / August 2016
 19thh Annual Aluminum Conference
Miaaami, FL / September 2016
 Braazing & Soldering Workshop
BTECH / Las Vegas, NV
FAB
FA
B
 RWMA Resistance Welding School
FA
AB
B
BTECH / Las Vegas, NV
 So Youre
o
the New Welding Engineer
Con
nnference
FA
AB
B
BTECH / Las Vegas, NV
 Dessstructive and Nondestructive Teesting
BTECH / Las Vegas, NV
FA
AB
B
 Arcc Straightening, Thermal Forming, and
Disttortion Control
FA
AB
B
BTECH / Las Vegas, NV

Pleasse visit www..aws.org/evennts/Conferences for more deetails


e
and registration information.

News Bulletins
GE Inspection Technologies Opens
Computed Tomography Manufacturing Plant

The opening of this new industrial CT plant demonstrates


GEs investment in both infrastructure and human resources,
explained Omar Castillo, Wunstorf site leader. This facility
allows us to continue developing and delivering advanced 2D
and 3D inspection solutions to thousands of our current
system users and future customers to help them ensure
quality and drive productivity.
The new, 6000-sq-m plant combines modern logistics and
material stock with component manufacturing of micro- and
nanofocus tubes and generators, among others. It will house
45 employees, and includes new test and repair facilities, and
a new service training center.

Carestream Appoints NDT Sales Manager

Radiography General Manager Juan Mario Gomez is


shown speaking at the opening of the second GE production plant in Wunstorf, Germany.
GE Inspection Technologies recently opened a second
manufacturing plant in Wunstorf, Germany, for industrial
computed tomography (CT) systems. The plant is part of the
companys phoenix|x-ray business.

David Webb

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

Inspection Trends / November 2015

Carestream Non-Destructive
Testing, Rochester, N.Y., recently
selected David Webb as sales manager
for the UK, Ireland, and Nordic
regions. Webbs career includes more
than 18 years with Eastman Kodak
where he held global European
management roles in its imaging
divisions.
continued on page 35

Mail Bag
Positive Material Identification Tips
I have a comment regarding the question-and-answer article by Alex Thurston in the August (Summer) 2015 Inspection Trends titled Tips for Better Positive Material Identification. On the answer to drawbacks and limitations of the xray fluorescence (XRF) method for testing welds, I feel that
the inability of XRF to analyze N for duplex stainless steel is
significant and worthy of mention. Similarly, the inability to
detect C for weldable-grade austenitic stainless steels is a significant limitation (the first answer does mention this limitation as regards materials). XRF is also, in my experience, unreliable for nonmetallics such as Si, S, and P.
I see optical emission spectrometry (OES) is mentioned
in the first answer (OES can analyze all elements but is not
considered portable as it requires an argon shield). How
about laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) development in terms of overcoming the limitations mentioned
above?
Lyn Evans
SCWI
Singapore
First off, thank you for reading the article and taking the
time to craft the thoughtful comment. It is true, handheld
XRF (HH-XRF) cannot analyze elements HNe. The article
format, an interview, focused more on what HH-XRF can do.
Thank you for pointing out that nitrogen is among these light
elements. While we did mention carbon specifically, in hindsight, it would have been better to include a more complete
list.
Handheld XRF can accurately measure the remainder of
the base chemistry, and match it to a known grade specification. Many alloy specifications are still identifiable via HHXRF, despite having significant light element content. The instrument can then compare the values of the analyzed elements with respect to the specification. Also, advances in
HH-XRF technology have enabled, with proper surface presentation and adequate testing time, a limit of detection
(LOD) well below 500 ppm for Si, and below 100 ppm for P
and S in many steels.
Laser-induced breakdown spectometry is certainly an interesting technology. To the best of our knowledge, the four
or five commercially available HH-LIBS analyzers make no
attempt to measure C, S, or P in the ranges required for plant
PMI and welding materials. Regarding H, N, O, when specified, the ranges are likewise typically low.
But, with respect to base and filler material, as you mentioned, sometimes C and N are required knowledge. For the
analysis of those two elements, laboratory-based OES or
combustion would be recommended methods. In contrast to
10 Inspection Trends / November 2015

these methods, the reasons a user would choose to use HHXRF technology would be due to the ease of use, portability,
and accuracy of HH-XRF devices, with in situ material testing and identification possible.
Alex Thurston
Olympus Scientific Solutions Americas

Caulking Comments
Just finished reading the article Understanding Caulking by Brent Boling in the August Inspection Trends. The article was very much appreciated and helpful in describing the
finer points to inspecting caulked welds.
The article cleared up some when do I call this caulking questions and the article was laid out well for everyones
understanding.
Thank you again for the increase in my welding
knowledge.
Jim Gardner
CWI
Lake Elsinore, Calif.

T R E N D

$6450.
S 3&13*/54

/PEN9OUR
%DITORIAL%XPOSURE



 

 








 

 

















$BMMPS
TBMFT!GPTUFSQSJOUJOHDPN





Print and Product Showcase


Phased Array Tools Easily
Integrate with Automated
Inspection Systems
The companys new phased array
ultrasonic testing package includes the

FOCUS PX, a powerful and scalable acquisition unit; FocusPC, a comprehensive data acquisition and analysis software program; and two software development kits, FocusControl and FocusData. The tools were designed to easily
integrate with automated and semiauto-

American Welding Society


STTAANDARDS
www
w..aws.org

Buyy your copy of


D1.11/D1.1M:2015,
1
Structural Welding Code - Steel
S
now at htt
tttp://go.a
tp://go aws.org/buy
ws org/buyyd1

mated inspection systems. The FOCUS


PX offers an improved signal-to-noise
ratio, scalable architecture that allows up
to four units to be driven in parallel, and
is a rugged, fanless unit designed for integration in harsh production environments. The acquisition software, FocusPC, and the software development kits
facilitate development of applicationspecific interface programs to control the
acquisition unit. The software development kits enable the inspection process
to be fully automated, optimizing cycle
time and improving overall system
efficiency.
Olympus Scientific Solutions
Americas
www.olympus-ims.com

Kit Helps Students Identify


Common Weld Defects
The RealCareer welding solutions weld defects kit contains 13 plastic, true-to-life models of common defects that can occur during welding.
Educators can use the kit to teach students how to identify and correct common defects and discontinuities. The
kit comes with an instructor guide,
welding posters, welding defect flash
cards, and comprehensive curriculum
with training lessons covering major
aspects of welding, including safety,
types and applications of welding, and
weld testing.
Realityworks, Inc.
www.realityworks.com

MT Wet Benches Feature


New HMI Touch-Screen
Interface
The companys A- and D-Series
magnetic particle testing wet bench
units now feature an HMI touch-screen
12

Inspection Trends / November 2015

Crawler Wheel
Configuration Poster
Available

interface with more intuitive equipment


controls. New features include adjustable mag-shot timer and doublemag shot. Upgrade options include
auto-bath, auto-mag, pneumatic tailstock, and low-end current control.
These easier-to-use, more durable features allow operators to spend more
time finding defects rather than setting
up equipment controls.

The companys Inspection


Crawler Wheels Set-ups poster is designed to help crawler operators select
the best wheels for a given pipe. The
poster illustrates wheel configurations
most appropriate to various combinations of pipe diameter, material, and

condition. With the appropriate


wheels, crawler operators can ensure
maximum ground clearance and sidewall contact, plus limit camera vibration and enhance tread grip. Residents
of the United States and Canada can request the 18 24-in. poster be mailed
to them or a PDF file can be downloaded by visiting the website below.
Envirosight
www.envirosight.com/wheelguide

Magnaflux
www.magnaflux.com

UT Roller Probe Developed


to Minimize Operator
Fatigue

The R-Evolution, an ultrasonic array probe housed in a lightweight,


water-filled roller, delivers fast immersion-quality C-scan inspections. The
unit weighs 1 kg. It features a durable,
thin tire that allows high-frequency
probes, up to 10 MHz, to be used to
provide high-quality near-surface resolution enabling the inspection of thin
components. The device self-normalizes on curved surfaces to ensure the
array is always perpendicular without
adjustment. The buggy handle features
two line lasers for guidance and buttons that can be configured with appropriate instruments to start, stop, or increment scans.
Phoenix Inspection Systems, Ltd.
www.phoenixisl.com

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

Inspection Trends / Fall 2015 13

Technology Notes
Interpretations
D1.5, Bridge Welding Code
Subject: Heat Input Qualifications
Code Edition: D1.5M/D1.5:2008
Code Provision: Subclause 5.12
AWS Log: D1.5-08-I08
Inquiry: To obtain the amperage and
voltage value for the heat input calculation from the list of weld pass values
on the PQR do you:
1. Use the one highest amperage and
voltage pass value OR
2. Average all passes and use the average amperage and voltage?
Response: The AWS D1.5M/
D1.5:2008 code is silent on this issue.
However, the AWS D1.5M/ D1.5:2010

code has addressed this issue. See


subclause 5.12 (2010).
Subject: Interpretation of the acceptance criteria for plate that has Type W
and Z discontinuities discovered in
base metal edges prior to fabrication or
welding.
Code Edition: D1.5M/D1.5:2010
Code Provision: Subclause 3.2.3 (Visual Inspection and Repair of Base
Metal Cut Edges)
AWS Log: D1.5-10-I08
Inquiry: Is the following inquiry correct? Per subclause 3.2.3.7(1) that
when a Type W discontinuity is discovered longer than one inch in length the
extent of the discontinuity is explored
using the criteria of loss of back reflection in conformance with ASTM

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

14

Inspection Trends / November 2015

A435/A435M and that: 1. Only the discovered discontinuity needs to be explored and not the entire plate in nineinch grids. 2. The acceptance criteria
for a plate with a Type Z discontinuity
are per subclause 3.2.3.7(2) and not per
ASTM A435/A435M, which rejects
any plate with a loss of back reflection
in any three-inch circle.
Response: 1. In accordance with AWS
D1.5M/D1.5:2010, subclause
3.2.37(1), does only the extent of the
discovered discontinuity need to be explored? Yes.
2. In accordance with AWS
D1.5M/D1.5:2010, are the acceptance
criteria for a plate with a Type Z discontinuity per subclause 3.2.3.7(2) and
3.2.2.7(3)? Yes.

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

Mark Your Calendar


Note: A diamond () denotes an AWS-sponsored event.

