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4 MAIN PARTS OF SPEECH

Throughout my teaching career, I learned that pupils need to be drilled of these for main parts of speech.

NOUNS

for the weak


pupils

VERBS

drill them using


memory exercises

ADJECTIVES

for the advanced


pupils

ADVERBS

MEMORY EXERCISES
Main
pronouns
I
YOU
HE
SHE
THEY
WE
IT

Memory Exercise 1

am
are
is
is
are
are
is
...ing

do
do
does
does
do
do
does
..root
word

Have
Have
Has
Has
Have
Have
Has
...participle
(..en)
(..ed)

Memory
Exercise 2
No
No
S
S
No
No
S

Memory Exercise 3

was
were
was
was
were
were
was
...ing

*Reminder: These formula exercises are only applicable for active sentences.

did
did
did
did
did
did
did
..root
word

had
had
had
had
had
had
had
..particple
(..en)
(..ed)

BUILDING QUESTIONS TIPS


Main
pronouns
I
YOU
HE
SHE
THEY
WE
IT

Memory Exercise 1

Memory Exercise 3

am
are
is
is
are
are
is

was
were
was
was
were
were
was

do
do
does
does
do
do
does

have
have
has
has
have
have
has

did
did
did
did
did
did
did

Questions
.....?

had
had
had
had
had
had
had

What
Who
When
Where
Why =
(..because)
How (+much)
Shall/Should
Can/Could
Must/May
Does/Do/Did
Will/Would
Whose

Formula

Q + 2 + 1

Q + 1

Q + 1 + 2
Whom
(..to)
(..with)

Q + 2 + 1

EXAMPLES
1. When did you arrive?
Q

3. Whose pen is this ?


Q

2.Will you marry me ?


Q

4. Whom are you talking to?


Q

NOUNS

UNCOUNTABLE

COUNTABLE

COMMON

PROPER

quantifiers

accept articles

Normally cannot
accept articles

Some

must be in
capital letter

Plenty of
A lot of
Any

an
vowels
b

consonants

the
consonants/
vowels

Many
A
An

1 only
1 / >1
after the 1st
time
one of its
kind (the
Sun)

Several
A small number of

A large number of
A few

A little
Much
A small amout of
Alarge amount of

ADJECTIVES

ADJECTIVE

COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

tall

....er than

the....est

beautiful

more.....than

The most....

SEQUENCING THE ADJECTIVES

Quanti Quali S A S C O

PRONOUNS
MAIN
PRONOUNS

PERSONAL

I
YOU
HE
SHE
THEY
WE
IT

I
You
He
She
They
We
It

me
you
him
her
them
us
it

How to use in a
sentence?

beginning

middle/
ending

POSSESSIVE
Possessive
Possessive
adjective
...mine.
...my...
..yours.
...your...
...his.
...his...
...hers.
...her...
...theirs.
...their...
....ours.
...our...
...its
...its...
ending

REFLEXIVE

INTERROGATIVE

myself
yourself/ves
himself
herself
themselves
ourselves
itself

Who....?
Whom...?
Whose...?
What...?
Which...?

middle/
ending

beginning

beginning/
middle

Cause and Effect Formula


(c)
(e)
(c)
(e)

(e) = ,so
(c) = because

example 1:
It rained heavily,so the students couldnt walk to school

(c)

(e)

example 2:
The sudents couldnt walk to school because it rained heavily

(e)

(c)

SENTENCES

SIMPLE
WHO

VERB

COMPOUND
WHAT

For

COMPLEX
V

And
Azwan is reading a book.

While.....,

When....,

Nor

After.....,

But

Before........,

Or
Yet

While Azwan is reading a book, he is writing a note.

So
Azwan is reading a book and he is writing a note.

SECTION B TIPS (LMPe)


Letter/Message/Postcard/e-mail
1. Salutation

Dear......,
2. Introduction:

How are you? I hope you are in the pink of health.


3. Aim:

I am writing you this LMPe to share with you on X


1. underline
X
3. Be specific:
2. Change:
He/She- you
His/Her - your

the resort Indah


Village Resort

4. Content:

If you come to/ join in/ visit to/ participate in.......,


you can (verb).........

5. Closure:

Thats all for now. I hope you will have a great time
there. Thank you.

SECTION C TIPS.
1. 3 4 sentences in a paragraph
How?
a. understand the storyline
b. draw w/v/w table
c. Highlight 3 4 action verbs related to each picture
d. complete the table
e. combine all sentences into a paragraph form

2. use more of compound and complex sentences.


(refer to the earlier notes on type of sentences.)

3. use more of transitions / sequence markers.

While.....,
When....,
Before....,
After....,

Later,
Then,
Suddenly,
After that,
......(etc)

4. Use at least ONE proverb/simile

Manual for the teachers:


1.Drill memory exercise 3
2. Give the 4 tips on how to score sec.c
3. Ask them to study the storyline (use the 1st language)
4. Ask them to draw who/verb/what table for each pic ( known as SVO or
ASIAVO to some teachers)
5. Let them highlight 4 verbs suitable for the pic ( what about the helping words?
I just ask them to ignore because they tend to use themin a wrong way.
However, tell them it is good if they can use the words given)
6. Ask them to complete the table
7.combine all sentences into paragraph form
8. Guide the students to improve the sentences to be compound and complex
sentences. Then, why not use transitions or sequence markers? ( this complies
the 2nd n 3rd tips)
9. Then, walla..! You have one not pretty bad story
10. As they get used to this technique, just ask them to draw table and highlight
the verbs only.

Prepared by:
Mr.Azwan B Basaruddin
English Teacher of SK Taman Cahaya Masai