FABTECH 2015. November 912. McCormick Place, Chicago,


Ill. Contact American Welding Society, (800) 443-9353, or
www.fabtechexpo.com.
World Conference on Acoustic Emission. November 1013.
Hilton Hawaiian Village Waikiki Beach Resort, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Contact International Society on Acoustic Emission, Conference
Secretariat Dr. Zhanwen Wu, wcae2015@163.com or +86-1059068313.
6th Conference on Industrial Computed Tomography (iCT
Conference 2016). February 912, 2016. University of Applied
Sciences Upper Austria, Wels Campus, Wels, Austria. Contact:
Nicola Spitzer, congress@fh-ooe.at; www.3dct.at/ict2016.

FABTECH Canada. March 2224, 2016. Toronto Congress


Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada. Contact American Welding Society,
(800) 443-9353, or www.fabtechcanada.com.
25th ASNT Research Symposium. April 1114, 2016. Asto
Crowne Plaza New Orleans, New Orleans, La. Contact American
Society for Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or
www.asnt.org.

19th World Conference on Non-Destructive Testing.


June 1317, 2016. International Congress Centre, Munich,
Germany. Contact German Society for Non-Destructive Testing, 49
30 67807-120; e-mail: conference@wcndt2016.com, or
www.wcndt2016.com.

FABTECH 2016. November 1618, 2016. Las Vegas


Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nev. Contact American Welding
Society, (800) 443-9353, or www.fabtechexpo.com.

Educational Opportunities
GE Inspection Academy Courses. Online e-courses, on-site
classes, and week-long classroom programs in the major industrial
evaluation techniques. For information, visit www.geinspection
academy.com.
NDE Classes. Moraine Valley Community College, Palos Hills, Ill.,
offers NDE classes in PT, MT, UT, RT, Radiation Safety, and Eddy
Current, as well as API 510 exam prep and weld inspection. For more
information, contact (708) 974-5735; wdcs@morainevalley.edu;
morainevalley.edu/NDE.
continued on page 35

Ferrite Content with the FERITSCOPE FMP30


fast, precise and non-destructive
Handheld instrument for the measurement of the ferrite content
in Austenitic and Duplex Steel

Outstanding features
Fast, non-destructive measurement
of ferrite content on-site or in the
lab
Ferrite measurable either in Ferritepercentage %Fe or Ferritenumber
FN
Measurement range 0.1 to 80% Fe
or 0.1 to 110 FN
Evaluation capabilities to the
platform FISCHER Data Center
Software
User-friendly operation menu

www.fischer-technology.com

Coating Thickness

Material Analysis

Microhardness

Material Testing

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

16

Inspection Trends / November 2015

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

By Richard Mills

Feature

Transforming Pipeline Inspection with Digital Radiography


Todays field-ready digital inspection technology offers significant productivity advantages
In addition, there are accompanying
operational costs, such as the costs of
consumables and the costs of chemical
disposal. Not only is film storage
space-intensive, the retrieval of
archived film is time consuming and
results sharing is only possible by
copying film or reshooting.
Digital has several advantages
over wet film, including improving inspection productivity, allowing for
more consistent evaluations, flexibility,
reusability, traceability, reducing the
cost of materials, limiting radiation exposure, and lowering the environmental impact of chemicals from film. Digital radiography also provides data
management capabilities and software
integration to share and report results
quickly and easily.

Fig. 1 Wireless technology makes digital radiography more portable. Digital


radiographic tube inspection with a wireless GE DXR detector is shown.

Computed Radiography
Dynamic Range and Image
Enhancement

For many years, equipment manufacturers worked to develop radiographic systems that take film radiography to the next level. Their goal was
to increase the functionality of these
systems by incorporating the benefits
of digitization in data processing,
analysis, and storage.
Digital radiography (DR) composed of both computed radiography
(CR) and digital detector array (DDA)
technologies is now fast assuming the
role once held by film radiography in
industrial and process segments, including the oil and gas industry, where
nondestructive examination (NDE) is
applied.
The technology benefits of digital
radiography that are driving this transition include efficiency, enhanced image
quality, and dynamic range. Advances
in wireless technology are also a contributing factor, as it makes digital radi-

Computed radiography uses an imaging plate instead of film and is


quickly replacing conventional radiography in many applications. A CR system consists of an imaging plate, a
scanner, a high-resolution monitor, a
PC workstation, and the associated
software. The imaging plate of a CR
system contains phosphors that retain a
latent image produced by means of a
conventional source. When the plate is
scanned with a laser beam in a digitizer
or scanner, the latent image is released
as visible light. This light is then captured and converted into a digital
stream, to create the digital image,
which can then be viewed on a monitor. Once used, the imaging plates are
erased and reused many times.
The absence of a darkroom and
low cost of consumables in CR provide
tremendous value to organizations transitioning to this method from wet film.
Additionally, because the phosphors on

ography more portable Fig. 1. Further, a change in industry standards has


both allowed and encouraged digital
radiography to be used for new applications that formerly were exclusive to
traditional film inspection.

Digital Radiography A
Productive, Cost-Effective
Alternative
For pipeline inspections in particular, accuracy and speed are critical to
keeping operations running smoothly
and minimizing maintenance costs.
While traditional radiography systems
relied on wet film technology, which
was relatively easy to employ, this
practice has several drawbacks. With
wet film, developing film takes place
on-site in dedicated darkrooms, using
chemicals that require proper disposal.

Inspection Trends / Fall 2015

17

Fig. 2 Digital detector arrays can be adapted for use


in a marine environment and deployed by a remotely
operated vehicle to inspect pipelines on the ocean floor.
the imaging plate have an extremely
wide dynamic range, there is greater
tolerance for varying exposure conditions so there is a need for fewer retakes and a substantial reduction in radiation dose as a result.
One of the benefits of a CR system
is the ability to enhance images electronically, to store them on a computer
or removable storage device, and to
transmit them to other computers. Image enhancement allows operators to
alter the contrast of images to compensate for poor original shooting conditions and to zoom in on selected areas
for a closer inspection of trouble spots.

Digital Detector Arrays


Cost Savings for Customers
With DDAs, a flat panel is covered
with a scintillator that converts the xrays into light. This light is then converted into electronic charges in a lownoise, photodiode/transistor array,
where each photodiode represents a
pixel or picture element. The charged
electrons then pass to read-out electronics for digitizing and immediate
display on a suitable monitor.
This is instant radiography, where
images are viewed in real time or as
soon as the exposure is terminated. As
with CR, images can be viewed on a
local monitor, a remote monitor, or
shared among a number of monitors
within a companys global network.
They can then be filed and archived for
future reference and traceability, and
they can also be enhanced to focus on
particular areas of interest.
Digital detector arrays offer equal
and often greater probability of detection

18

Fig. 3 Wireless pipe inspection using a DDA.

compared with film, along with significant operational advantages. There are
fewer process steps with DDAs and so
the cycle times are further reduced, even
compared with CR. For such tasks, new,
rugged, field-ready equipment is now on
the market, including a new generation
of wireless and battery-powered portable
digital detectors for extremely mobile
and field radiography (i.e., erosion/corrosion monitoring, weld inspection).
This equipment helps to significantly
improve the speed and accuracy of inspections and offers users real-time or
near real-time results instantly, a dynamic, large range of field applications, and
a safer, more environmentally friendly
way to perform radiography.
Digital detector arrays are proving
to be cost-effective, significantly reducing the overall cost of inspection.
For example, a leading NDE inspection
company performed one specific power
plant inspection task by using four mobile digital detector panels. Within 48
hours, more than 3000 digital images
were taken, allowing them to complete
the whole inspection task in two days.
This is very fast compared to how they
would do it in the past with traditional
film inspection, processing, and retakes
requiring up to five weeks to complete.
Inspection productivity gains with
digital detector arrays are also achieved
for radiographic deep-water inspections.
Digital detector arrays adapted for use in
a marine environment can now be deployed by divers or a remotely operated
vehicle (ROV) to inspect pipelines on
the ocean floor Fig. 2. The resulting
radiographic images even of coated installations are relayed instantly via a
fiber-optic link to a topside monitoring
and data collection system, significantly

Inspection Trends / November 2015

speeding up the inspection and decisionmaking process.

Digital Radiography for


Pipeline Inspections
In the oil and gas industry, there are
a number of important considerations
that impact how NDE is carried out, including safety, quality, production, cost,
and environmental issues. Pipelines represent a significant financial investment
and are considered critical business assets. They are responsible for transporting very high-value fluids and any fracture or leakage can result in a damaging
financial loss not to mention environmental issues and detrimental effects to a
companys reputation. Consequently, it
is essential that pipelines are inspected
for integrity during manufacture, installation, and service.
Inspection is carried out to ensure
the ongoing integrity of welds in service, as well as to identify and monitor
any pipe wall thickness changes and
metal loss caused by corrosion or erosion, and to locate any cracks that may
develop in welds, pipe walls, and the
heat-affected zone Fig. 3.
Digital detector arrays are now
helping streamline weld inspection
processes. With the development of
more versatile and higher-resolution
detectors, there is a reduction in wait
time for results as a radiographic image is produced in real time directly
onto a connected display screen. In
the past, the use of digital radiography
has been limited due to size, weight,
and connectivity of the equipment.
New technology solutions give users
the benefit of shorter shot times, minimal radiation exposure, and can easily

connect to a laptop and produce images for instant review.

spection tasks, carry out off-line remote


analysis of radiographic inspections, and
store radiographic and other NDE data
easily and accessibly. This has been
made possible by the development of a
protocol that standardizes image saving
and transfer and the development of software platforms that make use of the protocol to assist in the processing and storage of inspection data.
Digital imaging and communication
in NDE (DICONDE) is the accepted
standard that has been developed to al-

Conclusion

New, rugged, field-ready digital


radiography equipment, such as wireless detector panels or rugged CR scanners, is now available. Hence, the industry is increasingly moving from traditional film radiography to digital raProcess corrosion and erosion is
diography to meet todays inspection
the leading cause of unforced outages
needs. Digital radiography is now beand catastrophic failure in the oil and
ing accepted by inspectors and asset
gas industry and currently costs the
owners and acknowledged by the regusector billions of dollars per year. It has
latory authorities. The historical obstabeen projected, however, that 20 to
cles to adoption and widespread
25% of corrosion-related costs can
use of digital radiography are fast
be avoided. Corrosion detection,
disappearing. Already, the techsizing, and monitoring techniques
nology is covered by EN, ASME,
are important tools for realizing
There is a pronounced shift and other international codes for a
these savings. These techniques
of applications. Digital
should be capable of delivering
to digital radiography because variety
techniques
are also BAM and
accurate wall thickness sizing, reDNV
approved.
The reduction of
of
the
techniques
advantges
sults on demand, reliable corrodigital
equipment
costs and daily
sion location, and corrosion
in terms of eliminating pro- improvements to the
technology
growth projections.
are
allowing
for
more
difficult incessing
chemicals,
reducing
As with radiography for weld
spection
tasks
to
be
carried
inspection, the majority of radiradiation exposure, and the more accurately, efficiently,out
and
ographic corrosion inspections are
ability
to
manipulate
and
safely.
carried out using crawler-borne xIn summary, the primary benenhance radiographs.
ray machines or isotopes and exefits
of the latest CR/DDA techternal wet film, CR plates, or diginology
for pipeline field inspectal detectors. Radiography is
tion
are
uniquely useful for detecting corlow users of NDE equipment to share
Increased inspection productivity;
rosion under insulation, as there is no
image data and that provides a long-term
Improved deep-water inspection;
need for a couplant between the ultraarchival solution. Essentially, it is a dic Reduced inspector and inspection masonic probe and the pipe wall. Again,
tionary that describes all the necessary
terials costs;
there is a pronounced shift to DR besyntax, attributes, and data elements to
Improved safety and reduced environcause of the techniques demonstrable
allow users to acquire, store, archive,
mental impact due to reduced radiation
advantages in terms of eliminating protransmit, and receive image data in a
and chemicals; and
cessing chemicals, reducing radiation
way that is universally compatible. It is a
Enhanced data management for effecexposure through shorter exposure
system that allows images to be saved
tive review, collaboration, and longtimes, and the ability to manipulate and
with context, in that all the technique interm storage.
enhance radiographs. These advantages
formation and information on location,
With the available field-ready inand the accuracy and reliability of the
date, time, and inspector is saved with
spection
technology, the significant
technique aided by recent innovathe image. Such information can then be
productivity
advantages, and the reletions such as advanced software filters
included in any report generated, while
vant
inspection
standards ready to go,
that apply automatic image optimizaits inclusion with the image into databasdigital
conversion
will change the way
tion, adjusting brightness and contrast
es means that database searches can be
industrial
radiographic
pipeline inspecsettings to allow the human eye faster
carried out on a variety of criteria. With
tion
is
performed
going
forward.
and more reliable defect recognition in
more connected assets and vulnerabilithe x-ray image are now being realties than ever before, enterprises need to
ized as digital radiography is being
store larger quantities of inspection data
written into more and more inspection
and enhance security across the network.
codes.
Advanced DICONDE data manRICHARD MILLS is senior
agement software offers high-volume
radiography
technical support
Improved Digital Inspection
data storage for the entire life of the asmanager,
GE.
He
is an ASNT NDT
Data Management
set and is deployed on enterprise hardLevel
III
in
RT,
a
certification
he has
ware and servers to readily tie into the
held
for
more
than
20
years.
He
is
Instead of warehouses filled with
users existing enterprise network and
currently a member of the ASME
stored NDE films, digital radiography
security framework. Company-wide
Section V radiography working group
and data management offer significant
DICONDE image data generation, readvantages over traditional wet film
view, and storage increases efficiency
and also participates in ASTM
techniques, including the ability to enand impacts more strategic decisions
standards development.
hance data in real time to optimize inacross the enterprise.

Corrosion Inspection
Fast and Reliable Insight
Beneath the Coating

Inspection Trends / Fall 2015

19

By Mary Ruth Johnsen

Flexible Hose Manufacturer Steps Up Its Quality Program


A long-established company recently upgraded its NDE capabilities and welding program

100,000-sq-ft manufacturing facility in


rural Gilbertsville, Pa., about 50 miles
northwest of Philadelphia. It moved to
the Gilbertsville site in late 2005 in order to have room for future growth. In
addition, it opened a more than 48,000sq-ft manufacturing plant in Vietnam in
2010 and a facility in Alpharetta, Ga.,
that has 6000 sq ft of manufacturing
and more than 1000 sq ft of office
space. Both that facility and Penflex
Australia Pty., Ltd., a 5000-sq-ft office
and distribution facility in Yatala,
Queensland, Australia, opened September 2014. Four other warehouse facilities round out its operations.

Quality System
Fig. 1 Penflexs original 1906 machine. Retooled and reconditioned for today, it
produces the same basic product as when it was new.
A company doesnt stay in business more than 100 years without
knowing something about quality systems, but about two years ago, the
owners of Penflex Corp. decided to formalize its welding training and qualification program by hiring an AWS
CWI/CWE and building an NDE lab to
bring liquid penetrant testing in house.
The company, which was established in 1902 and became the first
U.S. manufacturer of flexible interlocked metal hose in 1906 (Fig. 1),
manufactures corrugated and interlocked flexible metal hose, braid products, metal bellows, and expansion
joints that are used in such industries as
oil and gas, food processing, power
generation, steel mills, paper and pulp,
petrochemical, and shipping Fig. 2.
The products are distributed in 27
countries. It makes hoses primarily
20

from stainless steel, but also from copper, Monel, bronze, Inconel, Incoloy, Hastelloy, and other materials, in sizes from 14 in. to more than 24
in. in diameter.
As explained on the companys
website (www.penflex.com), the products are frequently used in piping situations where there is a need to absorb
the heat or pressure-induced expansion
of the piping; there is a need to compensate for misalignment, or to allow
for lateral or axial movements of the
piping system; high-temperature fluids
or gases have to be safely conveyed
through a system under high pressure
or under vacuum conditions; when a
system is subjected to a vibration; or
when a system is exposed to high external heat, corrosion, or heavy or
rough handling.
Penflex is headquartered in a

Inspection Trends / November 2015

The company utilizes three nondestructive examination (NDE) methods:


visual testing (VT), liquid penetrant
testing (PT), and leak testing (LT). It
utilizes six types of leak testing, dependent upon the requirements of the
customer and applicable code. The
methods used are water immersion
bubble, hydrostatic, film solution, gassensitive (automatic), leak-through,
and gas spectrometer (manual) leak
testing. All of the products undergo
some type of leak testing, while about
90% of the flexible pipe assemblies require VT, PT, or both.
The AWS CWI/CWE the company
hired to work on welding training and
qualification, and to design, oversee
construction of, and run the NDE lab is
Dave Gregor, who is also an ASNT
Level II in VT, PT, and MT. Located on
the main manufacturing floor, the lab
also includes two office spaces. A
welding practice and training area is located next to it.

Fig. 2 The company produces many sizes and lengths of flexible metal
hoses and pipes.

Fig. 3 The NDE lab was built inside Penflexs


100,000-sq-ft manufacturing facility.
Penflex had a number of reasons
for hiring Gregor and changing its
systems.
Over time, our distributors have
increasingly asked for assistance with
welding training and qualifications as
well as meeting needs for their occasional end users for nondestructive
testing for finished goods, explained
Robert Barker, company president and
co-owner along with his brother
Nathaniel. Dave worked for one of
our suppliers who intended to relocate
its business to another state. We came
together through chance and our goals.
For us to have a house expert and for
Dave to stay in the same location was a
stroke of good luck for both of us.

Fig. 4 Inside the lab.

That the company does business


worldwide was another factor, Gregor
explained. High-end customers have
high-end quality requirements. Having an in-house NDE person gives the
company the ability to offer NDE services and technical support to its approximately 60 distributors worldwide.
In addition, Penflex had been
farming out its penetrant and visual
testing jobs. Bringing those tasks inhouse gave the company better control
over those processes, Gregor explained, by eliminating production bottlenecks caused by the NDE provider
not getting components back in a timely fashion and by keeping tighter reins
on costs.

Gregor designed the lab all the


way to the color of the trim on the windows Figs. 3, 4. Equipment includes fiberscopes (Fig. 5) for visual
inspection inside the hose to check for
oxidation, burrs, excess penetration,
and other discontinuities; tables, penetrants, developers, emulsifiers, black
lights, and other equipment and accessories for using PT to find surfacebreaking discontinuities. Most of the
work is done to the requirements of the
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, Section V.
The lab was approved by ASNT in
August 2014 as being Level III compliant with the first customer audit conducted in November 2014. Since then,
Inspection Trends / Fall 2015

21

Fig. 5 AWS CWI Dave Gregor uses a fiberscope to


inspect the inside of a hose fitting.
several other customers have audited
the lab to make sure it complies with
their requirements.
Developing ASNT-compliant programs to be performed in house is not
as complicated as it may seem and not
a lot of space is needed, Gregor said.
Any company that has a steady flow
of NDT work outsourced could justify
doing it internally and getting more
control over it.

Welding Qualification
The companys welding program
includes working to the requirements
of ASME Section IX, PED 287-1, EN
ISO 15614 Weld Procedure Qualifications with ISO 3834-2 Welding Coordination compliance in process. At the
Gilbertsville facility, the company uses
automatic gas tungsten arc welding and
automatic plasma arc welding for joining the hose seams. Gregor has written
procedures to qualify the personnel
working that equipment as Automatic
Welder Operators. In addition, four
welders perform gas tungsten arc welding on flanges and a wide variety of
high-pressure fittings.
Since coming on board, Gregor
has spent a large amount of time writing Welding Procedure Specifications,
developing and maintaining Procedure
Qualification Records, and handling
Welder Performance Qualification. He
22

Fig. 6 Gregor using PT to check for surface discontinuities.

said he has used his background and


sensibilities as a CWI to make sure all
documentation is consistent, all procedures are clear and posted where
theyre easily visible, and all records
are kept consistently up to date.
And Gregors activities have not
been confined to the Gilbertsville plant.
When asked whether there were plans
to do anything similar at the companys
other facilities, Barker responded,
Dave has already visited Vietnam and
implemented most of the welding procedures and training there. Of course,
this is an ongoing process throughout
the company.
Penflex has a welding qualification program for its distributors and
other customers that Gregor handles as
well. The basic training is done here
for free, he explained. The goal is to
improve welding/fabrication practices
downstream. We want to improve their
welding and assembly skills and teach
them about visual inspection.
Initially, we expected Dave to
handle a number of internal issues with
regard to NDT, but increasingly he has
become a resource for outside the
building by working with our customers, Barker said.

Summary
Bringing the lab and the companys programs into compliance means

Inspection Trends / November 2015

it is now serving its intended purpose


for Penflexs future growth in the
world markets as a one-stop shop controlling all of the special processes required for its customers to do this technical, high-end manufacturing of flexible pipe systems, Gregor said. The
true value of these special processes
being compliant to their respective
standards and codes is twofold. Most
important is the quality assurance value
provided to the customer whose industry demands it for applications that are
critical and potentially catastrophic if a
component fails while in service because it was not manufactured and inspected properly. Secondly, while the
return is hard to see in the short term, it
will certainly help to maintain and
grow business relationships in the
world market. Increased product quality assurance combined with on-time
deliveries can only mean growing business and revenue.

MARY RUTH JOHNSEN


(mjohnsen@aws.org)
is editor of
Inspection Trends.

By Carl Tacker

Feature

Tips for Shop Welding Inspection


An experienced inspector offers advice to help new third-party inspectors competently
perform welding inspections at fabrication shops

Inspection prior to welding can verify the need for increased weld sizes (in this
case, AWS D1.1:2015, Clause 5.21.1 applies).
As a third-party welding inspector,
you may be tasked with the job of going to a fabrication shop to perform
welding inspections. There are many
tasks that need to be completed to verify the welds meet the quality requirements of AWS D1.1:2015, Structural
Welding Code Steel.
As a quality control manager, I have
seen many of these tasks go uncompleted during a visit by the owners inspector. Most of the time, that inspector
would come in and look at the drawings and the welds without regard to
how the in process welding got to the
completed weld, then fill out a report
and leave. In some cases where there
was supposed to be continuous inspection, the inspector would mostly sit in
his truck, then periodically walk
through the shop and look only at completed welds. There was even one occasion in which the engineer specifically
asked the inspector to verify the heat
input did not go over 45,000 joules. As
I watched from my office, the inspector
never looked at the welding consumables, the weld machine settings, or
monitored travel speed. Fortunately, for

the owners sake, I had all that controlled, and monitored it very closely
myself during the entire project.
The following will give a general
idea of what the owner expects when an
inspector is assigned to perform shop inspections on his or her behalf Fig. 1.
It is important to know the job specifications, and if there are special requirements that need to be fulfilled to satisfy
the client. It is the inspectors job to find
out all the requirements prior to performing any inspections.

Prior to Welding
Upon arrival at the fabrication
shop, the third-party inspector should
make his or her presence known to the
quality control staff and/or shop personnel in charge.
Prior to any welding, the inspector
should verify welding procedures are
available to the welders and the
welders are qualified for the process
and positions they are using.
Manufacturer certifications for
welding consumables should be avail-

able upon request. The inspector


should then verify the fabricator has
procedures in place for identifying material (type/grade) during the fabrication process, and has a system for
keeping each weld identified by each
welder involved.
Plans and welding details should
be closely examined to determine what
type of joint preparation is required.
For groove welds, the joints should be
inspected for dimensions (alignment,
root opening, root face, bevels, etc.),
cleanliness (condition of joint surfaces), location and quality of tacks,
and backing type and fit (if applicable).
Configuration and finish of access
holes are also an important part of the
inspection process. Fillet welds should
be inspected for dimensions (alignment, gaps at root), cleanliness (condition of joint surfaces), and location and
quality of tacks (see lead photo).

After Welding Begins


Once welding has started and during
welding operations, the inspector
should verify that only qualified
welders are welding, and that consumables are handled correctly during storage, exposure, and packaging. Environmental conditions including wind
speed, precipitation, and temperature
need to be within code allowances. It is
also very important to make sure the
welders are not welding over cracked
tacks and are following specific weld
procedures for the particular welding
being performed, including proper use
of amps, volts, travel speed (these are
very important when heat input must
be monitored), material, shielding gas,
preheat, position, and interpass temperatures (min/max).
The inspector should also monitor
each welders technique (including interpass cleaning) and verify that each
weld pass meets quality requirements.
Inspection Trends /Fall 2015

23

ments, backing bar removal and weld


tab removal must also be inspected.
Finally, any nondestructive examination required must be performed.

Finalizing the Inspection

Fig. 1 From raw steel to the finished product, inspection plays a major role in a
quality project.

Completed Welds
While many inspectors think the job
begins with completed welds, we know
it actually starts much earlier than that.
With completed welds, the inspector
should make sure the welds are
cleaned; the size, length, and location
of welds are also checked at this time.
Welds must meet the quality requirements of AWS D1.1 or whichever
specification is cited, including the following:
No cracks

Good weld metal/base metal


fusion
Acceptable crater cross section
Acceptable weld profiles and sizes
Undercut and porosity are within
tolerances.
If welding has been performed on
doubler, continuity, or stiffener plates
in the K area, the inspector must visually inspect the web K area for
cracks within 3 in. of the weld.
Members also need to be inspected
for arc strikes.
If required by the project docu-

The final part of the inspection is to


document the acceptance or rejection
of the welded joint or member.
Keep in mind that as an inspector,
you should also be familiar with AWS
D1.1, particularly Clause 1.4.3, which
gives a general description of the welding inspectors duties.
It is also important for welding inspectors to be be familiar with Clause 6
(Inspection), Part A (General Requirements).
The tasks listed in this article are by
no means the only ones needed to perform a shop welding inspection, but
following the guidelines in this article
can help you become a competent
welding inspector and feel confident
when performing a shop inspection.
CARL TACKER
(ctacker@mayestesting.com) is a
special inspector and AWS CWI for
Mayes Testing Engineers, Inc.,
Lynnwood, Wash.

CAN WE TALK?
The Inspection Trends staff encourages an exchange of ideas with you, our readers. If youd like to ask a question, share an idea,
or voice an opinion, you can call, write, e-mail, or fax. Staff e-mail addresses are listed below, along with a guide to help you interact with the right person.
Publisher
Andrew Cullison
cullison@aws.org, Extension 249

Peer Review Coordinator


Sonia Aleman, Extension 329
saleman@aws.org

Editor
Mary Ruth Johnsen
mjohnsen@aws.org, Extension 238

Managing Editor
Zaida Chavez
zaida@aws.org, Extension 265
Design and Production

Associate Editor
Kristin Campbell
kcampbell@aws.org, Extension 257
Assistant Editor
Annik Babinski
ababinski@aws.org, Extension 256
Assistant Editor
Melissa Gomez
mgomez@aws.org, Extension 275

Senior Production Coordinator


Brenda Flores
bflores@aws.org, Extension 330
Production
Senior Advertising Executive
Annette Delagrange
delagrange@aws.org, Extension 332
Advertising Sales
Senior Advertising Executive
Sandra Jorgensen

24

Inspection Trends / November 2015

sjorgensen@aws.org, Extension 254


Advertising Sales
Manager of Advertising Sales
Operation
Lea Paneca
Lea@aws.org, Extension 220
Promotion and Advertising
Senior Advertising Production
Manager
Frank Wilson
fwilson@aws.org, Extension 465
Advertising Production
Welding Journal Dept.
8669 NW 36th St. #130
Miami, FL 33166
(800) 443-9353
FAX (305) 443-7404

By Ronnie Medlock

Feature

Progress in Use of Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing in Steel


Bridge Fabrication
You can expect to see growing demand for the use of PAUT in steel bridge construction as
research shows its capabilities, shops discover its advantages, and codes are beginning to
include provisions for it

New York state DOT is using PAUT to evaluate a complete-penetration weld on


the cable stay anchor assemblies of the new Kosciuszko Bridge in New York City.
PAUT facilitates complete investifation of this complicated complete penetration
weld joining a curved plate to a tube. Note the use of a string encoder; a wheel
encoder is used for the scans inside the tube. (Photo courtesy High Steel
Structures LLC, Lancaster, Pa.)
Great strides are underway in the
implementation of phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) in steel bridge
fabrication in the United States:
The next edition of AWS D1.5,
Bridge Welding Code, will include
PAUT;
Owners have begun using PAUT on
bridge projects and have strong interest in increasing use; and
Research is underway to find ways
to improve use of PAUT and take advantage of its strengths.
References to the new Bridge
Welding Code clauses are provided
throughout this article (i.e., K13.1 is
a reference to the 2015 AWS Bridge
Welding Code Clause K13.1).

Phased Array UT vs.


Traditional Methods
Phased array UT is an enhanced
form of ultrasonic testing that offers a
number of distinct advantages over radiography (RT) and traditional ultrasonic (UT). These include
Versatility PAUT is readily adaptable to a broad variety of bridge weld
joints, including, for example, flange
butt splices, box corners, and web-toflange, complete-joint-penetration welds.
Coverage Sweeping through multiple angles as facilitated by PAUT improves flaw detection.
Speed Each PAUT examination
pass can be made at one or two feet per

minute, and generally only one or two


passes are required (depending upon
the indexing required to cover
the weld, as defined in the scan plan).
Further, reports are available instantly: no processing required.
Permanency If encoded (as D1.5
requires), a permanent electronic
record results from the scan Fig. 1.
The results can be read in the future on
the instrument itself, by using software
provided with the instrument, or by using supplemental software purchased
from the equipment provider. Note,
though, that under D1.5 written reports
are required (13.1). Reports will include A, C, and S scans as well as side
views; such reports, then, are an effective replacement for the RT films (or
digital results).
Safety Like RT, PAUT provides a
permanent image of the weld, but unlike RT, there is no source or radiation
to deal with.
These advantages provide a number of good reasons to pursue PAUT.
However, PAUT also presents a number of challenges. Though it is similar
to traditional UT in some respects,
technicians will need special training
as will Level IIIs. Also, while PAUT is
better than other methods for the numerous reasons listed previously, it can
be challenging to interpret. Substituting
it for RT makes sense from the standpoint that it will find the same defects
as RT (and is better at finding planar
defects such as cracks and incomplete
penetration), but the results cannot be
directly interpreted looking at the RT
acceptance criteria. Further, in comparison with traditional UT, PAUT with
line scanning with amplitude-based acceptance criteria may not give the same
answer as raster scanning with conventional UT.
Therefore, the development and
Inspection Trends / Fall 2015 25

Fig. 1 With one expedient scan, PAUT can provide multiple inspection views of
complete pentration welds as well as an electronic record of the results (provided it
is encoded). This figure is taken from the new PAUT annex in the Bridge Welding
Code, Annex K, Advanced Ultrasonic Examination.
use of a scan plan (as required by D1.5
Clause K7.1) is essential to the successful implementation of PAUT. As
described in D1.5, The scan plan shall
provide the specific attributes necessary to achieve examination coverage,
including those variables subject to
material and geometric variation that
are not addressed in a general procedure. Table K2 defines the essential
variables of the scan plan. The scan
plan must be specific to the weld configuration being tested and describe the
equipment, techniques, and indexing to
be used in testing.

New to the Bridge Welding


Code
As mentioned previously, the 2015
edition of the Bridge Welding Code includes PAUT for the first time. Phased
array UT is introduced in the Code
body in Clause 6.7.8; broad details
governing its use are found in new normative Annex K, Advanced Ultrasonic Examination, and new commentary
is also provided. Key features of the
Code provisions include the following:
Substitution of PAUT The
code expressly allows PAUT in lieu of
26

traditional UT when conducted in accordance with new Annex K (Clause


6.7.8). As discussed in the Code commentary, if they choose to do so, bridge
owners can allow PAUT in lieu of radiography (Clause C-6.7.8).
Inspector certification Like
other NDE inspectors, PAUT operators
need a Level II UT certification plus 80
hours of PAUT training, 160 hours of
experience (on-the-job training), and a
PAUT test. The Level II test must examine the inspectors proficiency with
Annex K (Clause K4.1).
Imaging views The PAUT
equipment must be capable of displaying A, C, sectorial, and side views
(Clause K5.1.2).
Encoding Automated data acquisition (encoding) is required (Clause
K2). The Code is not specific about the
nature of the encoding equipment to be
used (i.e., wheel type, string type, other), but the encoder must be digital and
capable of line scanning (Clause K5.4),
and it may be semiautomated or automated (Clause K5.5).
Sensitivity Test standard sensitivity (TSS) will be established with a
1
16-in.-diameter side-drilled hole on an
IIW block (Clause K5.7); alternately, a
mock-up or an actual production piece

Inspection Trends / November 2015

may be used for calibration.


Scan plan The fabricator (or
his contractor) will develop a scan plan
for the joint to be tested (Clause K7).
The scan plan will demonstrate the refracted angles to be used in testing. Index positions will be defined, both Sand E-scans may be used, and coverage
of the complete weld metal and heataffected zone (HAZ) must be demonstrated (Clause K7.1.1). Butt joints will
be examined from both sides of the
weld (both from the same face), though
T and corner joints may be examined
from one side of the weld.
Calibration Annex K describes requirements for straight beam
and shear wave calibration and encoder
calibration. Calibration confirms that
the sound amplitude will adequately
find the side-drilled hole in the calibration sample. A time-corrected gain is
required through the configured angles
at a minimum of three points within the
tested material range (K 5.7.1).
Annex K also provides detailed requirements for examination procedure,
evaluation, data analysis, data management, documentation, reporting, and
system linearity verification. There is
also Annex K commentary.
The AWS Structural Welding
Committee, D1, is also working on language for a future edition of D1.1,
Structural Welding Code Steel.

Acceptance
There are good reasons to adopt
PAUT over the traditional volumetric
NDE methods, RT and UT. However,
weld evaluation is different. For example, on a flange butt splice, RT provides a look normal to the weld, and
traditional UT evaluates the weld from
only three angles, combined with a
hand raster technique when a flaw is
discovered. Phased array UT uses an
electronic raster, so to speak, and examines the weld with a broad array of
angles. Hence, PAUT provides coverage that is more complete, but not the
same.
The premise of acceptance criteria
defined by D1.5 Annex K is that given
the differences in technique, evaluation
will be equivalent to traditional RT and
UT for rejection of defects. Nondestructive examination acceptance criteria originated with radiography and
was based on the premise of the workmanship that can be expected and evaluated given a 2% sensitivity (hence the

2T hole). Later, the UT criteria that are


in D1.5 were developed based on the
premise of duplicating this sensitivity.
Similarly, the acceptance criteria adopted for PAUT in Annex K were based
on the same premise: duplicating the
original criteria adopted for traditional
RT and UT. For PAUT, then, the calibration sensitivity is still the 116-in.
side-drilled hole in the IIW block, but
the ratings levels have been adapted to
the method (K10.2).
Keen to use the new technique,
Florida Department of Transportation
(FDOT) sponsored research to compare
PAUT as conducted with D1.5 Annex
K provisions with traditional RT and
UT (Ref. 1). In the study, the University of South Florida (USF) used all
three techniques to conduct 254 tests
on 35 pieces welded by a Florida
bridge fabricator, Tampa Tank,
Inc./Florida Structural Steel (FSS). Using PAUT, welds in 8.7% of the tests
were rejected, compared to 9.3% using
RT and 7.4% using UT. Researchers
later added a supplemental procedure
to examine edge defects, which improved agreement with RT. Subsequently, FDOT adopted use of PAUT
as its primary means of ensuring complete-joint-penetration weld quality on
its bridges fabricated under D1.5.

Implementation
Owners have begun using PAUT
on actual projects to help improve examination as well as productivity. For
example, the state of New York is using PAUT to examine a complete-jointpenetration weld that is part of the cable stay anchorage assembly of the
Kosciuszko Bridge replacement, taking
advantage of PAUTs ability to examine curved joints with restricted access
(see lead photo). Also, in New York
City, the New York Metropolitan Transit Authority is using PAUT to help ensure proper depth of penetration is
achieved on the rib-to-deck welds of
replacement deck panels that are being
fabricated for the Verrazano Narrows
Bridge, taking advantage of the speed
at which long joints can be examined
using PAUT.
Florida Department of Transportation is perhaps the leading pioneer
owner in the use of PAUT on bridges.
The Department has published a new
section in its State Material Manual,
Section 11.3 Advanced Ultrasonic Testing. This allows fabricators working on

FDOT jobs to use PAUT in place of radiography, where the conditions and requirements of Section 11.3 have been
met to FDOTS satisfaction. On this
basis, several fabricators are working
to get PAUT established in the shop.
Pending funding, FDOT also plans to
do research in the use of PAUT and
other emerging technologies in the inspection, testing, and fabrication of
structural steel.
Steve Duke, FDOT materials engineer, said, Why are we doing this?
Quite simply, its good for business.
We consider this a win-win: a win situation for our fabricators, the FDOT,
and the taxpayers of the state of Florida. By implementing and using PAUT
in our fabrication facilities, we have
created a safer work environment for
both the fabricator and FDOTs inspectors, we have reduced inspection costs,
and have speeded up production.
Implementation has been underway for quite some time, and while
Duke is proud of FDOTs innovative
role, he acknowledges the going has
been slow and is still a work in
progess, pointing to the additional 80
hours of training needed for PAUT certification and the needs for new procedures, acceptance criteria, and equipment. Duke emphasized, There is no
easy path forward, but I believe it is
well worth the effort. FDOT will also
continue to work with the AWS D1
Code Committee to see full implementation of the use of PAUT as an alternative to RT in AWS D1.1 and D1.5
where feasible. (Duke is a member of
D1 SCJ, the AASHTO/AWS Bridge
Welding Code Committee.)

Further Research
There has long been discussion of
the need for more rational NDE and associated acceptance and rejections of
weld defects in the steel bridge fabrication community. Performance of inservice bridges demonstrates that current techniques and acceptance criteria
have done well to ensure weld quality
and associated bridge safety. However,
current standards are based on workmanship and not on the level of quality
that is actually needed to ensure safe,
long-lasting steel bridge performance.
Workmanship standards are working,
but it would be wiser to use fitness-forpurpose acceptance.
A new research project, 14-35
Acceptance Criteria of Complete Joint

Penetration Steel Bridge Welds Evaluated Using Enhanced Ultrasonic Methods sponsored by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program of
the Transportation Research Board, is
looking at this opportunity. Under this
study, researchers at Purdue University
will develop new acceptance criteria
and evaluation guidelines for steel
bridge complete-joint-penetration
welds. The study began in Spring 2015
and will be finished by Spring 2018.
The goal, then, is to incorporate their
developments in the next edition of the
Bridge Welding Code.

Summary
Use of PAUT is getting off the
ground in steel bridge fabrication shops
in the United States. The Bridge Welding Code now addresses the method,
and pioneer owners are taking the first
steps in using the technique on actual
work. Further, research is underway to
optimize evaluation and acceptance.
Much is happening with PAUT; expect
to see a growing demand for its use, associated needs for training, skilled
technicians, and equipment, and, eventually, improved efficiency and quality
in steel bridge fabrication shops.
Acknowledgments
The author would like to acknowledge contributions from Curtis Schroeder, Mark Davis, and Dave McQuaid.
Reference
1. Comparative Testing of RadiographicTesting, Ultrasonic tTesting,
and Phased Array Advance Ultrasonic
Testing Non Destructive Testing Techniques in Accordance with the AWS
D1.5 Bridge Welding Code. February
2014. University of South Florida,
Tampa, Fla.

RONNIE MEDLOCK
(rmedlock@high.net) is vice
president Technical Services,
High Steel Structures, LLC,
Lancaster, Pa.

Inspection Trends / Fall 2015 27

Just the Facts

By Jim Merrill
Often, CWIs are asked their opinion on protective coatings. While it is
better to pass these questions on to a
NACE Level II or III, the following
discussion is provided to help CWIs
better address these questions particularly as they relate to the repair of a
galvanized coating after welding.

Option 1: Zinc-Rich
Coating (ZRC)
Product Description. According
to ASTM A 780, organic or inorganic
zinc-rich paint for touching up and/or
repairing galvanized steel must contain
between 65 and 69% zinc by weight, or
>92% by weight metallic zinc in dry
film. Inorganic zinc-rich paints are
more effective than organic in terms of
delivering corrosion protection, and
they do not shrink after drying/curing
as organic coatings do.
Surface Preparation. In keeping
with ASTM A 780, the surface to be
coated shall be blast-cleaned to SSPCSP10/NACE No. 2, near-white metal,
for immersion applications, and SSPCSP11, bare metal, for less aggressive
field conditions. When abrasive blasting
or power tool cleaning is not practical,
hand tools may be used. In all cases,
surfaces must be free of oil, grease,
weld flux, paint, and corrosion byproducts. Abrasive blast cleaning must extend into the surrounding undamaged
galvanized coating. A visual inspection
should be performed to verify the material surface is free of the abovementioned contaminants before coating.
As with the use of all paints, if the
area receiving new coating is adjacent
to an area already coated, the contractor should provide a transition into the
coated section. This transition should
be accomplished by feather blasting
to give the coated surface an anchor
pattern the new coating can adhere to.
The surface preparation should include
the complete uncoated area and should
extend a minimum of 3 in. into the
coated area.
28

Fig. 1 The hot dip galvanized coating consists of four separate layers. The first
three layers have a mixture of iron and zinc, and the external top layer is typically
composed of 100% zinc.
Timing of Application. Painting
must take place as soon as possible after surface preparation. Surface preparations should be confined to an area
small enough to allow for coating prior
to development of visible oxides or
flash rust.
Application Process. Zinc-rich
paints can be applied either by
brush/roller or spraying onto a clean,
dry steel surface. Spraying or brushing/roller should be in a single application of multiple passes and must be applied in accordance with the paint manufacturers instructions.
According to ASTM A 780, the
renovated area shall have a zinc coating thickness of 150% of that specified
in ASTM A 123 for the thickness grade
in the appropriate material category,
but not more than four mils. Thickness
measurements can be taken with either
a magnetic, electromagnetic, or eddy
current gauge. With the use of a ZRC,
the 150% coating thickness to give
comparable protection as a hot dip
coating is not recommended due to the
concern for mud cracking and chipping. Therefore, the zinc coating thickness should be limited to 4 mils as described in ASTM A 780.

Inspection Trends / November 2015

Considerations before
Utilizing the ZRC Method
Exposure conditions will determine true corrosion protection performance to include temperature variations, humidity, blowing particulate,
chemical or aggressive salt fog atmospheric conditions.
If high-humidity and/or lowtemperature conditions exist during
painting, adhesion may be adversely
affected.
Care must be taken not to apply
inorganic coatings too thickly, as mudcracking may occur, allowing for preferential corrosion.
Uniformity of the coating is
largely dependent upon the skill of the
worker applying the paint. Overall performance will depend on a uniform
coating. Particular attention must be
paid to the transition area to ensure
there is a sufficient anchor pattern, and
that the coating thickness is not too
thick, as the shear strength of the ZRC
material is not sufficiently high to prevent chipping when applied in thicknesses greater than 4 mils.
Bond strength for paints containing zinc dust is on the order of a few

hundred lb/in.2. Adhesion of the paint


is largely a function of surface preparation to include anchor pattern and
cleanliness.
There is no metallurgical bond
between paint and metal surface, only
mechanical. Therefore, the coating will
not be as tenacious as a hot dip coating
that has a diffusion or Zeta bond layer. As a result of the bond between the
substrate and the coating not being as
tenacious, a more rigorous inspection
plan should be developed. The durability of the coating will be completely
dependent on the environment. The inspection plan should begin with every
three years and be adjusted from there
based on in situ performance. If there is
a noted coating failure, the coating
should be removed, the substrate
cleaned, and an anchor pattern redeveloped as though it is a new coating and
then the coating reapplied.
Abrasion resistance of zinccontaining paint is minimal compared
to that of hot dip galvanized surfaces.

The limited ductility of zincrich paints gives them poor impact


resistance.
Proper curing of the repaired area
must take place before the article is
placed in service.

Option 2: Hot Dip


Galvanizing
Coating Structure. Galvanizing
forms a metallurgical bond between the
zinc and the underlying steel, creating
a barrier that is part of the metal itself.
During galvanizing, the molten zinc reacts with the steel surface to form a series of zinc/iron alloy layers. Figure 1
is a photomicrograph of a galvanized
steel coating cross section and shows a
typical coating microstructure consisting of three alloy layers and a layer of
pure metallic zinc.
Progressing from the underlying
steel surface outward, the layers are as
illustrated in Fig. 1 and described as
follows:
The thin Gamma layer composed

of an alloy that is 75% zinc and 25%


iron
The Delta layer composed of an
alloy that is 90% zinc and 10% iron
The Zeta layer composed of an
alloy that is 94% zinc and 6% iron
The outer Eta layer that is composed of pure zinc.
The hot dip galvanizing process
produces a much more tenacious coating as a result of the diffusion bonding
producing the layers of iron and zinc.
Bond Strength. Below the name
of each layer in Fig. 1 appears its respective hardness, expressed by a diamond pyramid number (DPN). The
DPN is a progressive measure of hardness; the higher the number, the greater
the hardness. Typically, the Gamma,
Delta, and Zeta layers are harder than
the underlying steel. The hardness of
these inner layers provides exceptional
protection against coating damage by
abrasion. The Eta layer is quite ductile,
providing the coating with some impact resistance. The galvanized coating

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

Inspection Trends / Fall 2015

29

is adherent to the underlying steel on


the order of several thousand pounds
per square inch. The toughness of the
galvanized coating is extremely important since barrier protection is dependent upon the integrity of the coating.
Coating Uniformity. The galvanizing process naturally produces coatings that are at least as thick at the corners and edges as the coating on the
rest of the article. As coating damage is

most likely to occur at the edges, this is


where added protection is needed most.
Brush- or spray-applied coatings have
a natural tendency to thin at the corners
and edges. Figure 2 is a photomicrograph showing a cross section of a corner of a piece of galvanized steel. This
is particularly important when considering shaped materials like angles. Due
to the liquid surface tension, a ZRC
will not give the same uniform coating
Fig. 2 A cross section of a corner of
a piece of galvanized steel.
on sharp heels as will the hot dip galvanizing method.
The galvanizing process involves
total immersion of the material and,
therefore, all surfaces are coated. It is
not advisable to double dip a galvanized product as the new coating will
not have the iron zinc interface where
it is coating over an area that is already
galvanized. In addition, the transition
area or double dip line is an area that is
more susceptible to corrosion due to
galvanizing acids and fluxes.
The galvanizing process is not as
susceptible to environmental problems
such as cold or humidity during the application process.
Surface Preparation. The surface
preparation is essential for a quality
galvanized product. The surface must
be free of all contamination, including
dirt, grease, oil, paint, welding flux, or
any other foreign matter. The galvanizing process normally includes a series
of cleaning solutions that a part passes
through prior to galvanizing. These
baths are typically as follows:
Caustic
Acid
Preflux.
The part passing through these
baths will prepare the part for proper
galvanizing. If a part must be regalvanized due to remedial work, it is recommended the galvanized coating be
removed by placing the part in the acid
bath until all of the original galvanized
coating is removed. One of the byproducts of the reaction with the acid is
atomic hydrogen, which can have adverse effects on material and should be
evaluated when considering regalvanizing high-strength material or material that is highly restrained.

30

Inspection Trends / November 2015

Conclusions and
Recommendations
When comparing the ZRC with the
hot dip galvanizing process, it is clear
that the hot dip process is much superior when comparing service life, corrosion resistance, and the ability to predict performance. The ZRC process is a
suitable process for the repair of localized damaged areas in an otherwise
suitable galvanized coating. However,
it is not recommended as a replacement
for a hot dipped galvanized coating.
There are advantages and disadvantages in the selection of either of
these two options. While the use of
ZRC will initially be faster and less

costly, it will not have the same life expectancy as a hot dipped coating. The
fact that it is less tenacious may prove
to be more costly over the components
life cycle due to increased inspection
and maintenance costs.
The question of partially removing
the galvanized coating only in the weld
area may again initially appear to be
more cost effective due to time and labor; however, this choice will likely be
more costly over the components life
cycle and may bring on additional corrosion risk for all the reasons stated
previously.
Therefore, in the application of
welded/fabricated components, the recommendation should be complete fab-

rication and galvanizing of the fabricated part as a single component. This


will eliminate both the coating and
welding concerns that have been discussed relative to the partial removal of
the coating, welding, and then the application of the ZRC.
JIM MERRILL, PE
(Jim.Merrill@amec.com), is senior principal engineer with AMEC E&I, San
Diego, Calif. He is an AWS Certified
Welding Inspector, a registered metallurgical engineer, and a member of the AWS
D1 Structural Welding Committee, D1Q
Subcommittee on Steel Structures, D1I
Subcommittee on Reinforcing Steel, and
D1 Task Group 4 on Inspection.

Statement of Ownership, Management, and Circulation for U.S. Postal Service (Required by U.S.C. 3685)
1. TITLE OF PUBLICATION: Inspection Trends
2. PUBLICATION NO.: ISSN 1523-7168
3. DATE OF FILING: September 28, 2015
4. FREQUENCY OF ISSUE: Quarterly
5. NO. OF ISSUES PUBLISHED ANNUALLY: 4
6. ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: $30.00
7. MAILING ADDRESS OF KNOWN OFFICE OF PUBLICATION: 8669 NW 36th St., #130, Miami, Miami-Dade County, Florida 33166
8. MAILING ADDRESS OF THE HEADQUARTERS OR GENERAL BUSINESS OFFICES OF THE PUBLISHERS:
8669 NW 36th St., #130, Miami, FL 33166
9. NAMES AND COMPLETE ADDRESS OF PUBLISHER, EDITOR, AND MANAGING EDITOR:
PUBLISHER: Andrew Cullison, AWS, 8669 NW 36th St., #130, Miami, FL 33166
EDITOR: Mary Ruth Johnsen, AWS, 8669 NW 36th St., #130, Miami, FL 33166
10. OWNER:
NAME: American Welding Society, Inc.
ADDRESS: 8669 NW 36th St., #130, Miami, FL 33166
11. KNOWN BONDHOLDERS, MORTGAGEES, AND OTHER SECURITY HOLDERS OWNING OR HOLDING 1 PERCENT OR MORE
OF TOTAL AMOUNT OF BONDS, MORTGAGES, OR OTHER SECURITIES: None
12. The purpose, function, and nonprofit status of this organization and the exempt status for Federal income tax purposes:
Has not changed during preceding 12 months
13. Publication Title: Inspection Trends
14. Issue Date for Circulation Data Below: Summer August 2015
15. EXTENT AND NATURE OF CIRCULATION:
Average No. Copies Each
Actual No. Copies of
Issue during Preceding
Single Issue Published
12 Months
Nearest to Filing Date
A. Total No. Copies Printed (Net Press Run)
28,354
B. Paid and/or Requested Circulation
1. Paid/Requested Outside-County Mail Subscriptions Stated on Form 3541
27,796
2. Paid In-County Subscriptions Stated on Form 3541
None
3. Sales through Dealers and Carriers,
None
Street Vendors, Counter Sales, and Other Non-USPS Paid Distribution
4. Other Classes Mailed through the USPS
None
C. Total Paid/Requested Circulation
27,996
D. Free Distribution by Mail (Samples, Complimentary and Other Free)
1. Outside-County as Stated on Form 3541
79
2. In-County as Stated on Form 3541
None
3. Other Classes Mailed through the USPS
None
4 Free Distribution Outside the Mail (Carriers or Other Means)
None
E. Total Free Distribution
79
F. Total Distribution
28,075
G. Copies Not Distributed
479
H. Total
28,554
I. Percent Paid and/ or Requested Circulation
99.7%
16. Statement of Ownership will be printed in the Fall November 2015 issue of this publication.
I certify that the statements made by above are correct and complete:
Mary Ruth Johnsen, Editor

28,662
28,223
None
None
None
28,223
79
None
None
None
79
28,302
360
28,662
99.7%

Inspection Trends / Fall 2015

31

The Answer Is

By K. Erickson and A. Moore

The Society is not responsible for any statements made or opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors are for specific
informational purposes only and are not intended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users.

Q: How many times can a weld be


repaired before there is an
undesirable consequence?

A: (by A. Moore) This question comes


up frequently, usually after the project
is well underway. My response is it depends on the nature of the defect that
has to be removed and rewelded, the
base metal being welded, and the application. Additionally, there may be restrictions imposed by the code or by
the client.
I once worked on a project where
the client only allowed one repair cycle. The base metal was zirconium.
If the application involved lowcarbon steel and there were no notch
toughness requirements, I do not see

where the number of repair cycles


would be a major concern. Multiple repairs would be much the same as a
multiple-pass weld, where each weld
bead heats the surrounding material to
some temperature above the lower temperature of transformation. As long as
sufficient preheat is used to control the
cooling rate, I would expect there
would be little change in the mechanical properties.
The same cannot be said if the
base metal is austenitic stainless steel
used in a piping system where sensitization is a concern. Multiple weld
beads and their resulting thermal cycles
can promote sensitization. Repairs only
aggravate a situation that is already a
concern. Multiple repair cycles in the

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

32

Inspection Trends / November 2015

same area definitely would be a problem from my viewpoint when sensitization is an issue.
A welded repair on a high-strength
low-alloy steel that is quenched and
tempered may be a problem if the
heat input and cooling rates are not
controlled.
Heat-treatable aluminum alloys,
such as 6061-T6, are a concern because
they can be sensitive to time at temperature. For example, a multipass weld deposited using gas metal arc welding
(GMAW) in the spray transfer mode
produces better mechanical properties if
the welds are cooled between weld
beads. In comparison, gas tungsten arc
welding (GTAW) utilizes slower travel
speed resulting in higher heat input.
Multipass welds deposited with GTAW
often have difficulty in meeting the mechanical properties of the governing
code. A repair in either case is exposing
the aluminum to long times at elevated
temperature, which allows the alloying
constituents to precipitate to the grain
boundaries, thereby over-aging the alloy.
Back to carbon steel and highstrength low-alloy steels. If notch
toughness is a concern, the grain size
influences toughness. A repair that
heats the surrounding area to a high
temperature and holds it at temperature
can cause grain coarsening. Coarse
grains typically result in poor notch
toughness.
Another issue arises when the
weldment has been subjected to postweld heat treatment (PWHT). Some
codes prohibit any welding once
PWHT has been performed unless an
additional PWHT is performed. Others
allow a limited repair after PWHT is
performed. Some allow repairs after
PWHT if the temper bead technique is
employed.
A careful review of the governing
welding standard and a conversation
with a metallurgist is the best advice I
can offer.

Q: Is it permitted for a mechanical


testing laboratory only performing
bend tests in accordance with AWS
D1.1, Structural Welding Code Steel,
to provide for welder qualification
certifications to AWS D1.1?

A: (by K. Erickson) If the mechanical


testing laboratory is only performing
the bend tests and has not been involved in any other portion of the
welder qualification process, then this
is improper and unethical.
Even should all the required bend
tests pass, the mechanical laboratory
cannot positively ensure that all test
variables/parameters and required information provided is accurate, correct,
and was being followed properly during the actual weld test phase. Only the
individual and/or company that witnesses and oversees each welder qualification process should be authorizing
the final documented test record.
I have actually been asked in the
past to provide for this same request

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

and have refused to do so. Whereas I


will provide testing such as bend tests
or radiography testing, the final report
will only refer to the testing performed
and the results obtained, no more. The
test coupons need to be marked and
identifiable as face/root/side with the
weld heat-affected zone clearly visible.
One occasion several years ago, I was
requested to perform bend tests on two
samples for which I could not identify
the heat-affected zone nor any evidence
of welding although the samples were
prepared in accordance with AWS requirements. Upon further investigation,
there was no weld at all. The samples
were merely plate stock for which the
contractor was attempting to bypass the
actual weld testing requirement, assuming a CWI stamp on the bend test
report would satisfy his customer.
Each welder qualification test
should begin with proper identification
(preferably a picture ID). It is hoped
this can be obtained from the individual or the employer/contractor. I will

not refuse to oversee a weld test without identification although I will certainly include a photo of the individual
with each acceptable test record
issued.

Inspection Trends encourages


question and answer submissions. Please
mail to the editor (mjohnsen@aws.org).
KENNETH ERICKSONis manager of quality at National Inspection & Consultants,
Inc., Ft. Myers, Fla. He is an AWS Senior
Certified Welding Inspector, an ASNT National NDT Level III Inspector in four methods, and provides expert witness review and
analysis for legal considerations.
ALBERT J. MOORE JR. is vice president,
Marion Testing & Inspection, Canton,
Conn. He is an AWS Senior Certified
Welding Inspector and an ASNT ACCP
NDT Level III. He is also a member of the
AWS Certification Committee and the
Committee on Methods of Inspection of
Welds.

For info go to www.aws.org/adindex

Inspection Trends / Fall 2015

33

Certification Schedule
Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)
Location
Sacramento, CA
Miami, FL
Annapolis, MD
Dallas, TX
Chicago, IL
St. Louis, MO
Los Angeles, CA
Orlando, FL
Reno, NV
Houston, TX
Miami, FL
Corpus Christi, TX
Charlotte, NC
Beaumont, TX
San Antonio, TX
Denver, CO
Miami, FL
Lexington, KY
Pittsburgh, PA
Long Beach, CA
Portland, TX
Mobile, AL
Atlanta, GA
Waco, TX
Seattle, WA
Miami, FL
New Orleans, LA
Milwaukee, WI
Portland, TX
San Diego, CA
Kansas City, MO
Houston, TX
Norfolk, VA
Scottsdale, AZ
Indianapolis, IN
Boston, MA
Miami, FL
Birmingham, AL
Chicago, IL
Springfield, MO
Dallas, TX
Portland, TX
Miami, FL
Minneapolis, MN
Las Vegas, NV
Portland, OR
San Francisco, CA
Annapolis, MD
Nashville, TN

Seminar Dates
Nov. 16, 2015
Nov. 16
Nov. 16
Nov. 16
Exam only
Exam only
Dec. 611
Dec. 611
Dec. 611
Dec. 611
Exam only
Exam only
Jan. 1015, 2016
Jan. 1015
Jan. 1015
Jan. 1722
Jan. 1722
Jan. 1722
Jan. 1722
Jan. 2429
Exam only
Jan. 31Feb. 5
Feb. 712
Feb. 712
Feb. 712
Exam only
Feb. 2126
Feb. 2126
Exam only
Feb. 28Mar. 4
Feb. 28Mar. 4
Feb. 28Mar. 4
Feb. 28Mar. 4
Mar. 611
Mar. 611
Mar. 611
Mar. 1318
Mar. 1318
Mar. 1318
Mar. 1318
Mar. 1318
Exam only
Exam only
Apr. 38
Apr. 38
Apr. 38
Apr. 1015
Apr. 1015
Apr. 1015

Exam Date
Nov. 7
Nov. 7
Nov. 7
Nov. 7
Nov. 12
Dec. 12
Dec. 12
Dec. 12
Dec. 12
Dec. 12
Dec. 17
Dec. 19
Jan. 16
Jan. 16
Jan. 16
Jan. 23
Jan. 23
Jan. 23
Jan. 23
Jan. 30
Jan. 30
Feb. 6
Feb. 13
Feb. 13
Feb. 13
Feb. 18
Feb. 27
Feb. 27
Feb. 27
Mar. 5
Mar. 5
Mar. 5
Mar. 5
Mar. 12
Mar. 12
Mar. 12
Mar. 19
Mar. 19
Mar. 19
Mar. 19
Mar. 19
Mar. 26
Apr. 7
Apr. 9
Apr. 9
Apr. 9
Apr. 16
Apr. 16
Apr. 16

9-Year Recertification Seminar for


CWI/SCWI
For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet education requirements without taking the exam. The exam can be taken
at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector.
Location
Miami, FL
New Orleans, LA
Denver, CO
Dallas, TX
Miami, FL

Seminar Dates
Dec. 611, 2015
Jan. 1015, 2016
Feb. 2126, 2016
Mar. 611, 2016
Mar. 1318, 2016

Certified Welding Educator (CWE)


Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified
Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code
Clinic portion of the seminar (usually the first two days).

Certified Welding Sales Representative


(CWSR)
CWSR exams will be given at CWI exam sites.

Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)


CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites.
Location
New Orleans, LA
Cleveland, OH

Seminar Dates
Apr. 48, 2016
Sept. 1923, 2016

Exam Date
Apr. 9
Sept. 24

Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI)


The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can
exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification.
Location
Miami, FL
Seattle, WA
Houston, TX

Seminar Dates
Exam only
Feb. 2226, 2016
Mar. 1418, 2016

Exam Date
Nov. 14
Feb. 27
Mar. 19

Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW)


ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 3918421
OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800, ext. 218
Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542
Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688
Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736
On request at MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 456-5454

IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change without notice. Please verify your event dates with the Certification Dept. to confirm your course status before making travel plans. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the seminar/exam or exam.
Applications received after that time will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. Please verify application deadline dates by visiting our website
www.aws.org/certification/docs/schedules.html. For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or to register online, visit
www.aws.org/certification or call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars.

34

Inspection Trends / November 2015

News Bulletins
continued from page 8

Laboratory Testing Approved for Continued


A2LA Accreditation
Laboratory Testing, Inc., Hatfield, Pa., recently was
successfully audited and approved for continued
accreditation by the American Association for Laboratory
Accreditation (A2LA) in accordance with ISO/IEC 170252005. In addition, the scope of the companys A2LA
accreditation was expanded for mechanical testing and
calibration services.
All three of LTIs A2LA accreditation certificates
mechanical testing, chemical testing, and calibration are
valid until March 31, 2017.

AWS Certification Dept. Seeks Exam


Questions
The AWS Certification Dept. is asking students and experienced Certified Welding Inspectors (CWIs) and Senior Certified Welding Inspectors (SCWIs) to submit questions they think
would be a valuable addition to the CWI Fundamentals exam,
which is a closed book exam. Submissions should include the
question text, five answer choices, indication of the correct answer, and the corresponding specific reference information.
Questions must be developed utilizing one of the follow-

ing references:
AWS A1.1, Metric Practice Guide for the Welding Industry
AWS B2.1, Specification for Welding Procedure and Performance Qualification
AWS B4.0, Standard Methods for Mechanical Testing of
Welds.
Also, questions should come from the following subject
areas:
Welding processes
Heat control and metallurgy (carbon and low-alloy steel)
Weld examination
Welding performance
Definitions and terminology
Symbols welding and NDE
Test methods NDE
Reports and records
Duties and responsibilities
Safety
Destructive tests
Cutting
Brazing
Soldering.
To submit your question(s) and to see guidelines for writing good questions, visit www.aws.org/submit-questions.html.
You will also be asked for your contact information and be given the opportunity to win a $100 AWS voucher.

Mark Your Calendar


continued from page 16

EPRI NDE Training Seminars. EPRI offers NDE technical skills


training in visual examination, ultrasonic examination, ASME Section
XI, UT operator training, etc. Contact Sherryl Stogner, (704) 5476174, e-mail: sstogner@epri.com.
Nondestructive Examination Courses. A course schedule is available
from Hellier, 277 W. Main St., Ste. 2, Niantic, CT 06357; (860) 7398950; FAX (860) 739-6732.
Preparatory and Visual Weld Inspection Courses. One- and twoweek courses presented in Pascagoula, Miss., Houston, Tex., and
Houma and Sulphur, La. Contact Real Educational Services, Inc.;
(800) 489-2890; info@realeducational.com.
CWI/CWE Course and Exam. A ten-day program presented in Troy,
Ohio. Contact Hobart Institute of Welding Technology (800) 3329448; www.welding.org; hiwt@welding.org.

site training available. T.E.S.T. NDT, Inc., 193 Viking Ave., Brea, CA
92821; (714) 255-1500; FAX (714) 255-1580; ndtguru@aol.com;
www.testndt.com.
NDE Training. NDE training at the companys St. Louis-area facility
or on-site. Level III services available. For a schedule of upcoming
courses, contact Quality Testing Services, Inc., 2305 Millpark Dr.,
Maryland Heights, MO 63043; (888) 770-0103;
training@qualitytesting.net; www.qualitytesting.net.
CWI/CWE Prep Course and Exam and NDT Inspector Training
Courses. An AWS Accredited Testing Facility. Courses held yearround in Allentown, Pa., and at customers facilities. Contact: Welder
Training & Testing Institute (WTTI). Call (800) 223-9884, e-mail
info@wtti.edu, or visit www.wtti.edu.

T.E.S.T. NDT, Inc., Courses. CWI preparation, NDE courses,


including ultrasonic thickness testing and advanced phased array. On-

Inspection Trends / Fall 2015 35

Advertiser Index
American Society for Nondestructive Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
www.asnt.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 222-2768

Hobart Institute of Welding Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14


www.welding.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 332-9448

Atlas Evaluation & Inspection Services/Inst. of Nondestructive Testing . .33


www.indt.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(908) 463-0041

ISTUC/Instituto de Soldadura y Tecnologias de Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32


www.istuc.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(52) - 442-2201486 & 2201699

AWS Education Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7, 11


www.aws.org/education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 455

J. P. Nissen Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC


www.nissenmarkers.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(215) 886-2025

AWS Member Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9, 15


www.aws.org/membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 480

NDT Seals, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16


www.ndtseals.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 261-6261

AWS Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30


www.aws.org/publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353

Olympus NDT, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IFC


www.olympus-ims.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(781) 419-3900

AWS Technical Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12


www.aws.org/technical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 340

SciAps, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBC


www.sciaps.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(339) 927-9455

Central Piedmont Community College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14


www.cpcc.edu/ndet/onlinetraining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(704) 330-4558

United Technical, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8


www.unitedtechllc.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(249) 667-9185

Fischer Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16


www.fischer-technology.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(860) 683-0781
FlawTech, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
www.flawtech.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(704) 795-4401
Gradient Lens Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
www.gradientlens.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 536-0790

IFC = Inside Front Cover


IBC = Inside Back Cover
OBC = Outside Back Cover
Visit Our Interactive Ad Index: www.aws.org/ad-index

Classified Ads

2015
CWI PREPARATORY
80+ HOUR COURSE
MORE HANDSON/PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

Ellijay, GA Mar. 718


Pascagoula, MS Nov. 920, Jan. 1122
Houma, LA Jan. 25Feb. 5
Houston, TX Dec. 718, Mar. 21Apr. 1
Searcy, AR Feb. 819
+ Includes additional self study for weekend

FOR DETAILS, CALL OR EMAIL:


(800) 4892890
info@realeducational.com
Also offering: RT Film Interpretation,
Fundamentals of Welding Inspection,
MT/PT/UT Thickness, CWS, SCWI,
Welding Procedure Fundamentals,
and Advanced Inspection Courses

36

Inspection Trends / November 2015

AWS MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION


Join or Renew:

Mail: Form with your payment, to AWS

Call: Membership Department at (800) 443-9353, ext. 480

Fax: Completed form to (305) 443-5647

Online: www.aws.org/membership

8669 NW 36 St, # 130


Miami, FL 33166-6672
Telephone (800) 443-9353
FAX (305) 443-5647
Visit our website: www.aws.org

CONTACT INFORMATION
q New Member q Renewal
q Mr. q Ms. q Mrs. q Dr.

Please print Duplicate this page as needed

Last Name:_______________________________________________________________________________
First Name:___________________________________________________________________ M.I:_______
Birthdate: _____________________________ E-Mail:____________________________________________
Cell Phone (

)__________________________ Secondary Phone (

)______________________

Were you ever an AWS Member? q YES q NO If YES, give year________ and Member #:____________________
Company (if applicable):___________________________________________________________________
Address:________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
City:_____________________________________State/Province:__________________________________
Zip/PostalCode:_____________________Country:______________________________________________
Who pays your dues?: q Company q Self-paid Sex: q Male q Female
Education level: q High school diploma q Associates q Bachelors q Masters q Doctoral
q Check here if you learned of the Society through an AWS Member? Members name:_______________________Members # (if known):________
q

INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP
Please check each box that applies to the Membership or service youd like, and then add the cost together to get your Total Payment.
q AWS INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP (One Year)......................................................................................................$86

wo Years SAVE $25 New Members Only....................................$147

q New Member Initiation Fee ...........................................................................................................................................$12

OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO AWS INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS ONLY:


A.) OPTIONAL Book Selection (Choose from 25 titles; up to a $192 value; includes shipping & handling)
q Individual Members in the U.S..................................................................................................................................$35
q Individual Members outside the U.S (includes International shipping)...........................................................................$85

ONLY ONE SELECTION PLEASE. For more book choices visit www.aws.org/membership
q
(CD-ROM only) q
q Welding Metallurgy
Welding Handbook Selections: q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 4) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 3) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 2) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 1)
Pocket Handbook Selections: q PHB-1 (Arc Welding Steel) q PHB-2 (Visual Inspection) q PHB-4 (GMAW / FCAW)

B.) OPTIONAL Welding Journal Hard Copy (for Members outside North America)
q Individual Members outside North America (note: digital delivery of WJ is standard)..............................................$50
INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP TOTAL PAYMENT..................................................................................$_____________
NOTE: Dues include $16.80 for Welding Journal subscription and $4.00 for the AWS Foundation.

STUDENT MEMBERSHIP
Please choose your Student Membership option below.
q AWS STUDENT MEMBERSHIP (One Year)...................................................................................................................$15
Digital delivery of Welding Journal magazine is standard for all Student Members.

q AWS STUDENT MEMBERSHIP (One Year)...................................................................................................................$35


Includes one-year Welding Journal hard copy subscription. Option available only to students in U.S., Canada & Mexico.

STUDENT MEMBERSHIP TOTAL PAYMENT......................................................................................$_____________

PAYMENT INFORMATION
Payment can be made (in U.S. dollars) by check or money order (international or foreign), payable to the American Welding Society, or by charge card.
q Check q Money Order q AMEX

q Diners Club q MasterCard

q Visa

q Discover

q Other

CC#:____________ / ____________ / ____________ / ____________ Expiration Date (mm/yy) ________ / ________


Signature of Applicant:_________________________________________ Application Date:_______________________
OFFICE USE ONLY
Source Code: IT
REV. 11/14

Check #:_______________________________ Account #____________________________________


Date:_________________________________ Amount:_____________________________________

Type of Business (Check ONE only)


A
q Contract construction
B
q Chemicals & allied products
C
q Petroleum & coal industries
D
q Primary metal industries
E
q Fabricated metal products
F
q Machinery except elect. (incl. gas welding)
G
q Electrical equip., supplies, electrodes
H
q Transportation equip. air, aerospace
I
q Transportation equip. automotive
J
q Transportation equip. boats, ships
K
q Transportation equip. railroad
L
q Utilities
M
q Welding distributors & retail trade
N
q Misc. repair services (incl. welding shops)
O
q Educational Services (univ., libraries, schools)
P
q Engineering & architectural services (incl. assns.)
Q
q Misc. business services (incl. commercial labs)
R
q Government (federal, state, local)
S
q Other
01
02
03
04
05
20
21
06
10
12
13
22
07
08
14
09
11
15
17
16
18
19

q
q Manager, director, superintendent (or assistant)
q Sales
q Purchasing
q Engineer welding
q Engineer design
q Engineer manufacturing
q Engineer other
q Architect designer
q Metallurgist
q Research & development
q Quality control
q Inspector, tester
q Supervisor, foreman
q Technician
q Welder, welding or cutting operator
q Consultant
q Educator
q Librarian
q Student
q Customer Service
q Other

Technical Interests (Check all that apply)


A
q Ferrous metals
B
q Aluminum
C
q Nonferrous metals except aluminum
D
q Advanced materials/Intermetallics
E
q Ceramics
F
q High energy beam processes
G
q Arc welding
H
q Brazing and soldering
I
q Resistance welding
J
q Thermal spray
K
q Cutting
L
q NDT
M
q Safety and health
N
q Bending and shearing
O
q Roll forming
P
q Stamping and punching
Q
q Aerospace
R
q Automotive
S
q Machinery
T
q Marine
U
q Piping and tubing
V
q Pressure vessels and tanks
W
q Sheet metal
X
q Structures
Y
q Other
Z
q Automation
1
q Robotics
2
q Computerization of Welding

For Info, go to www.aws.org/adindex

For Info, go to www.aws.org/adindex